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SXH

TM
- Coating

A solution for hydro-abrasive erosion
www.andritz.com
02 SXH
TM
- Coating for hydropower plants
The Reason
Hydro-abrasive erosion is dependant of
the particle parameters (concentration,
mineral composition, particle size dis-
tribution and shape) and on the turbine
and operation parameters. The particle
parameters are dependant on the water
source. Rivers in relative young geological
formation have a high particle load during
the monsoon season or the snow melt-
ing period. In addition, the abrasiveness
of these particles highly depends on the
constitution of the rocks in the catchment
area, so that these particles can be mainly
hard particles like quartz, magnetite, feld-
spar and zircon. In addition, based on the
geography, hydro power plants have often
no extensive reservoir in which a substan-
tial sedimentation can take place, but are
run-of-the-river hydro power plants.
The Cause
Hydro-abrasive erosion due to high con-
centration of hard particles results in high
revenue losses due to productivity losses,
effciency reduction, repair work and out-
age times. The damages can be so high
that the mechanical integrity of the tur-
bines is not given anymore, which could
lead to severe accidents.
SXH
TM
- Coating for hydropower plants 03
The Objective
SXH
TM
are coatings by ANDRITZ HYDRO
to signifcantly reduce the damages due
to hydro-abrasive erosion.
SXH
TM
70 and SXH
TM
7X:
Type: WC-CoCr Coatings
Micro hardness: 900-1200HV0.3
Adhesive strength: min 70 MPa
Roughness:

as sprayed: 4.5-8mm
polished: 0.5-1.2mm
The Solutions
Pelton
(1)
since 1996
199 runner
> 1,650 needles and mouthpiece
> 300 other components
(1)
- all fgures by 12/2010
The objective is to realize long opera-
tion time with high effciency. This is to
help the customer to achieve his aim of
maximising the productivity, reducing the
down time and achieving a high reliability
Wear Theory
&
-Models
Material science
Communication
network
R&D on coating
Practical
Experience
Customer
Feedback
Prototype testing
Coating know-how
Hydraulic
know-how
Customers objective:
high effcency and
long operation time
of the energy production.
This is only possible by interdisciplinary
collaboration as many factors play a sig-
nifcant role. Based on the R&D in differ-
ent felds, know-how can be build up. But
Francis/Kaplan
(1)
since 1996
198 runner
> 1,800 guide vanes
> 280 labyrinths
(1)
- all fgures by 12/2010
without the help of customers for proto-
type testing and also feedback, a devel-
opment is not possible.
04 SXH
TM
- Coating for hydropower plants
Beneft
Higher productivity due to a much
smaller decrease in effciency over a
longer period
Increase of operation time between two
overhauls
Reduction of overhaul period due to
less welding
Nearly no risk of subsequent damages
due to hydro-abrasive erosion
1992/93 uncoated,
X5CrNi13-4 1600kg
welding material
2000/01 SXH
TM
70
coated 400kg welding
material
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
00 20.000 40.000 60.000 80.000
Turbined particle load, t
new hydraulic design
Loss in revenue
(production loss and repair)
Amount of particles
Pelton Turbine - Alfalfal
Turbined particle load, t
M
a
x
.

p
o
s
s
i
b
l
e

p
o
w
e
r
,

M
W
SXH
TM
- Coating for hydropower plants 05
Calculation and Theory
Research and Development
Thanks to the close collaboration with
customers, ANDRITZ HYDRO has exten-
sive knowledge of the performance of the
SXH
TM
-coating in operation. Due to this, the
damage progression has been analysed
and the areas where an improvement would
make a high impact on the operation (TBO,
effciency) are known.
Based on the needs of the customers to
achieve their aim for a high productivity,
the following research targets have been
decided:
In general, new coatings with an in-
creased TBO (time between overhaul
will be developed.
The stability of the splitter of Pelton run-
ners is a main critical area determining
the TBO (time between overhaul). The
development in 2009 showed already
an enhancement but further reseach
will aim at a further increase.
We invest for your success!
A formula for the direct calculation of the
amount of wear is under development and
already exists for Francis components.
ANDRITZ HYDRO developed the refer-
ence model (Index model) in which power
plants are compared to a reference proto-
type from which all major parameters are
known.
Major parameters are:
the particle parameters like concentra-
tion, mineral composition etc.
the turbine parameters like design and
operation data etc.
The comparison calculates from the
known TBO (time between overhaul) from
the reference turbine the expected TBO
of the compared turbine, given therefore
information about the necessity of a coat-
ing and information to the customer how
to plan his overhaul concept.
The fgure to the right shows a compari-
son of the TBO between different power
houses but also the infuence of differ-
ent parameters can be evaluated: HPP 1
In small Francis runners the space is
limited. Due to this, hard coating is nor-
mally only possible in certain areas of
the runner. A polymer coating is a solu-
tion for these cases.
shows the different turbines in an operat-
ing powerhouse; HPP 2 shows the infu-
ence of different nozzle numbers; HPP 3
of different particle concentrations and
HPP 4 for 3 different designs for the same
HPP. The model is part of the IEC guideline
for hydro-abrasive erosion.
06 SXH
TM
- Coating for hydropower plants
New Developments
Fully coated Francis runners
New fully coated Francis runner with coat-
ing of the whole waterpassage and laby-
rinth by a robot.
Nathpa Jhakri, India
Karcham Wangtoo, India
Damages after one year of operation are
on a fully coated runner very small com-
pared to the uncoated runner. Nearly no
effciency losses occur due to these small
damages.
Coated:
After 1 year of operation
Uncoated:
After 1 year of operation
SXH
TM
- Coating for hydropower plants 07
SXH
TM
7X - Stabilised splitter for Pelton runner
For Pelton runners with high hydro-abra-
sive erosion, the splitter is usually worn
away frst and is the main reason for a
necessary overhaul. Due to this problem,
ANDRITZ HYDRO started a research pro-
gram in 2009 to enhance the stability of
the splitter.
SXH
TM
70 - worldwide Standard SXH
TM
7X - 20% higher TBO
Pelton runner with SXH
TM
7X
Uncoated
A new process was developed for this
stabilisation. In collaboration with a cu-
stomer this new coating was tested in a
prototype test. One runner with uncoated
buckets and with buckets coated with the
standard SXH
TM
70 as well as with the new
SXH
TM
7X was tested simultaneously.
A 20% improvement of the new coating to
the standard SXH
TM
70 coating was found.
Further runners with this new coating are
in operation since the beginning of 2010
and frst inspections show excellent re-
sults.
08 SXH
TM
- Coating for hydropower plants
ANDRITZ HYDRO AG
Obernauerstrasse 4
6010 Kriens, Switzerland
Phone: +41 (41) 3295111
Fax: +41 (41) 3295152
E-Mail: contact-hydro.ch@andritz.com AH.COATING.01.en02.11
Canada: 36
USA: 2
Mexico: 12
Guatemala: 54
Costa Rica: 4
Venecuela: 62
Colombia: 192
Ecuador: 62
Peru: 137
Chile: 1002
Figures present the number of coated parts by ANDRITZ HYDRO.
Coating workshops of ANDRITZ HYDRO and subsuppliers:
- Switzerland (Center of Competence)
- India
- Chile
- Brazil
(1)
- all fgures by 12/2010
Madagascar: 24
China: 73
Nepal: 4
India: 526
Laos: 2
Philippines: 8
Norway: 51
Germany: 1
France: 33
Austria: 75
Romania: 6
Italy: 32
Portugal: 40
Andorra: 16
Bulgaria: 32
Azoren: 8
Pelton
runners
Francis
runners
Kaplan
runners
other parts
199 194 4 4660
Switzerland: 2567
Coated parts by ANDRITZ HYDRO