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AGRICULTURAL MARKETING INFRASTRUCTURAL

FACILITIES IN INDIA STATE WISE ANALYSIS


M.S.Jairath*
Marketing infrastructure includes all those facilities and amenities
needed for the smooth conduct of marketing in the economy. The
infrastructural facilities in development are as necessary as foundations of a
building. The existence of adequate marketing infrastructure are important
not only for the performance of various marketing functions and expansion
of the size of the markets but also for the transfer of appropriate price signals
leading to improved marketing efficiency. The availability of different
infrastructures affects the choice of technology to be adopted, reduces the
cost of transportation, produces powerful impetus to production and also
affects income distribution in favour of small and marginal farmers by
raising their access to the market. The agriculture sector needs heavy
investment for creation of basic infrastructures necessary for the overall
economic development.
In a developing country like India, marketing infrastructures play a
pivotal role in fostering and sustaining the tempo of rural and economic
development. Marketing is as critical to better performance in agriculture as
farming itself. Though the role of infrastructure is the key element of any
development programme yet their role in distribution and marketing is the
supreme.
Indias growth both as agriculturally and horticultural advanced
country may get derailed if various marketing infrastructural constraints are
not removed. Many of the regions of the country still suffer from the
existence of infrastructural problems that they threaten to torpedo the
regions agricultural and horticultural development efforts.
In this paper an attempt has been made to examine the status of
different agricultural marketing infrastructures, their geographical spread in
the different states of India and also the policy measures for strengthening of
these infrastructural facilities. !esides this other marketing infrastructure,
which has been set up in the specialized form of organization, has also been
""""
# $irector, %ational Institute of &gricultural Marketing, !ambala, %ear 'anganar,
(aipur ) *a+asthan, - I%$I& "././01
2
+ust mentioned for information.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
To meet the ob+ective of the study necessary data on agricultural
marketing infrastructures such as agricultural produce markets, sub yards
rural periodic markets, storage and warehousing facilities, roads, transport
vehicles, grading, communication, and post harvest technology were
collected from the annual report of various ministries 3 their directorate
dealing in the sub+ect i.e. $irectorate of Marketing 3 Inspection, Ministry of
&griculture, 45I, %ew $elhi, %ational 6orticulture !oard, Ministry of
&griculture, 45I, %ew $elhi, Ministry of Transport, 45I, %ew $elhi,
$irectorate of 'urface Transport, $epartment of Telecommunication,
Ministry of 7ommunication, 8arehousing 7orporations working under
Ministry of 9ood 3 7ivil 'upply, *eport of :xpert 7ommittee on
'trengthening and $evelopment of &gricultural Marketing etc. :ntire
information has been culled out from the published reports and websites of
the ministries. The data has been analyses with the help of simple statistical
tools and presented in tabular form.
;nusable delay in getting information about participation of the
author in this 'eminar from the organizers, single handedness of the
researcher, time 3 resource constraints are the limiting factor for carrying
out time series analysis, which might distort our policy for development of
these marketing facilities.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
)i , AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE MARKETS:
&ctual buying and selling of agricultural commodities takes place in
market yards, sub"yards and rural markets< haats spread throughout the
length and breadth of the country. &gricultural produce regulated markets
have been playing a ma+or role in the smooth distribution of foodgrains,
oilseeds, fiber crops and fruits and vegetables to meet the supply and
demand needs of the farmers, traders, processors and consumers of the 'tate.
The research studies revealed that farmers on an average gets = to 2/ per
cent higher price and higher share in the consumers rupee by selling their
produce in the regulated markets compared to rural, village and unregulated
wholesale markets. The benefits got by the farmers by sale of agricultural
produce in the regulated market varies from area to area because of the
variation in the spread of regulated markets over the regions and the
>
existence of necessary infrastructural amenities< facilities in these regulated
markets.
There are ?2@? agricultural produce regulated markets in the country
by the end of March >/2/. There is uneven spread of these regulated
markets in the districts )Table"2, of the state. The average area served by
each regulated market also varied considerably among the states of India. It
varies from 2/. 'q.Am per market in Bun+ab, 2>0 in 8est !engal, 2@1 in
6aryana, ./@ in &ndhra Bradesh, .C? in &ssam, .@/ in Mahrashtra, .=. in
Aarnataka and .0C in ;ttar Bradesh. The states like &runachal Bradesh,
6imachal Bradesh, Meghalyaya, 'ikkim, and ;ttaranachal were among
those where average area served by each market was more than one
thousand sq.km. The average area served by each market works out to >=0=.
sq.km.
!ased on the recommendation of %ational 7ommission on &griculture
there should be one market for =/ sq. km of area. &ccordingly there is a
deficit of .C1?0 markets and need to promote more markets in various
states.
The share of specialized markets like fruits and vegetables in total
regulated markets is low. 5nly few states have separate 9ruit and Degetables
wholesale regulated markets. Their availability is not even one per thousand"
sq. km. &rea. :ven the horticulture 'tates which accounts for nearly >/ per
cent of fruits and vegetables production does not have even one regulated
market per // sq. km area. 9urther the markets, which have been
exclusively developed for handling of fruits and vegetables, do not have
sufficient facilities for handling the total produce available in the area.
Most of the regulated markets at present still awfully lacks facilities
for handling produce as less space for auction platform, inadequate number
of shops and godowns in the premises etc. and hence reduces the effective
participation of traders. &bsence of storage godowns at market level further
perpetuates the problems of traders in general and continuous movement of
goods in particular.
Darious 'tate government recently initiated a process of direct
marketing by producers to the consumers in the country by initiating the
concept of &pni Mandi ) Bun+ab,, *ythu !azar ) &ndhra Bradesh,, ;zahaver
'handies )T.%., and 'hetkoori bazers in Maharashtra. !ut these markets
have been promoted so far only at the 'tate headquarter and some district
headquarters ad+oining to the state.
& rural periodic market< haats is the first contact point for producer -
sellers for en"cashing his agricultural produce and income. There are about
.
>?,>0C rural periodic markets in the country. The minimum necessary
infrastructural facilities do not exist in these rural periodic markets.
!esides above after market reform initiatives for alternative marketing
methods have also been taken. Eicense for $irect Marketing has been
granted in Maharashtra to M<' &ditya !irla *etail Etd, *uch 'oya
Industries, M<s Tina 5ils, etc 3 in 4u+arat to !orsad &gro Marketing Bvt.
Etd., *eliance &gri Broducts $istribution Bvt. Etd., *eliance 9resh, etc.
In Madhya Bradesh and *a+asthan to IT7 e"choupal. In ;ttar Bradesh to
6aryali Aisan !azar
'imilarly license for :lectronic 'pot :xchange has also been granted
to %ational 'pot :xchange Etd. )%':E,, %7$:F 'pot :xchange Etd.
)%'B5T, and %ational &griculture Broduce Marketing 7ompany of India
Etd. )%&BM7,. Today such facilities are available in the states of
Maharashtra, Aarnataka, 4u+arat, *a+asthan, !ihar, 5rissa and Madhya
Bradesh for trading commodities e.g. cotton, caster seeds, maize, deshi
chana, guar, betel nut, etc.
Eicense for 7ontract 9arming has also been extended in the state of
Maharashtra to %$$!"I5% :xchange, ::759&*M', M&6G75"
M&6I%$*&, (ain Irrigation, 6industan Eiver Etd.etc 3 Bun+ab" %i++er
&gro 9oods EtdH ;nited !reweries EtdH 'atnam 5verseas, Tata
7hemicals Etd, etc. In Tamil %adu to &pachi 7otton and in &ndhra
Bradesh to Denkeys 6atchery. 'tate wise details of contract farming
along with crops practicing these are given in Table ">,
)ii, STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURESI
This capital"intensive marketing infrastructure is necessary for
carrying the agricultural produce from production seasons to consuming
periods. Eack of inadequate scientific storage facilities cause heavy losses to
farmers in terms of huge wastage of quantity and quality of crops in general
and of fruits and vegetables in particular. 'easonal fluctuations in prices are
aggravated in the absence of these facilities. To have storage facilities in the
country, the &gricultural Broduce )$evelopment and 8arehousing,
7orporation &ct was enacted in 20@1. The 'tate 4overnments also enacted
the warehousing &cts during (uly 20@? to &ugust 20@=. The scheme of
8arehousing, *ural 4odowns and 7old storageJs have been initiated in
public, cooperative and private sectors in the country to meet the storage
C
needs of the producers in different areas. The progress made in this regard is
as followsI
)i, The total storage capacity available at the end of >/2/ of
787, '87, and 97I is about ?@ million tonnes. It is estimated
that about >@ million tones of grains are stored in the form of
7&B )covered 3 plinth,.
)ii, The *ural 4odowns under %7*4 'cheme initiated in 20?0
have constructed rural godowns of 2@ million tonnes.capacity.
)iii, ;nder the 4ramen !handaran Go+ana of 45I, about 1? M.T.
capacities )Table "., have been created in the country up to
March >/2/.
Aeeping in view the agricultural production in the country, the
available storage facilities< capacities are short looking. Eooking at the
production trends and assuming ?/ percent as marketed surplus, a storage
capacity of 2@/ MT is needed.
!" C#$% St#ra&': 8ith a view to enhance shelf life of perishables, cold
storages in the country have also been promoted. Bresently a total of @>?C
cold storages )Table "C, are in the country with a total capacity of >C..2
million tonnes. Most of these cold storage units are in the private sector.
Bublic and cooperative sector accounts for a very small capacity. The present
storage capacity of cold stores is sufficient for only 2> percent of the total
production of fruits and vegetables. There are two states where there is no
cold storage is available. 5n the other hand states like &ssam, 6imachal
Bradesh, (ammu 3 Aashmir, Aerala, 'ikkim and Tamilnadu have cold
storage capacity available only for one percent of their produce. There are
only four states i.e. Bun+ab, ;ttar Bradesh, 8est !engal and *a+asthan which
have more than all India average capacity available for their produce. The
demand for cold storage facilities is there for other agricultural products
also. Bresently density of cold storage is about two per thousand sq. km of
area. Eooking to the available quantities of perishable products )fruits 3
vegetables, the cold storage capacity available in the country is inadequate
and requires their promotion both in the production as well as consuming
areas of the 'tate.
(" R'')'r *a+,- C#+tai+'r,: 9or transport of perishable produce to
domestic and export markets reefer vans< containers are required. Their
availability increased from C.2 in >//2 to .?22 during >/2/ but this is
extremely low looking to the need for transportation of perishable
commodities from one area to another. Thus the country would also need
@
reefer containers< vans for transport of perishable commodities for domestic
and export marketing.
)iii, TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION INFRASTRUCTURE:
& well"developed and efficient system of transportation helps in the
expansion of markets, reduces the transport time and costs of transportation
of the commodities. *oads in movement of produce are +ust like the arteries
in human body for blood circulation. Dillage roads in India is about >1.@/
lakh Am. Ma+ority of the agricultural produce, producer of the tribal areas
and perishable farm products are still confined to village markets for sale of
their produce for want of surfaced roads and sufficient means of
transportation.
The road density per //J sq. km. of area in the country is much below
the recommendations of 'hillong plan )20=2, of .>.@"km. road per 2//"sq.
km. area. Though India, have one of the largest road network of ...2C
million km, consisting of %ational 6ighways, :xpressways )?/@C= Am,,
'tate 6ighways )2.>= Eakh Am,, Ma+or $istrict *oads, 5ther $istrict *oads
)C.?/ Eakh Am,. The percentage of 'ingle Eane< Intermediate lane >/,=C0
km )./K,, $ouble lane .?,1C1 km )@.K, &nd 9our Eane<'ix lane<:ight
Eane 2>,/@. km )2?K,. The lack of double lane roads has a negative effect
on the speed of transport means. The rapid expansion and strengthening of
the road network, therefore, is imperative, to provide for both present and
future traffic and for improved accessibility to the hinterland. In addition,
road transport needs to be regulated for better energy efficiency, less
pollution and enhanced road safety.
*ailway wagons are also used for transportation of agricultural
commodities from wholesale markets to consumption centers. *ailway route
length in the country is not sufficient and electrified track is not even bare
minimum. The existing rail facilities in the country are highly inadequate.
*ail lines even do not connect some of the districts in the country. The air
cargo facilities are also available in limited number of 'tates. :xisting air
cargo facilities are in poor condition and much below the international
standards.
!esides above telephone is also used as means of communication for
marketing of produce in India. %umber of mobile enable services is
addressing the information needs of the stakeholders to some extent. The
dissemination of market information on price, arrival and other related
1
information is provided at low cost and wider coverage. In the field of
agricultural marketing presently mobile services are provided by I9975,
&irtel, *euters, IT7 and M' 'waminathan *esearch 9oundation. The
7ommunication Technology has taken a big leap forward and received the
national recognition as the key driver for development and growth. The
gross telephone subscribers in the country reached about @1>.>2 million as
of $ecember >//0 )mobile telephone subscribes about @>@.21 million, as
compared to .=C.?0 million )mobile telephone subscribes about .C1.=0
million, as of $ecember >//=. The over all tale" density reached C?.=0 per
cent in $ecember >//0 as compared to ...>. per cent in $ecember >//=.
)iv, PROCESSING INFRASTRUCTURE:
& strong and effective food"processing sector plays a significant
supportive role in diversification and commercialization of agriculture.
Brocessing function adds value to the products and enhances the income of
the farmers in addition to generation of employment in the economy. &
number of agro" processing units for processing of different agricultural
products have been established in the country in recent past with the
increasing consumer demand for processed products. The processing
capacity of the existing units has also been enhanced. 6uge post " harvest
losses of fruits and vegetables is there in absence of the processing units.
Bresently only >.. per cent of total production of fruits and vegetables is
being processed in the country. Though the country offers vast potential for
establishing agro"processing units like for oilseeds, foodgrains and
sugarcane, yet their availability in the number of 'tate is almost negligible.
There are several thousands of bakeries, traditional food units and
fruit< vegetable< spices processing units in unorganized sector. In the
organized sector there are over @21 flour mills, @1= fish processing units,
@>0. fruits 3 vegetable processing units, C>0 sugar mills, ?>@ solvent
extraction plants and 2.@/ lakh rice mills along with .@/== modern rice
mills. There are more than 2@ thousand pulse mills having 21 MT
capacity spread over the country. Though the country offers vast
potential for establishing agro - processing units like for oilseeds, food
grains and sugarcane, yet their availability in the number of states is
almost negligible.
." CLEANING/ GRADING AND PACKAGING INFRASTRUCTURE:
?
To help the consumers by supplying good quality products at
reasonable prices and to help the producer - farmers in realizing the
remunerative prices of their produce and also for smooth conduct of trade
transactions by adopting a common trade language, grading and
standardization of agricultural commodities is a necessary step and of
pivotal importance to attain efficient marketing. 4rading and
standardization of commodities also helps in collection and dissemination of
accurate market information, cooperatively pooling of produce, adoption of
group marketing system, prevention of health hazards on account of
adulteration by harmful products and also creates quality consciousness
among the masses of the country. *ealizing the importance of the grading
and standardization, a pioneer attempt has been made by the 4overnment
through an enactment of a legislation L The &gricultural Broduce )4rading
and Marketing, &ct,20.?. ;nder this act, the grade standard has been
notified for 2=C agricultural commodities so far. The commodities graded
under this act bear &4M&*A label on the products, which is an indication
of purity and of quality goods. The &4M&*A grading is done both for
internal consumption and or for export.
4rading and standardization of agricultural produce is done under the
&gricultural Broduce )4rading and Marking, &ct, 20.?. 4rading is being
undertaken at the traders and producers level both for internal consumption
and for export. To facilitate grading, grading centers have been established
only in 2.>2 markets so far. The trend of the quantity of agricultural produce
graded over time is a rising one. !ut the quantity graded at producers level
is still almost negligible. There is a need to create facilities for cleaning,
grading and packaging at primary level and also in the villages from where
produce is brought for sale. In the absence of such facilities at the village,
the kind of congestion and pollution mounts at the market yard level.
!esides this to enhance the quality of agricultural produce, 0@1
laboratories )Table "@, have been established for undertaking analysis of
check < sample research and training of sponsored chemists. The spread of
these laboratories as well as their availability per /// 'q. Am is quite low as
is envisaged from Table """ 5n an average not even one laboratory is
available for serving an area of one thousand 'q. Am. & against this, there
are > laboratories available to serve one thousand tone of produce at all India
level. 'uch facilities are complete absent in all the %: states, 'ikkim and
4oa. 5n examination of information of Eaboratory in relation to produce it
has been observed that their availability is much below the all India average
=
in the states of 8est !engal, &ndhra Bradesh, !ihar, 7hhattisgarh, 4u+arat,
(harkhand, Aarnataka, Madhya Bradesh, 5rissa, Bun+ab, Tamil %adu and
;ttaranchal.
.i" FOOD PARKS AND PACK HOUSES IN SPECIALI0ED
GROWING REGIONS:
India is second largest producer of fruits 3 vegetables. 8ith a view to
tap export markets and catering to the need of bulk buyers, mechanical
graded and packed house are required in the horticulture growing areas.
7ertain activities like cleaning, washing, grading, packaging, refrigerated
transportation etc. are to undertaken in conformity to international trade. To
address these problems, &B:$& a implemented a scheme for catering
:xport 5riented &gri" Mones. ;nder the scheme so far about 222 grading
and pack houses )Table "1, has been established so far to answer the need of
export markets.
!esides these, food parks have also been established in the country
with a view to give exposure to farmer - producer. Though @1 food parks
have been established in the country, yet their availability is confined to only
>/ states.
.ii" MARKET INFORMATION SYSTEM MIS":
9armers need information to aid them in planning their operations
right from the time they plant these seeds until the produce posses the hands
in the market. Market information helps the farmers in comparing the prices
offered by different firms in different markets and also in the selection of
alternative outlets available. The MI' reduces business risks of farmer "
sellers and traders.
There are C.@ MI' centers in the country. 8holesale prices of
important agricultural commodities from selected markets are collected daily
by these centers and are transmitted to 6ead office for further transmission
to TD and &I* stations.
:lectronic medium has been used for transmission of information in
various industries. 6owever, their use in agricultural markets is relatively
low. Markets of some 'tates are linked with %ational Information %etwork
)%I7"%:T, to provide the speedy and timely dissemination of market
information to the growers. ;nder the scheme about ./22agmarknet nodes
)Table "?, have been promoted in the country so far. 5ut of these 0> percent
have been promoted in the agricultural markets where as remaining are used
0
for monitoring and follow up. The availability of agmarknet nodes per ///
'q. Am of area is not even one. 6owever their availability per /// tones of
produce is six. 7oncerted efforts are required to expand the agmarknet nodes
in the states of &ssam, !ihar, (harkhand, Manipur, 8est !engal, 5rissa,
Bun+ab, ;ttar Bradesh and ;ttaranchal.
.iii" RISK MANAGEMENT 1 E TRADING INFRASTRUCTURE:
&gricultural commodities experiences wide fluctuations in their prices
largely due to monsoon and their seasonality. $ue to these fluctuations
farmers faces huge uncertainties. $erivates products like forward, future and
options are the risk management tools which can be used to avoid the impact
of unexpected price changes in future price movements. 9orward and future
contracts enable price discovery. The price discovery function allows
important economic decisions to be made as to which commodity produce,
how much to sell and what prices, how much to store and for how long. This
is also a form of direct marketing and enhances the share of farmer in
consumer rupee. Thus has assumes special importance in recent times.
7ommodity future markets in the country have been promoted by
establishing various exchanges. &t present their number is >0 only.
6owever, only >/ exchanges are effectively working )Table"=,. 9uture
trading in agricultural commodities has also been allowed for @C
commodities. 9orward trading has been extended to .0 agricultural
commodities only. 6owever the transaction undertaken through these
exchanges so far has been minimal but experiencing a rising trend. &ll out
efforts are needed to establish more exchanges for enhancing trading in
agricultural commodities as well e"trading so as to promote direct marketing
of produce.

i2" POST HAR*EST TECHNOLOGY:
Bost"harvest technology infrastructure especially for perishables, less
perishables and non" perishable commodities is of critical importance to
preserve their quantity and quality. & substantial quantity of produce is lost
on account of poor post harvest technology and careless harvesting,
assembling, preserving, packaging and use of technology for quality control.
'tate &gricultural Marketing !oard, $irectorate of 6orticulture and Bost"
6arvest Technology 7enters established for specific crops by I7&* has
initiated the process for promotion of Bost 6arvest Technology in the form
of providing of know"how on different aspects to the farmers and orchardists
of the country. In some of the 'tates, 'tate &gricultural Marketing !oard
offer services to the traders and processors in providing of technical
2/
consultancy, preparation of techno - economic feasibility report, quality
control guidance, assessment of packaging necessity of different fruits and
advisory services to fruits and vegetables processing units.
2" MARKETING EDUCATION AND TRAINING:
There is increasing need to provide market education and training to
the farmer - producers, traders, marketing personnel, policy makers etc. on a
continuous basis based on regular research studies. These improves know
how and decision taking power of the farmers as to when, where and in what
form to sell the produce. The $irectorate of Marketing 3 Inspection, 'tate
&gricultural Marketing !oard, 'tate Marketing $epartment, &gricultural
;niversity and %ational Institute of &gricultural Marketing are engaged for
helping the farmers and market functionaries in these areas. 6owever, the
available inputs in these areas are not sufficient to cater to the needs of all
the growers and other stakeholder because of varied agro"climatic
conditions.
2i" MARKETING INSTITUTIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE:
9ollowing marketing institutions have been created in the country
during the last 1/ yearsI
I" P34$i5 S'5t#r Mar6'ti+& Or&a+i7ati#+,:
)a, 9ood 7orporation of India )97I,
)b, 7otton 7orporation of India )77I,
)c, (ute 7orporation of India )(7I,
)d, 'tate Trading 7orporation )'T7,
)e, 7ommodity !oards - Tea, 7offee, 7ardamom, *ubber,
Tobacco, 'pices, &reca nut, 6orticultural 7rops, $airy
Broducts )%$$!,
)f, $irectorate of Marketing and Inspection )$MI,
)g, &gricultural Broduce Market 7ommittees )&BM7s,
)h, 'tate &gricultural Marketing !oards )'&M!s,
)i, 7ouncil of 'tate &gricultural Marketing !oards
)75'&M!,
)+, 7ommission for &gricultural 7osts and Brices )7&7B,
)k, 7ommodities :xport 7ouncils
)l, &gricultural and Brocessed Broducts :xport
$evelopment &uthority )&B:$&,
II" C##8'rati.' Mar6'ti+& I+,tit3ti#+,
22
)a, Brimary, 7entral and 'tate level Marketing 'ocieties,
;nions, and 9ederations.
)b, 'pecial 7ommodities Marketing 'ocieties )'ugarcane,
7otton, 5ilseeds, Milk etc.,
)c, Brocessing 'ocieties
" 7otton Brocessing and 4inning 'ocieties
" 5ilseeds Brocessing 'ocieties
" 9ruits and Degetables Breservation 'ocieties
" 'ugarcane 7rushing 'ocieties
" Milk Brocessing and 7hilling 'ocietiesH etc.
)d, %ational &gricultural 7ooperative Marketing 9ederation
)%&9:$,
)e, %ational 7ooperative $evelopment 7orporation )%7$7,
)f, Tribal 7ooperative Marketing 9ederation )T*I9:$,
CONCLUSION 1 SUGGESTIONS:
It is not our intention to repeat the conclusions already drawn rather
pinpoint those, which deserve special intention. There is a strong need for )i,
7reation of necessary infrastructural facilities in all the r'&3$at'% 9ar6't,
of the country. )ii, *egulation of all primary and secondary wholesale
markets to minimize the variation in their spread. )iii,$evelop the
periodic<rural markets with minimum necessary infrastructural facilities as
these are the main contact points for sale of agricultural produce by the small
size farm operators.
O+ ,t#ra&' )r#+t also there is need for )i, 7onstruction of more
scientific storage structures especially in rural areas for protection of
produced agricultural output. )ii, Brivate sector involvement is necessary for
creation of more storage structures and cold stores as it is highly capital
intensive marketing infrastructure.
8ith the liberalization and favourable trade environment in the
country, *akesh Mohan 7ommittee estimates that goods and passenger
traffic are likely to grow more than >.? and >.@ times between the years 200>
- >/// and the existing road net work is in no way geared up for this
production boom )$evi Brasad, 2001,. &s such there is an urgent need to
,8''% 38 th' :#r6 #) a$$ :'ath'r;,3r)a5'% r#a%,/ %#34$' $a+' r#a% a+%
ra8i% expansion of transportation system in the various 'tates. !esides this
railway lines have to be extended to remote areas too.
It is also suggested that )i, The existing processing facilities for rice
milling, flour milling, pulses milling, oil extraction, cotton ginning and
sugarcane milling are inadequate and need to be augmented and modernized
2>
to meet the growing demand for quality products in domestic as well as for
export markets. )ii,The processing facilities also need to be augmented for
processing the perishable products to expand their demand in domestic as
well as in export market in view of increase in their production in future.
)iii,There is need for maintenance of sanitary and phytosanitary standards
both for domestic market and external trade.
Aeeping in view the globalization &ra%i+& ha, t# 4' ,tr'+&th'+'% on
war footing basis. It is suggested that )2, 4rading units should be promoted
at the village level with the help of private sector participation. )>, There is
need for expansion of network of 'tate &gmark laboratories at all district
headquarters and in important markets of the country to ensure the
availability of 'tate 4rading laboratories to the consumers of all areas.).,
The 4rading standards for the remaining 7ommodities should also be
formulated. )C, 7ompulsory grading and quality control be introduced for
the total trade so as to reduce further chances of adulteration. The necessary
infrastructural facilities for this are created by the 7entral and 'tate
4overnments to prevent health hazards. )@, 7onsumers and traders should be
educated about the advantages of &gmark grading by adoption of different
publicity measures. The graded products should be made popular among
masses. )1, 'ince the grading facilities at producers level are nearly non
existence it will be worthwhile if 'tate $irectorate of Marketing in
collaboration with %ational Institute of &gricultural Marketing undertake
detailed techno economic feasibility studies. )?, It is also suggested that
4overnment should go for compulsory grading at producers level. The 'tate
4overnment should expand administrative facilities in the markets to make
the grading of agricultural commodities popular at the producers level. )=,
Bresently there exists wide spectrum of 4rade 'tandards for agricultural
commodities adopted by different organizations as 97I, %&9:$, and 'tate
7ooperative Marketing 9ederations, 7ivil supplies $epartment, 7entral and
'tate 8arehousing corporations. This creates confusion among the farmer -
sellers and consumers. To avoid this it is suggested that &gmark standards
formulated for commercial grading by $irectorate of Marketing 3
Inspection should be adopted by all these organizations. )0, 7onsumers
'ervice 7enters equipped with consumer service laboratories be set up in the
'tates to facilitate the consumers to lodge complaints and re"dressal of their
grievances in respect of &gmark products. The samples brought by the
consumers at these centers should be quickly got analyses for appropriate
action by the competent authorities. )2/, The Training 7enter for 4rading be
established in the various 'tates for imparting special training to persons
2.
interested in 4rading of 'pecial commodities produced in different area of
India.
There is need to 8r#9#t' 8r#8'r 8a56a&i+& a)t'r &ra%i+& so that
further chances of adulteration or temptation may not be there.
*isk management and e"trading have to be popularizing by educating
various stakeholders. 9or this a separate resource center should be
established in %ational Institute of &gricultural Marketing at the earliest.
&s all the above mentioned infrastructural facilities are crucial and
requires large investment, it is suggested that #))'ri+& i+5'+ti.', a+%
5r'ati+& '+a4$i+& 5#+%iti#+, :#3$% i+5r'a,' 8ri.at' ,'5t#r 8arti5i8ati#+
a+% '+ha+5' th' a.ai$a4i$it< #) a&ri53$t3ra$ 9ar6'ti+& i+)ra,tr35t3r' i+
th' 5#3+tr<.
2C
REFERENCES
.
4overnment of India )>//1,, *eport of the 8orking 4roup on 'trengthening
of &gricultural Infrastructure, 8arehousing, *ural 4odowns, Markets
etc. for FI 9ive Gear Blan, Banning 7ommission, 4ovt. of India, %ew
$elhi.
4overnment of India );ndated,, FI Blan &pproach Baper, Blanning
7ommission, %ew $elhi.
4overnment of India )>//0, L*eport on &gmark 4rading 'tatisticsN -
$irectorate of Marketing 3 Inspection, Ministry of &griculture,
9aridabad.
4overnment of India, )>//2, L*eport of :xpert 7ommittee on 'trengthening
and $evelopment of &gricultural MarketingN, Ministry of &griculture
3 7ooperation, %ew $elhi.
(airath, M. '. )2001,H L&gro Brocessing and Infrastructure $evelopment in
6illy &reaI & 7ase of 9ruit and Degetable BrocessingN, Indian (ournal
of &gricultural Marketing, Dol F )>,, &pril - (une, BB >="C?
(airath, M. '. )>///,, L &gricultural Marketing Infrastructure in &rid
IndiaN.&gricultural 'ituation in India, Dol %o. (une, BB 2>?"2.?
(airath, M. '. )>//C,, L &gricultural Marketing Infrastructure in IndiaN.
Indian (ournal of &gricultural Marketing, 7onference issue >//C
Aahlon, &. '. and M.D. 4eorgeH)200@, L Market Infrastructure and
&gricultural :xports. Baper presented in a %ational seminar at 67M,
*IB&, (aipur.
*angi, B.'. and M.'. 'idhuH )2001, LInfrastructure for :xport of &gro"
BroductsI & 7ase 'tudyN, Indian (ournal of &gricultural Marketing
Dol %o. F )>,, &pril - (une, BB 2.."2.0
'ingh 'ukh BalH )2001, LMarketing Infrastructure and &gro"Brocessing
$evelopmentI & 7ase study of 4u+aratN, Indian (ournal of
&gricultural Marketing, Dol %o.2/)>,, &pril " (une, BB 2"0
2@
Ta4$';!: A&ri53$t3ra$ Pr#%35' Mar6't, i+ I+%ia (==>;!="
Sr
No
Name of the
State/UT
Area in
Sq.
Kms.
Total
Populati
on
Total
Regulate
d
Markets
Area
coered
/ Market
!Sq.
Km"
Requireme
nt of
Markets
Populatio
n
Sered/
Market
# Andhra Pradesh $%&'(&
%.&%
)'# *'&.$% *&'# +('(+
$ Arunachal
Pradesh
+*%(*
'.##
,) #$#*.,% #',, #&+#*
* Assam %+(*+ $.,, $$, *(%.'% ))+ ##%+,)
( -ihar )(#,*
+.$)
Act
Repeale
d
' ##)+ '
& .harkhand %)%#( $.,) $'# *),.&) #'#& #**+%+
, /oa *%'$ '.#* + (,$.%& (% #,+'''
% /u0arat #),'$( &.', (#( (%*.() $()& #$$$#&
+ 1ar2ana (($#$ $.## $+( #&&.,+ &,* %($*,
) 1imachal
Pradesh
&&,%*
'.,#
(% ##+(.&* %') #$)*'*
#' .ammu 3
Kashmir
$$$$*,
#.'#
' ' $+$) '
## Karnataka #)#%)# &.$% &'# *+$.+$ $((# #'&$&%
#$ Kerala *++,* *.#+ ' ' ()& '
#* Madh2a
Pradesh
*'+*(,
,.'(
&#* ,'#.', *)$( ##%%#'
#( 4hhattisgarh #*&#'' $.'+ #+( %*(.$( #%#) ##*'$$
#& Maharashtra *'%,)' ).,+ ++' *().,& *)#, #'))(,
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#+ Mi5orum $#'+# '.') ' ' $,+ '
#) Nagaland #,&%) '.$' ' ' $## '
$' 6rissa #&&%'% *.,% *#( ()&.++ #)+$ ##,)'#
$# Pun0a7 &'*,$ $.(* (++ #'*.$ ,(# ()%%*
$$ Ra0asthan *($$*) &.,& (*' %)&.) (*&, #*#***
$* Sikkim %'), '.'& # %'), )' &('()*
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T6TA;S *$+%$(
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%
(#+*, &+&'*+&
'ourceI www.agmarknet.nic.in
21
Ta4$' ( C#+tra5t Far9i+& Arra+&'9'+t i+ I+%ia
State Crop Company/
Corporate
Karnataka Ashwagandha Himalaya Health Care Ltd.
Dhavana Mysore S.N.C. Oil Company
Marigold & Capria hilies A!" Nat#ral $rod#ts Ltd.
Cole#s Nat#ral %emedies $rivate Ltd.
&herkins '( $vt. Companies)
Mediinal $lants Sami La*s Limited+ ,angalore
Maharashtra Soy*ean "inna Oils and Chemials
Several -r#its+ vegeta*les+
ereals+ spies and p#lses
.on /0hange /nviro 1arms Ltd.
2.//1L3
$otato M4s Mahindra S#la*h
S#garane+ Orange Cooperative Soieties
Madhya $radesh 5heat+ Mai6e and Soy*ean Cargil .ndia Ltd.
Several -r#its+ vegeta*les+
ereals+ spies and p#lses
.on /0hange /nviro 1arms Ltd.
2.//1L3
Soya*ean ."C7.,D
Soya*ean M4s Mahindra S#la*h
&arli and 5hite onion M4s &arlio .nd#stries Limited.
$#n8a* "omato and Chilly Ni88er Agro 1oods Ltd.
,arley 9nited ,reweries Ltd.
,asmati+ Mai6e Satnam overseas S#kh8it Starh
2Mahindra Sh#*hla*h Servies Ltd.3
,asmati Satnam Overseas+ DD .ntl. .norp.+
Amira 1oods .ndia Ltd. 2/sorts Ltd.
And &rain teh3
,asmati+ &ro#ndn#t+ $otato
and "omato
$epsiCo .ndia Ltd.
&reen vegeta*les and e0oti
vegeta*les
$#n8a* Agro 1oods $ark Limited+ a
8oint vent#re o- $#n8a* Agro /0port
Corporation and .DMA+ a orporate
*ody.
"amil Nad# Cotton S#per Spinning Mills
Mai6e ,h#vi Care $vt. Ltd.
$addy ,h#vi Care $vt. Ltd.
Cotton Appahe Cotton Company
Mar#nd# Koorkan 2"amil3
2Mediinal $lant3 2Cole#s
7
2?
1orskholii3
Mai6e+ &herkins M4s Mahindra S#la*h
Chhattisgarh Sa-ed M#sli M4s Larson & "#r*o
"omato ,/C Co.
9ttaranhal &#ar &#m M4s Mahindra S#la*h
Haryana "#rmeri+ Mentha+ S#n-lower+
5hite M#sli
HA1/D
Andhra $radesh

5hite !iagra Nandan 1arms 2$3 Ltd. Hydera*ad
:oint vent#re Sprearhead National
$rod#ts SA%. o- Swit6erland.
1r#its+ !egeta*les and
-lowers.
Horti#lt#re Department
&herkins ;. Ad#ri Nat#ral prod#ts.
'. AC/ Agroteh
<. Copriorn Nat#ral prod#ts and
=. Mahendra and Mahendra
Cooa Cad*#ry .ndia Ltd.
Oil palm M4s &odre8+ $alm "eh+ S.CAL+
Simap#ri .nd#stry and %adhika
!egeta*les Oil .nd#stries.
&#8arat $roessing o- Mediinal
$lants and Alovera
%eliane &ro#p
Orissa Seeds 2$addy+ %aggi+ &reen
&ram+ Arhar+ &ro#ndn#t+
Seam#m+ Niger and
vegeta*les seeds
Orissa Seeds $rod#tion
Corporation
S#gar M4s Shakti S#gar Ltd. o- "amil Nad#
/#alypt#s $lantation M4s :.K.$aper Mill
"omato and Mango M4s ,ilati Orissa
Sikkim Spies M4s High Altit#de Spies %a*ongla
Orange M4s ,#lk Cons#mer+ &overnment
1r#it $reservation -atory+ Singtom.
Kerala $ineapple M4S Agreeno+ $aliik#nn#+Kan#r
2=
Sa-ed M#sli+Steevia M4s Her*s .ndia+ Cali#t
5est ,engal $otato M4s 1ritto .ndia Limited
$ineapple M4s Da*#r .ndia Limited
20
Ta4$';?: Stat';:i,' St#ra&' Fa5i$iti', i+ I+%ia
STATE/
N#m*er o-
%#ral
godwons
No.o- godowns
availa*le per ;(((
s>.km Capaity
No. o-
godwons
per ;(((
M"
Andhra $radesh
<;(.(( ;.;? ;<'((((.(( @A.<A
Ar#nahal $radesh
;=.(( (.;B =(((.(( ;<.?B
Assam
'.(( (.(< ;((((.(( '.<=
,ihar
<<=.(( <.@@ <<(((.(( '.CB
Chhattisgarh
( (.(( (.((
&oa
(.(( ( (.(( (.((
&#8arat
?B.(( (.=? ?((((.(( A.@B
Haryana
';B.(( =.?; ;;'=(((.(( CB.?<
Himahal $radesh
=(.(( (.B' <(((.(( '.;<
:amm# & Kashmir
(.(( ( (.(( (.((
:harkhand
( (.(( (.((
Karnataka
'AC.(( ;.=? ;BA(((.(( ;=.'@
Kerala
;C;.(( =.;= ''(((.(( <C.CB
Madhya $radesh
<<'.(( ;.(A C(;(((.(( 'A.BB
Maharashtra
<A.(( (.;' ;<'(((.(( A.?(
Manip#r
?.(( (.=( ;(((.(( '.=;
Meghalaya
;?.(( (.A@ '(((.(( A.''
Mi6oram
(.(( ( (.(( (.((
Nagaland
C@.(( <.?' <(((.(( @.;'
Orissa
'C.(( (.;B ;AC(((.(( '=.@=
$#n8a*
;?'.(( <.A; '=C=(((.(( A?.?;
%a8asthan
''.(( (.(C '(((.(( (.(?
Sikkim
(.(( ( (.(( (.((
"amil Nad#
;(C.(( (.A' ;C(((.(( ;.?C
"rip#ra
(.(( ( (.(( (.((
9ttar $radesh
?'.(( (.<? =@<(((.(( ?.=C
9ttarakhand
( (.(( (.((
5est ,engal
'(A.(( '.<= '@(((.(( ;.=A
All .ndia
'@B(.(( (.B? CCC?(((.(( '@.==
'ourceI 7ompiled from the data obtained from $MI, M5&, 45I, 9aridabad
>/
Ta4$';@: Stat';:i,' C#$% St#ra&' Fa5i$iti', i+ I+%ia
9"s
No. o- Cold
Storage
Capaity 2M"3 Cold
storage4;(((
s>.km
Capaity
Availa*le4;(((M"
Andhra $radesh
'?(.(( ?((C(C.(( ;.;' (.(@
Ar#nahal $radesh
;.(( @(((.(( (.(; (.('
Assam
'=.(( AA(CA.(( (.<; (.(;
,ihar
'=C.(( ;;=B(=;.(( '.C; (.(C
Chhattisgarh
C?.(( <=;AA@.(( (.@; (.(B
&oa
'?.(( BB(@.(( B.A< (.(=
&#8arat
<?A.(( ;'CB<(=.(( '.(< (.(?
Haryana
'==.(( <?<;';.(( @.@' (.(?
Himahal $radesh
;A.(( ;?A@A.(( (.<' (.(;
:amm# & Kashmir
;?.(( ='AC?.(( (.(? (.(;
:harkhand
=@.(( ;B(;=A.(( (.@C (.(=
Karnataka
;B(.(( =(B;C@.(( (.A? (.(<
Kerala
;?<.(( @A;(@.(( =.?B (.(;
Madhya $radesh
;?B.(( A(A(@'.(( (.C= (.;;
Maharashtra
=CC.(( @=CB=A.(( ;.@; (.(<
Manip#r
(.(( (.(( (.(( (.((
Meghalaya
<.(( <'((.(( (.;< (.((
Mi6oram
(.(( (.(( (.(( (.((
Nagaland
'.(( C;@(.(( (.;' (.(<
Orissa
;(;.(( '?;(<?.(( (.C@ (.(<
$#n8a*
=''.(( ;<=@;?<.(( A.<A (.'A
%a8asthan
;;(.(( <'=''C.(( (.<' (.;@
Sikkim
;.(( '(((.(( (.;= (.(;
"amil Nad#
;=A.(( '<A@<C.(( ;.;= (.(;
"rip#ra
;;.(( '?=@(.(( ;.(@ (.(=
9ttar $radesh
;@A?.(( ;(;;A(((.(( C.CC (.=(
9ttarakhand
;@.(( CA=??.(( (.'A (.(=
5est ,engal
=C<.(( @CA'(((.(( @.'' (.'<
All .ndia
@'B=.(( '=<;;?CA.(( ;.C' (.;'
'ourceI 7ompiled from the data obtained from $MI, M5&, 45I, 9aridabad.
>2
Ta4$';A: Stat';:i,' Gra%i+& Fa5i$iti', i+ I+%ia
States
No. o-
&rading La*s
No. o- &rading La*s $er D(((
S>.Km M"
Andhra $radesh == (.;B ;.;'
Ar#nahal $radesh 7 (.(( (.((
Assam 7 (.(( (.((
,ihar ;' (.;< (.<?
Chhattisgarh ' (.(; (.'(
&oa 7 (.(( (.((
&#8arat =< (.'' ;.B@
Haryana A' ;.A@ <.?<
Himahal $radesh ;( (.;A <.'A
:amm# & Kashmir =C (.'; ?.A'
:harkhand ; (.(; (.;'
Karnataka == (.'< ;.C'
Kerala @' ;.<= B.A(
Madhya $radesh =C (.;@ ;.C'
Maharashtra CA (.'' '.;B
Manip#r 7 (.(( (.((
Meghalaya 7 (.(( (.((
Mi6oram 7 (.(( (.((
Nagaland 7 (.(( (.((
Orissa C (.(= (.<<
$#n8a* C' ;.'< ;.?'
%a8asthan '(? (.C; A.CB
Sikkim 7 (.(( (.((
"amil Nad# =B (.<C ;.AC
"rip#ra 7 (.(( (.((
9ttar $radesh ;@< (.C= '.(?
9ttarakhand @ (.(? ;.<?
5est ,engal '= (.'B (.@A
All .ndia ?@C (.'? '.(<
'ourceI 7ompiled from the data obtained from $MI, M5&, 45I, 9aridabad.
>>
Ta4$';B: Stat';:i,' Oth'r Mar6'ti+& Fa5i$iti', i+ I+%ia
States
1ood
$arksE
Agro7/0p
FonesE
Commodity
/0hangeE
$ak Ho#seE
Andhra $radesh ; @ ( C
Ar#nahal $radesh ( ( ( (
Assam ; ; ( (
,ihar ; < ( '
Chhattisgarh ; (
&oa ( ( ( (
&#8arat ( < = C
Haryana ' ( ( (
Himahal $radesh ( ; ( ;
:amm# & Kashmir < ' ( ;
:harkhand ;
Karnataka = = ; =
Kerala = ' ' (
Madhya $radesh C @ ' (
Maharashtra B A = A?
Manip#r ' ( ( (
Meghalaya ( ( ( (
Mi6oram ; ( ( (
Nagaland ; ( ( (
Orissa ; ; ( (
$#n8a* ; < ; ;
%a8asthan = ' ; (
Sikkim ( ' ( (
"amil Nad# ' = ( ;
"rip#ra ; ; ( (
9ttar $radesh @ = = (
9ttarakhand =
5est ,engal A C ; (
All .ndia @C C' '( ;;;
'ourceI 7ompiled from the data obtained from $MI, M5&, 45I, 9aridabad.
>.
Ta4$';C: Stat';:i,' A&9ar6 N#%', i+ I+%ia
States
Agmark Nodes
N#m*er A#g
'(;(
$er ;((( s>.km $er ;((( M"
Andhra $radesh <<= ;.'A A.@(
Ar#nahal $radesh ;@ (.;A '?.B=
Assam '< (.'? ;.?<
,ihar @A (.C' ;.?;
Chhattisgarh B< (.@= B.;A
&oa ;( '.B( <;.<B
&#8arat <;? ;.C< ;<.((
Haryana ;@( <.<? B.'(
Himahal $radesh <? (.B( ;'.B?
:amm# & Kashmir =; (.;A A.B@
:harkhand 'C (.<< <.(<
Karnataka ;B; (.A? C.'?
Kerala ?' '.<B ;<.A(
Madhya $radesh 'CB (.AB ?.=(
Maharashtra <=C ;.;' ;;.(C
Manip#r @ (.'' @.<B
Meghalaya ;; (.=? ;;.@<
Mi6oram ? (.=< '=.<=
Nagaland ;= (.A= ;B.;B
Orissa ?; (.@A =.??
$#n8a* ;?? <.?@ C.;B
%a8asthan ;CC (.=? C.A?
Sikkim B (.?? 'B.A'
"amil Nad# ;?( ;.=C B.@=
"rip#ra '; '.(( ;=.?(
9ttar $radesh '@B ;.(A <.@;
9ttarakhand '; (.<? @.A=
5est ,engal @C (.C< ;.<=
All .ndia <(;; (.?' C.=(
'ourceI 7ompiled from the data obtained from $MI, M5&, 45I, 9aridabad.
>C
>@
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Ta4$';>: Stat';:i,' C##8'rati.', i+ I+%ia
States
Area 2s>.km3 No.o-
A$MCS
No.o- soieties4;(((s>.km
area
No.o-
soieties 4
;(((M"
Andhra $radesh 'C(+(CA <A< ;.=B (.(=
Ar#nahal $radesh A<+B=< = (.(@ (.(?
Assam BA+=A< 'C (.<< (.(<
,ihar ?=+;C= <BC <.?? (.;<
Chhattisgarh ;<@+;?= @ (.(= (.((
&oa <+B(' ? '.=< B.C<
&#8arat ;?C+('= ;B;B A.BC (.<C
Haryana ==+';' ;(< '.<< (.;;
Himahal $radesh @@+CB< ;A= <.<; ;.(A
:amm# & Kashmir '''+'<C ;;( (.=? (.;;
:harkhand B?+B(( ( (.(( (.((
Karnataka ;?;+B?C @(@ '.C< (.;(
Kerala <A+AC< @=A ;=.;( '.;;
Madhya $radesh <(A+;== ;(?B <.@C (.;<
Maharashtra <(B+B;< ;='C =.C< (.;@
Manip#r ''+<'B ;B (.BC (.A'
Meghalaya ''+='? '' (.?A ;.(<
Mi6oram ';+(A; = (.;? (.@;
Nagaland ;C+@B? <' ;.?< '.<B
Orissa ;@@+B(B ;B; ;.;( (.(C
$#n8a* @(+<C' ;;C '.<( (.(B
%a8asthan <='+'<C '(A (.C; (.(<
Sikkim B+(?C =C C.=A '@.BC
"amil Nad# ;<(+(@A ;;= (.AA (.(<
"rip#ra ;(+=?' ;= ;.<< (.?@
9ttar $radesh '<A+@CC '@A ;.(A (.(;
9ttarakhand @<+@CC ;( (.;? (.(@
5est ,engal AA+B@' 'AB <.'< (.(A
All .ndia <+'@A+?CC BB?' '.<? (.(;
'ourceI %7$7, %ew $elhi.
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