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Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs)

-
Introduction and basic properties
Standard textbook:
- Heinz Raether, SurfacePlasmonson Smoothand RoughSurfacesand on Gratings
Springer Tractsin Modern Physics, Vol. 111, Springer Berlin 1988
Overviewarticleson Plasmonics:
- A. Zayats, I. Smolyaninov, J ournal of OpticsA: Pure and AppliedOptics5, S16 (2003)
- A. Zayats, et. al., PhysicsReports 408, 131-414 (2005)
- W.L.Barneset. al., Nature424, 825(2003)
- Overview
- Light-matter interaction
- SPP dispersion and properties
Elementary excitations and polaritons
Elementary excitations and polaritons
Elementary excitations:
Phonons (lattice vibrations)
Plasmons (collective electron oscillations)
Excitions (bound state between an excited electron and a hole)
Polaritons:
Commonly called coupled state between an elementary excitation and a photon
= light-matter interaction
Plasmon polariton: coupled state between a plasmon and a photon.
Phonon polariton: coupled state between a phonon and a photon.
free electrons in metal are treated as an electron liquid of high density
longitudinal density fluctuations (plasma oscillations) at eigenfrequency
quanta of volume plasmons have energy , in the order 10eV
propagate through the volume for frequencies
0
2
4
m
ne
p

h h =
Volume plasmon polaritons
3 23
cm 10

n
Surface plasmon polaritons
Plasmons
Plasmons
Maxells theory shows that EM surface waves can propagate also along a metallic
surface with a broad spectrumof eigen frequencies
from = 0 up to
2
p
=
Particle (localized) plasmon polaritons
p
>
p

2
p

3
p

++ -- ++ -- ++ --
+ + + +
+
+ +
-
- -
Bulk
metal
Metal
surface
Metal sphere
localized SPPs
Plasmon resonance positions in vacuum
Plasmon resonance positions in vacuum
0 =
1 =
2 =
drude
model
- - - -
drude
model
Surface Plasmon Photonics
Surface Plasmon Photonics
Optical technology using
- propagating surface plasmon polaritons
- localized plasmon polaritons
Topics include:
Localized resonances/ - nanoscopic particles
local field enhancement - near-field tips
Propagation and guiding - photonic devices
- near-field probes
Enhanced transmission - aperture probes
- filters
Negative index of refraction - perfect lens
and metamaterials
SERS/TERS - surface/tip enhanced Raman scattering
Molecules and - enhanced fluoresence
quantumdots
Also called:
Plasmonics
Plasmon photonics
Plasmon optics
Nanophotonics using plasmonic circuits
Nanophotonics using plasmonic circuits
Atwater et.al., MRS Bulletin 30, No. 5 (2005)
Proposal by Takahara et. al. 1997
Metal nanowire
Diameter <<
Proposal by Quinten et. al. 1998
Chain of metal nanoparticles
Diameter and spacing <<
First experimental observation by
Maier et. al. 2003
h
h
Nanoscale plasmon waveguides
Subwavelength-scale plasmon waveguides
Subwavelength-scale plasmon waveguides
Krenn, Aussenegg, Physik J ournal 1 (2002) Nr. 3
Some applications of plasmon resonant nanoparticles
Some applications of plasmon resonant nanoparticles
SNOM probes
Sensors
Nanoscopic waveguides for light
Surface enhanced
Raman scattering (SERS)
T. Kalkbrenner et.al., J . Microsc. 202, 72 (2001)
S.A. Maier et.al., Nature Materials 2, 229 (2003)
EM waves in matter
Lorenz oscillator
Isolators, Phonon polaritons
Metals, Plasmon polaritons
Light-matter interactions in solids
Literature:
- C.F.Bohren, D.R.Huffman, Absorption and scattering of light by small particles
- K.Kopitzki, Einfhrung in die Festkrperphysik
- C.Kittel, Einfhrung in die Festkrperphysik
EM-waves in matter (linear media) - definitions
EM-waves in matter (linear media) - definitions
lity suszeptibi with
0
E P =
( ) E E P E D
0 0 0
1 = + = + =
+ 1 =

+

= i
= i n N + =


n
n
2

2 2
=

+ =

Polarization
Electric displacement
Complex dielectric function
Complex refractive index
Relationship between N and
k k ( ) =

2
c
2

() and thus k = k + ik are complex numbers!


( ) ( ) r k r k kr
E E E

= = e e e
t i t i
0 0
propagating wave
exponential decay of amplitude
E = E
0
e
i kr t ( )
B = B
0
e
i kr t
( )
wavevector k =
2

frequency = 2f
k
n
c
k
c
= =

Dispersion in transparent media without absorption:


>0
k and are real
Dispersion generally:
EM-waves in matter (linear media) - dispersion
EM-waves in matter (linear media) - dispersion
Harmonic oscillator (Lorentz) model
Harmonic oscillator (Lorentz) model

0
t i
e e e K b m

0
E E x x x = = + + & & &

0
0
E p P
E x p


= =
= =
N
e



i
p

+ = + =
2 2
0
2
1 1
m
e
Ae
i
m e
i
E
E x

=

=

2 2
0

0
+
-

0
2
= K m
= b m

p
2
= Ne
2
/m
0
plasma frequency
One-oscillator (Lorentz) model
One-oscillator (Lorentz) model
fromBohren/Huffman
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
1
1

+ +
+
=
n
n
R
= i n N + =
Weak and strong molecular vibrations
Weak and strong molecular vibrations
weak oscillator: > 1
examples: PMMA, PS, proteins
wavenumber / cm
-1
-0,8
-0,4
0
0,4
0,8
1,2
1,6
2
-0,4
-0,2
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
860 880 900 920 940
eps'
eps''
caused by: molecular vibrations
wavenumber / cm
-1
strong oscillator: < 0
SiC, Xonotlit, Calcite, Si
3
N
4
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
860 880 900 920 940
eps' eps''
crystal lattice vibrations
Optical properties of polar crystals
Optical properties of polar crystals
note:
lattice has transversal T and longitudinal L
oscillations but only transversal phonons
can be excited by light
( )

2
2
c
= k k
= + = i n N
= = , 0 n
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
1
1

+ +
+
=
n
n
R
( ) t i
e

=
kr
E E
0
A
0 , = = n
B
A B B

c
k =

c
i k = A
B
A: total reflection
B: transmission and reflection
= 0
SiC - single oscillator model
SiC - single oscillator model
> 0
permanent dipoles
e.g. water
phonons
molecular vibrations

0
= 0

0
> 0
resonances
restoring forces
General dispersion for nonconductor
General dispersion for nonconductor
Dispersion in polar crystals - phonon polaritons
Dispersion in polar crystals - phonon polaritons
( )
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2


= =
T
L
s
c c
k
Dispersion relation for
between TO and LO
there is no solution for
real values and k
photon like
= 0
strong coupling of mechanical and
electromagnetic waves, polariton like
kr t i
e e E


no propagation
reflection
= 0
frequency gap:
Metals - drude model
Metals - drude model
- Intraband transitions
- longitudinal plasma oscillations
-
0
= 0 i.e. no restoring force
-
P
= plasma frequency

i
p

+ =
2 2
0
2
1

0
= 0

i
p

=
2
2
1
2
2
2 2
2
1 1

p p

+
=

( )
3
2
2 2
2

p p

+
=

>> = 1/ (1/ collision time)
collisions usually by electron-phonon scattering
= = , 0 n
( ) t i
e

=
kr
E E
0
0 , = = n

c
k =

c
i k =
total reflection transmission
generally:
> 0 leads to damping of transmitted wave
n > 0, > 0
= 0

T
=0

L
=
P
Aluminium
Aluminium
Free and bound electrons in metals
Free and bound electrons in metals
Bound electrons contribute like a Lorenz oscillator
where
bound drude metal
+ =
drude

bound

d
d p
drude
i
=
2
2
,
1


=
j
j
j p
bound
i

2 2
0
2
,
Metals - plasmon polaritons
Metals - plasmon polaritons
Plasmon polariton dispersion ( = 0)

p
2 2 2 2
k c
p
+ =
0
ck =
kr t i
e e E


no propagation
reflection
k

Dielectric function of metals and polar crystals


Dielectric function of metals and polar crystals
Polar crystal
strong lattice vibrations (phonons)
Metal
collective free electron oscillations (plasmons)
no restoring force
plasma frequency
(longitudinal oscillation)
transversal optical
phonon frequency, TO
longitudinal optical
phonon frequency, LO
Reststrahlenband
Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs)
-
Introduction and basic properties
Standard textbook:
- Heinz Raether, SurfacePlasmonson Smoothand RoughSurfacesand on Gratings
Springer Tractsin Modern Physics, Vol. 111, Springer Berlin 1988
Overviewarticleson Plasmonics:
- A. Zayats, I. Smolyaninov, J ournal of OpticsA: Pure and AppliedOptics5, S16 (2003)
- A. Zayats, et. al., PhysicsReports 408, 131-414 (2005)
- W.L.Barneset. al., Nature424, 825(2003)
- Overview
- Light-matter interaction
- SPP dispersion and properties
Surface polaritons (SPs)
Surface polaritons (SPs)
Coupled state between photons and elementary excitations at the interface between a
material with < 0 and a dielectric.
- radiative surface polaritons are coupled with propagating EM waves.
- nonradiative surface polaritons do not couple with propagating EM waves.
- for perfectly flat surfaces SPs are always nonradiative!
- mixed transversal and longitudinal EM field.
In contrast to TIR the surface polariton field on both sides of the interface are evanescent.
++ -- ++ -- ++ --
surfacewave
dielectric
( ) 0 >
d
( ) 0 <
z
x
z
( )
z k
z
e z E
Im

( ) t z k x k i
z x
e

=
0 SP
E E
SP
x
k

2
=

x x x
k i k k

+

=
( ) z E
SP fields
SP fields
( ) t z k x k i
z
x
z x
e
E
E
E
+

= 0
( ) t z k x k i
zd xd
e
+
( ) t z k x k i
zm xm
e

dielectric:
metal/polar crystal:
++ -- ++ -- ++ --
++ -- ++ -- ++ --
++ -- ++ -- ++ --
++ -- ++ -- ++ --
x
E
z
E
z
x

y
H
+ + - - x
E
z
E
y
H
x
k
( ) t z k x k i
y
z x
e H H
+

=
0
0
Derivation of SPP dispersion boundary conditions
Derivation of SPP dispersion boundary conditions
( )
( ) t z k x k i
zm xm m
zm xm
e E E

= , 0 , E
( )
( ) t z k x k i
ym m
zm xm
e H

= 0 , , 0 H
( )
( ) t z k x k i
yd d
zd xd
e H
+
= 0 , , 0 H
( )
( ) t z k x k i
zd xd d
zd xd
e E E
+
= , 0 , E
++ -- ++ -- ++ --
longitudinal surfacewave
dielectric
metal

d
( )

m
( )
z
x
xd xm
E E =
yd ym
H H =
Boundary
bonditions (z=0)
zd d zm m
E E =
x xd xm
k k k = =
+ + - -
0 =
y
E
x
E
z
E
0 = =
z x
H H
z
x

y
H
0 > z
0 < z
Derivation of SPP dispersion
Derivation of SPP dispersion
E H
t c

=
1
curl

z
x
t y
z
y
x
E
E
c
H 0
1
0
0


z
x
y x
y z
E
E
c
H
H
0 0

Maxwell eq.:
z-component:
Diel.:
Metal:
zm m y x
E
c
H k

= +
zd d y x
E
c
H k

= +
x-component:
Diel.:
Metal:
ym zm ym z
H k H + =
yd zd yd z
H k H =
x m y zm
E
c
H k

= +
x d y zd
E
c
H k

+ = +
( ) t z k x k i
zd x
e
+
( ) t z k x k i
zm x
e

Diel.:
Metal:
x m y zm
E
c
H k

=
x d y zd
E
c
H k

=
0 = +
m
zm
d
zd
k k

Derivation of SPP dispersion
Derivation of SPP dispersion
I:
II:
I / II:
d
m
zd
zm
k
k

=
x-component:
Diel.
Metal
d m
d m
x
c
k


+

=
2
2
( )
d m
d
zd
c
k


+

=
2
2
2
( )
x d m m
k real and 0 Re > <
k
zd
and k
zm
are imaginary
xm xd
k k =
Dispersion relation of SPPs
Dispersion relation of SPPs
at interface metal/dielectric:
2
2
2 2
c
k k
d zd x

= +
2
2
2 2
c
k k
m zm x

= +
dielectric:
metal:
0 = +
m
zm
d
zd
k k

2 2 2 2
k k k k
z y x
= + +
generally:
( )
d m
m
zm
c
k


+

=
2
2
2
0
2
2
c

d m
d m
x
c
k


+

=
2
2
( )
d m
d
zd
c
k


+

=
2
2
2
( )
x d m m
k real and 0 Re > <
k
zd
and k
zm
are imaginary
Dispersion relation of SPPs
Dispersion relation of SPPs
( )
d m
m
zm
c
k


+

=
2
2
2
( ) t z k x k i
z x
e

=
0 SP
E E
d
p SP


+
=
1
1

p
photon
in air
k
x

x
ck =
d

surface plasmon polariton


x
d m
d m
ck

+
=
photon
in air
k
x

d
p SP


+
=
1
1
x
ck =
d

surface plasmon polariton


2 2 2 2
x p
k c + =

p
plasmon
polariton
x
d m
d m
ck

+
=
Volume vs. surface plasmon polariton
Volume vs. surface plasmon polariton
surface plasmons
non-propagating
collective oscillations
of electron plasma
near the surface
with damping
volume plasmon

p
photon
in air
x
k

surface plasmon
polariton

LO
photon
in air
1

surface phonon
polariton

TO
SP dispersion - plasmon vs. phonon
SP dispersion - plasmon vs. phonon

x
k
Plasmon polaritons:
Light-electron coupling in
metals
semiconductors
Phonon polaritons:
Light-phonon coupling in polar crystals
SiC, SiO
2
III-V, II-VI-semiconductors

1 +
=
x
ck
Drude
model
1 =
d

SP propagation length
SP propagation length
p

m


) (
vac x
L

i
p
m
+
=
2
2
1
2 . 0 =
0.4 0.6 0.8 1
-10
-7.5
-5
-2.5
2.5
5
7.5
10
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
1
2
5
10
20
50
100
200
1
2
=
=

p
SP
( )
x k x k i x ik
x x x
e e e x

= =
0 0
E E E
propagating term exponential decay
in x-direction
1 +
=

+

=
m
m
x x x
c
k i k k


metal/air
interface
x
x
k
L

=
2
1
propagation
length
intensity !
Example silver:
m 22 : nm 5 . 514 = =
x
L
m 500 : nm 1060 = =
x
L
p

SPP field perpendicular to surface
SPP field perpendicular to surface
( )
z k
z
e z
Im
0

= E E
z
z
k
L
Im
1
=
z-decay length
(skin depth):
Examples:
silver:
gold:
nm 24 and nm 390 : nm 600
, ,
= = =
m z m z
L L
nm 31 and nm 280 : nm 600
, ,
= = =
m z m z
L L
E
z
z
dielectric
metal

d
( )

m
( )
z
x
x
k
SPPs have transversal and longitudinal el. fields
SPPs have transversal and longitudinal el. fields
x
z
x
z
E
k
k
i E =
At large values,
the el. field in air/diel. has a strong
transvers E
z
component compared to the
longitudinal component E
x
m

In the metal E
z
is small against E
x
At large k
x
, i.e. close to = -
d
,
both components become equal
x z
iE E = (air: +i, metal: -i)
m
d
x
zm
i
E
E

=
p

SP

1
The mag. field H is
parallel to surface
and perpendicular to
propagation
d
m
x
zd
i
E
E


=
+ + - -
x
E
z
E
z
x

y
H
El. field
Dispersion and excitation of SPPs
Dispersion and excitation of SPPs
thin metal film
dielectric
z
x
Kretschmann configuration
photon in
dielectric
k of photon in air is always < k of SPP
photon in air
k
x

SPP dispersion
no excitation of SPP is possible
in a dielectric k of the photon is increased
SPP can be excited by p-polarized light
(SPP has longitudinal component)
k of photon in dielectric can equal k of SPP
E
0

R
k
x
Methods of SPP excitation
Methods of SPP excitation
n
prism
> n
L
!!
z
x
E
0

R
k
x d

Excitation by ATR
Excitation by ATR
Kretschmann configuration Otto configuration
z
x
E
0

R
k
x
d

total reflection at prism/metal interface


-> evanescent field in metal
-> excites surface plasmon polariton at
interface metal/dielectric medium
metal thickness < skin depth
total reflection at prism/dielectric medium
-> evanescent field excites surface plasmon
at interface dielectric medium/metal
usful for surfaces that should not be damaged
or for surface phonon polaritons on thick crystals
distance metal prismof about
ATR: Attenuated Total Reflection
z
x

R
k
SP,x
d

k
photon,x
< k
SP,x
k
photon,x

R
k
SP,x
k
photon,x
= k
SP,x
k
photon,x
no SPP excitation
SPP excitation
Excitation by ATR
Excitation by ATR
SPP excitation requires
= k
SP,x
k
photon,x
Excitation by Kretschmann configuration
Excitation by Kretschmann configuration
photon in
dielectric
photon
in air
x
k

SPP dispersion
ck =
z
x
0

c
k =
c
k

=
( )
0 0
sin

c
k
x
=
( )
0 0
sin /
x
k c =
0

( )
0 0
0
0
sin
1

c
c
k
m
m
x
=
+
=
Resonance
condition
0
x
k
1 +
=
m
m
x
c
k


Kretschmann configuration angle scan
Kretschmann configuration angle scan
0

R
0

p-polarized
s-polarized
-> no excitation of SPPs
illumination freq.
0
= const.
photon
in air
k
x

R
0