00 voturi pozitive00 voturi negative

169 vizualizări9 paginiJul 09, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

© All Rights Reserved

169 vizualizări

00 voturi pozitive00 voturi negative

© All Rights Reserved

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 9

UP201301705

FACULTY OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF PORTO

MASTERS IN GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND SPATIAL PLANNING

Statistical Analysis for the Portuguese Living

Conditions Indicators

By SPSS

Statistical Analysis for the Portuguese Living Conditions Indicators

2014

1

Index:

2 1. Introduction

2 2. Interpreting Output from SPSS

2 2.1 Descriptive Statistics

3 2.2. The Correlation Matrix

4 2.3. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett's Test

5 2.4. Communalities

5 2.5. Total Variance Explained:

6 2.6. Scree Plot

7 2.7. Factor Matrix

7 2.8. The goodness-of-fit Table

8 2.9. Rotated Factor Matrix

8 3. Conclusion

Statistical Analysis for the Portuguese Living Conditions Indicators

2014

2

1. Introduction:

In this report, I will review an analysis method for the

concept of living conditions and the way to measure it.

Specifically, we intend to investigate whether it is

possible to combine all indicators to compute a scale of

living conditions or, on the contrary, if we have a

concept that is multidimensional unfolding into different

aspects that require more than one scale.

So we will analyze the data and calculate composite

indices assessing their reliability. And also I will present

some descriptive analyzes of the variables that i have

created.

For analyzing the given data I will use Factor Analysis

method to find the factors among observed variables. In

other words, because the data contains many variables,

we will use factor analysis to reduce the number of

variables by grouping the variables which have the

similar characteristics together. With factor analysis we

can produce a small number of factors from a large

number of variables which is capable of explaining the

observed variance in the larger number of variables. The

reduced factors can also be used for further analysis.

There are three stages in factor analysis:

First, a correlation matrix is generated for all the

variables. A correlation matrix is a rectangular array of

the correlation coefficients of the variables with each

other.

Second, factors are extracted from the correlation matrix

based on the correlation coefficients of the variables.

Third, the factors are rotated in order to maximize the

relationship between the variables and some of the

factors.

2. Interpreting Output from SPSS:

2.1. Descriptive Statistics:

The first output from the analysis is a table of

descriptive statistics for all the variables under

investigation. Typically, the mean, standard deviation

and number of respondents (N) who participated in the

investigation are given. Looking at the mean, one can

conclude that the age group in 1998 is the most

important variable that influences the living condition of

the householder. It has the highest mean of 3.27.

Statistical Analysis for the Portuguese Living Conditions Indicators

2014

3

2.2. The Correlation matrix:

The next output from the analysis is the correlation coefficient. A correlation matrix is simply a rectangular array of numbers which gives the

correlation coefficients between a single variable and every other variables in the investigation. The correlation coefficient between a variable

and itself is always 1, hence the principal diagonal of the correlation matrix contains 1s. The correlation coefficients above and below the

principal diagonal are the same.

The coefficients of correlation express the degree of linear relationship between the row and column variables of the matrix. The closer to zero

the coefficient, the less the relationship; the closer to one, the greater the relationship. A negative sign indicates that the variables are inversely

related.

Statistical Analysis for the Portuguese Living Conditions Indicators

2014

4

2.3. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett's Test:

Measures strength of the relationship among variables

The KMO measures the sampling adequacy which should be greater than 0.5 for a satisfactory factor

analysis to proceed. If any pair of variables has a value less than this, consider dropping one of them from

the analysis. The off-diagonal elements should all be very small (close to zero) in a good model. Looking at

the table below, the KMO measure is 0.866.

There is no significant answer to question How many cases do I need to factor analysis?, and

methodologies differ. A common rule is to suggest that a researcher has at least 10-15 participants per

variable. Fiedel (2005) says that in general over 300 cases for sampling analysis is probably adequate. There

is universal agreement that factor analysis is inappropriate when sample size is below 50. Kaisen (1974)

recommend 0.5 as minimum (barely accepted), values between 0.7-0.8 acceptable, and values above 0.9 are

superb.

Bartlett's test is another indication of the strength of the relationship among variables. This tests the null

hypothesis that the correlation matrix is an identity matrix. An identity matrix is matrix in which all of the

diagonal elements are 1 and all off diagonal elements are 0. We want to reject this null hypothesis. From the

same table, we can see that the Bartlett's test of sphericity is significant That is, its associated probability is

less than 0.001. The significance level is small enough to reject the null hypothesis. This means that

correlation matrix is not an identity matrix.

Statistical Analysis for the Portuguese Living Conditions Indicators

2014

5

2.4. Communalities:

The next item from the output is a table of communalities which

shows how much of the variance in the variables has been

accounted for by the extracted factors. For instance over 99.9% of

the variance in age group in 1998 is accounted for while 2.3% of

the variance in householder sex is accounted for.

2.5. Total Variance Explained:

The next item shows all the factors extractable from the analysis

along with their eigenvalues, the percent of variance attributable to

each factor, and the cumulative variance of the factor and the

previous factors. Here we notice that the first factor accounts for

6.631% of the variance, the second 26.839% and the third 34.511%

and the fourth 39.398% and fifth 42.086%. All the remaining

factors are not significant.

`

Statistical Analysis for the Portuguese Living Conditions Indicators

2014

6

2.6. Scree Plot:

The scree plot is a graph of the eigenvalues against all the factors. The graph is useful for determining how

many factors to retain. The point of interest is where the curve starts to flatten. It can be seen that the curve

begins to flatten after factor 7. We note also that from factor 8 has an eigenvalue of less than 1, so only

seven factors have been retained.

Eigenvalue: The standardized variance associate with a particular factor. The sum of the eigenvalues cannot

exceed the number of items in the analysis, since each item contributes one to the sum of variances.

Statistical Analysis for the Portuguese Living Conditions Indicators

2014

7

2.7. Factor Matrix:

The table shows the loadings of the 28

variables on the five factors extracted. The

higher the absolute value of the loading, the

more the factor contributes to the variable.

The gap on the table represent loadings that

are less than 0.5, this makes reading the table

easier. We suppressed all loadings less than

0.5.

As we can see the table displays the format

of an unrotated factor matrix. The columns

define the factors; the rows refer to variables.

In the intersection of row and column is

given the loading for the row variable on the

column factor

The third factor is associated with household

can fund to keep warm habitation and

Household can fund worn or damaged

furniture replacement indicators.

The second factor corresponds most strongly

to 19 from 28 of the living conditions

indicators more than the other 4 factors.

2.8. The goodness-of-fit table:

Gives an indication of how well our 5 factors

reproduce the variables' or items' variance

covariance matrix. Here, the test shows that

the reproduced matrix is significantly

different from the observed matrix.

Statistical Analysis for the Portuguese Living Conditions Indicators

2014

8

2.9. Rotated Factor Matrix:

The idea of rotation is to reduce the number

factors on which the variables under

investigation have high loadings. Rotation

does not actually change anything but makes

the interpretation of the analysis easier.

As we see that each factor has several indictors

which only loading in it greater than other

factors.

The Factor Transformation Matrix displays

the correlations among the factors prior to and

after rotation.

3. Conclusion:

As a general conclusion, we can say we have

five factors accounting for 42.086% of the

variance in our 28 items. In the Rotated Factor

Matrix table we see clear factor structure

displayed; meaning, each item loads

predominantly on one factor. For instance, the

first four items load virtually exclusively on

Factor 1. Furthermore, if we look at the

communalities we see that all the items

displayed a communality of 0.40 or

greater, with some exceptions which are a little

lower than we would like and given that each

factor has other items which load substantially

on it, we may choose to remove them from

further analysis or measurement.

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.