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Lecia 4: Adverbul

Adverbele sunt cuvinte care ne spun mai multe despre cum , unde, cnd, ct de
frecvent sau n ce msura are loc o actiune.
4.1. Functia adverbelor
Astfel, adverbele determina n general verbe:
Ex.: The bus moved slowly. (cum?)
I am going home tomorrow. (cnd?)
Adverbele pot determina si adjective: You look absolutely fabulous!
au alte adverbe: She plaed the violin extremely !ell. You"re speaking too
#uietl.
au c!iar propo"itii intregi: $erhaps !e"ll see ou again ne%t ear.
4.2. Forma adverbelor
4.2.1. Adverbele se formea"a de cele mai multe ori prin adaugarea unui -ly la
forma de singular a adjectivului:
Adjectiv Adverb
(Adjectiv #
l$)
Exemple
careful carefull &e carefull picked up a tie.
#uick #uickl Time goes #uickl.
slo! slo!l &e !alked slo!l to the door.
%odificari ortografice:
Daca adjectivul se termina in -y, acesta se va inlocui cu -i + -ly.
Ex.: eas ' easil, angr ' angril, luck ' luckil
Cnd avem un -le terminal (-able, -ible, -le, dispare -e si este
inlocuit cu -y.
Ex.: probable ' probabl, terrible ' terribl, gentle ' gentl
Adjectivele terminate in -ic adau!a -ally.
Ex.: basic ' basicall, economic ' economicall, tragic ' tragicall
Exceptie: public ' publicl
Forme nere!ulate
Ex.: true ' trul, due ' dul, !hole ' !holl
4.2.2. &nele adverbe au aceeasi forma ca si adjectivele:
Ex.: earl, fast, hard, high, late, near, straight, !rong
'ompara:
This is a hard e%ercise. (adjectiv)
&e !orks hard. (adverb)
(e sa! man high buildings. (adjectiv)
The bird fle! high in the sk. (adverb)
4.2.". &nor adjective le corespund doua forme adverbiale, care au sensuri
diferite:
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Adjectiv Forme
adverbiale
Exemple
deep ). deep
*. deepl
&e looked deep into her ees. (adanc)
She is deeply in love. (profund, pna
peste cap)
direct ). direct
*. directl
You can dial +e! York direct. (n mod
direct)
&e !ent there directly. (direct, fara
ntr"iere)
first ). first
*. firstl
, mother came in first, then m
brothers and sisters. (nti)
Firstly, I !ould like to !elcome ou
here. (n primul rnd)
Alte exemple: hard, light, -ust, last, late, most, near, prett, right, round, short,
!rong.

#ell $ %ood
(ell este adverbul care corespunde formei adjectivale good.
The are good s!immers.
The s!im well.
She is a good pianist.
She plas the piano well.
4.". %radele de comparatie ale adverbelor
Adverbele formea"a comparativul si superlativul la fel ca si adjectivele (ve"i: ../.
0radele de comparatie ale ad-ectivelor):
Adauga -er pentru comparativ si -est pentru superlativ la adverbele dintr(o
singura silaba: hard ' harder ' hardest
Adauga more pentru comparativ si most pentru superlativ la adverbele
formate din doua sau mai multe silabe si la cele terminate in 'l: seriousl
' more seriousl ' most seriousl
&nele adverbe au forme neregulate la comparativ si superlativ: badl '
!orse ' !orst, little ' less ' least, !ell ' better ' best, much ' more ' most
)e retinut* &neori most poate avea sensul de very'
(e !ere most grateful for our help.
I am most impressed b this application.
4.4. Clasi(icarea adverbelor
+. Adverbe de mod
,. Adverbe de loc si directie
-. Adverbe de timp, durata si frecventa
.. Adverbe de probabilitate
/. Adverbe de grad
4.4.1. Adverbe de mod
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Adverbele de mod ne arata cum, in ce mod are loc o actiune. Ele se asea"a in
propo"itie dupa verb sau dupa complementul acestuia.
Exemple:
&e s!ims !ell. (dupa verb)
&e ran... rapidl, slo!l, #uickl.
She spoke... softl, loudl, aggressivel.
1ames coughed loudl to attract her attention.
&e plas the flute beautifull. (dupa complement)
&e ate the chocolate cake greedil.

1. Adverbul de mod nu se asea"a ntre verb si complement:
0ncorect: &e ate greedily the chocolate cake.
'orect: &e ate the chocolate cake greedily.
2. 1o"itia adverbului n propo"itie este foarte importanta mai
ales atunci cnd exista mai multe verbe n propo"itie. )aca adverbul este
ase"at dupa o propo"itie, atunci acesta modifica ntregul sens exprimat n
propo"itie.
2bserva diferentele de sens n functie de locul adverbului n propo"itie:
&e quietly asked me to leave the house. (3 cererea lui a fost facuta n
liniste)
&e asked me to leave the house quietly. (3 plecarea a fost facuta n
liniste)
4.4.2. Adverbe de loc si directie
4e arata unde are loc actiunea verbului. e asea"a in general dupa verbul
principal sau complementul sau.
Exemple:
)upa verb:
I looked ever!here.
1ohn looked ...a!a, up, do!n, around...
I"m going ...home, out, back...
)upa complement:
The built a house nearb.
She took the child outside.
A. Here / there. 'u verbe de miscare, here exprima ideea de nspre5 cu 5
mpreuna cu vorbitorul, iar there contrariul, departe, fara participarea
vorbitorului:
Ex.: 2ome here (3 spre mine)
It"s in here (3 vino impreuna cu mine sa ve"i)
$ut it there (3 departe de mine)
It"s in there (3 du(te singur sa ve"i)
Expresii cu here/ there: do!n here, do!n there, over here, over there, under
here, under there, up here, up there.
). Adverbele de loc terminate *n -wards ( exprima ideea de miscare ntr(o
anumita directie:
Ex.: back!ards, for!ards, do!n!ards, up!ards, in!ards, out!ards, north!ards,
south!ards, east!ards, !est!ards, home!ards, on!ards.
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2ats don"t usuall !alk back!ards.
The ship sailed !est!ards.
)e retinut* 6o7ards este prepo"itie, nu adverb, astfel nct va fi ntotdeauna
urmat de un substantiv sau pronume:
Ex.: &e !alked to!ards the car. She ran to!ards me.
C. Adverbe care exprima att locul ct si directia: ahead, abroad, overseas,
uphill, do!nhill, side!as, indoors, outdoors.
4.4.". Adverbe de timp, durata si (recventa
Arata cand a avut loc o actiune dar si durata sau frecventa actiunii.
Ex.:
'nd: toda, esterda, later, no!, last ear
)urata, pentru ct timp: all da, not long, for a !hile, since last ear
't de frecvent: sometimes, fre#uentl, never, often, earl
)e obicei, adverbele de timp se asea"a la sfrsitul propo"itiei sau emfatic, la
nceputul ei:
Ex.: 3ne of m children !rote to me esterda.
4ater the bo understood the stor.
Adverbele care indica durata se asea"a la sfarsitul propo"itiei:
Ex.: She staed in the house all da.
, mother lived in 5rance for a ear.
)e retinut* For este intotdeauna urmat de o expresie de durata: for three das,
for a !eek, for several ears, for t!o centuries.
Since este intotdeauna urmat expresia unui moment punctual n timp: since
,onda, since )667, since the last !ar.
Adverbele de frecventa exprima frecventa unei actiuni si se asea"a de obicei in
fata verbului principal, dar dupa verbele auxiliare (cum ar fi be, have, ma,
must):
I often eat vegetarian food. (in fata verbului principal)
You must al!as fasten our seat belt. (dupa verbul auxiliar must)
I have never forgotten m first kiss. (dupa verbul auxiliar !ave si in fata
verbului principal forgotten)
&nele adverbe de frecventa exprima regularitatea incidentei unei actiuni si se
plasea"a la sfarsitul prepo"itiei:
This maga8ine is published monthl.
&e visits his mother once a !eek.
Adverbe de fecventa: fre#uentl, generall, normall, occasionall, often,
regularl, sometimes, usuall.
)e retinut* et se foloseste in propo"itii interogative sau negative:
&ave ou finished our !ork et9 +o, not et.
The haven"t met him et.
Still exprima ideea de continuitate. e foloseste in propo"itii po"itive sau
interogative.
I am still hungr.
:o ou still !ork for the ;;29
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+rdinea adverbelor de timp
)aca este nevoie de mai multe adverbe de timp in aceeasi propo"itie ordinea lor
va fi:
+rdinea Exemple
+: adverbe de
durata
,: adverbe de
frecventa
-: adverbe de timp
! + " < I !ork =)> for five hours =*> ever
da.
" + # < The maga8ine !as published =*>
!eekl =.> last ear.
! + # < I !as abroad =)> for t!o months =.>
last ear.
! + " + # < She !orked in a hospital =)> for
t!o das =*> ever !eek =.> last ear.
4.4.4. Adverbe de si!uranta si probabilitate
Acestea exprima cat de sigur este vorbitorul de actiunea sau evenimentul pe care
il relatea"a: certainl, definitel, probabl, undoubtedl, surel, mabe,
obviousl, perhaps, possibl, reall. e asea"a in propo"itie intre verbul auxiliar
si verbul principal.
Ex.: &e has certainly forgotten the meeting.
1entru o formulare emfatica sau o reliefare a afirmatiilor, se asea"a n debutul
fra"ei:
Ex.: $ndoubtedly, (inston 2hurchill !as a great politician.
)e retinut* Surely ase"at la inceputul propo"itiei inseamna ca vorbitorul este
convins de adevarul unei afirmatii, dar incearca sa obtina o confirmare: Surel
ou"ve got a biccle9
4.4.,. Adverbe de !rad
Aceastea exprima intensitatea sau gradul de indeplinire a actiunii unui verb,
adjectiv sau adverb: almost, nearl, #uite, -ust, too, enough, hardl, scarcel,
completel, ver, e%tremel.
8ocul lor in propo"itie este fie in fata adjectivului sau adverbului pe care il
determina, fie in fata verbului principal:
Ex.: The !ater !as extremely cold.
&e !as %ust leaving.
She has almost finished.
&nough, very, too
?nough inseamna 9pana la punctul necesar pentru a...9 si se plasea"a dupa
adjectiv sau adverb:
Is our coffee hot enough9 (adjectiv)
&e didn"t !ork hard enough. (adverb)
Too 3 9mai mult decat este necesar pentru...9 si se asea"a in fata adjectivului
sau adverbului:
This coffee is too hot. (adjective)
&e !orks too hard. (adverb)
@er intareste sensul unui adjectiv sau adverb si se asea"a in fata acestora:
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The girl !as ver beautiful. (adjectiv)
&e !orked ver #uickl. (adverb)
)e retinut* Exista o diferenta importanta intre too si ver:
'ery exprima un fapt: &e speaks ver #uickl.
(oo sugerea"a existenta unei probleme: &e speaks too #uickl =for me to
understand>.
Alte adverbe asemanatoare lui very: e%tremel, especiall, particularl, prett,
rather, #uite, fairl, rather, not especiall, not particularl.

1. Ale!e adjectivul sau adverbul din parante-a pentru a
completa corect (iecare perec.e de propo-itii'
a. It"s an AAA #uestion. You should be able to ans!er it #uite
AAA. (eas$5 easil$)
b. I can tpe a bit but I"m ver AAA . I"m afraid I can onl tpe ver AAA.
(slo75 slo7l$)
c. ,r Bobbins shouted AAA at the children. The children made ,r Bobbins
ver AAA. (angr$5 angril$)
d. ,ar sang AAA at the concert last night. She sang a AAAA song at the
concert last night. (beautiful5 beautifull$)
e. (hat !as !rong !ith ;ill9 &e looked ver AAA . ;ill shook his head AAA.
(sad5 sadl$)
2. Completea-a urmatoarele propo-itii cu ago, since, sau for'
a. 2olumbus discovered Cmerica about si% hundred ears AAA.
b. 0hana has been an independent countr AAA )6/7.
c. Bussia has been a republic AAA over sevent ears.
d. 3%ford has been a center of learning AAA more than a thousand ears.
e. ,ost ;ritish universities !ere founded less than fift ears AAA.
". Completea-a urmatoarele propo-itii cu' still, yet, already, any
longer, any more.
a. 1ohn doesn"t live in 4ondon AAA . &e"s moved to ;ristol.
b. The children haven"t gone to bed AAA . The"re AAA !atching television.
c. ' Is Cnne AAA here9 ' +o, she has AAA left.
d. ;eck hasn"t gone to universit AAA. She"s AAAA at school.
e. &ave ou started our ne! -ob AAA or are ou AAA !orking in 4ondon9
(. Thanks for our help. I !on"t trouble ou AAA.
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