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AWS A5.12M/A5.

12:2009
An American National Standard
(ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
Specification
for Tungsten and
Electrodes for
Arc Welding
and Cutting
Oxide Dispersed
Tungsten
550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
An American National Standard
Approved by the
American National Standards Institute
April 17, 2009
Specification for Tungsten and
Oxide Dispersed Tungsten Electrodes
for Arc Welding and Cutting
7th Edition
Supersedes ANSI/AWS A5.12/A5.12M-98
Prepared by the
American Welding Society (AWS) A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials
Under the Direction of the
AWS Technical Activities Committee
Approved by the
AWS Board of Directors
Abstract
This specification prescribes the requirements for the classification of bare tungsten and oxide dispersed tungsten
electrodes for gas tungsten arc welding and cutting and plasma arc welding and cutting. Classification is based upon the
chemical composition of the electrode. Standard sizes, finish, lengths, quantities, product identification, color coding,
and chemical composition limits are specified.
This specification makes use of both U.S. Customary Units and the International System of Units (SI). Since these are
not equivalent, each system must be used independently of the other.
This specification adopts the requirements of ISO 6848:2004 and incorporates the provisions of earlier versions of AWS
A5.12, allowing for classifications under both specifications.
ii
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
International Standard Book Number: 978-0-87171-747-4
American Welding Society
550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126
2009 by American Welding Society
All rights reserved
Printed in the United States of America
Photocopy Rights. No portion of this standard may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any
form, including mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright
owner.
Authorization to photocopy items for internal, personal, or educational classroom use only or the internal, personal, or
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fee is paid to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, tel: (978) 750-8400; Internet:
<www.copyright.com>.
iii
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
Statement on the Use of American Welding Society Standards
All standards (codes, specifications, recommended practices, methods, classifications, and guides) of the American
Welding Society (AWS) are voluntary consensus standards that have been developed in accordance with the rules of the
American National Standards Institute (ANSI). When AWS American National Standards are either incorporated in, or
made part of, documents that are included in federal or state laws and regulations, or the regulations of other govern-
mental bodies, their provisions carry the full legal authority of the statute. In such cases, any changes in those AWS
standards must be approved by the governmental body having statutory jurisdiction before they can become a part of
those laws and regulations. In all cases, these standards carry the full legal authority of the contract or other document
that invokes the AWS standards. Where this contractual relationship exists, changes in or deviations from requirements
of an AWS standard must be by agreement between the contracting parties.
AWS American National Standards are developed through a consensus standards development process that brings
together volunteers representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve consensus. While the AWS administers the
process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the development of consensus, it does not independently test, evalu-
ate, or verify the accuracy of any information or the soundness of any judgments contained in its standards.
AWS disclaims liability for any injury to persons or to property, or other damages of any nature whatsoever, whether
special, indirect, consequential, or compensatory, directly or indirectly resulting from the publication, use of, or reliance
on this standard. AWS also makes no guarantee or warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of any information
published herein.
In issuing and making this standard available, AWS is neither undertaking to render professional or other services for or
on behalf of any person or entity, nor is AWS undertaking to perform any duty owed by any person or entity to someone
else. Anyone using these documents should rely on his or her own independent judgment or, as appropriate, seek the
advice of a competent professional in determining the exercise of reasonable care in any given circumstances. It is
assumed that the use of this standard and its provisions are entrusted to appropriately qualified and competent personnel.
This standard may be superseded by the issuance of new editions. Users should ensure that they have the latest edition.
Publication of this standard does not authorize infringement of any patent or trade name. Users of this standard accept
any and all liabilities for infringement of any patent or trade name items. AWS disclaims liability for the infringement of
any patent or product trade name resulting from the use of this standard.
Finally, the AWS does not monitor, police, or enforce compliance with this standard, nor does it have the power to do so.
On occasion, text, tables, or figures are printed incorrectly, constituting errata. Such errata, when discovered, are posted
on the AWS web page (www.aws.org).
Official interpretations of any of the technical requirements of this standard may only be obtained by sending a request, in
writing, to the appropriate technical committee. Such requests should be addressed to the American Welding Society,
Attention: Managing Director, Technical Services Division, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126 (see Annex C).
With regard to technical inquiries made concerning AWS standards, oral opinions on AWS standards may be rendered.
These opinions are offered solely as a convenience to users of this standard, and they do not constitute professional
advice. Such opinions represent only the personal opinions of the particular individuals giving them. These individuals do
not speak on behalf of AWS, nor do these oral opinions constitute official or unofficial opinions or interpretations of
AWS. In addition, oral opinions are informal and should not be used as a substitute for an official interpretation.
This standard is subject to revision at any time by the AWS A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials. It must
be reviewed every five years, and if not revised, it must be either reaffirmed or withdrawn. Comments (recommendations,
additions, or deletions) and any pertinent data that may be of use in improving this standard are required and should be
addressed to AWS Headquarters. Such comments will receive careful consideration by the AWS A5 Committee on Filler
Metals and Allied Materials and the author of the comments will be informed of the Committees response to the
comments. Guests are invited to attend all meetings of the AWS A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials to
express their comments verbally. Procedures for appeal of an adverse decision concerning all such comments are
provided in the Rules of Operation of the Technical Activities Committee. A copy of these Rules can be obtained from
the American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126.
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AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
iv
v
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
Personnel
AWS A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials
J. S. Lee, Chair Chevron
H. D. Wehr, 1st Vice Chair Arcos Industries, LLC
J. J. DeLoach, Jr. 2nd Vice Chair Naval Surface Warfare Center
R. K. Gupta, Secretary American Welding Society
T. Anderson ESAB Welding and Cutting Products
J. M. Blackburn Department of the Navy
R. S. Brown RSB Alloy Applications, LLC
J. C. Bundy Hobart Brothers Company
D. D. Crockett The Lincoln Electric Company
D. A. DelSignore Consultant
J. DeVito ESAB Welding and Cutting Products
H. W. Ebert Consultant
D. M. Fedor The Lincoln Electric Company
J. G. Feldstein Foster Wheeler North America
S. E. Ferree ESAB Welding and Cutting Products
D. A. Fink The Lincoln Electric Company
G. L. Franke Naval Surface Warfare Center
R. D. Fuchs Bhler Welding Group USA, Incorporated
C. E. Fuerstenau Lucas-Milhaupt, Incorporated
J. A. Henning Deltak
R. M. Henson J. W. Harris Company, Incorporated
S. D. Kiser Special Metals
P. J. Konkol Concurrent Technologies Corporation
D. J. Kotecki Damian Kotecki Welding Consultants
L. G. Kvidahl Northrop Grumman Ship Systems
A. Y. Lau Canadian Welding Bureau
A. S. Laurenson Consultant
W. A. Marttila Chrysler LLC
T. Melfi The Lincoln Electric Company
R. Menon Stoody Company
M. T. Merlo HyperTech Research, Incorporated
D. R. Miller ABS Americas Materials Department
B. Mosier Polymet Corporation
A. K. Mukherjee Siemens Power Generation, Incorporated
C. L. Null Consultant
M. P. Parekh Consultant
R. L. Peaslee Wall Colmonoy Corporation
K.C. Pruden Hydril Company
S. D. Reynolds, Jr. Consultant
P. K. Salvesen Det Norske Veritas (DNV)
K. Sampath Consultant
W. S. Severance ESAB Welding and Cutting Products
M. J. Sullivan NASSCONational Steel and Shipbuilding
R. C. Sutherlin ATI Wah Chang
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AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
R. A. Swain Euroweld, Limited
K. P. Thornberry Care Medical, Incorporated
M. D. Tumuluru U.S. Steel Corporation
Advisors to the AWS A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials
R. L. Bateman Electromanufacturas, S. A.
R. A. Daemen La Grande Tuiliere
J. P. Hunt Consultant
S. Imaoka Kobe Steel Limited
M. A. Quintana The Lincoln Electric Company
E. R. Stevens Stevens Welding Consulting
E. S. Surian National University of Lomas de Zamora
AWS A5I Subcommittee on Tungsten Electrodes
W. S. Severance, Chair ESAB Welding and Cutting Products
R. K. Gupta, Secretary American Welding Society
S. G. Caldwell ATI Firth Sterling
M. E. Gedgaudas Arc Machines, Incorporated
R. A. Swain Euroweld, Limited
AWS A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials (Continued)
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AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
Foreword
This foreword is not part of AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD), Specification for Tungsten and
Oxide Dispersed Tungsten Electrodes for Arc Welding and Cutting, but is included for informational purposes only.
This document is the first AWS adoption of ISO 6848:2004, Arc welding and cutting Nonconsumable tungsten
electrodes Classification. With its insertion of references and additional informative annexes it replaces ANSI/AWS
A5.12/A5.12M-98, Specification for Tungsten and Tungsten-Alloy Electrodes for Arc Welding and Cutting. The MOD
in the designation of this document shows that this is a modified adoption of the ISO document. All changes are listed in
Annex D. The modifications to ISO 6848:2004 are shown in Italic font.
Color code for classification EWCe-2 has been changed from orange to grey. Color code for classification EWG used to
be grey, but now the manufacturer may select any color for this classification not already in use.
Please note that ISO uses commas (,) and AWS uses periods (.) for decimals. The ISO decimal commas have been replaced
by periods in this document for consistency.
Document Development
The current document is the sixth revision of the initial AWS/ASTM document issued in 1955. The evolution took place
as follows:
ASTM B297-55T Tentative Specifications for Tungsten Arc-Welding Electrodes
AWS A5.12-55T
ASTM B297-65T Tentative Specifications for Tungsten Arc-Welding Electrodes
AWS A5.12-65T
ANSI/AWS A5.12-69 Specification for Tungsten Arc-Welding Electrodes
W3.12-73
ANSI/AWS A5.12-80 Specification for Tungsten Arc Welding Electrodes
ANSI/AWS A5.12-92 Specification for Tungsten and Tungsten Alloy Electrodes for Arc Welding and Cutting
ANSI/AWS A5.12/A5.12M-98 Specification for Tungsten and Tungsten Alloy Electrodes for Arc Welding and Cutting
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this part of ISO 6848 may be the subject of patent
rights. AWS and ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
Comments and suggestions for the improvement of this standard are welcome. They should be sent to the Secretary,
AWS A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials, American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami,
FL 33126.
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AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
viii
ix
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
Table of Contents
Page No.
Personnel ...................................................................................................................................................................... v
Foreword.....................................................................................................................................................................vii
List of Tables................................................................................................................................................................. x
List of Figures............................................................................................................................................................... x
1. Scope..................................................................................................................................................................... 1
2. Normative references .......................................................................................................................................... 1
3. Classification........................................................................................................................................................ 2
4. Acceptance ........................................................................................................................................................... 2
5. Chemical analysis ................................................................................................................................................ 2
6. Retest .................................................................................................................................................................... 2
7. Marking................................................................................................................................................................ 2
8. Standard sizes and tolerances ............................................................................................................................ 8
8.1 Electrode diameters, lengths, and tolerances............................................................................................... 8
8.2 Finish ........................................................................................................................................................... 9
8.3 Electrode straightness .................................................................................................................................. 9
8.4 Electrode roundness..................................................................................................................................... 5
9. Rounding-off procedure...................................................................................................................................... 5
10. Electrode quality.................................................................................................................................................. 5
11. Packaging ............................................................................................................................................................. 5
11.1 Marking of packages.................................................................................................................................... 5
11.2 Packing ........................................................................................................................................................ 6
11.3 Marking of overpacking............................................................................................................................... 6
11.4 Warning label............................................................................................................................................... 6
Annex A (informative)Conditions of use ................................................................................................................. 7
National Annexes
Annex B (Informative)Guide to AWS Specification for Tungsten and Oxide Dispersed Tungsten
Annex B (Informative)Electrodes for Arc Welding and Cutting ............................................................................ 11
Annex C (Informative)Guidelines for the Preparation of Technical Inquiries ....................................................... 19
Annex D (Informative)List of Deviations from ISO 6848:2004............................................................................ 21
AWS Filler Metal Specifications by Material and Welding Process .......................................................................... 23
AWS Filler Metal Specifications and Related Documents......................................................................................... 25
x
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
List of Tables
Table Page No.
1 Chemical composition requirements for tungsten electrodes ....................................................................... 3
2 Standard diameters and lengths .................................................................................................................... 4
A.1 Suitability of current supply type.................................................................................................................. 7
A.2 Approximate current ranges depending upon the electrode diameter .......................................................... 9
List of Figures
Figure Page No.
1 Measurement procedure for straightness ...................................................................................................... 5
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
1
Specification for tungsten and oxide dispersed tungsten
electrodes for arc welding and cutting
1 Scope
This standard specifies requirements for classification of nonconsumable tungsten electrodes for inert gas
shielded arc welding, and for plasma welding, cutting, and thermal spraying.
This specification makes use of both International System of Units (SI) and the U.S. Customary Units. The
measurements are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently of the other
without combining in any way when referring to material properties. The specification designated A5.12M
uses SI Units; and the specification designated A5.12 uses U.S. Customary Units. The later units are shown
within brackets [ ] or in appropriate columns in tables and figures. Standard dimensions based on either
system may be used for sizing of tungsten electrodes or packaging or both under A5.12M or A5.12
specification.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies.
2.1 The following AWS standard
1
is referenced in the mandatory sections of this document:
AWS A5.01M/A5.01 (ISO 14344 MOD), Procurement Guidelines for ConsumablesWelding and Allied
ProcessesFlux and Gas Shielded Electrical Welding Processes
2.2 The following ANSI standard
2
is referenced in the mandatory sections of this document:
ANSI Z49.1, Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes
2.3 The following ASTM standards
3
are referenced in the mandatory sections of this document:
ASTM E 29, Standard Practice for using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with
Specifications
ASTM F 288, Standard Specification for Tungsten Wire for Electron Devices and Lamps
2.4 The following ISO standard
4
is referenced in the mandatory sections of this document:
ISO 31-0:1992, Quantities and units Part 0: General principles; and Annex B, Rule A
1
AWS standards are published by the American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126.
2
This ANSI standard is published by the American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126.
3
ASTM standards are published by the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West
Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.
4
ISO standards are published by the International Organization for Standardization, 1, rue de Varemb, Case postale 56,
CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland.
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
2
3 Classification
3.1 Classification of a tungsten electrode is based upon its chemical composition.
3.2 The tungsten and oxide dispersed tungsten electrodes covered by this specification are classified using a
system that is independent of the U.S. Customary Units and the International System of Units (SI).
Classification is according to the chemical composition of the electrode as specified in Table 1. See Clause
B7 for classification descriptions.
3.3 Electrodes classified under one classification shall not be classified under any other classification in this
specification.
3.4 No electrode meeting the requirements of any other classification, shall be classified under EWG.
3.5 The electrodes classified under this specification are intended for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), gas
tungsten arc cutting (GTAC), plasma arc welding (PAW), or plasma arc cutting (PAC), but that is not to prohibit
their use with any other process for which they are found suitable.
See Clause B2 for an explanation of the classification system.
4 Acceptance
Acceptance of the electrodes shall be in accordance with the provisions of AWS A5.01M:A5.01 (ISO 14344
MOD). See Annex Clause B3 for further information concerning acceptance and testing of material shipped.
5 Chemical analysis
Chemical analysis shall be performed on specimens of the electrode being classified. Any analytical
technique may be used but, in cases of dispute, reference shall be made to established published methods.
The referee method shall be ASTM F 288. The results of the analysis shall meet the requirements of Table 1
for the classification of electrode under test.
6 Retests
If any test fails to meet the requirement, that test shall be repeated twice. The results of both retests shall
meet the requirements. Specimens for retesting may be taken from the original test sample or from a new test
sample. For chemical analysis, retests need only be for those specific elements that failed to meet their test
requirement. If the results of one or both retests fail to meet the requirement, the material under test shall be
considered as not meeting the requirements of this specification for that classification.
In the event that, during preparation or after completion of any test, it is clearly determined that prescribed or
proper procedures were not followed in preparing the test specimen, or in conducting the tests, the test shall
be considered invalid, without regard to whether the test was actually completed, or whether the test results
met, or failed to meet, the requirement. That test shall be repeated, following proper prescribed procedures.
In this case, the requirement for doubling the number of test specimens does not apply.
7 Marking
In accordance with Table 1, tungsten electrodes shall be marked on the basis of their chemical composition,
with one color ring near one end of the electrode. The width of the color ring shall be at least 3 mm [1/8 in].
Such color coding shall have no adverse effect on the operation or use of the electrode. Alternatively,
tungsten electrodes may have their classification symbols marked on the surface of the electrode near at
least one end of the electrode.
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
3
8 Standard sizes and tolerances
8.1 Electrode diameters, lengths and tolerances
Standard electrode diameters, lengths, and tolerances are given in Table 2. Other diameters, lengths, and
tolerances may be as agreed upon between the purchaser and supplier.
Table 1 Chemical composition requirements for tungsten electrodes
Classification
symbol
(ISO 6848
Classification)
Chemical composition requirements
Colour code,
RGB colour value and
colour sample
a
Oxide addition Impurities,
mass
percent
Tungsten,
mass
percent Principal oxide Mass percent
EWP
(WP)
None
b
N.A.
b
0.5 max. 99.5 min.
Green
#008000
EWCe-2
(WCe 20)
CeO
2
1.8 to 2.2 0.5 max. Balance
Grey (formerly orange)
#808080
EWLa-1
(WLa 10)
La2O
2
0.8 to 1.2 0.5 max. Balance
Black
#000000
EWLa-1.5
(WLa 15)
La2O
2
1.3 to 1.7 0.5 max. Balance
Gold
#FFD700
EWLa-2
(WLa 20)
La2O
2
1.8 to 2.2 0.5 max. Balance
Blue
#0000FF
EWTh-1
(WTh10)
ThO
2
0.8 to 1.2 0.5 max. Balance
Yellow
#FFFF00
EWTh-2
(WTh 20)
ThO
2
1.7 to 2.2 0.5 max. Balance
Red
#FF0000
(WTh 30) ThO
2
2.8 to 3.2 0.5 max. Balance
Violet
#EE82EE
EWZr-1
(WZr 3)
ZrO
2
0.15 to 0.50 0.5 max. Balance
Brown
#A52A2A
EWZr-8
(WZr 8)
ZrO
2
0.7 to 0.9 0.5 max. Balance
White
#FFFFFF
EWG
The manufacturer
must identify all
additions.
The manufacturer
must state the
nominal quantity
of each addition.
0.5 max. Balance
The manufacturer may select
any color not already in use.
NOTE Intentional additions of doping oxides other than indicated for a particular electrode classification is prohibited.
a
RGB color values and color samples can be found at the following website:
http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms531197.aspx
b
N.A. = Not applicable.
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
4
8.2 Finish
Electrodes shall be supplied with a ground finish. The ground finish designates that the electrode has been
cleaned of impurities after it has been centerless ground to a uniform size. It shall be supplied with a bright,
polished surface. The maximum surface roughness shall be 0.8 mRa [32 in AARH].
8.3 Electrode straightness
The electrodes shall be straight such that any element of its surface, over a specified length, must lie between
two parallel lines of a specified spacing where the two lines and the nominal axis of the electrode share a
common plane, as shown in Figure 1. The specified spacing is 0.5 mm [0.020 in] over a length of 100 mm
[4 in].
Table 2 Standard diameters and lengths
Size
Length
Diameter
mm
Tolerance
mm
Diameter
in
Tolerance
in
Length
mm
Tolerance
mm
Length
in
Tolerance
in
0.25
b
0.02 0.010 0.001 50
b
1.5
0.30
b
0.02 75
b
-1.0, +2.5 3 1/16
0.50
b
0.05 0.020 0.002 150
b
-1.0, +4.0 6 1/16
1.00
b
0.05 0.040 0.002 175
b
-1.0, +6.0 7 1/8
1.50
b
0.05
a
0.060
a
0.002 300
b
-1.0, +8.0 12 1/8
1.60
b
0.05 450
b
-1.0, +8.0 18 1/8
2.00
b
0.05 600
b
-1.0, +13.0 24 1/8
2.40
b
0.08 0.093 (3/32) 0.003
2.50
b
0.08
3.00
b
0.10
3.20
b
0.10 0.125 (1/8) 0.003
4.00
b
0.10 0.156 (5/32) 0.003
4.80
b
0.10 0.187 (3/16) 0.003
5.00
b
0.10
6.30
b
0.10
6.40
b
0.10 0.250 (1/4) 0.003
8.00
b
0.10
10.00
b
0.10
a
Although the metric size 1.6 mm [0.063 in] is closer to 1/16 in [0.0625 in], it has been common industry practice to refer to the U.S.
customary size 0.060 in as 1/16 in.
b
Standard sizes and lengths in ISO 6848, though tolerances may be tighter in some cases.
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
5
8.4 Electrode roundness
Electrodes shall fit through ring gages sized for their maximum allowable diameter according to Table 2.
9 Rounding-off procedure
For purposes of determining compliance with the requirements of this Standard, the actual test values
obtained shall be subjected to the rounding-off rules of ISO 31-0:1992, Annex B, Rule A or ASTM E 29. If the
measured values are obtained by equipment calibrated in units other than those of this Standard, the
measured values shall be converted to the units of this Standard before rounding off. If an average value is to
be compared to the requirements of this Standard, rounding-off shall be done only after calculating the
average. In the case where the testing standard cited in the normative references of this Standard contains
instructions for rounding off that conflict with the instructions of this Standard, the rounding-off requirements
of the testing standard shall apply. The rounded-off results shall fulfill the requirements of the appropriate
table for the classification under test.
10 Electrode quality
The electrode surface shall be free of impurities, undesirable films, foreign inclusions, slivers, cracks, scale
and other defects. Electrodes shall be internally free of foreign inclusions or anything else that would
adversely affect the operation of the electrode. Oxide additions shall be sufficiently uniformly distributed
throughout the electrode so that the operation of the electrode is not adversely affected.
11 Packaging
11.1 Marking of packages
The following information, as a minimum, shall be legibly marked so as to be visible from the outside of each
package:
a) the number of this Standard, i.e., AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD);
b) electrode classification symbol in accordance with Table 1;
c) electrode diameter;
d) electrode length;
e) net quantity of electrodes;
f) suppliers name and trade designation;
g) lot, control, or heat number.
Figure 1 Measurement procedure for straightness
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
6
11.2 Packing
Tungsten electrodes shall be packed so that their surfaces are protected from all damage or staining when
they are properly transported and stored.
11.3 Marking of overpacking
Marking of any, or all, overpacking of unit packages with items listed in 11.1 shall be optional with the
manufacturer.
11.4 Warning label
The appropriate precautionary information
5
as given in ANSI Z49.1, latest edition (as a minimum) or its
equivalent, shall be prominently dispayed in legible print on all packages of electrodes, including individual
unit packages enclosed within a larger package.
5
Typical examples of warning labels are shown in figures in ANSI Z49.1 for some common or specific consumables
used with certain processes.
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
7
Annex A
(informative)
Conditions of use
A.1 Influence of the type of current
A.1.1 General
The electric arc may be supplied with either direct current or alternating current. Table A.1 indicates which
type of current is generally more suitable to the type of metal or alloy to be welded.
A.1.2 Direct current supply
The arc behavior is different depending on whether the electrode is connected to the positive or negative
terminal of the power source. With electrode positive (d.c.+) polarity, there is greater output heat at the
electrode and less penetration of the work than with electrode negative (d.c.) polarity. The current-carrying
capacity of an electrode of a given size will therefore be lower with positive polarity than with negative polarity.
A.1.3 Alternating current supply
With alternating current (a.c.) supply, the current changes direction each half-cycle. The arc alternates
between electrode positive polarity and electrode negative polarity. The current-carrying capacity of an
electrode is then less than when it is used with electrode negative polarity, but greater than when it is used
with electrode positive polarity.
Table A.1 Suitability of current supply type
Type of metal or alloy to be welded
Direct current
Alternating
current Electrode
negative ()
Electrode
positive (+)
Aluminium and its alloys, thickness 2.5 mm [0.10 in] Acceptable Acceptable Best
Aluminium and its alloys, thickness > 2.5 mm [0.10 in] Acceptable
a
N.R.
a
Best
Magnesium and its alloys N.R. Acceptable Best
Non-alloy (carbon) steels and low alloy steels Best N.R. N.R.
Stainless steels Best N.R. N.R.
Copper Best N.R. N.R.
Bronze Best N.R. Acceptable
Aluminium bronze Acceptable N.R. Best
Silicon bronze Best N.R. N.R.
Nickel and its alloys Best N.R. Acceptable
Titanium and its alloys Best N.R. Acceptable
a
N.R. = Not recommended.
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
8
A.2 Arc amperage
The electrode size should be selected so that the current value is high enough for the arc to cover the whole
area of the electrode tip, which is then heated up to a temperature approaching its melting temperature.
If the current is too low for the electrode size selected, the arc may be erratic.
If, however, the current is too high, it will cause the electrode to overheat and its tip to melt. Drops of molten
tungsten may fall into the weld, and the arc will become erratic and unstable. Table A.2 provides
recommended current ranges depending on the type of power supply and electrode diameter. A high current
value provides, in addition to a more stable arc, a higher concentration of heat, but this is limited depending
on the conditions of use. An adequate degree of taper of the electrode tip with d.c.-polarity permits
improvement of these conditions; e.g., the degree of taper of the electrode tip should be chosen according to
the current used. A more obtuse angle is recommended at higher currents for a given electrode diameter.
Tungsten electrodes when used with alternating current or with direct current positive polarity will form a
molten ball on the arcing end of the electrode. A pure tungsten electrode may produce tungsten inclusions in
the weld when used on a.c. or d.c.+ without having accurate control of amperage and arc length. The use of
zirconiated tungsten will alleviate this problem.
Many modern a.c. welding power supplies allow the balance between the d.c.+ and d.c. portions of the
current cycle to be varied. When the d.c.+ portion of the cycle is increased relative to the d.c. portion, the
recommended average current is decreased somewhat from the ranges given in Table A.2. Conversely, when
the d.c. portion is increased relative to the d.c.+ portion, the recommended average a.c. current is increased
somewhat from the ranges given in Table A.2.
A.3 Further remarks
The choice of an electrode type and size and of the welding current is influenced by the type and thickness of
the parent metal to be welded or cut. The capacity of tungsten electrodes to carry current is dependent upon
a number of other factors, in particular, the type of equipment used (gas- or water-cooled), the extension of
the electrode beyond the nozzle and the welding position used.
An electrode of a given size will have its greatest current-carrying capacity with direct current, electrode
negative; less with alternating current, and still less with direct current, electrode positive.
Table A.2 lists some typical current values that may be used with argon shielding. However, the other factors
mentioned above should be carefully considered before selecting an electrode for a specific application.
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
9
Table A.2 Approximate current ranges depending upon the electrode diameter
a
Electrode
diameter
Direct current
A
Alternating current
A
Electrode negative () Electrode positive (+)
mm in
Pure
tungsten
Tungsten with
oxide additives
Pure
tungsten
Tungsten with
oxide additives
Pure
tungsten
Tungsten with
oxide additives
0.25 0.010 up to 15 up to 15 not applicable not applicable up to 15 up to 15
0.30 up to 15 up to 15 not applicable not applicable up to 15 up to 15
0.50 0.020 2 to 20 2 to 20 not applicable not applicable 2 to 15 2 to 15
1.0 0.040 10 to 75 10 to 75 not applicable not applicable 15 to 55 15 to 70
1.5 0.060 60 to 150 60 to 150 10 to 20 10 to 20 45 to 90 60 to 125
1.6 60 to 150 60 to 150 10 to 20 10 to 20 45 to 90 60 to 125
2.0 75 to 180 100 to 200 15 to 25 15 to 25 65 to 125 85 to 160
2.4
0.093
(3/32)
120 to 220 150 to 250 15 to 30 15 to 30 80 to 140 120 to 210
2.5 130 to 230 170 to 250 17 to 30 17 to 30 80 to 140 120 to 210
3.0 150 to 300 210 to 310 20 to 35 20 to 35 140 to 180 140 to 230
3.2
0.125
(1/8)
160 to 310 225 to 330 20 to 35 20 to 35 150 to 190 150 to 250
4.0
0.156
(5/32)
275 to 450 350 to 480 35 to 50 35 to 50 180 to 260 240 to 350
4.8
0.187
(3/16)
380 to 600 480 to 650 50 to 70 50 to 70 240 to 350 330 to 450
5.0 400 to 625 500 to 675 50 to 70 50 to 70 240 to 350 330 to 460
6.3 550 to 875 650 to 950 65 to 100 65 to 100 300 to 450 430 to 575
6.4
0.250
(1/4)
575 to 900 750 to 1 000 70 to 125 70 to 125 325 to 450 450 to 600
8.0 650 to 830
10.0
NOTE If no value is given, no recommendation is available.
a
The current values are based on the use of argon gas, and these values may vary depending on the type of shielding gas, type of
equipment, and application.
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AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
10
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
11
B1. Introduction
B1.1 The purpose of this guide is to correlate the electrode classifications with their intended applications so the specifi-
cation can be used effectively.
B1.2 Tungsten electrodes are nonconsumable in that they do not intentionally become part of the weld metal as
doelectrodes used as filler metals. The function of a tungsten electrode is to serve as one of the terminals of an arc which
supplies the heat required for welding or cutting.
B2. Classification
B2.1 The system for identifying the electrode classifications in this specification follows the standard pattern used in
other AWS filler metal specifications. The letter E at the beginning of the classification designation stands for elec-
trode. The W indicates that the electrode is primarily tungsten. The P indicates that the electrode is essentially pure
tungsten and contains no intentionally added emission enhancing elements. The Ce, La, Th, and Zr indicate that
the electrode is doped with oxides of cerium, lanthanum, thorium, or zirconium, respectively. The numeral at the end of
some of the classifications indicates a different chemical composition level or product within a specific group.
B2.2 G Classification
B2.2.1 This specification includes electrodes classified as EWG. The G indicates that the electrode is of a general
classification. It is general because not all of the particular requirements specified for each of the other classifications
are specified for this classification. The intent in establishing this classification is to provide a means by which elec-
trodes that differ in one respect or another (chemical composition, for example) from other classifications (meaning that
the composition of the electrodein the case of this exampledoes not meet the composition specified for any of the
classifications in the specification) can still be classified according to the specification. The purpose is to allow a useful
electrodeone that otherwise would have to await a revision of the specificationto be classified immediately, under
the existing specification. This means, then, that two electrodeseach bearing the same G classificationmay be
quite different in some certain respect. To prevent the confusion that this situation could create, this specification
requires the manufacturer to identify, on the label, the type and nominal content of each doping addition made in the
particular product.
Annex B (Informative)
Guide to AWS Specification for Tungsten
and Oxide Dispersed Tungsten Electrodes
for Arc Welding and Cutting
This annex is not part of AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004), Specification for Tungsten and Oxide
Dispersed Tungsten Electrodes for Arc Welding and Cutting, but is included for informational purposes only.
National Annexes
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
12
B2.2.2 Request for Electrode Classification
(1) When an electrode cannot be classified according to some classification other than a G classification, the man-
ufacturer may request that a classification be established for that electrode. The manufacturer may do this by following
the procedure given here. When the manufacturer elects to use the G classification, the A5 Committee on Filler Metals
and Allied Materials recommends that the manufacturer still request that a classification be established for that elec-
trode, as long as the electrode is of commercial significance.
(2) A request to establish a new electrode classification must be a written request, and it needs to provide sufficient
detail to permit the A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials or the Subcommittee to determine whether the
new classification or the modification of an existing classification is more appropriate, and whether either is necessary to
satisfy the need. In particular, the request needs to include:
(a) All classification requirements as given for existing classifications, such as, chemical composition ranges,
mechanical property requirements, and usability test requirements.
(b) Any conditions for conducting the tests used to demonstrate that the product meets the classification require-
ments. (It would be sufficient, for example, to state that welding conditions are the same as for other classifications.)
(c) Information on Descriptions and Intended Use, which parallels that for existing classifications, for that clause
of the Annex.
(d) A request for a new classification without the above information will be considered incomplete. The Secre-
tary will return the request to the requester for further information.
(3) The request should be sent to the Secretary of the A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials at AWS
Headquarters. Upon receipt of the request, the Secretary will:
(a) Assign an identifying number to the request. This number will include the date the request was received.
(b) Confirm receipt of the request and give the identification number to the person who made the request.
(c) Send a copy of the request to the Chair of the A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials and the
Chair of the particular Subcommittee involved.
(d) File the original request.
(e) Add the request to the log of outstanding requests.
(4) All necessary action on each request will be completed as soon as possible. If more than 12 months lapse, the
Secretary shall inform the requestor of the status of the request, with copies to the Chairs of the Committee and of the
Subcommittee. Requests still outstanding after 18 months shall be considered not to have been answered in a timely
manner and the Secretary shall report these to the Chair of the Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials, for
action.
(5) The Secretary shall include a copy of the log of all requests pending and those completed during the preceding
year with the agenda for each Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials meeting. Any other publication of
requests that have been completed will be at the option of the American Welding Society, as deemed appropriate.
B3. Acceptance
Acceptance of all welding materials classified under this specification is in accordance with AWS A5.01M/A5.01 (ISO
14344 MOD), as the specification states. Any testing a purchaser requires of the supplier, for material shipped in accor-
dance with this specification, shall be clearly stated in the purchase order, according to the provisions of AWS
A5.01M/A5.01 (ISO 14344 MOD). In the absence of any such statement in the purchase order, the supplier may ship the
material with whatever testing is normally conducted on material of that classification, as specified in Schedule F, Table
1, of AWS A5.01M/A5.01 (ISO 14344 MOD). Testing in accordance with any other Schedule in that Table must be spe-
cifically required by the purchase order. In such cases, acceptance of the material shipped will be in accordance with
those requirements.
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
13
B4. Certification
The act of placing the AWS specification and classification designations on the packaging enclosing the product, or the
classification identification on the product itself, constitutes the supplier's (manufacturer's) certification that the product
meets all of the requirements of the specification.
The only testing requirement implicit in this certification is that the manufacturer has actually conducted the test
required by the specification on material that is representative of that being shipped, and that that material met the
requirements of the specification. Representative material, in this case, is any production run of that classification using
the same formulation.
Certification is not to be construed to mean that tests of any kind were necessarily conducted on samples of the spe-
cific material shipped. Tests on such material may, or may not, have been conducted. The basis for the certification
required by the specification is the classification test of representative material cited above, and the Manufacturers
Quality Assurance Program in AWS A5.01M/A5.01 (ISO 14344 MOD).
Electrodes sold as a standard size must also meet the dimensional, surface finish, and identification requirements estab-
lished in this specification.
B5. Ventilation During Welding
B5.1 Five major factors govern the quantity of fumes in the atmosphere to which welders and welding operators are
exposed during welding:
(1) Dimensions of the space in which welding is done (with special regard to the height of the ceiling)
(2) Number of welders and welding operators working in that space
(3) Rate of evolution of fumes, gases, or dust, according to the materials and processes involved
(4) The proximity of the welders or welding operators to the fumes, as the fumes issue from the welding zone, and to
the gases and dusts in the space in which they are working
(5) The ventilation provided to the space in which the welding is done
B5.2 American National Standard ANSI Z49.1, Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes (published by the
American Welding Society), discusses the ventilation that is required during welding and should be referred to for
details. Attention is drawn particularly to the section of that document on Health Protection and Ventilation.
B6. Operation Characteristics
B6.1 The choice of an electrode classification, size, and welding current is influenced by the type and thickness of the
base metals being welded. The capacity of tungsten electrodes to carry current is dependent upon numerous factors in
addition to the classification and size, including type and polarity of the current, the shielding gas used, the type of
equipment (air or water cooled), the extension of the electrode beyond the collet (sleeve or tube that holds the electrode),
and the welding position. An electrode of a given size will have its greatest current-carrying capacity with direct current,
electrode negative (straight polarity), less with alternating current, and still less with direct current, electrode positive
(reverse polarity). Table A.1 lists some typical current values that may be used with argon shielding gas. However, the
other factors mentioned above should be carefully considered before selecting an electrode for a specific application.
B6.2 Tungsten has an electrical conductivity that is about 30% that of copper and a thermal conductivity that is 40% that
of copper. Therefore, there will be more heating as current is passed through the tungsten electrode. When welding with
tungsten electrodes, the arc tip should be the only hot part of the electrode; the remainder should be kept as cool as
possible.
B6.3 One method of preventing electrode overheating is to keep the extension of the electrode from the collet short. If
the extension is too long, even a relatively low current can cause the electrode to overheat and melt above the terminus of
the arc. Conversely, if the current density is too low, the arc will be erratic and unstable.
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
14
B6.4 Many electrode classifications contain emissive oxide additions. These additions lower the temperature at which
the electrode emits electrons, to a temperature below the melting point of tungsten. Such an electrode operates cooler, or
it can operate at higher currents, as can be noted from Table A.1. Benefits of these additions include easier starting, par-
ticularly when using superimposed high frequency, more stable operation, and reduced contamination. These benefits
are noted in the description listed for the various classifications containing oxide additives.
B6.5 All tungsten electrodes may be used in a similar manner. However, electrodes of each classification have distinct
advantages with respect to other classifications. The following section discusses the specific electrode classifications
with regard to their operating characteristics and usability.
B7. Description and Intended Use of Electrodes (ISO designations are given in
parentheses)
B7.1 EWP (WP) Electrode Classification (Green). The EWP electrodes are commercially pure tungsten electrodes
(99.5 percent tungsten minimum). Their current-carrying capacity is lower than that of other electrodes. They provide
good stability when used with alternating current, either balanced wave or continuously high frequency stabilized. They
may be used with direct current and also with either argon or helium, or a combination of both, as a shielding gas. They
maintain a clean, balled end, which is preferred for aluminum and magnesium welding. These electrodes have reason-
ably good resistance to contamination of the weld metal by the electrode, although the oxide containing electrodes are
superior in this respect. EWP electrodes are generally used on less critical applications, except for welding aluminum
and magnesium. The lower cost EWP electrodes can be used for less critical applications where some tungsten contami-
nation of welds is acceptable.
B7.2 EWCe-2 (WCe 20) Electrode Classification (Grey). The EWCe-2 electrodes are tungsten electrodes containing
about two percent cerium oxide (CeO
2)
, referred to as ceria. The EWCe-2 electrodes were first introduced into the
United States market in 1987. Several other grades of this type electrode are commercially practical, including elec-
trodes containing one percent CeO, but only one grade, EWCe-2, has been incorporated in this specification as having
commercial significance.
The advantages of tungsten electrodes containing ceria, compared to pure tungsten, include increased ease of starting,
improved arc stability, and reduced rate of vaporization or burn-off. Unlike thoria, ceria is not a radioactive material.
These advantages increase with increased ceria content. These electrodes operate successfully with alternating current or
direct current, either polarity.
B7.3 EWLa-X Electrode Classifications. The EWLa-X electrodes are tungsten electrodes containing lanthanum oxide,
referred to as lanthana. The advantages and operating characteristics of these electrodes are similar to that of the EWCe-
2 electrodes. Unlike thoria, lanthana is not a radioactive material.
B7.3.1 EWLa-1 (WLa 10) Electrode Classification (Black). The EWLa-1 electrodes are tungsten electrodes which
contain nominally 0.8-1.2 weight-percent (wt.-%) lanthanum oxide, referred to as lanthana. The advantages and operat-
ing characteristics of this electrode type are very similar to those of EWCe-2 electrodes.
B7.3.2 EWLa-1.5 (WLa 15) Electrode Classification (Gold). EWLa-1.5 designates a tungsten electrode containing
1.31.7 wt.-% of dispersed lanthanum oxide (La
2
O
3
) for enhanced arc starting and stability, reduced tip erosion rate, and
extended operating current range. These electrodes can be used as nonradioactive substitutes for 2% thoriated tungsten,
as the operating characteristics are very similar. Lanthanated tungsten can be used for both DCEN and ac applications.
B7.3.3 EWLa-2 (WLa 20) Electrode Classification (Blue). EWLa-2 designates a tungsten electrode containing 1.8
2.2 wt.-% of dispersed lanthanum oxide (La
2
O
3
). The EWLa-2 electrode has the highest volume of oxides of any of
the specific single-additive AWS-specified electrodes types, which serves to enhance arc starting and stability, reduce
tip erosion rate, and extend operating current range. Lanthanated tungsten electrodes can be used for both dcen and ac
applications.
B7.4 EWTh-X Electrode Classifications. The EWTh-X electrodes are tungsten electrodes containing thorium oxide,
referred to as thoria. The thoria in all classes is responsible for increasing the usable life of these electrodes over the
EWP electrodes because of their higher electron emission, better arc starting and arc stability. They generally have
longer life and provide greater resistance to tungsten contamination of the weld.
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
15
SAFETY NOTE
Thoria is a low-level radioactive material. However, if welding is to be performed in confined spaces for prolonged peri-
ods of time, or if electrode grinding dust might be ingested, special precautions relative to ventilation should be consid-
ered. The user should consult appropriate safety personnel.
The following statement was developed by the International Institute of Welding (IIW) Commission VIII on Health and
Safety:
STATEMENT OF COMMISSION VIII ON HEALTH ASPECTS
IN THE USE OF THORIATED TUNGSTEN ELECTRODES
Thorium oxides are found in Thoriated Tungsten Electrodes {up to 4.2% (ISO 6848-WT 40 Electrode)}
6
. Thorium is
radioactive and may present hazards by external and internal exposure. If alternatives are technically feasible, they
should be used.
Several studies carried out on Thoriated Electrodes have shown that due to the type of radiation generated, external
radiation risksduring storage, welding, or disposal of residuesare negligible under normal conditions of use.
On the contrary, during the grinding of electrode tips there is generation of radioactive dust, with the risk of internal
exposure. Consequently, it is necessary to use local exhaust ventilation to control the dust at the source, complemented if
necessary by respiratory protective equipment. The risk of internal exposure during welding is considered negligible
since the electrode is consumed at a very slow rate.
Precautions must be taken in order to control any risks of exposure during the disposal of dust from grinding devices.
The above statement is based on a considered view of the available reports. Commission VIII will continue to keep
these aspects under review.
B7.4.1 EWTh-1 (WTh 10) Electrode Classification (Yellow). These electrodes were designed for direct current
applications. They have 0.81.2 percent of thoria content dispersed throughout their entire length. They maintain a
sharpened point well, which is desirable for welding steel. They can be used on alternating current work, but a satisfac-
tory balled end, which is desirable for the welding of nonferrous materials, is difficult to maintain.
B7.4.2 EWTh-2 (WTh 20) Electrode Classification (Red). The higher thoria content (1.72.2 percent) in the
EWTh-2 electrode causes the operating characteristic improvements to be more pronounced than in the lower thoria
content EWTh-1.
Should it be desired to use these electrodes for alternating current welding, then balling can be accomplished by briefly,
and carefully, welding with direct current electrode positive prior to welding with alternating current. During alternating
current welding, the balled end does not melt and so emission is not as good as from a liquid ball on an EWP electrode.
B7.4.3 (WTh 30) Electrode Classification (Violet). This 3% thoriated electrode has no commercial significance in
the United States.
B7.4 EWZr-X Electrode Classifications
B7.5.1 EWZr-1 (WZr 3) Electrode Classification (Brown). The EWZr-1 electrode is a tungsten electrode contain-
ing about 0.3% zirconium oxide, referred to as zirconia. This electrode is preferred for applications where tungsten con-
tamination of the weld must be minimized. This electrode performs well when used with alternating current, as it retains
a balled end during welding and has a high resistance to contamination.
B7.5.2 EWZr-8 (WZr 8) Electrode Classification (White). This 0.8% zirconiated electrode has no commercial
significance in the United States.
B7.6 EWG Electrode Classification (manufacturer may select any color not already in use). The EWG electrode
is a tungsten electrode containing an additive not specified by an existing classification. The purpose of the addition is to
affect the nature or characteristics of the arc, as defined by the manufacturer. Although no additive is specified, the man-
ufacturer must identify any specific additions and the nominal quantities added.
6
Up to 4.2% (ISO 6848-WT 40 Electrode) was deleted from ISO 6848 at the time of publishing 2004 edition, and it was never in
AWS A5.12/A5.12M.
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
16
B8. General Recommendations
These recommendations, when followed, should maintain high weld quality and promote welding economy in any spe-
cific application.
B8.1 The appropriate current (type and magnitude) should be selected for the electrode size to be used. Too great a
current will cause excessive melting, dripping, or volatilization of the electrode. A welding current which is too low to
properly heat the electrode tip may cause instability of the welding arc or inability to maintain a welding arc.
B8.2 The electrode should be properly cut and ground tapered by following the supplier's suggested procedures. Break-
ing or severing an electrode is not recommended since it may cause a jagged end or a bent electrode, which usually
results in a poorly shaped arc and excessive electrode heating.
B8.3 The electrodes should be handled carefully and kept as clean as possible. To obtain maximum cleanliness, they
should be stored in their original package until used.
B8.4 The shielding gas flow should be maintained until the electrode has cooled. When the electrodes are properly
cooled, the arc end will appear bright and polished. When improperly cooled, the end may oxidize and appear to have a
colored film which can, unless removed, adversely affect the weld quality on subsequent welds. All connections, both
gas and water, should be checked for tightness. Oxidized, discolored, or otherwise contaminated electrodes will cause
difficult arc starting and may prevent starting depending upon conditions and the arc starting method used.
B8.5 The electrode extension within the gas shielding pattern should be kept to a minimum, generally dictated by the
application and equipment. This is to ensure protection of the electrode by the gas even at low gas flow rates.
B8.6 The equipment and, in particular, the shielding gas nozzle should be kept clean and free of weld spatter. A dirty
nozzle adversely influences the gas shielding. This contributes to improper gas flow patterns and arc wandering, which
can result in poor weld quality. It may also contribute to excessive electrode consumption.
B9. Discontinued Classifications
The EWTh-3 classification was discontinued in the AWS A5.12-92 revision of this specification, as having no commer-
cial significance. For information about this classification, the user is referred to the AWS A5.12-80 revision.
B10. General Safety Considerations
B10.1 Safety and health issues and concerns are beyond the scope of this standard and, therefore, are not fully addressed
herein. Some safety and health information can be found in Annex B5. Safety and health information is available from
other sources, including but not limited to Safety and Health Fact Sheets listed in B10.3, ANSI Z49.l, and applicable
federal and state regulations.
B10.2 Safety and Health Fact Sheets. The Safety and Health Fact Sheets listed below are published by the American
Welding Society (AWS). They may be downloaded and printed directly from the AWS website at http://www.aws.org.
The Safety and Health Fact Sheets are revised and additional sheets added periodically.
B10.3 AWS Safety and Health Fact Sheets Index (SHF)
7
No. Title
1 Fumes and Gases
2 Radiation
3 Noise
4 Chromium and Nickel in Welding Fume
7
AWS standards are published by the American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126.
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
17
No. Title
5 Electrical Hazards
6 Fire and Explosion Prevention
7 Burn Protection
8 Mechanical Hazards
9 Tripping and Falling
10 Falling Objects
11 Confined Spaces
12 Contact Lens Wear
13 Ergonomics in the Welding Environment
14 Graphic Symbols for Precautionary Labels
15 Style Guidelines for Safety and Health Documents
16 Pacemakers and Welding
17 Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF)
18 Lockout/Tagout
19 Laser Welding and Cutting Safety
20 Thermal Spraying Safety
21 Resistance Spot Welding
22 Cadmium Exposure from Welding & Allied Processes
23 California Proposition 65
24 Fluxes for Arc Welding and Brazing: Safe Handling and Use
25 Metal Fume Fever
26 Arc Viewing Distance
27 Thoriated Tungsten Electrodes
28 Oxyfuel Safety: Check Valves and Flashback Arrestors
29 Grounding of Portable and Vehicle Mounted Welding Generators
30 Cylinders: Safe Storage, Handling, and Use
31 Eye and Face Protection for Welding and Cutting Operations
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AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
18
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
19
C1. Introduction
The American Welding Society (AWS) Board of Directors has adopted a policy whereby all official interpretations of
AWS standards are handled in a formal manner. Under this policy, all interpretations are made by the committee that is
responsible for the standard. Official communication concerning an interpretation is directed through the AWS staff
member who works with that committee. The policy requires that all requests for an interpretation be submitted in writing.
Such requests will be handled as expeditiously as possible, but due to the complexity of the work and the procedures that
must be followed, some interpretations may require considerable time.
C2. Procedure
All inquiries shall be directed to:
Managing Director
Technical Services Division
American Welding Society
550 N.W. LeJeune Road
Miami, FL 33126
All inquiries shall contain the name, address, and affiliation of the inquirer, and they shall provide enough information
for the committee to understand the point of concern in the inquiry. When the point is not clearly defined, the inquiry
will be returned for clarification. For efficient handling, all inquiries should be typewritten and in the format specified
below.
C2.1 Scope. Each inquiry shall address one single provision of the standard unless the point of the inquiry involves two
or more interrelated provisions. The provision(s) shall be identified in the scope of the inquiry along with the edition of
the standard that contains the provision(s) the inquirer is addressing.
C2.2 Purpose of the Inquiry. The purpose of the inquiry shall be stated in this portion of the inquiry. The purpose can be
to obtain an interpretation of a standards requirement or to request the revision of a particular provision in the standard.
C2.3 Content of the Inquiry. The inquiry should be concise, yet complete, to enable the committee to understand the
point of the inquiry. Sketches should be used whenever appropriate, and all paragraphs, figures, and tables (or annex)
that bear on the inquiry shall be cited. If the point of the inquiry is to obtain a revision of the standard, the inquiry shall
provide technical justification for that revision.
C2.4 Proposed Reply. The inquirer should, as a proposed reply, state an interpretation of the provision that is the point
of the inquiry or provide the wording for a proposed revision, if this is what the inquirer seeks.
Annex C (Informative)
Guidelines for the Preparation of Technical Inquiries
This annex is not part of AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004), Specification for Tungsten and Oxide
Dispersed Tungsten Electrodes for Arc Welding and Cutting, but is included for informational purposes only.
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
20
C3. Interpretation of Provisions of the Standard
Interpretations of provisions of the standard are made by the relevant AWS technical committee. The secretary of the
committee refers all inquiries to the chair of the particular subcommittee that has jurisdiction over the portion of the
standard addressed by the inquiry. The subcommittee reviews the inquiry and the proposed reply to determine what the
response to the inquiry should be. Following the subcommittees development of the response, the inquiry and the
response are presented to the entire committee for review and approval. Upon approval by the committee, the interpretation
is an official interpretation of the Society, and the secretary transmits the response to the inquirer and to the Welding
Journal for publication.
C4. Publication of Interpretations
All official interpretations will appear in the Welding Journal and will be posted on the AWS web site.
C5. Telephone Inquiries
Telephone inquiries to AWS Headquarters concerning AWS standards should be limited to questions of a general nature
or to matters directly related to the use of the standard. The AWS Board of Directors policy requires that all AWS staff
members respond to a telephone request for an official interpretation of any AWS standard with the information that such
an interpretation can be obtained only through a written request. Headquarters staff cannot provide consulting services.
However, the staff can refer a caller to any of those consultants whose names are on file at AWS Headquarters.
C6. AWS Technical Committees
The activities of AWS technical committees regarding interpretations are limited strictly to the interpretation of provisions
of standards prepared by the committees or to consideration of revisions to existing provisions on the basis of new data
or technology. Neither AWS staff nor the committees are in a position to offer interpretive or consulting services on (1)
specific engineering problems, (2) requirements of standards applied to fabrications outside the scope of the document,
or (3) points not specifically covered by the standard. In such cases, the inquirer should seek assistance from a competent
engineer experienced in the particular field of interest.
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
21
Changed title to Specification for Tungsten and Oxide Dispersed Tungsten Electrodes for Arc Welding and Cutting
globally
Changed International Standard to Standard at several places
1. Scope: Added separate paragraph saying, This specification makes use of both International System of Units (SI)
and the U.S. Customary Units. The measurements are not exact equivalent; therefore, each system must be used indepen-
dently of the other without combining in any way when referring to material properties. The specification designated
A5.12M uses SI Units; and the specification designated A5.12 uses U.S. Customary Units. The later units are shown
within brackets [ ] or in appropriate columns in tables and figures. Standard dimensions based on either system may be
used for sizing of filler metal or packaging or both under A5.12M or A5.12 specification.
2. Normative references: Added additional normative references as below:
AWS A5.01M:A5.01 (ISO 14344 MOD), Procurement Guidelines for ConsumablesWelding and Allied Process
Flux and Gas Shielded Electrical Welding Process
8
ASTM F 288, Specification for Tungsten Wire for Electron Devices and Lamps
9
ASTM E 29, Standard Practice for using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
ANSI Z49.1, Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes
10
ISO 31-0:1992, Annex B, Rule A
11
3. Classification: Numbered first sentence as 3.3; and added subclauses 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5
4. Changed Clause 4:
Was: 4 Symbols and requirements
Symbol for the product/process
The symbol for gas shielded tungsten arc processes is the letter W.
8
AWS standards are published by the American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126.
9
ASTM standards are published by the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA
19428.
10
This standard is published by the American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126.
11
ISO standards are published by the International Organization for standardization, 1 rue de Varemb, Case postale 56, CH-1211
Geneva 20, Switzerland.
Annex D (Informative)
List of Deviations from ISO 6848:2004
This annex is not part of AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004), Specification for Tungsten and Oxide
Dispersed Tungsten Electrodes for Arc Welding and Cutting, but is included for informational purposes only.
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
22
Symbol for the chemical composition
The symbol for the chemical composition of the tungsten electrode is the chemical symbol for the principal oxide addi-
tive followed by digits indicating the nominal mass percent of the oxide additive multiplied by 10. If there is no additive,
the symbol is the letter P. Table 1 lists the composition requirements.
4. Symbols and requirements: Replaced Clause 4 explaining ISO 6848 classification designation scheme with a clause
on acceptance based on ANSI/AWS A5.12/A5.12M-98.
5. Chemical analysis: Added The referee method shall be ASTM F 288 Specification for Tungsten Wire for Electron
Devices and Lamps. The results of the analysis shall meet the requirements of Table 1 for the classification of electrode
under test.
7. Marking: Added conversion of 3 mm to [1/8 in]. Added Such color coding shall have no adverse effect on the
operation or use of the electrode.
Table 1: Put ISO symbols in parentheses and added AWS designations. Added EWG classification. Corrected web
address.
Added Note:
1. Intentional additions of doping oxides other than indicated for a particular electrode classification is prohibited
in Table 1.
8. Standard sizes and tolerances:
Combined subclause 8.1 Electrode diameters and subclause 8.2 Electrode lengths into subclause 8.1 Electrode diame-
ters, lengths, and tolerances.
Combined Tables 2 and 3 into one Table 2 and added sizes in US Customary Units. Changed tolerance for 2.4 mm diam-
eter size and 2.5 mm diameter size from 0.1 mm to 0.08 mm.
Added subclause 8.2 Finish.
Replaced ambiguous 8.3 Electrode straightness text with language and illustration from ANSI/AWS A5.12/A5.12M-98. It
was Electrodes shall not deviate straight by more than 0.5 mm over any 100 mm of length or less.
Added subclause 8.4 Electrode Roundness.
9. Rounding-off procedure: Added reference to ASTM E 29, Standard Practice for using Significant Digits in Test Data
to Determine Conformance With Specifications.
11.1 Marking of packages: Changed item a) to read number of this Standard, i.e., AWS A5.12 (ISO 6848):2008;
Added subclauses 11.3 Marking of overpacking and 11.4 Warning label.
Table A.1: Added [3/32 in] after 2.5 mm in first and second rows.
Changed Non-alloy steels to Non-alloy (carbon) steels
Table A.2: Added note a.
Added Additional Informative National Annexes B, C, and D.
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
23
AWS Filler Metal Specifications by Material and Welding Process
OFW SMAW
GTAW
GMAW
PAW FCAW SAW ESW EGW Brazing
Carbon Steel A5.20 A5.10 A5.18 A5.20 A5.17 A5.25 A5.26 A5.8, A5.31
Low-Alloy Steel A5.20 A5.50 A5.28 A5.29 A5.23 A5.25 A5.26 A5.8, A5.31
Stainless Steel A5.40 A5.9, A5.22 A5.22 A5.90 A5.90 A5.90 A5.8, A5.31
Cast Iron A5.15 A5.15 A5.15 A5.15 A5.8, A5.31
Nickel Alloys A5.11 A5.14 A5.34 A5.14 A5.14 A5.8, A5.31
Aluminum Alloys A5.30 A5.10 A5.8, A5.31
Copper Alloys A5.60 A5.70 A5.8, A5.31
Titanium Alloys A5.16 A5.8, A5.31
Zirconium Alloys A5.24 A5.8, A5.31
Magnesium Alloys A5.19 A5.8, A5.31
Tungsten Electrodes A5.12
Brazing Alloys and Fluxes A5.8, A5.31
Surfacing Alloys A5.21 A5.13 A5.21 A5.21 A5.21
Consumable Inserts A5.30
Shielding Gases A5.32 A5.32 A5.32
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AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
24
AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
25
AWS Filler Metal Specifications and Related Documents
Designation Title
FMC Filler Metal Comparison Charts
IFS International Index of Welding Filler Metal Classifications
UGFM Users Guide to Filler Metals
A4.2M (ISO 8249:
2000 MOD)
Standard Procedures for Calibrating Magnetic Instruments to Measure the Delta Ferrite Content of Austenitic
and Duplex Ferritic-Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metal
A4.3 Standard Methods for Determination of the Diffusible Hydrogen Content of Martensitic, Bainitic, and Ferritic
Steel Weld Metal Produced by Arc Welding
A4.4M Standard Procedures for Determination of Moisture Content of Welding Fluxes and Welding Electrode Flux Coverings
A5.01M/A5.01 (ISO
14344:2002 MOD)
Procurement Guidelines for ConsumablesWelding and Allied ProcessesFlux and Gas Shielded Electrical
Welding Processes
A5.02/A5.02M Specification for Filler Metal Standard Sizes, Packaging, and Physical Attributes
A5.1/A5.1M Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
A5.2/A5.2M Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Rods for Oxyfuel Gas Welding
A5.3/A5.3M Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
A5.4/A5.4M Specification for Stainless Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
A5.5/A5.5M Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
A5.6/A5.6M Specification for Copper and Copper-Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
A5.7/A5.7M Specification for Copper and Copper-Alloy Bare Welding Rods and Electrodes
A5.8/A5.8M Specification for Filler Metals for Brazing and Braze Welding
A5.9/A5.9M Specification for Bare Stainless Steel Welding Electrodes and Rods
A5.10/A5.10M Specification for Bare Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods
A5.11/A5.11M Specification for Nickel and Nickel-Alloy Welding Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
A5.12M/A5.12 (ISO
6848:2004 MOD)
Specification for Tungsten and Oxide Dispersed Tungsten Electrodes for Arc Welding and Cutting
A5.13 Specification for Surfacing Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
A5.14/A5.14M Specification for Nickel and Nickel-Alloy Bare Welding Electrodes and Rods
A5.15 Specification for Welding Electrodes and Rods for Cast Iron
A5.16/A5.16M Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods
A5.17/A5.17M Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding
A5.18/A5.18M Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc Welding
A5.19 Specification for Magnesium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods
A5.20/A5.20M Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding
A5.21 Specification for Bare Electrodes and Rods for Surfacing
A5.22 Specification for Stainless Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding and Stainless Steel Flux Cored Rods for
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
A5.23/A5.23M Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding
A5.24/A5.24M Specification for Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods
A5.25/A5.25M Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Electroslag Welding
A5.26/A5.26M Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Electrogas Welding
A5.28/A5.28M Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc Welding
A5.29/A5.29M Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding
A5.30/A5.30M Specification for Consumable Inserts
A5.31 Specification for Fluxes for Brazing and Braze Welding
A5.32/A5.32M Specification for Welding Shielding Gases
A5.34/A5.34M Specification for Nickel-Alloy Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding
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AWS A5.12M/A5.12:2009 (ISO 6848:2004 MOD)
26