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B.

Verbele modale
1. Verbe puternice
2. Au forme distincte pt. prezent si trecut
3. Nu au infinitiv lung (adica cu to in fata)

Ex: I can (fara to) go
4. Nu permit dupa ele verbe la infinitiv lung
5. Nu apar niciodata singure, cu exceptia raspunsului scurt
6. Nu pot avea forma in ing
7. Nu isi pot forma toate timpurile
8. Au inlocuitori
9. Isi fac interogativul prin inversare cu subiectul
10. Isi fac negativul prin adaugarea negatiei not
11. Isi fac singure intrebarea disjuncta si raspunsul scurt

CAN
1. Can = pot ca abilitate (1) fizica si (2) mentala.
Ex: (1) I can speak English.
(2) I can do this job.
2. Se mai poate folosi cu verbe de perceptie atunci cand sugerez o actiune ce se
desfasoara in momentul vorbirii.
Ex: I can see the plane. (!si nu I am seeing)
3. Pentru a exprima posibilitatea cand exista o circumstanta in acest sens
Ex: We can go to the theatre if my friends come.
4. Pentru a exprima o cerere politicoasa
Ex: Can you help me please?
5. Pentru a exprima o imposibilitate
Ex: Can Carmen make such a thing?
6. La negativ are doua forme: cant si cannot (!nu exista can not)
7. La trecut
Can+have+participiu trecut
precum si could mai mult pt conditional
Ex: I can have done it.
I could do it.
8. Inlocuitori: to be able to, to be capable to
MAY
1. = pot, am permisiunea, mi se da voie; (In toate cazurile depind de altcineva)
Ex: May I open the window?
2. Exprimarea improbabilitatii
Ex: It may rain.
3. Exprimarea unei interdictii
Ex: People may not bring dogs into the hotel.
4. Exprimarea unei urari
Ex: May all your dreams come true.
5. Dupa verbele to hope si to trust
Ex: I hope you may find tickets for the cinema.
6. La forma negativa are doar forma may not (nu exista forma contrasa maynt)
7. La trecut are forma may have+participiu trecut si might mai ales pt conditional.
8. Inlocuitori: to be allowed to, to be permitted to
MUST
1. = trebuie, arata obligativitatea

Ex: I must go now.
2. Arata o deductie logica

Ex: As she left at four she must be at home now.
3. Negativ: mustnt (nu trebuie), neednt (nu este necesar).

4. Trecut: must + have + participiu trecut si had to.
5. Inlocuitori: to have to, to be obliged to, to be compelled to (toate = a fi obligat)
6. Diferenta dintre must si have to.
Must => arata obligativitatea din punctul meu de vedere;
Have to => arata obligativitatea impusa de altii.
Ex: I must go now.
I have to wear uniform.
NEED
1. Are 2 valori: (a) verb lexical, (b) verb modal.
(a) Verb lexical - este un verb regulat

Ex: I need a new car. Do I need a new car?
(b) Verb modal se foloseste numai in propozitii interogative si negative.

Ex: Need she get up early?
She neednt go there.
! Totusi need se poate intalni si in afirmative ca modal propozitii in care exista de
regula never, hardly, barely, scarcely
Ex: He hardly need mention his name.
2. Exista 2 constructii cu need considerate arhaice.
a) Must needs

Ex: I must needs see your teacher.
b) Needs must sugereaza ideea de sarcasm

Ex: She needs must bring me now when I have
OUGHT TO
1. Arata obligativitatea morala de a-si face datoria

Ex: I ought to go (nu are acelasi nuanta cu must)
2. Daca e urmat de have si verb la participiul trecut exprima o datorie care s-a
indeplinit

Ex: You ought to have waited till 2 oclock.
3. Nu are forma de sine statatoare de trecut. Se formeaza din:
ought + have + participiu trecut + to
Ex: Ought have invited to join the party.
4. Negativ: oughtnt
SHOULD Este mai moale ca ought to
1. Arata o datorie ca recomandare, e cel mai slab din cele care = trebuie

Ex: You should read this book.
2. Pt exprimarea supozitiei

Ex: For his age he should be taller.
3. Folosit daca e precedat de verbe ca: to suggest, to propose, to insist, to
recommend, to advice

Ex: I suggest that you should learn English.
4. Folosit cand este precedat de o constructie impersonala: it is important/ necessary/
natural/ better

Ex: It is important that you should understand.
5. Folosit dupa constructii ca: so that, in order that, for fear that, lest (ca sa nu).

Ex: I got up early for fear that/ lest/ so that I should arrive in time.
6. Dupa verbe de stari emotionale: to feel sorry for, to be delighted, to be annoyed
(uimit).

Ex: I feel sorry that he should go back. Imi pare rau ca trebuie sa se intoarca.
7. Dupa expresiile: dont know why, cant think why, see no reason why

Ex: I dont know why you should ask me that.
WOULD
1. Folosit pt. o cerere politicoasa

Ex: Would you give me your tel. number?
2. Urmat de like ca sa aiba inteles mai politicos

Ex: I would like to meet you.
3. Poate fi urmat de rather sau sooner pentru a exprima preferinta

Ex: I would rather sleep than go for a walk.
4. Pt. a exprima un obicei, actiune repetata in trecut

Ex: I would meet you whenever I crossed the road.
5. Pt a exprima probabilitatea

Ex: The man would be his neighbor.
USED TO
1. Arata un obicei trecut

Ex: I used to visit my grand parents when I was child.
2. A nu se confunda cu to be used to care cere dupa ea verbul in ing

Ex: I am used to getting up early. (sunt obisnuit cu sculatul de dimineata)
DARE
1. Are 2 valori: (a) modala; (b) lexicala.
(a) Valoarea modala in propozitii negative si interogative.

Ex: Dare you say this? (indraznesti sa spui asta)
I darent go there (nu indraznesc sa merg acolo)
(b) valoare ca verb lexical in propozitii afirmative fiind verb regulat.

Ex: I dare to ask you about my dog.
I dare say = I suppose
I dare say I will invite them to dinner.
I daresay = I accept
I daresay you are right again.
! Pt a exprima indignarea se foloseste

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