Sunteți pe pagina 1din 8

A Pheochromocytoma is seen

as a dark sphere in the center


of the body (it is in the left
adrenal gland). Image is by
MIBG scintigraphy, with
radiation from radioiodine in
the MIBG. Two images are
seen of the same patient from
front and back. Note the dark
image of the thyroid due to
unwanted uptake of
radioiodine from the
medication by the thyroid
gland in the neck.
Accumulation at the sides of
the head is from salivary
gland uptake of iodide.
Radioactivity is also seen in
the bladder.
The portion of the total radiation activity (in air)
contributed by each isotope versus time after the
Chernobyl disaster, at the site. Note the prominence
of radiation from I-131 and Te-132/I-132 for the first
week. (Image using data from the OECD report, and
the second edition of 'The radiochemical manual'.
[1]
)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
There are 37 known isotopes of iodine (I) from
108
I to
144
I, but only one,
127
I, is stable. Iodine is thus a
monoisotopic element.
Its longest-lived radioactive isotope,
129
I, has a half-life of 15.7 million years, which is far too short for it
to exist as a primordial nuclide. Cosmogenic sources of
129
I produce very tiny quantities of it that are too
small to affect atomic weight measurements; iodine is thus also a mononuclidic elementone that is
found in nature essentially as a single nuclide. Most
129
I derived radioactivity on Earth is man-made: an
unwanted long-lived byproduct of early nuclear tests and nuclear fission accidents.
All other iodine radioisotopes have half-lives less than 60 days, and four of these are used as tracers and
therapeutic agents in medicine. These are
123
I,
124
I,
125
I, and
131
I. Essentially all industrial production of
radioactive iodine isotopes involves these four useful radionuclides.
The isotope
135
I has a half-life less than seven hours, which is too short to be used in biology. Unavoidable
in situ production of this isotope is important in nuclear reactor control, as it decays to
135
Xe, the most
powerful known neutron absorber, and the nuclide responsible for the so-called iodine pit phenomenon.
In addition to commercial production,
131
I (half life 8 days) is the most common radioactive fission-
product of nuclear fission, and is thus produced inadvertently in very large amounts inside nuclear
reactors. Due to its volatility, short half life, and high abundance in fission products,
131
I, (along with the
short-lived iodine isotope
132
I from the longer-lived
132
Te with a half life of 3 days) is responsible for the
largest part of radioactive contamination during the first week after accidental environmental
contamination from the radioactive waste from a nuclear power plant.
The standard atomic mass for iodine is 126.90447(3) u.
Contents
1 Notable radioisotopes
1.1 Iodine-129 as an extinct radionuclide
1.2 Iodine-129 as a long-lived marker for nuclear fission contamination
1.3 Radioiodines I-123, I-124, I-125, and I-131 in medicine and biology
1.3.1 Iodine-131
1.3.2 Iodine-123 and iodine-125
1.3.3 Iodine-124
1.4 Iodine-135 and nuclear reactor control
1.5 Iodine-128 and other isotopes
2 Non-radioactive iodide (I-127) as protection from unwanted radioiodine uptake by the
3 Table
3.1 Notes
4 References
5 External links
Notable radioisotopes
Iodine-129 as an extinct radionuclide
Excesses of stable
129
Xe in meteorites have been shown to result from decay of
"primordial" iodine-129 produced newly by the supernovas which created the dust
and gas from which the solar system formed. This isotope has long decayed and is thus referred to as "extinct." Historically,
129
I was the
first extinct radionuclide to be identified as present in the early solar system. Its decay is the basis of the I-Xe iodine-xenon radiometric
dating scheme, which covers the first 85 million years of solar system evolution.
Isotopes of iodine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_iodine
1 of 8 10.2.2014 18:18
Iodine-129 as a long-lived marker for nuclear fission contamination
Iodine-129 (
129
I; half-life 15.7 million years) is a product of cosmic ray spallation on various isotopes of xenon in the atmosphere, in
cosmic ray muon interaction with tellurium-130, and also uranium and plutonium fission, both in subsurface rocks and nuclear reactors.
Artificial nuclear processes, in particular nuclear fuel reprocessing and atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, have now swamped the
natural signal for this isotope. Nevertheless, it now serves as a groundwater tracer as indicator of nuclear waste dispersion into the natural
environment. In a similar fashion,
129
I was used in rainwater studies to track fission products following the Chernobyl disaster.
In some ways,
129
I is similar to
36
Cl. It is a soluble halogen, fairly non-reactive, exists mainly as a non-sorbing anion, and is produced by
cosmogenic, thermonuclear, and in-situ reactions. In hydrologic studies,
129
I concentrations are usually reported as the ratio of
129
I to
total I (which is virtually all
127
I). As is the case with
36
Cl/Cl,
129
I/I ratios in nature are quite small, 10
14
to 10
10
(peak thermonuclear
129
I/I during the 1960s and 1970s reached about 10
7
).
129
I differs from
36
Cl in that its half-life is longer (15.7 vs. 0.301 million years), it
is highly biophilic, and occurs in multiple ionic forms (commonly, I

and IO
3

) which have different chemical behaviors. This makes it


fairly easy for
129
I to enter the biosphere as it becomes incorporated into vegetation, soil, milk, animal tissue, etc.
Radioiodines I-123, I-124, I-125, and I-131 in medicine and biology
Due to preferential uptake of iodine by the thyroid, radioiodine isotopes are extensively used in imaging and (in the case of I-131)
destroying dysfunctional thyroid tissues, and other types of tissue that selectively take up certain iodine-131-containing tissue-targeting
and killing radiopharmaceutical agents (such as MIBG). Iodine-125 is the only other iodine radioisotope used in radiation therapy, but
only as an implanted capsule in brachytherapy, where the isotope never has a chance to be released for chemical interaction with the
body's tissues.
Iodine-131
Iodine-131 (I
131
) is a beta-emitting isotope with a half-life of eight days, and comparatively energetic (190 KeV average and 606 KeV
maximum energy) beta radiation, which penetrates 0.6 to 2.0 mm from the site of uptake. This beta radiation can be used in high dose for
destruction of thyroid nodules and for elimination of remaining thyroid tissue after surgery for the treatment of Graves' disease. Especially
in Graves' disease, a thyroidectomy is often performed before the radiotherapy, to avoid side effects of epilation and radiation toxicity.
The purpose of this therapy, which was first explored by Dr. Saul Hertz in 1941,
[2]
is to destroy thyroid tissue that could not be removed
surgically. In this procedure, I
131
is administered either intravenously or orally following a diagnostic scan. This procedure may also be
used to treat patients with thyroid cancer or hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue.
The I
131
is taken up into thyroid tissue and concentrated there. The beta particles emitted by the radioisotope destroys the associated
thyroid tissue with little damage to surrounding tissues (more than 2.0 mm from the tissues absorbing the iodine). Due to similar
destruction, I
131
is the iodine radioisotope used in other water-soluble iodine-labeled radiopharmaceuticals (such as MIBG) which are
used therapeutically to destroy tissues.
The high energy beta radiation from I
131
causes it to be the most carcinogenic of the iodine isotopes. It is thought to cause the majority of
excess thyroid cancers seen after nuclear fission contamination (such as bomb fallout or severe nuclear reactor accidents like the
Chernobyl disaster).
Iodine-123 and iodine-125
The gamma-emitting isotopes iodine-123 (half-life 13 hours), and (less commonly) the longer-lived and less energetic iodine-125 (half-life
59 days) are used as nuclear imaging tracers to evaluate the anatomic and physiologic function of the thyroid. Abnormal results may be
caused by disorders such as Graves' disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Both isotopes decay by electron capture (EC) to the corresponding
tellurium nuclides, but in neither case are these the metastable nuclides Te-123m and Te125m (which are of higher energy, and are not
produced from radioiodine). Instead, the excited tellurium nuclides decay immediately (half-life too short to detect). Following EC, the
excited Te-123 from I-123 emits a high-speed 127 keV internal conversion electron (not a beta ray) about 13% of the time, but this does
little cellular damage due to the nuclide's short half-life and the relatively small fraction of such events. In the remainder of cases, a 159
keV gamma ray is emitted, which is well-suited for gamma imaging.
Excited Te-125 from EC decay of I-125 also emits a much lower-energy internal conversion electron (35.5 keV) which does relatively
little damage due to its low energy, even though its emission is more common. The relatively low-energy gamma from I-125/Te-125 decay
is poorly suited for imaging, but can still be seen, and this longer-lived isotope is necessary in tests which require several days of imaging,
for example fibrinogen scan imaging to detect blood clots.
Both I-123 and I-125 emit copious low energy Auger electrons after their decay, but these do not cause serious damage (double-stranded
Isotopes of iodine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_iodine
2 of 8 10.2.2014 18:18
DNA breaks) in cells, unless the nuclide is incorporated into a medication that accumulates in the nucleus, or into DNA (this is never the
case is clinical medicine, but it has been seen in experimental animal models).
[3]
Iodine-125 is also commonly used by radiation oncologists in low dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of cancer at sites other than
the thyroid, especially in prostate cancer. When I-125 is used therapeutically, it is encapsulated in titanium seeds and implanted in the
area of the tumor, where it remains. The low energy of the gamma spectrum in this case limits radiation damage to tissues far from the
implanted capsule. Iodine-125, due to its suitable longer half-life and less penetrating gamma spectrum, is also often preferred for
laboratory tests that rely on iodine as a tracer that is counted by a gamma counter, such as in radioimmunoassaying.
Most medical imaging with iodine is done with a standard gamma camera. However, the gamma rays from iodine-123 and iodine-131 can
also be seen by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging.
Iodine-124
Iodine-124 is a proton-rich isotope of iodine with a half-life of 4.18 days. Its modes of decay are: 74.4% electron capture, 25.6% positron
emission.
124
I decays to
124
Te. Iodine-124 can be made by numereous nuclear reactions via a cyclotron. The most common starting
material used is
124
Te.
Iodine-124 as the iodide salt can be used to directly image the thyroid using positron emission tomography (PET).
[4]
Iodine-124 can also
be used as a PET radiotracer with a usefully longer half-life compared with fluorine-18. In this use, the nuclide is chemically bonded to a
pharmaceutical to form a positron-emitting radiopharmaceutical, and injected into the body, where again it is imaged by PET scan.
Iodine-135 and nuclear reactor control
Iodine-135 is an isotope of iodine with a half-life of 6.6 hours. It is an important isotope from the viewpoint of nuclear reactor physics. It
is produced in relatively large amounts as a fission product, and decays to xenon-135, which is a nuclear poison with a very large slow
neutron cross section, which is a cause of multiple complications in the control of nuclear reactors. The process of buildup of xenon-135
from an accumulated iodine-135 can temporarily preclude a shut-down reactor from restarting. This is known as xenon-poisoning or
"falling into an iodine pit."
Iodine-128 and other isotopes
Iodine fission-produced isotopes not discussed above (iodine-128, iodine-130, iodine-132, and iodine-133) have a life lives of a couple of
hours or minutes, rendering them almost useless in other applicable areas. Those mentioned are neutron-rich and so go through beta decay
to their xenon counterparts. Iodine-128 (25 min half-life) can decay to either tellurium-128 by electron capture, or to xenon-128 by beta
decay. It has a specific radioactivity of 2.177 x 10
6
TBq/g.
Non-radioactive iodide (I-127) as protection from unwanted radioiodine uptake by the
thyroid
Thyroid iodine uptake blockade with potassium iodide is used in nuclear medicine scintigraphy and therapy with some radioiodinated
compounds that are not targeted to the thyroid, such as iobenguane (MIBG), which used to image or treat neural tissue tumors, or
iodinated fibrinognen, which is used in fibrinogen scans to investigate clotting. These compounds contain iodine, but not in the iodide
form. However, since they may be ultimately metabolized or break down to radioactive iodide, it is common to administer
non-radioactive potassium iodide to insure that iodide from these radiopharmaceuticals is not sequestered by the normal affinity of the
thryoid for iodide.
Potassium iodide has been distributed to populations exposed to nuclear fission accidents such as the Chernobyl disaster. The iodide
solution SSKI, a saturated solution of potassium (K) iodide in water, has been used to block absorption of the radioiodine (it has no effect
on other radioisotopes from fission). Tablets containing potassium iodide are now also manufactured and stocked in central disaster sites
by some governments for this purpose. In theory, many harmful late-cancer effects of nuclear fallout might be prevented in this way, since
an excess of thyroid cancers, presumably due to radioiodine uptake, is the only proven radioisotope contamination effect after a fission
accident, or from contamination by fallout from an atomic bomb (prompt radiation from the bomb also cases other cancers, such as
leukemias, directly). Taking large amounts of iodide saturates thyroid receptors and prevents uptake of most radioactive iodine-131 that
may be present from fission product exposure (although it does not protect from other radioisotopes, nor from any other form of direct
radiation). The protective effect of KI lasts approximately 24 hours, so must be dosed daily until a risk of significant exposure to
radioiodines from fission products no longer exists.
[5][6]
Iodine-131 (the most common radioiodine contaminant in fallout) also decays
relatively rapidly with a half-life of eight days, so that 99.95% of the original radioiodine has vanished after three months.
Isotopes of iodine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_iodine
3 of 8 10.2.2014 18:18
Table
Isotopes of iodine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_iodine
4 of 8 10.2.2014 18:18
nuclide
symbol
Z(p) N(n)

isotopic mass (u)

half-life
decay
mode(s)
[7][n 1]
daughter
isotope(s)
[n 2]
nuclear
spin
representative
isotopic
composition
(mole fraction)
range of natural
variation
(mole fraction)
excitation energy
108
I 53 55 107.94348(39)# 36(6) ms
(90%)
104
Sb
(1)#
+
(9%)
108
Te
p (1%)
107
Te
109
I 53 56 108.93815(11) 103(5) s
p (99.5%)
108
Te
(5/2+)
(.5%)
105
Sb
110
I 53 57 109.93524(33)# 650(20) ms

+
(83%)
110
Te
1+#
(17%)
106
Sb

+
, p (11%)
109
Sb

+
, (1.09%)
106
Sn
111
I 53 58 110.93028(32)# 2.5(2) s

+
(99.91%)
111
Te
(5/2+)#
(.088%)
107
Sb
112
I 53 59 111.92797(23)# 3.42(11) s

+
(99.01%)
112
Te

+
, p (.88%)
111
Sb

+
, (.104%)
108
Sn
(.0012%)
108
Sb
113
I 53 60 112.92364(6) 6.6(2) s

+
(100%)
113
Te
5/2+# (3.310
7
%)
109
Sb

+
,
109
Sn
114
I 53 61 113.92185(32)# 2.1(2) s

+ 114
Te
1+

+
, p (rare)
113
Sb
114m
I 265.9(5) keV 6.2(5) s

+
(91%)
114
Te
(7)
IT (9%)
114
I
115
I 53 62 114.91805(3) 1.3(2) min
+ 115
Te (5/2+)#
116
I 53 63 115.91681(10) 2.91(15) s
+ 116
Te 1+
116m
I 400(50)# keV 3.27(16) s (7-)
117
I 53 64 116.91365(3) 2.22(4) min
+ 117
Te (5/2)+
118
I 53 65 117.913074(21) 13.7(5) min
+ 118
Te 2-
118m
I 190.1(10) keV 8.5(5) min

+ 118
Te
(7-)
IT (rare)
118
I
119
I 53 66 118.91007(3) 19.1(4) min
+ 119
Te 5/2+
120
I 53 67 119.910048(19) 81.6(2) min
+ 120
Te 2-
120m1
I 72.61(9) keV 228(15) ns (1+,2+,3+)
120m2
I 320(15) keV 53(4) min
+ 120
Te (7-)
121
I 53 68 120.907367(11) 2.12(1) h
+ 121
Te 5/2+
121m
I 2376.9(4) keV 9.0(15) s
122
I 53 69 121.907589(6) 3.63(6) min
+ 122
Te 1+
123
I
[n 3]
53 70 122.905589(4) 13.2235(19) h EC
123
Te 5/2+
124
I
[n 3]
53 71 123.9062099(25) 4.1760(3) d
+ 124
Te 2-
Isotopes of iodine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_iodine
5 of 8 10.2.2014 18:18
125
I
[n 3]
53 72 124.9046302(16) 59.400(10) d EC
125
Te 5/2+
126
I 53 73 125.905624(4) 12.93(5) d

+
(56.3%)
126
Te
2-

-
(44.7%)
126
Xe
127
I
[n 4]
53 74 126.904473(4) Stable
[n 5]
5/2+ 1.0000
128
I 53 75 127.905809(4) 24.99(2) min

-
(93.1%)
128
Xe
1+

+
(6.9%)
128
Te
128m1
I 137.850(4) keV 845(20) ns 4-
128m2
I 167.367(5) keV 175(15) ns (6)-
129
I
[n 4][n 6]
53 76 128.904988(3) 1.57(4)10
7
a
- 129
Xe 7/2+ Trace
[n 7]
130
I 53 77 129.906674(3) 12.36(1) h
- 130
Xe 5+
130m1
I 39.9525(13) keV 8.84(6) min
IT (84%)
130
I
2+

-
(16%)
130
Xe
130m2
I 69.5865(7) keV 133(7) ns (6)-
130m3
I 82.3960(19) keV 315(15) ns -
130m4
I 85.1099(10) keV 254(4) ns (6)-
131
I
[n 4][n 3]
53 78 130.9061246(12) 8.02070(11) d
- 131
Xe 7/2+
132
I 53 79 131.907997(6) 2.295(13) h
- 132
Xe 4+
132m
I 104(12) keV 1.387(15) h
IT (86%)
132
I
(8-)

-
(14%)
132
Xe
133
I 53 80 132.907797(5) 20.8(1) h
- 133
Xe 7/2+
133m1
I 1634.174(17) keV 9(2) s IT
133
I (19/2-)
133m2
I 1729.160(17) keV ~170 ns (15/2-)
134
I 53 81 133.909744(9) 52.5(2) min
- 134
Xe (4)+
134m
I 316.49(22) keV 3.52(4) min
IT (97.7%)
134
I
(8)-

-
(2.3%)
134
Xe
135
I
[n 8]
53 82 134.910048(8) 6.57(2) h
- 135
Xe 7/2+
136
I 53 83 135.91465(5) 83.4(10) s
- 136
Xe (1-)
136m
I 650(120) keV 46.9(10) s
- 136
Xe (6-)
137
I 53 84 136.917871(30) 24.13(12) s

-
(92.86%)
137
Xe
(7/2+)

-
, n (7.14%)
136
Xe
138
I 53 85 137.92235(9) 6.23(3) s

-
(94.54%)
138
Xe
(2-)

-
, n (5.46%)
137
Xe
139
I 53 86 138.92610(3) 2.282(10) s

-
(90%)
139
Xe
7/2+#

-
, n (10%)
138
Xe
140
I 53 87 139.93100(21)# 860(40) ms

-
(90.7%)
140
Xe
(3)(-#)

-
, n (9.3%)
139
Xe
141
I 53 88 140.93503(21)# 430(20) ms

-
(78%)
141
Xe
7/2+#

-
, n (22%)
140
Xe
142
I 53 89 141.94018(43)# ~200 ms

-
(75%)
142
Xe
2-#

-
, n (25%)
141
Xe
143
I 53 90 142.94456(43)# 100# ms [>300 ns]
- 143
Xe 7/2+#
Isotopes of iodine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_iodine
6 of 8 10.2.2014 18:18
144
I 53 91 143.94999(54)# 50# ms [>300 ns]
- 144
Xe 1-#
^ Abbreviations:
EC: Electron capture
IT: Isomeric transition
1.
^ Bold for stable isotopes, bold italics for nearly-stable isotopes (half-life longer than the age of the universe) 2.
^
a

b

c

d
Has medical uses 3.
^
a

b

c
Fission product 4.
^ Theoretically capable of spontaneous fission 5.
^ Can be used to date certain early events in Solar System history and some use for dating groundwater 6.
^ Cosmogenic nuclide, also found as nuclear contamination 7.
^ Produced as a decay product of
135
Te in nuclear reactors, in turn decays to
135
Xe, which, if allowed to build up, can shut down reactors due
to the iodine pit phenomenon
8.
Notes
Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak
assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses.
Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty values denote one standard
deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC which use expanded uncertainties.
References
Isotope masses from:
G. Audi, A. H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon (2003). "The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay
properties" (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/amdc/nubase/Nubase2003.pdf). Nuclear Physics A 729: 3128.
Bibcode:2003NuPhA.729....3A (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003NuPhA.729....3A). doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.nuclphysa.2003.11.001).
Isotopic compositions and standard atomic masses from:
J. R. de Laeter, J. K. Bhlke, P. De Bivre, H. Hidaka, H. S. Peiser, K. J. R. Rosman and P. D. P. Taylor (2003). "Atomic
weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report)" (http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/75/6/0683/pdf/).
Pure and Applied Chemistry 75 (6): 683800. doi:10.1351/pac200375060683 (http://dx.doi.org
/10.1351%2Fpac200375060683).
M. E. Wieser (2006). "Atomic weights of the elements 2005 (IUPAC Technical Report)" (http://iupac.org/publications/pac/78
/11/2051/pdf/). Pure and Applied Chemistry 78 (11): 20512066. doi:10.1351/pac200678112051 (http://dx.doi.org
/10.1351%2Fpac200678112051). Lay summary (http://old.iupac.org/news/archives/2005/atomic-weights_revised05.html).
Half-life, spin, and isomer data selected from the following sources. See editing notes on this article's talk page.
G. Audi, A. H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon (2003). "The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay
properties" (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/amdc/nubase/Nubase2003.pdf). Nuclear Physics A 729: 3128.
Bibcode:2003NuPhA.729....3A (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003NuPhA.729....3A). doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.nuclphysa.2003.11.001).
National Nuclear Data Center. "NuDat 2.1 database" (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nudat2/). Brookhaven National Laboratory.
Retrieved September 2005.
N. E. Holden (2004). "Table of the Isotopes". In D. R. Lide. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th ed.). CRC
Press. Section 11. ISBN 978-0-8493-0485-9.
^ "Nuclear Data Evaluation Lab" (http://atom.kaeri.re.kr/). Retrieved 2009-05-13. 1.
^ Hertz, Barbara; Schuleller, Kristin. "Saul Hertz, MD (1905 - 1950) A Pioneer in the Use of Radioactive Iodine", Endocrine Practice 2010
16,4;713-715.
2.
^ V. R. Narra et al. (1992). "Radiotoxicity of Some Iodine-123, Iodine-125, and Iodine- 131-Labeled Compounds in Mouse Testes: Implications
for Radiopharmaceutical Design" (http://jnm.snmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/33/12/2196.pdf). Journal of Nuclear Medicine 33 (12): 2196.
3.
^ E. Rault et al. (2007). "Comparison of Image Quality of Different Iodine Isotopes (I-123, I-124, and I-131)". Cancer Biotherapy &
Radiopharmaceuticals 22 (3): 423430. doi:10.1089/cbr.2006.323 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1089%2Fcbr.2006.323). PMID 17651050
(//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17651050).
4.
^ "Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide" (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/EmergencyPreparedness/BioterrorismandDrugPreparedness
/ucm072265.htm). Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2009-06-06.
5.
^ "Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid Blocking Agent in Radiation Emergencies" (http://www.thefederalregister.com/d.p/2001-12-11-01-30492).
The Federal Register. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2009-06-06.
6.
^ http://www.nucleonica.net/unc.aspx 7.
External links
Isotopes of iodine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_iodine
7 of 8 10.2.2014 18:18
Iodine isotopes data from The Berkeley Laboratory Isotopes Project's (http://ie.lbl.gov/education/parent/I_iso.htm)
Iodine-128, Iodine-130, Iodine-132 data from 'Wolframalpha' (http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=iodine-128)
Isotopes of tellurium Isotopes of iodine Isotopes of xenon
Table of nuclides
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Isotopes_of_iodine&oldid=589406419"
Categories: Iodine Isotopes of iodine Lists of isotopes by element Nuclear safety
This page was last modified on 6 January 2014 at 06:26.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you
agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
Isotopes of iodine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_iodine
8 of 8 10.2.2014 18:18