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Airside Driving Theory Handbook Second Edition ISBN 978-981-08-5178-1 Copyright 2010-2011 Changi Airport Group
Airside
Driving
Theory
Handbook
Second Edition
ISBN 978-981-08-5178-1 Copyright 2010-2011 Changi Airport Group
(Singapore) Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this handbook may
be reproduced in any manner or medium, whether wholly or in part
without the written permission of the Publisher.
Contents
Contents
Contents
1
1

INTRODUCTION

5

2
2

TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION OF AIRSIDE DRIVERS

6

2.1 Driving Permit Requirements

6

2.2 Airside Driver Training

6

2.3 Airside Driving Tests

7

2.4 Conduct of Airside Drivers

8

3
3

RULES GOVERNING VEHICLE OPERATION IN THE AIRSIDE

9

3.1 Required Permits

9

3.2 Eyesight Requirements

9

3.3 Airside Vehicle Permit

10

3.4 Vehicle Examination

11

3.5 Airside Vehicle Access Zones

11

3.6 Vehicle Safety Requirements

12

3.7 General Driving Conduct

12

3.8 Giving Way to Aircraft

14

3.9 Refuelling of Vehicle

14

3.10 Safety Distances from Aircraft

16

3.11 Aircraft Stand Markings

18

3.12 Driving on Airside Roads

22

3.13 Driving Near or Crossing Taxiways

31

3.14 Driving Inside Aircraft Parking Stands

32

3.15 Towing of Rolling Stock

35

3.16 Safety During Inclement Weather

36

3.17 Operating a Bicycle in the Airside

38

3.18 Forklift

38

4
4

RADIO-TELEPHONY (RT) COMMUNICATIONS

39

4.1 Requirement

39

 

4.2 Language

39

4.3 Time System

39

4.4 Communication Techniques

39

4.5 Call Signs

42

4.6 Standard Words and Phrases

43

5
5

VEHICLE BREAKDOWN AND REPORTING ACCIDENTS 45

5.1 Vehicle Breakdown

45

 

5.2 Vehicle Accidents

46

5.3 Fuel, Hydraulic and Waste Spillages

47

Contents

Contents
6
6

ENFORCEMENT OF AIRSIDE DRIVING AND SAFETY REGULATIONS

49

6.1 CAAS (Changi Airport) By-Laws 2009

49

6.2 CAAS (Composition of Offences) Regulations 2009

49

6.3 Suspension or Cancellation of ADP

49

6.4 Surrender of ADP

49

7
7

VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS

50

7.1

Flame Proofing of Petrol Engine

50

7.2

Exhaust System

50

7.3

Electrical System

51

8
8

TRAFFIC MARKINGS AND SIGNS

52

8.1

Layout of Aircraft Parking Stand

52

 

8.2

Layout of Remote Stand

53

8.3

Layout of Cargo Stand

54

8.4

Apron Road Markings

55

8.5

Traffic Signs

57

9
9

AREAS IN THE AIRSIDE TO TAKE EXTRA PRECAUTIONS AT

63

9.1 Secondary Roadway @ C26 & D49

63

9.2 Roadway from South Perimeter towards T3 A21

63

9.3 Surface Roadway R3N & R5N between NC1 and NC2 63

9.4 R1S between T3 Bay 1 and B5 in front of T3 BHA

64

9.5 T3 Bay A20 & A21

64

9.6 R4N/R7S @ D41

64

9.7 Secondary Roadway which transverse apron taxiway 200s, 400s stands

65

9.8 R4/R5S Junction

65

9.9 West Underpass 2 (W-U2)

66

10
10

ANNEX A

67

11
11

USEFUL TELEPHONE NUMBERS

76

12
12

INSERT Changi Airport Airside Roadway System (Illustration 1.1)

back cover fold-out

Introduction
Introduction
1
1

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

The contents of this Airside Driving Theory Handbook (ADTH) are meant for drivers and personnel who operate and drive any equipment within the airside. To ensure the safe and orderly movement of staff, passengers, aircraft and vehicular traffic, the following rules governing vehicle driving and operation of mobile equipment in the operational areas must be adhered to.

Please refer to Illustration 1.1 (attached on the inner back cover) for the Airside Roadway System.

The first edition of the ADTH will replace the Rules and Regulations for Airside Drivers (RRAD) which was last published and issued in 2008.

Recommendations and suggestions for improving the contents of this handbook can be forwarded to:

Airside Operations Division Changi Airport Group P.O. Box 168 Singapore Changi Airport Singapore 918146
Airside Operations Division
Changi Airport Group
P.O. Box 168
Singapore Changi Airport
Singapore 918146
IMPORTANT NOTICE! With effect 2010, Airside Operations Control from Centre 1 April (AOCC) has been
IMPORTANT NOTICE!
With effect
2010, Airside
Operations
Control
from Centre
1 April (AOCC)
has been
renamed to Airside Management Centre (AMC).

Training and Certification of Airside Drivers

Training and Certification of Airside Drivers

SPECIMEN

2
2

TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION OF AIRSIDE DRIVERS

TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION OF AIRSIDE DRIVERS

2.1 Driving Permit Requirements

Airport personnel who have to drive in the airside for official purposes should possess:

i) A valid Class 3 driving licence issued by the Singapore Traffic Police (TP) or an international licence equivalent to Class 3.

(TP) or an international licence equivalent to Class 3. Front Back ii) An Airfield Driving Permit

Front

or an international licence equivalent to Class 3. Front Back ii) An Airfield Driving Permit (ADP)

Back

ii) An Airfield Driving Permit (ADP) which gives permission to operate a particular class of vehicle in the Airside. As of 1 April 2010, the ADP issued is in the form of a plastic card and applicants have the option to apply for either a one year or two years validity period for their ADP, subject to the terms and conditions as stated in the application forms provided by Airside Driving Centre.

SPECIMEN
SPECIMEN

2.2 Airside Driver Training

Airside Driving Centre. SPECIMEN 2.2 Airside Driver Training Before applying for an ADP, Airside drivers will

Before applying for an ADP, Airside drivers will have to:

i) Attend and complete the Airside Rules and Regulation Course (ARRC) conducted by authorised training centres; or

ii) Study the contents of the Airside Driving

Theory Handbook himself. Existing ADP holders should attend the Airfield Rules and Regulation Refresher Course (ARRRC), conducted by authorised

Training and Certification of Airside Drivers
Training and Certification of Airside Drivers

training centres, every two years. It is mandatory for all drivers to undergo bi-annual refresher training courses and obtain the necessary certification before renewing their ADP.

Authorised Training Centres accredited by the Changi Airport Group (S) Pte Ltd (CAG(S)).

TRAINING CENTRE

ADDRESS

TELEPHONE

Singapore Airport Terminal Services Limited (SATS)

20

Airport Boulevard

+65 6541 8163

Changi Airport Singapore 819659

Changi International Airport Services Pte Ltd (CIAS)

50

Airport Boulevard

+65 6511 0152

Changi Airport Singapore 819658

SIA Engineering Company (SIAEC), Line Maintenance Division

Changi Airport PTB 1 Singapore 819642

+65 6412 1780

2.3 Airside Driving Tests

Singapore 819642 +65 6412 1780 2.3 Airside Driving Tests Applicants for an ADP are required to

Applicants for an ADP are required to pass the Airfield Rules Test (ART) and the Airfield Driving/Safety-Compliance Test (ADSCT) conducted by CAG(S). This is to ensure that all drivers operating vehicles and/or equipment in the airside know the safety procedures and regulations.

ART is a computerised theory-based test, consisting of 25 multiple-choice questions to be completed in an hour.

ADSCT is a practical demonstration of competency which consist of a driving test which is conducted on a test road in the airside. Each test lasts approximately 15-20 minutes.

conducted on a test road in the airside. Each test lasts approximately 15-20 minutes. Airside Driving

Training and Certification of Airside Drivers

Training and Certification of Airside Drivers

2.4 Conduct of Airside Drivers

of Airside Drivers 2.4 Conduct of Airside Drivers All airside drivers must carry their ADP and

All airside drivers must carry their ADP and show it upon request by authorised personnel.

their ADP and show it upon request by authorised personnel. They must adhere to the conditions

They must adhere to the conditions mentioned in the ADP and follow the code of conduct when driving in the airside.

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

SPECIMEN

3
3

RULES GOVERNING VEHICLE OPERATION IN THE AIRSIDE

RULES GOVERNING VEHICLE OPERATION IN THE AIRSIDE

3.1 Required Permits Drivers who are required to operate a vehicle or mobile equipment in the airside must:

i) Possess a valid Class 3 driving licence issued by the Traffic Police (TP) or an international licence equivalent to Class 3.

(TP) or an international licence equivalent to Class 3. Front Back ii) Possess an Airfield Driving

Front

or an international licence equivalent to Class 3. Front Back ii) Possess an Airfield Driving Permit

Back

ii) Possess an Airfield Driving Permit (ADP) which allows them to operate a vehicle in the airside.

SPECIMEN
SPECIMEN

In the absence of a valid ADP, the driver has to be supervised in the vehicle by the holder of a valid ADP.

3.2 Eyesight Requirements Drivers must have normal colour vision and be able to recognise the different coloured apron markings in the day and night.

the different coloured apron markings in the day and night. AirsideAirside DrivingDriving TheoryTheory HandbookHandbook

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

3.3 Airside Vehicle Permit (AVP) All vehicles or mobile equipments are required to attain an AVP in order to operate in the airside.

The AVP must be displayed on the windscreen or prominently on airside vehicles.

There are 3 types of AVP:

i) Without imprint of aircraft

There are 3 types of AVP: i) Without imprint of aircraft • Vehicles can operate in

• Vehicles can operate in the airside but cannot go near a parked aircraft.

• Vehicles cannot operate on the runway and taxiway.

• Vehicles cannot operate on the runway and taxiway. ii) With imprint of aircraft SPECIMEN •

ii) With imprint of aircraft

SPECIMEN
SPECIMEN

• Vehicles can operate in the airside and go near a parked aircraft.

• Vehicles are allowed to operate on the runway and taxiway provided that the driver fulfil the usage specifications and are operated by a Category 1 ADP holder.

the usage specifications and are operated by a Category 1 ADP holder. SPECIMEN 10 Airside Driving
SPECIMEN
SPECIMEN
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

iii) Temporary Entry Permit (TEP)

• Vehicles can operate in the airside for a limited period of time as indicated on the TEP.

• An ADP holder to serve as an escort must be present in the vehicle
• An ADP holder to serve as an escort
must be present in the vehicle and
seated on the front passenger seat.
SPECIMEN

3.4 Vehicle Examination Vehicles operating in the airside must follow the Airside Vehicle Compliance rules as stipulated in Chapter 7 of this handbook.

rules as stipulated in Chapter 7 of this handbook. 3.5 Airside Vehicle Access Zones Vehicles can

3.5 Airside Vehicle Access Zones Vehicles can be driven only within the authorised apron areas and airside roadways.

Entry into the taxiway and runway areas is strictly prohibited. Only authorised vehicles equipped with a Radio-telephony (RT) communications system and operated by drivers who hold a Category I ADP are permitted to enter the taxiway and runway areas. Before entering the taxiway and runway areas, approval must be sought from the Changi Tower and Airside Control Centre (ACC).

from the Changi Tower and Airside Control Centre (ACC). Taxiway/Runway SPECIMEN Airside Driving Theory Handbook 11

Taxiway/Runway

Taxiway/Runway
SPECIMEN
SPECIMEN

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

3.6 Vehicle Safety Requirements Drivers must ensure that their vehicles or mobile equipment are roadworthy and meet the safety requirements as mentioned in Chapter 7 of this handbook. Otherwise, the vehicle will be removed from the airside immediately.

During hours of darkness or low visibility, all vehicles must:

i)

Switch on the single fixed red light located on the highest point of the vehicle.

ii)

Switch on the front headlights and keep it on low beam and dipped at all times.

iii)

Switch on the taillights at all times.

times. iii) Switch on the taillights at all times. Vehicles must carry only the specified number
times. iii) Switch on the taillights at all times. Vehicles must carry only the specified number
times. iii) Switch on the taillights at all times. Vehicles must carry only the specified number

Vehicles must carry only the specified number of passengers.

must carry only the specified number of passengers. All drivers and passengers must fasten seat belts
must carry only the specified number of passengers. All drivers and passengers must fasten seat belts

All drivers and passengers must fasten seat belts on vehicles which are fitted with one. Drivers shall ensure that all passengers have fastened their seat belts before operating the vehicle and/or mobile equipment.

3.7 General Driving Conduct

i) Alcohol and Drugs No person under the influence of alcohol, medicine or drugs should operate a vehicle in the airside.

influence of alcohol, medicine or drugs should operate a vehicle in the airside. 12 Airside Driving
influence of alcohol, medicine or drugs should operate a vehicle in the airside. 12 Airside Driving
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

ii) No Eating or Drinking No person should consume any form of food or drinks in the movement area within the airside. Violation would lead to a fine of $170 under the CAAS (Changi Airport) By-Laws 2009 Regulation 45.

iii) Smoking Smoking is strictly prohibited except at designated areas in the airside.

iv) Use of Communication Devices Use of mobile phone or any mobile communication equipment while driving in the airside is strictly prohibited.

while driving in the airside is strictly prohibited. v) Care and Vigilance Drivers and equipment operators
while driving in the airside is strictly prohibited. v) Care and Vigilance Drivers and equipment operators
while driving in the airside is strictly prohibited. v) Care and Vigilance Drivers and equipment operators

v) Care and Vigilance Drivers and equipment operators must exercise care and vigilance when driving in the airside and operating within the aircraft parking stands. Drivers must ensure that they are fit to operate a vehicle.

vi) Safe Distance Vehicles must not tailgate and should maintain a safe distance from other vehicles.

vii) Securing of loads The goods carried by vehicles must be securely fastened to prevent incidences of dislodging during carriage from happening.

securely fastened to prevent incidences of dislodging during carriage from happening. Airside Driving Theory Handbook 13
securely fastened to prevent incidences of dislodging during carriage from happening. Airside Driving Theory Handbook 13

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

3.8

3.9

3.9.1

viii) Unattended Vehicles No vehicle with its engine running should be left unattended.

ix) Parking Vehicles and equipment should be parked only at designated areas.

and equipment should be parked only at designated areas. Giving Way to Aircraft Vehicles must give
and equipment should be parked only at designated areas. Giving Way to Aircraft Vehicles must give

Giving Way to Aircraft Vehicles must give way to aircraft, even if it is being towed or taxiing.

give way to aircraft, even if it is being towed or taxiing. Look out for “Give

Look out for “Give way to Aircraft” signs which are painted on the ground to caution drivers of aircraft movements transversing the roadway.

drivers of aircraft movements transversing the roadway. Refuelling of Vehicle Refuelling at the apron area Position

Refuelling of Vehicle

Refuelling at the apron area Position of refuelling truck:

i) Must be parked at a safe distance from the aircraft.

of refuelling truck: i) Must be parked at a safe distance from the aircraft. 14 Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside
ii) Must be parked away from vehicular traffic routes in front of aircraft and Equipment
ii)
Must be parked away from vehicular traffic routes in front of
aircraft and Equipment Restraint Area at all times.
iii)
Can be parked in the Equipment Parking Area (EPA) leased by
the relevant airside organisations.
Area (EPA) leased by the relevant airside organisations. Safety during refuelling i) “Refuelling in progress”

Safety during refuelling

i) “Refuelling in progress” sign must be displayed prominently on the truck.

ii) Cones must be placed to warn other vehicles.

displayed prominently on the truck. ii) Cones must be placed to warn other vehicles. Airside Driving
displayed prominently on the truck. ii) Cones must be placed to warn other vehicles. Airside Driving

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

3.9.2

3.10

iii) Additional fire extinguishers must be available.

iv) All

leakages

should

be

plugged

immediately.

v)

Spillages

should

be

cleaned

immediately.

v) Spillages should be cleaned immediately. Refuelling near a parked aircraft The vehicle being
v) Spillages should be cleaned immediately. Refuelling near a parked aircraft The vehicle being

Refuelling near a parked aircraft The vehicle being refuelled should be towed to the nearest authorised EPA.

refuelled should be towed to the nearest authorised EPA. Safety Distances from Aircraft Drivers operating vehicles
refuelled should be towed to the nearest authorised EPA. Safety Distances from Aircraft Drivers operating vehicles

Safety Distances from Aircraft Drivers operating vehicles on the apron should always maintain a safe distance from aircraft and shall be vigilant to the hazards of jet blasts.

a safe distance from aircraft and shall be vigilant to the hazards of jet blasts. 16
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside Illustration 3.1 Illustration 3.2 Illustration 3.3 Airside Driving Theory

Illustration 3.1

Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside Illustration 3.1 Illustration 3.2 Illustration 3.3 Airside Driving Theory

Illustration 3.2

Vehicle Operation In The Airside Illustration 3.1 Illustration 3.2 Illustration 3.3 Airside Driving Theory Handbook 17

Illustration 3.3

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

3.11 Aircraft Stand Markings Vehicles and equipment must be parked in the designated parking areas.

i) Apron Boundary Line Demarcated by a continuous red line marking the boundary between aircraft stand and taxiways.

marking the boundary between aircraft stand and taxiways. ii) Equipment Restraint Area (ERA) Demarcated by a
marking the boundary between aircraft stand and taxiways. ii) Equipment Restraint Area (ERA) Demarcated by a

ii) Equipment Restraint Area (ERA) Demarcated by a continuous red line outlining the area where aircraft is parked. All ground handling equipment, vehicles and personnel must stay clear of the ERA when an aircraft is taxiing into the parking stand.

must stay clear of the ERA when an aircraft is taxiing into the parking stand. 18
must stay clear of the ERA when an aircraft is taxiing into the parking stand. 18
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

iii) Equipment Staging Area (ESA) Demarcated by a continuous white line outlining the area where ground handling equipment or vehicles for the servicing of an aircraft must be positioned at least 20 minutes before the arrival of the aircraft. All equipment and vehicles must be lined up in an orderly manner at all times.

vehicles must be lined up in an orderly manner at all times. iv) Equipment Parking Area
vehicles must be lined up in an orderly manner at all times. iv) Equipment Parking Area

iv) Equipment Parking Area (EPA) Demarcated by a continuous white line outlining the area where ground handling vehicles or equipment meant for long- term use are parked. Only equipment belonging to the leasing company can be parked in the designated EPA.

Only equipment belonging to the leasing company can be parked in the designated EPA. Airside Driving
Only equipment belonging to the leasing company can be parked in the designated EPA. Airside Driving

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

v) No Parking Area (NPA) This is the manoeuvring area for air-tugs to connect to aircraft nose wheel. Vehicles and equipment cannot be parked in the NPA.

wheel. Vehicles and equipment cannot be parked in the NPA. vi) Holding Strip Located between roadway
wheel. Vehicles and equipment cannot be parked in the NPA. vi) Holding Strip Located between roadway

vi) Holding Strip Located between roadway and aircraft stand. Only transport vehicles are allowed to park in the strip – and not earlier than 20 minutes before the arrival of the aircraft. Drivers must remember to switch off the engine and remove the keys from the ignition at all times. Vehicles must be removed upon departure of the aircraft.

the ignition at all times. Vehicles must be removed upon departure of the aircraft. 20 Airside
the ignition at all times. Vehicles must be removed upon departure of the aircraft. 20 Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

vii) Passenger Loading Bridge (PLB) Safety Zone Red hatch lines define the safety area that must remain clear at all times. The operator should not dock or retract the PLB when a vehicle or equipment is parked near the aircraft or outside the safety zone.

is parked near the aircraft or outside the safety zone. Note: If in doubt the PLB
is parked near the aircraft or outside the safety zone. Note: If in doubt the PLB
is parked near the aircraft or outside the safety zone. Note: If in doubt the PLB

Note: If in doubt the PLB operator should seek the CAG(S) Airside Control Centre assistance.

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

3.12

3.12.1

Driving on Airside Roads

Speed All vehicles should follow strictly to the speed limits, indicated by road signs and markings.

Table 3.1: The speed limit to be observed near an aircraft or aircraft stand.

Within 10m of an aircraft

5kmh

On roadways within 15m of aircraft stand

30kmh

On roadways more than 15m away from aircraft stand

50kmh

On roadways in the Baggage Handling Area

10kmh

3.12.2

On roadways in the Baggage Handling Area 10kmh 3.12.2 Designated Vehicle Roadways When driving in the
On roadways in the Baggage Handling Area 10kmh 3.12.2 Designated Vehicle Roadways When driving in the

Designated Vehicle Roadways When driving in the airside areas, drivers must follow the road markings. Vehicles should not use an aircraft parking stand as a short cut or to overtake.

Vehicles should not use an aircraft parking stand as a short cut or to overtake. 22
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

i) Service Roadways

• Located in front of aircraft parking stands, these roadways are meant for movement of vehicles and equipment.

roadways are meant for movement of vehicles and equipment. • Vehicles exceeding 4.5m in height should
roadways are meant for movement of vehicles and equipment. • Vehicles exceeding 4.5m in height should

• Vehicles exceeding 4.5m in height should not use the service roadways.

4.5m in height should not use the service roadways. • Vehicles using roadways R4 (T1), R7S

• Vehicles using roadways R4 (T1), R7S (T2) and R1S (T3) must give way to tractors towing baggage containers/ trolley/pallets (ULD) into and out of the baggage handling areas (BHA).

(ULD) into and out of the baggage handling areas (BHA). ii) Secondary Roadways • Is painted

ii) Secondary Roadways

• Is painted in broken white line located behind aircraft parking stands and in front of the jet blast fence at Terminal 1, 2 and 3 BHA.

parking stands and in front of the jet blast fence at Terminal 1, 2 and 3
parking stands and in front of the jet blast fence at Terminal 1, 2 and 3

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

• Vehicles operating in the secondary roadway must wait at the edge of the aircraft parking stand till the aircraft clears the taxiway.

• Vehicles must wait for pushback operation of an aircraft to be completed before proceeding along the roadway.

to be completed before proceeding along the roadway. • Vehicles exceeding 4.5m in height travelling along

• Vehicles exceeding 4.5m in height travelling along the roadway in front of the jet blast fence at Terminal 2 should stop at the entry point to the taxiway and check if that there are no aircraft movement before proceeding.

if that there are no aircraft movement before proceeding. • All vehicles & equipment exceeding the

• All vehicles & equipment exceeding the height of 4.5m should only use the secondary roadway.

• Vehicles & equipment with height NOT EXCEEDING 4.5m should use only the primary roadway.

iii) Perimeter Roadways

• Located

near

fences

the

surrounding

airside boundary.

the

Located near fences the surrounding airside boundary. the iv) Roadway behind Budget Terminal Aircraft Parking Stands
Located near fences the surrounding airside boundary. the iv) Roadway behind Budget Terminal Aircraft Parking Stands

iv) Roadway behind Budget Terminal Aircraft Parking Stands

• Located behind the aircraft parking stands in Budget Terminal.

• Drivers should look out for rotating aircraft movement lights that are mounted on top of the INS boards on the terminal building and aircraft manoeuvring guidance lights fixed on the tarmac before proceeding.

and aircraft manoeuvring guidance lights fixed on the tarmac before proceeding. 24 Airside Driving Theory Handbook
and aircraft manoeuvring guidance lights fixed on the tarmac before proceeding. 24 Airside Driving Theory Handbook
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside • Drivers should watch out and give way to

• Drivers should watch out and give way to any taxiing aircraft on taxiway L5 and wait until it has turned into the aircraft stand and its engines have been switched off before proceeding.

• Drivers should stop at the give-way marking, indicated by parallel double white lines, and wait till the aircraft is fully pushed back from its stand onto the taxiway and taxied off before moving on.

• Drivers should stop at the give-way marking, indicated by parallel double white lines, and wait for the aircraft to come to a complete stop and its engines are switched off.

• “Give Way to Aircraft” signs warn drivers of aircraft movement transversing the roadway.

v) Taxiway and Runway

• Reserved only for flight operations.

• Drivers entering the taxiway or runway for official duties must possess a Category 1 ADP.

SPECIMEN
SPECIMEN

• Drivers must switch on the Yellow flashing light on top of the vehicle when operating on taxiways and runways.

• Vehicles entering the taxiway or runway must be equipped with the radio- telephony (RT) communication system.

• Drivers using the taxiway or runway should be well-versed with the Changi Tower light signals and keep on a lookout for light signals at all times.

the Changi Tower light signals and keep on a lookout for light signals at all times.
the Changi Tower light signals and keep on a lookout for light signals at all times.

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

vi) Surface Roadways Crossing Taxiways

In The Airside vi) Surface Roadways Crossing Taxiways • Located at the North Cross Taxiways, South

Located at the North Cross Taxiways, South Cross Taxiways, taxiways behind aircraft parking stands and taxiways along perimeter roadways.

“Give Way to Aircraft” sign, painted on the roadway, warns drivers of the taxiway crossing ahead.

on the roadway, warns drivers of the taxiway crossing ahead. • • Vehicles must stop at
on the roadway, warns drivers of the taxiway crossing ahead. • • Vehicles must stop at
on the roadway, warns drivers of the taxiway crossing ahead. • • Vehicles must stop at

Vehicles must stop at designated points and give way to taxiing aircraft at all times.

Vehicles must not stop in any part of the roadway that is within the taxiway.

vii)

of the roadway that is within the taxiway. • • vii) Vehicles are permitted to use
of the roadway that is within the taxiway. • • vii) Vehicles are permitted to use

Vehicles are permitted to use these surface roadways except where airside tunnels are available. Drivers are to take note that the vehicles listed in Page 27, Paragraph 3.12.2 vii under Prohibited Vehicles are not permitted to enter the tunnel.

Airside Tunnel

Speed:

• The speed limit for all vehicles is 50kmh.

Regulations:

• Waiting or parking is prohibited.

• Tunnel roadways cannot be used when the red light on the gantry is activated.

• Tunnel roadways cannot be used when the red light on the gantry is activated. 26
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

Prohibited vehicles:

• Exceeding 4.5m in height

Airside Prohibited vehicles: • Exceeding 4.5m in height • Air tugs • Joint Container Pallet Loaders

• Air tugs

vehicles: • Exceeding 4.5m in height • Air tugs • Joint Container Pallet Loaders (JCPL) •
vehicles: • Exceeding 4.5m in height • Air tugs • Joint Container Pallet Loaders (JCPL) •

• Joint Container Pallet Loaders (JCPL)

• Air tugs • Joint Container Pallet Loaders (JCPL) • Main Deck Loaders (MDL) • Tankers/Bowsers

• Main Deck Loaders (MDL)

Container Pallet Loaders (JCPL) • Main Deck Loaders (MDL) • Tankers/Bowsers carrying inflammable liquid • Vehicles

• Tankers/Bowsers carrying inflammable liquid

(MDL) • Tankers/Bowsers carrying inflammable liquid • Vehicles transporting explosive items Airside Driving

• Vehicles transporting explosive items

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

3.12.3 Keep Left All vehicles, travelling on all roadways, should keep to the left.

3.12.4 Right of Way

all roadways, should keep to the left. 3.12.4 Right of Way The following will get preference

The following will get preference at all the roadways:

i) Aircraft taxiing and on tow;

at all the roadways: i) Aircraft taxiing and on tow; ii) AES vehicle or ambulance with
at all the roadways: i) Aircraft taxiing and on tow; ii) AES vehicle or ambulance with

ii) AES vehicle or ambulance with red rotating light and sounding siren;

or ambulance with red rotating light and sounding siren; iii) Vehicles with blue or red rotating
or ambulance with red rotating light and sounding siren; iii) Vehicles with blue or red rotating
or ambulance with red rotating light and sounding siren; iii) Vehicles with blue or red rotating

iii) Vehicles with blue or red rotating light (follow-me vehicle) and the vehicles they are escorting;

blue or red rotating light (follow-me vehicle) and the vehicles they are escorting; 28 Airside Driving
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

iv) Escorting vehicle with red rotating light and the vehicles it is escorting;

with red rotating light and the vehicles it is escorting; v) The right of way for

v) The right of way for vehicles on the right will apply on all road intersections and roadways unless indicated otherwise.

road intersections and roadways unless indicated otherwise. Note: Emergency vehicles must give way to aircraft at

Note: Emergency vehicles must give way to aircraft at all times.

3.12.5 Pedestrian Crossing Look out for pedestrian crossing signs at the service roads and underpasses. Vehicles must reduce speed and stop before the pedestrian crossing.

and underpasses. Vehicles must reduce speed and stop before the pedestrian crossing. Airside Driving Theory Handbook
and underpasses. Vehicles must reduce speed and stop before the pedestrian crossing. Airside Driving Theory Handbook
and underpasses. Vehicles must reduce speed and stop before the pedestrian crossing. Airside Driving Theory Handbook

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

3.12.6 Overtaking A vehicle can only overtake from the right-side of the vehicle infront provided that the lane is free of on-coming vehicles. Vehicles are not allowed to overtake at the aircraft stand and the manoeuvring area.

The driver must sound the horn before overtaking. Drivers are only allowed to overtake one vehicle at a time.

Overtaking is prohibited on roadways painted with continuous white and double-white lines.

painted with continuous white and double-white lines. Safe to Oncoming Continuous Double white
painted with continuous white and double-white lines. Safe to Oncoming Continuous Double white
painted with continuous white and double-white lines. Safe to Oncoming Continuous Double white
painted with continuous white and double-white lines. Safe to Oncoming Continuous Double white

Safe to

Oncoming

Continuous

Double white

overtake.

vehicle.

white line.

line.

3.12.7 Height Restrictions Vehicles in excess of 4.5m can only use the secondary roadways.

The

handling areas:

height

restrictions

in

the

baggage

The handling areas: height restrictions in the baggage Height restriction signs are located at the Passenger
The handling areas: height restrictions in the baggage Height restriction signs are located at the Passenger

Height restriction signs are located at the Passenger Loading Bridges (PLB), underpasses and tunnel roadways. Vehicles exceeding the height limits must use the secondary roadways or alternative roadways.

Terminal 1 – 2.4m Terminal 2 – 2.3m Terminal 3 – 2.3m

alternative roadways. Terminal 1 – 2.4m Terminal 2 – 2.3m Terminal 3 – 2.3m 30 Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

3.13 Driving Near or Crossing Taxiways Vehicles must keep clear of the aircraft taxiways at all times.

Only authorised vehicles listed below are allowed to use the surface roadways R3N and R5N crossing the North Cross Taxiways:

roadways R3N and R5N crossing the North Cross Taxiways: Exceeding 4.5m • Vehicles proceeding to Aircraft
Exceeding 4.5m
Exceeding 4.5m

• Vehicles proceeding to Aircraft Stands 300 – 310

• Air tugs

• Joint Container Pallet Loaders (JCPL)

• Main Deck Loaders (MDL)

• Tankers/Bowsers carrying flammable liquid having a flash point of 61 degrees Celsius or less (Jet A-1 fuel, Avgas or petrol)

• Vehicles transporting explosive items

• Vehicles (including load) exceeding 4.5m in height.

Vehicles other than those mentioned above must use the tunnel roadways R1N and R7N.

Vehicles authorised to use surface roadways R3N and R5N must stop at the junctions of R3N, R3S, R5N and R5S and ensure no aircraft is taxiing or about to taxi along the North Cross Taxiways before proceeding.

to taxi along the North Cross Taxiways before proceeding. Only authorised vehicles are allowed to cross
to taxi along the North Cross Taxiways before proceeding. Only authorised vehicles are allowed to cross

Only authorised vehicles are allowed to cross the North Cross Taxiways or any other Taxiway. Drivers must comply with the traffic signs and markings, including the light signals at the roadway crossing. The minimum safety distance between a vehicle and the centreline of taxiway is 57.5 metres. Drivers must stop before the vehicle stop-line, look out for aircraft movements on the taxiway before proceeding. No vehicle is allowed to stop in any part of the roadway crossing that is within the taxiway.

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

3.14

Driving Inside Aircraft Parking Stands

3.14.1

Driving Into Aircraft Parking Stands Vehicles should not enter or park in an aircraft parking stand unless they are required for ground operations of the aircraft.

they are required for ground operations of the aircraft. Vehicles must not enter an aircraft Unattended

Vehicles must not enter an aircraft

Unattended vehicles should be

parking stand when an aircraft is entering the stand or performing pushback operations.

parked in the ESA, with handbrake engaged and engine switched off.

3.14.2

Position Before Aircraft Arrival Vehicles waiting to service an arriving aircraft must be parked in the ESA until the ground engineer gives the ‘thumb-up’ signal to move after the aircraft has been chocked and its engines switched off.

ground engineer gives the ‘thumb-up’ signal to move after the aircraft has been chocked and its
ground engineer gives the ‘thumb-up’ signal to move after the aircraft has been chocked and its

3.14.3

Position After Aircraft Arrival Vehicles and equipment not involved in docking must approach the aircraft at an angle from the driver’s right.

Vehicles moving in the aircraft stand must keep a safe distance from the aircraft and other equipment.

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

3.14.4 Driving Under an Aircraft A vehicle should not be driven or parked under the wings or fuselage of an aircraft unless it is engaged in aircraft servicing.

For safety reasons, the following vehicles and equipment are not allowed to operate under the aircraft or its wings:

• Hi-Lift or catering truck

• Invalid Passenger Lift (IPL)

• Joint Container Pallet Loader (JCPL)

• Main Deck Loader (MDL)

• Mobile Passenger Step

(JCPL) • Main Deck Loader (MDL) • Mobile Passenger Step • Any other vehicle or equipment

• Any other vehicle or equipment exceeding the height of the aircraft fuselage and wings.

other vehicle or equipment exceeding the height of the aircraft fuselage and wings. Airside Driving Theory

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

3.14.5 Passenger Loading Bridge (PLB) Safety Zone Red hatch lines define the safety area that must remain clear at all times. The operator should not dock or retract the PLB when a vehicle or equipment is parked near the aircraft or outside the safety zone.

is parked near the aircraft or outside the safety zone. 3.14.6 Fuel Hydrant Pits Vehicles are

3.14.6 Fuel Hydrant Pits Vehicles are prohibited from driving over fuel hydrant pits at all times.

prohibited from driving over fuel hydrant pits at all times. 3.14.7 Converging Vehicles The vehicle on

3.14.7 Converging Vehicles The vehicle on the left should give way to the vehicle on the right.

on the left should give way to the vehicle on the right. 3.14.8 Reversing Vehicles operating

3.14.8 Reversing Vehicles operating on the apron should not be reversed unless absolutely necessary. It can be done, for instance, after completion of aircraft servicing. A marshaller or guideman must be present to ensure the vehicle can be reversed safely.

be present to ensure the vehicle can be reversed safely. 3.14.9 Passing Behind Aircraft Vehicles should

3.14.9 Passing Behind Aircraft Vehicles should not pass behind an aircraft when its engines are running or anti- collision light is on.

behind an aircraft when its engines are running or anti- collision light is on. 34 Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

3.14.10

Aircraft Pushback Vehicles, except the airtug for aircraft pushback operations, should keep away from the aircraft parking stand. Vehicles used for servicing the aircraft must vacate the ERA before commencement of the pushback operations.

the ERA before commencement of the pushback operations. Drivers must alert the Ground Engineer if it

Drivers must alert the Ground Engineer if it is necessary to approach an aircraft which is ready for pushback.

3.14.11

3.15

Ground Handling Personnel All vehicles must give way to ground handling personnel working around the aircraft.

Ground handling personnel must not walk or work within 7.5m from the front of the aircraft engines and 76m behind an aircraft when its engines are still running.

76m behind an aircraft when its engines are still running. Towing of Rolling Stock Drivers should
76m behind an aircraft when its engines are still running. Towing of Rolling Stock Drivers should

Towing of Rolling Stock

Drivers should not operate a tractor with a chain of rolling stock in excess of:

i) 4 container trailers or baggage trolleys

a chain of rolling stock in excess of: i) 4 container trailers or baggage trolleys Airside
a chain of rolling stock in excess of: i) 4 container trailers or baggage trolleys Airside

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

ii) 3 pallet dollies

Vehicle Operation In The Airside ii) 3 pallet dollies Drivers must ensure that the rolling stocks
Vehicle Operation In The Airside ii) 3 pallet dollies Drivers must ensure that the rolling stocks

Drivers must ensure that the rolling stocks are properly secured before moving off.

the rolling stocks are properly secured before moving off. No vehicle or equipment should be towed

No vehicle or equipment should be towed without a suitable tow bar.

If defects are spotted during towing, the driver should stop at the nearest ESA and rectify them.

the driver should stop at the nearest ESA and rectify them. 3.16 Safety During Inclement Weather

3.16 Safety During Inclement Weather In the event of low visibility or inclement weather, these procedures must be followed:

i)

Attire All personnel should wear the high-visibility raincoat imprinted with their organisation’s logo.

The high-visibility safety vest imprinted with the organisation’s logo can also be worn over a non-high visibility raincoat.

The high-visibility safety vest imprinted with the organisation’s logo should be authorised by CAG.

The airport pass must be visible when wearing the high-visibility safety coat or vest.

airport pass must be visible when wearing the high-visibility safety coat or vest. 36 Airside Driving
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside
Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

ii) Vehicles All vehicles must slow down to a speed safe for the prevailing conditions.

iii) Vehicle Requirements All vehicles should:

• Switch on the single fixed red light on the highest point of the vehicle.

• Switch on the front headlights on low beam and dipped at all times.

• Switch on the taillights at all times.

at all times. • Switch on the taillights at all times. iv) Category II Instrument Landing
at all times. • Switch on the taillights at all times. iv) Category II Instrument Landing
at all times. • Switch on the taillights at all times. iv) Category II Instrument Landing

iv) Category II Instrument Landing System (ILS) Operations

• Changi Control Tower may employ CAT II ILS Operations during prolonged period of low visibility (like haze) to help aircraft landings.

• All airside personnel and equipment must withdraw from the Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ) within one hour of the declaration.

Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ) within one hour of the declaration. • Unauthorised entry of vehicles into
Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ) within one hour of the declaration. • Unauthorised entry of vehicles into

• Unauthorised entry of vehicles into roadways leading to runways may affect the ILS readings which are crucial during the landing of an aircraft.

• Vehicles that need to move into or in the vicinity of the OFZ must seek clearance from the Changi Tower.

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

Rules Governing Vehicle Operation In The Airside

3.17 Operating a Bicycle in the Airside Cyclists should keep to the extreme left of the road and ride in a single file when travelling in a group.

road and ride in a single file when travelling in a group. should on the next

should

on

the

next

apron floodlights

when

attending to flight at the stand.

is

the

be

areas

parked

Bicycles

kerb

to

cyclist

the stand. is the be areas parked Bicycles kerb to cyclist Cyclists must follow vehicular traffic
the stand. is the be areas parked Bicycles kerb to cyclist Cyclists must follow vehicular traffic

Cyclists must follow vehicular traffic rules and give way to taxiing aircraft.

Cyclists must wear high-visibility safety vest.

3.18 Forklift The fork should be kept at the lowest position (not more than 10cm above the ground) when forklift is driven without load.

Forklifts

personnel.

must

be

operated

only

by

authorised

and

trained

without load. Forklifts personnel. must be operated only by authorised and trained 38 Airside Driving Theory
Radio-Telephony (RT) Communications
Radio-Telephony (RT) Communications
4
4

RADIO-TELEPHONY (RT) COMMUNICATION

RADIO-TELEPHONY (RT) COMMUNICATION

4.1

Requirement RT communication skills are mandatory for airside drivers with the need to operate vehicles and/or mobile equipment on the taxiway and runway. Drivers applying for the Category I Driving Permit must be familiar with RT communication procedures.

RT communication skills are required since drivers have to maintain communication with the Changi Tower.

have to maintain communication with the Changi Tower. 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.4.1 Language English is used

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.4.1

Language English is used internationally for all ground RT communications.

is used internationally for all ground RT communications. Time System Start of a day is denoted

Time System Start of a day is denoted by 0001H. End of a day is denoted by 2400H.

Communication Techniques The effective use of RT Communication Facilities (RTF) depends on:

i) Articulation

ii) Microphone techniques

iii) Choice of words

cause

Poor

confusion and may potentially lead to accidents.

delivery

of

RT

communication

techniques

can

Basic Guidelines Before transmission, users should:

i) Tune to the right frequency to ensure no interference to the transmission from other stations.

ii) Decide on the message to be transmitted.

other stations. ii) Decide on the message to be transmitted. AirsideAirside DrivingDriving TheoryTheory HandbookHandbook

Radio-Telephony (RT) Communications

Radio-Telephony (RT) Communications

During transmission, users should:

i) Speak into the microphone.

ii) Keep the microphone close to the mouth.

the microphone. ii) Keep the microphone close to the mouth. iii) Ensure transmit switch is on.
the microphone. ii) Keep the microphone close to the mouth. iii) Ensure transmit switch is on.

iii) Ensure transmit switch is on.

close to the mouth. iii) Ensure transmit switch is on. iv) Speak normally. v) Refrain from

iv) Speak normally.

v) Refrain from shouting or whispering.

vi) Not vary the voice pitch.

vii) Not vary the tone when asking questions.

viii) Use standard phrases.

the tone when asking questions. viii) Use standard phrases. ix) Avoid polite expressions. x) Be concise
the tone when asking questions. viii) Use standard phrases. ix) Avoid polite expressions. x) Be concise

ix) Avoid polite expressions.

x) Be concise and unambiguous.

xi) Not speak quickly.

xii) Speak slowly if the transmission is being recorded.

xiii) Maintain slight pause when transmitting numbers.

xiv)Refrain from interrupting if a station is making a transmission and is expecting a reply from another station.

xv) Give priority to a distress call.

xvi)Seek priority to convey a distress message.

After transmission, users should:

i) Ensure transmit switch is released to prevent “clipping” of transmission.

ii) Ensure transmit switch is completely released to prevent jamming of the frequency.

Ensure transmit switch is completely released to prevent jamming of the frequency. 40 Airside Driving Theory
Radio-Telephony (RT) Communications
Radio-Telephony (RT) Communications

4.4.2

Pronunciation It is important to transmit each word slowly and with clarity, avoid mispronunciation and omission of consonants.

Pronunciation of Letters

LETTER

WORD

PRONUNCIATION IN ENGLISH

A

Alfa

AL FAH

B

Bravo

BRAH VOH

C

Charlie

CHAR LEE

D

Delta

DELL TAH

E

Echo

ECK OH

F

Foxtrot

FOKS TROT

G

Golf

GOLF

H

Hotel

HOH TELL

I

India

IN DEE AH

J

Juliett

JEW LEE ETT

K

Kilo

KEY LOH

L

Lima

LEE MAH

M

Mike

MIKE

N

November

NO VEM BER

O

Oscar

OSS CAR

P

Papa

PAH PAH

Q

Quebec

KEY BECK

R

Romeo

ROW ME OH

S

Sierra

SEE AIR RAH

T

Tango

TANG GO

U

Uniform

YOU NEE FORM

V

Victor

VIK TAH

W

Whiskey

WISS KEY

X

X-ray

ECKS RAY

Y

Yankee

YANG KEY

Z

Zulu

ZOO LOO

Radio-Telephony (RT) Communications

Radio-Telephony (RT) Communications

Pronunciation of Digits

DIGIT

PRONUNCIATION IN ENGLISH

0

ZERO

1

WUN

2

TOO

3

TREE

4

FOWER

5

FIFE

6

SIX

7

SEVEN

8

AIT

9

NINER

* 5 and 9 are spoken as “FIFE” and “NINER” respectively as they can cause confusion when spoken normally.

4.5 Call Signs A short form is used to indicate the service provided:

CALL SIGN

IDENTIFICATION

Tower

CHANGI TOWER

Singapore Apron

AIRSIDE CONTROL CENTRE

Radio-Telephony (RT) Communications
Radio-Telephony (RT) Communications

4.6 Standard Words and Phrases

WORD / PHRASE

MEANING

 

ACKNOWLEDGE

Let me know you have received and understood the message.

AFFIRM

 

Yes.

 

APPROVED

 

Permission for requested action is granted.

BREAK

 

I

am indicating the separation in between

 

portions of the message. (To be used where there is no clear distinction between the text and other portions of the message).

BREAK BREAK

I

am indicating the separation in between

messages transmitted to different aircraft in a very busy environment.

CANCEL

 

Withdraw

the

previously

transmitted

 

clearance.

 

CLEARED

 

Authorised to proceed under the conditions specified.

CONFIRM

 

Have I correctly received the following

?

 

or Did you correctly receive this message?

CONTACT

 

Establish radio contact with

 

CORRECT

 

That is correct.

 

CORRECTION

An

error

has

been

made

in

this

transmission (or message indicated). The correct version is …

DISREGARD

 

Consider that transmission is not sent.

 

GO AHEAD

 

Proceed with your message. (Note: The phrase “GO AHEAD” is not normally used in surface movement communications).

HOW

DO

YOU

What is the readability of my transmission?

READ

Radio-Telephony (RT) Communications

Radio-Telephony (RT) Communications

WORD / PHRASE

MEANING

 

MONITOR

Listen out on (frequency).

 

NEGATIVE

No or Permission not granted or That is not correct.

OUT

This exchange of transmission is ended and no response is expected. (Note: The word ‘OUT’ is not normally used in VHF communications.)

OVER

My transmission is ended and I expect

a

response from you. Note: The word

‘OVER’ is not normally used in VHF communications.

RECLEARED

A

change has been made to your last

clearance. This new clearance supersedes the previous clearance or part thereof.

REPORT

Pass me the following information.

 

REQUEST

I wish to know

or obtain

 

ROGER

I have received and understood your last transmission.

SAY AGAIN

Repeat all, or part, of your last transmission.

SPEAK SLOWER

Reduce your speed or rate of speech.

 

STANDBY

Wait and I will call you.

 

VERIFY

Check and confirm with originator.

 

WILCO

(Abbreviation for ‘will comply’).

I

understand your message and will comply with it.

WORDS TWICE

(a) As a request: Communication is

difficult. Please send every word or group

of

words twice. (b) As an information:

Since communication is difficult, every word or group of words in this message will be sent twice.

Vehicle Breakdown And Reporting Accidents
Vehicle Breakdown And Reporting Accidents
5
5

VEHICLE BREAKDOWN AND REPORTING ACCIDENTS

VEHICLE BREAKDOWN AND REPORTING ACCIDENTS

5.1 Vehicle Breakdown Reporting

Drivers must immediately inform Airside Management Centre if their vehicle has stalled on the taxiway or aircraft parking stand.

has stalled on the taxiway or aircraft parking stand. Removal • The driver must contact the

Removal

• The driver must contact the company maintenance section to repair or tow the vehicle away as soon as possible.

to repair or tow the vehicle away as soon as possible. Prevent obstruction to airside traffic

Prevent obstruction to airside traffic

• Try to push the vehicle to the side of the roadway or any other area so that traffic is not blocked and safety compromised in the airside.

• Ensure aircraft is not obstructed by the breakdown.

• Provide marshaller to divert traffic.

• Driver should not leave the vehicle unattended.

traffic. • Driver should not leave the vehicle unattended. AirsideAirside DrivingDriving TheoryTheory HandbookHandbook

Vehicle Breakdown And Reporting Accidents

Vehicle Breakdown And Reporting Accidents

5.2 Vehicle Accidents Reporting

• In the event of an accident in the airside, the drivers involved should report it immediately via telephone to the Airside Management Centre.

Injuries

• If there are injuries, the drivers should immediately report them to the Airside Management Centre and Airport Police and call for medical assistance.

Centre and Airport Police and call for medical assistance. Remain at scene of accident • Personnel

Remain at scene of accident

• Personnel involved in the accident should remain at the scene until a CAG(S) Officer arrives to handle the situation.

until a CAG(S) Officer arrives to handle the situation. Preservation of Accident Scene • No vehicle

Preservation of Accident Scene

No vehicle or equipment involved in an accident should be removed until permission is granted by an APD or CAG(S) Officer on-site.

should be removed until permission is granted by an APD or CAG(S) Officer on-site. 46 Airside
Vehicle Breakdown And Reporting Accidents
Vehicle Breakdown And Reporting Accidents

5.3

5.3.1

5.3.2

Fuel, Hydraulic and Waste Spillages

Aircraft Fuel Spillage Reporting

• Spillages area larger than 4 metre square should be reported immediately to Airport Emergency Services (AES) and Airside Control Centre (ACC).

• Spillages occurring from an underground fuel hydrant pit should be reported immediately to Airport Emergency Services (AES), Airside Control Centre (ACC) and Changi Airport Fuel Hydrant Installation (CAFHI).

(ACC) and Changi Airport Fuel Hydrant Installation (CAFHI). Remain at scene of spillage • No vehicle

Remain at scene of spillage

• No vehicle or mobile equipment should come within 15 metres of the spillage area.

• No vehicle or mobile equipment should be started until the spillage has been cleaned.

• Personnel involved in the spillage should cordon off the area and divert traffic.

spillage should cordon off the area and divert traffic. Hydraulic Oil Spill Reporting • When it

Hydraulic Oil Spill Reporting

• When it is heavy oil spillage,

should be contacted

• When it is heavy oil spillage, should be contacted the ACC immediately. • And the

the

ACC

immediately.

• And the following details should be provided:

i) Caller should identify himself and leave his contact number.

ii) Caller should provide location and extent of spill and whether it will affect aircraft and people.

Vehicle Breakdown And Reporting Accidents

Vehicle Breakdown And Reporting Accidents

Cleaning up

• In case of smaller oil spillage, the driver responsible should mop up the area with an approved absorbent material (except sawdust).

should mop up the area with an approved absorbent material (except sawdust). 48 Airside Driving Theory
Enforcement Of Airside Driving And Safety Regulations
Enforcement Of Airside Driving And Safety Regulations
6
6

ENFORCEMENT OF AIRSIDE DRIVING AND SAFETY REGULATIONS

ENFORCEMENT OF AIRSIDE DRIVING AND SAFETY REGULATIONS

6.1 CAAS (Changi Airport) By-Laws 2009 All airside drivers must observe the provisions in the CAAS (Changi Airport) By-Laws 2009.

6.2 CAAS (Composition of Offences) Regulations 2009 Any person who contravenes the CAAS (Changi Airport) By-Laws 2009 or fails to comply with the conditions of any permit or pass issued under the CAAS (Changi Airport) By-Laws 2009 will be issued a Notice of Offence. See Annex A on page 63.

The regulations do not restrict the CAG(S) from suspending an ADP when it is deemed necessary.

Please refer to Annex A for the list of CAAS (Composition of Offences) Regulations 2009.

6.3 Suspension or Cancellation of ADP CAG(S) may suspend or cancel an ADP if:

i) There has been a contravention of any condition of the permit;

ii) The person to whom the permit has been issued is not competent to drive the relevant vehicle.

iii) It would not be in the interest of public safety for him to hold a driving permit.

6.4 Surrender of ADP The ADP holder must return the ADP to the CAG(S) Airside Operations Licensing Counter within 72 hours of the cessation of driving duties for his employer. The vehicle operator must also ensure that the ADP holder complies with this clause.

Vehicle Specifications

Vehicle Specifications
7
7

VEHICLE REQUIREMENTS FOR USE IN THE AIRSIDE

VEHICLE REQUIREMENTS FOR USE IN THE AIRSIDE

7.1

Flame Proofing of Petrol Engine

i)

The mixture adjustment for the induction system should be such that exhaust pipe explosions must not occur when the throttle is suddenly closed.

ii)

The carburettor should be fitted with a flame trap or arrestor. (A standard automotive type oil bath air cleaner must be used, other alternatives must be approved by the CAG(S) Airport Emergency Service Division.

iii)

The gasket between the induction manifold and the cylinder block should have a gas-tight seal.

7.2

Exhaust System

i) The exhaust manifold and the section of the exhaust pipe adjacent to the manifold should be covered with metal to prevent petrol, oil or other combustible material from coming into contact with them. Otherwise, a drip tray must be provided under the carburettor with a pipe to drain waste petrol from the manifold and exhaust pipe.

ii) The exhaust pipe of vehicles without a catalytic converter should be fitted with an approved spark arrestor. Screen-type arrestors must be serviced regularly to ensure there is no collection of carbon.

arrestors must be serviced regularly to ensure there is no collection of carbon. 50 Airside Driving
Vehicle Specifications
Vehicle Specifications

iii) Regular checks must be conducted on the entire exhaust system to ensure there are no gas leakages.

7.3 Electrical System

i) Exhaust manifold and the section of the exhaust pipe adjacent to the manifold should be shrouded with a metal cover to prevent petrol, oil or other combustible material from coming into contact with the hot metal. In cases where the manifold cannot be effectively protected, a drip tray should be provided under the carburettor with a pipe to direct waste petrol away from the manifold and exhaust pipe.

Traffic Markings And Signs

Traffic Markings And Signs
8
8

TRAFFIC MARKINGS AND SIGNS

TRAFFIC MARKINGS AND SIGNS

8.1 Layout of Aircraft Parking Stand

MARKINGS AND SIGNS 8.1 Layout of Aircraft Parking Stand 1 Service Roadway 2 Holding Strip 3
1
1

Service

Roadway

2
2

Holding Strip

3
3

No Parking

Area (NPA)

4
4

Equipment

Staging Area

 

(ESA)

5
5

Apron

Boundary Line

 

(ABL)

6
6

Secondary

Roadway

7
7

Fuel Hydrant

Pit

8
8

Passenger

Loading Bridge

 

Safety Zone

9
9

Equipment

Parking Area

 

(EPA)

10
10

Equipment

Restraint Area

 

(ERA)

Traffic Markings And Signs
Traffic Markings And Signs

8.2 Layout of Remote Stand

Traffic Markings And Signs 8.2 Layout of Remote Stand 1 Equipment Staging Area   (ESA) 2
1
1

Equipment

Staging Area

 

(ESA)

2
2

Apron

Boundary Line

(ABL)

3
3

Fuel Hydrant

Pit

Traffic Markings And Signs

Traffic Markings And Signs

8.3 Layout of Cargo Stand

Traffic Markings And Signs 8.3 Layout of Cargo Stand 1 Equipment Staging Area   (ESA) 2
1
1

Equipment

Staging Area

 

(ESA)

2
2

Apron

Boundary Line

(ABL)

3
3

Fuel Hydrant

Pit

Traffic Markings And Signs
Traffic Markings And Signs

8.4 Apron Road Markings

Traffic Markings And Signs 8.4 Apron Road Markings Continuous White Line Centre of a two-way road.
Traffic Markings And Signs 8.4 Apron Road Markings Continuous White Line Centre of a two-way road.
Traffic Markings And Signs 8.4 Apron Road Markings Continuous White Line Centre of a two-way road.
Traffic Markings And Signs 8.4 Apron Road Markings Continuous White Line Centre of a two-way road.
Traffic Markings And Signs 8.4 Apron Road Markings Continuous White Line Centre of a two-way road.
Traffic Markings And Signs 8.4 Apron Road Markings Continuous White Line Centre of a two-way road.

Continuous White Line Centre of a two-way road. Vehicles should keep to the left of this line.

Broken White Line Centre of a two-way road. Vehicles should keep to the left of this line.

Parallel Continuous White Line Centre of a two-way road. Vehicles cannot cross these lines at all times.

Zig-Zag Lines Give advance warning that there is a pedestrian crossing ahead. Vehicles should not overtake, wait or park in the vicinity.

Parallel White Broken Lines Vehicles approaching these lines must give way to traffic in front of the line.

Single White Line Vehicles must stop before this line.

Traffic Markings And Signs

Traffic Markings And Signs
Traffic Markings And Signs Apron Boundary Line Equipment Parking Area (EPA) Equipment Staging Area (ESA) No
Traffic Markings And Signs Apron Boundary Line Equipment Parking Area (EPA) Equipment Staging Area (ESA) No
Traffic Markings And Signs Apron Boundary Line Equipment Parking Area (EPA) Equipment Staging Area (ESA) No
Traffic Markings And Signs Apron Boundary Line Equipment Parking Area (EPA) Equipment Staging Area (ESA) No
Traffic Markings And Signs Apron Boundary Line Equipment Parking Area (EPA) Equipment Staging Area (ESA) No

Apron Boundary Line

Equipment Parking Area (EPA)

Equipment Staging Area (ESA)

No Parking Area (NPA)

“Give Way to Aircraft” warning sign Vehicles must watch out and give way to aircraft before proceeding.

Traffic Markings And Signs
Traffic Markings And Signs
Traffic Markings And Signs Red Hatched Lines Defines the safety area that must remain clear at
Traffic Markings And Signs Red Hatched Lines Defines the safety area that must remain clear at

Red Hatched Lines Defines the safety area that must remain clear at all times unless authorization has been given by CAG. Only permitted vehicles and equipment may be positioned when PLB has docked to aircraft and must

be removed prior to retracting the PLB that is guided by a marshaller.

Notwithstanding the above, the PLB operator should not dock or retract the PLB when a vehicle or equipment is parked between the parked aircraft and PLB, even if the vehicle/equipment is parked outside the red hatched area which is marked in blue in the diagram above.

hatched area which is marked in blue in the diagram above. 8.5 Traffic Signs Fuel Hydrant

8.5 Traffic Signs

Fuel Hydrant Pit Point of fuel uplift for aircraft. Vehicles not engaged in refuelling should not go near the fuel hydrant pit.

Only right turnnot engaged in refuelling should not go near the fuel hydrant pit. Only left turn Airside

Only left turnnot engaged in refuelling should not go near the fuel hydrant pit. Only right turn Airside

Traffic Markings And Signs

Traffic Markings And Signs

Right-turn aheadTraffic Markings And Signs Left-turn ahead Keep left Split Traffic (Vehicles may pass on either side.)

Left-turn aheadTraffic Markings And Signs Right-turn ahead Keep left Split Traffic (Vehicles may pass on either side.)

Keep leftTraffic Markings And Signs Right-turn ahead Left-turn ahead Split Traffic (Vehicles may pass on either side.)

Split Traffic (Vehicles may pass on either side.) (Vehicles may pass on either side.)

Stop (Stop before the white line. Give way to traffic from the right and left.) (Stop before the white line. Give way to traffic from the right and left.)

white line. Give way to traffic from the right and left.) Give Way (Slow down, stop

Give Way (Slow down, stop if necessary. Give way to traffic on major road.)

No EntryGive Way (Slow down, stop if necessary. Give way to traffic on major road.) 58 Airside

Traffic Markings And Signs
Traffic Markings And Signs

No StoppingTraffic Markings And Signs No Waiting (Vehicles may stop to allow boarding or alighting.) No right

No Waiting (Vehicles may stop to allow boarding or alighting.) (Vehicles may stop to allow boarding or alighting.)

No right turnWaiting (Vehicles may stop to allow boarding or alighting.) No left turn Height Limit (Vehicles of

No left turnmay stop to allow boarding or alighting.) No right turn Height Limit (Vehicles of height 4.5m

Height Limit (Vehicles of height 4.5m or vehicles carrying load exceeding height of 4.5m are not allowed (Vehicles of height 4.5m or vehicles carrying load exceeding height of 4.5m are not allowed to enter.)

Speed Limit (Do not exceed 50 kmh) (Do not exceed 50 kmh)

No Entry to Passenger Steps Vehicleheight of 4.5m are not allowed to enter.) Speed Limit (Do not exceed 50 kmh) Airside

Traffic Markings And Signs

Traffic Markings And Signs

Right Bend (Slow down. Keep left. Do no overtake, make a U-turn or park.) (Slow down. Keep left. Do no overtake, make a U-turn or park.)

Left Bend (Slow down. Keep left. Do no overtake, make a U-turn or park.) (Slow down. Keep left. Do no overtake, make a U-turn or park.)

Cross Junction (Slow down. Beware of approaching traffic.) (Slow down. Beware of approaching traffic.)

Side Road (Slow down. Beware of vehicles from the right.) (Slow down. Beware of vehicles from the right.)

Side Road (Slow down. Beware of vehicles from the left.) (Slow down. Beware of vehicles from the left.)

Two-way Traffic Ahead (Slow down. Keep left. Beware of oncoming traffic.) (Slow down. Keep left. Beware of oncoming traffic.)

Ahead (Slow down. Keep left. Beware of oncoming traffic.) Road narrows on one side (Slow down.

Road narrows on one side (Slow down. Do not overtake, make a U-turn or park.)

Traffic Markings And Signs
Traffic Markings And Signs

Road narrows on both sides (Slow down. Do not overtake, make a U-turn or park.) (Slow down. Do not overtake, make a U-turn or park.)

Lanes merging (Slow down. Beware of traffic merging from the right or left.) (Slow down. Beware of traffic merging from the right or left.)

Roundabout (Slow down. Stop if necessary. Give way to traffic on the right.) (Slow down. Stop if necessary. Give way to traffic on the right.)

Light signals ahead (Slow down. Beware of traffic lights changing.) (Slow down. Beware of traffic lights changing.)

Pedestrian Crossing Ahead (Slow down. Stop for pedestrians to cross.) (Slow down. Stop for pedestrians to cross.)

Road Hump Ahead (Slow down. Keep left. Do not overtake.) (Slow down. Keep left. Do not overtake.)

Tunnel Ahead (Slow down and beware of height limit.) (Slow down and beware of height limit.)

Traffic Markings And Signs

Traffic Markings And Signs

CAUTION

ROAD WORKS

AHEAD

60M

Traffic Markings And Signs CAUTION ROAD WORKS AHEAD 60M Road Works Ahead Slow down and beware
Traffic Markings And Signs CAUTION ROAD WORKS AHEAD 60M Road Works Ahead Slow down and beware

Road Works Ahead Slow down and beware of obstruction ahead.

Sharp Deviation (Slow down and drive in the direction indicated.)

Barrier (Slow down and drive carefully.)

indicated.) Barrier (Slow down and drive carefully.) One-Way Street Any vehicle parked in this zone will
indicated.) Barrier (Slow down and drive carefully.) One-Way Street Any vehicle parked in this zone will
indicated.) Barrier (Slow down and drive carefully.) One-Way Street Any vehicle parked in this zone will

One-Way Street

Any vehicle parked in this zone will have its wheel clamped

Pedestrian Crossing

in this zone will have its wheel clamped Pedestrian Crossing Pedestrian Crossing Prohibited 62 Airside Driving

Pedestrian Crossing Prohibited

Areas In The Airside To Take Extra Precaution At
Areas In The Airside To Take Extra Precaution At
9
9

AREAS IN THE AIRSIDE TO TAKE EXTRA PRECAUTION AT

AREAS IN THE AIRSIDE TO TAKE EXTRA PRECAUTION AT

9.1 Secondary Roadway @ C26 & D49

EXTRA PRECAUTION AT 9.1 Secondary Roadway @ C26 & D49 9.2 Roadway from South Perimeter towards

9.2 Roadway from South Perimeter towards T3 A21

& D49 9.2 Roadway from South Perimeter towards T3 A21 9.3 Surface roadway R3N & R5N
& D49 9.2 Roadway from South Perimeter towards T3 A21 9.3 Surface roadway R3N & R5N
& D49 9.2 Roadway from South Perimeter towards T3 A21 9.3 Surface roadway R3N & R5N

9.3 Surface roadway R3N & R5N between NC1 and NC2

T3 A21 9.3 Surface roadway R3N & R5N between NC1 and NC2 • Only 1 vehicle
T3 A21 9.3 Surface roadway R3N & R5N between NC1 and NC2 • Only 1 vehicle

• Only 1 vehicle permitted at any one time

• Special signage

• Zig-zag marking

Areas In The Airside To Take Extra Precaution At

Areas In The Airside To Take Extra Precaution At

9.4 R1S between T3 Bay 1 and B5 in front of T3 BHA

At 9.4 R1S between T3 Bay 1 and B5 in front of T3 BHA • No

• No through road for catering hi- lift and especially A380 Direct Upper Deck Catering (DUDC).

9.5 T3 Bay A20 & A21 Take note of varying height limit.

9.5 T3 Bay A20 & A21 Take note of varying height limit. 9.6 R4N/R7S @ D41
9.5 T3 Bay A20 & A21 Take note of varying height limit. 9.6 R4N/R7S @ D41

9.6 R4N/R7S @ D41

9.5 T3 Bay A20 & A21 Take note of varying height limit. 9.6 R4N/R7S @ D41
Areas In The Airside To Take Extra Precaution At
Areas In The Airside To Take Extra Precaution At

9.7 Secondary roadway which transverse apron taxiway 200s, 400s stands

roadway which transverse apron taxiway 200s, 400s stands 9.8 R4/R5S Junction Take note of traffic flow
roadway which transverse apron taxiway 200s, 400s stands 9.8 R4/R5S Junction Take note of traffic flow

9.8 R4/R5S Junction Take note of traffic flow (see arrows stated below)

400s stands 9.8 R4/R5S Junction Take note of traffic flow (see arrows stated below) Airside Driving

Areas In The Airside To Take Extra Precaution At

Areas In The Airside To Take Extra Precaution At

9.9 West Underpass 2 (W-U2) - closed with immediate effect on 18 Feb 2011 This underpass has been closed and is no longer a roadway. It will be converted in the future as a baggage screening/sorting facility for transfer hold baggage.

The said area will have height limit of 2.2m. ONLY baggage tractors will be allowed to enter.

With immediate effect. West underpass 2 (WU2) is no longer in use except for baggage tractors only.

West underpass 2 (WU2) is no longer in use except for baggage tractors only. 66 Airside
Annex A
Annex A
Annex A ANNEX A By-Law Offence Fine No.   LOW SEVERITY 10 Driver failing to allow
Annex A ANNEX A By-Law Offence Fine No.   LOW SEVERITY 10 Driver failing to allow

ANNEX A

Annex A ANNEX A By-Law Offence Fine No.   LOW SEVERITY 10 Driver failing to allow

By-Law

Offence

Fine

No.

 

LOW SEVERITY

10

Driver failing to allow free and uninterrupted passage to aircraft passenger within the airside or failing to give precedence to aircraft passenger.

$50

19

Driver failing to keep the vehicle to the right side of the runway or taxiway, in so far as it is practicable, when proceeding along a runway or taxiway.

$50

26

Vehicle towing another vehicle within the airside without the use of a suitable towbar for that purpose.

$50

30

Parking a vehicle anywhere within the airside except within a parking place set out in Part I of the 1 st schedule and in a parking lot in that parking place specifically designated by the airport licensee for the category of vehicles to which the vehicle belongs or failing to pay the parking fee specified in the 2 nd schedule or driver failing to obey traffic signs exhibited in the parking places or parking the vehicle in such a manner causing the vehicle to protrude beyond the boundaries of the parking lot or to obstruct the entrance or exit of a parking lot or parking place set out in Part I of the 1 st schedule.

$100

31(2)

Parking a vehicle, or cause or permit a vehicle to remain at rest, in a parking place within the airside in such a condition or circumstances as to appear to the airport licensee to have been abandoned without lawful authority.

$100

36

Person in charge of any equipment or vehicle used in connection with the servicing of the aircraft failing to immediately remove equipment or vehicle from the aircraft stand and any other related parking space, after the servicing of an aircraft, the aircraft has taxied or been towed away.

$50

Annex A

Annex A

48(4)

The driver of a vehicle on any road in the cargo handling area or in any part of the cargo handling area shall comply with all the traffic signs placed or erected in the cargo handling area.

$100

50(1)

No person shall park a vehicle anywhere in the cargo handling area except (a) Within a parking place set out in Part II of the First Schedule; and (b) In a parking lot in that parking place specifically designated by the airport licensee for the category of vehicles to which the vehicle belongs.

$100

50(2)

Any person who parks a vehicle in a parking place shall pay such parking fee as may be set by the airport licensee and displayed on signs affixed or placed in a conspicuous position at the entrance of the parking place.

$100

50(3)

Any person who parks a vehicle in a parking place shall obey all the traffic signs exhibited in the parking place.

$100

50(4)

No person shall park a vehicle in such a manner as to cause the vehicle to protrude beyond the boundaries of the parking lot, or to obstruct the entrance or exit of a parking lot or parking place set out in Part II of the First Schedule.

$100

50(5)

No person shall park a vehicle in a season parking lot unless he – (a) Is an authorized person; or (b) Is in possession of, and displays visibly on the vehicle for inspection, a valid season parking label issued by the airport licensee for the use of such parking lot.

$100

50(6)

No person shall park a vehicle in a reserved parking lot unless he – (a) Is an authorized person or; (b) Is in possession of, and displays visibly on the vehicle for inspection, a valid reserved parking label issued by the airport licensee for the use of such parking lot.

$100

Annex A
Annex A

50(7)

No person shall park a vehicle in an hourly parking lot unless he – (a) Is an authorized person or; (b) Is in possession of, and displays visibly on the vehicle for inspection a valid hourly parking ticket issued by the airport licensee for the use of such parking lot within the date and time stipulated on the hourly parking ticket.

$100

51(2)

No person shall park a vehicle or cause or permit a vehicle to remain at rest in the cargo handling area in such condition or circumstances as to appear to the airport licensee to have been abandoned without lawful authority.

$100

40

Passenger embark onto or disembark from an aircraft entering the airside without being escorted by an employee or agent of an airline.

$50

47(1)

No person or vehicle shall enter or leave the cargo handling area except through an entrance or exit designated by the airport licensee.

$50

49

Except with the prior permission of the airport licensee, no person shall park or stop a vehicle in any loading or unloading bay of any warehouse unit in the cargo handling area.

$100

14

Driver reversing vehicle towards an aircraft in the movement area, except where the vehicle is used for servicing that aircraft and such reversing is carried out under the direction of a vehicle marshaller.

$50

16(1)

Driver failing to keep the vehicle at least 5 metres away from any wing-tip of a stationary aircraft (shall not apply where the vehicle is directly below the wing-tip of the aircraft).

$50

24

Driving any vehicle (other than of a type pre- approved by the airport licensee for use in Baggage Handling Area) into a baggage handling area within the airside.

$100

Annex A

Annex A

15

Driver causing a vehicle to approach an aircraft which has its engines running.

$50

25

Travelling in any vehicle in the airside otherwise than seated in a passenger seat provided in the vehicle or standing in a section of the vehicle which has been constructed for standing passengers.