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The Discovery of the Mammalian Egg and the Foundation of Modern Embryology

Author(s): K. E. von Baer and George Sarton


Source: Isis, Vol. 16, No. 2 (Nov., 1931), pp. 315-377
Published by: The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The History of Science Society
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The discovery of the mammalian
egg and the foundation of modern
embryology
With a complete facsimile (no. XIII) of K. E. VON BAER'S fun-
damental memoir: De ovi mammalium et hominis genesi (Leipzig,
I827).
i. Early embryology, 2. v. BAER'S immediate predecessors,
3. His own discovery, 4. Publication of the Epistola, I827, 5. Ana-
lysis of the Epistola, 6. Reception of his discovery, 7. His later
work, 8. His colleagues. The Baltic founders of modern em-
bryology, 9. His life, io. Bibliography, II.
Iconography,
12. Thanks.
Facsimile no. XIII: De ovi mammalium et hominis genesi (Leipzig,
I827).
i. Early embryology.
-
Though the embryological knowledge
taught in our medical schools is relatively recent, a complete
history of embryology would take us back to the earliest times.
Indeed we may assume that every thinking man has asked himself
some questions with regard to the formation and development
of embryos, for such questions are continually forced upon him
by life itself. Any attempt to answer them, however crude,
was a contribution to embryology, and the elaborate treatises
available to modern students have been gradually produced by
the constant accumulation, selection, improvement, arrangement,
and rearrangement of the answers.
The medical schools of Cos, Cnidos, and of Sicily showed
already much interest in the subject, and the earliest systematic
treatment of it may be found in a group of Hippocratic treatises
which are probably of Cnidian origin and date from the first
quarter of the fourth century B. C. (i) Somewhat later appeared
(I) SARTON, Introduction (vol. I,
119-21,
etc.).
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3I6 G. SARTON
-ARISTOTLE's treatise De generatione animalium, then later still
various writings of the Alexandrian
school,
finally those of
GALFN,
which were the culmination of more than six centuries of scientific
efforts. To make a detailed examination of embryological ideas
down to the seventeenth century would take us too far away.
It will suffice to say that the mediaeval thoughts on the subject
were
dominated,
directly or indirectly, by the writings of ARISTOTLE
and GALEN.
In the seventeenth century new and fundamental investigations
were made by HIERONYMUS FABRICIUS AB AQUAPENDENTE (De
formato foetu, c. I604;
etc.),
by WILLIAM HARVEY (Exercitationes
de generatione animalium, London, i 65 I), and by MARCELLO
MALPIGHI (Deformatione pulli in ovo, London, I673; etc.). MAL-
PIGHI S papers containing many careful observations, splendidly
illustrated, seemed to open a very promising field, but unfortunately
his investigations and those of contemporary microscopists, notably
SWAMMERDAM and LEEUWENHOEK, were soon thrown into the
background by unprofitable discussions. At least they seem to
have been unprofitable; they were certainly premature.
These discussions were of two kinds. First in chronological
order and also in importance, there was the conflict between
epigenesists and < evolutionists a. The former claimed that the
development of the egg or of the embryo was really a new develop-
ment, a new creation or construction-like that of a house by
means of undifferentiated stones. This was really the Aristotelian
and the Harveian point of view. According to the # evolutionists >
on the contrary, the embryological development was simply an
unfolding, an evolution (hence their name), comparable to that
of the bud opening out into a flower. This theory of pre-formation
(or pre-delineation) received, curiously enough, the support of
two of the best biological observers of that time (and indeed
of all times), MALPIGHI and SWAMMERDAM, and there was in
it something mystical which made a strong appeal to the more
philosophically minded among the naturalists, ALBRECHT VON
HALLER and CHARLES BONNET, not to speak of philosophers,
such as LEIBNIZ. Under philosophical patronage these ideas were
soon carried to their logical conclusion, the absurd theory of the
incasement (emboitement) of germs. This implied for example
-as SWAMMERDAM'S eccentric genius had already seen it-that
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......1 I....0 f . :
Isis, XVI, P1. 5. (I792-I876) G. SARTON.~~. . ... ....
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Monument v. BAER (Dorpat)
Isis, XVT, pi. 6.
G. SARTON.
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THE DISCOVERY OF THE MAMMALIAN EGG 317
mother Eve carried the whole of mankind neatly folded in her
womb.
The other discussion was started by the sensational discovery
of spermatozoa which LEEUWENHOEK published in I678. Accor-
ding to him and his followers,-the animalculists (or spermists),
-the sperm was the real germ, the female egg being only a sort
of nest wherein this germ was hatched. Their adversaries, called
ovists (or ovulists), claimed that the egg was the true germ and
that the sperm was comparatively insignificant.
Thus was the fine observational tradition of the seventeenth
century interrupted, or at any rate considerably slowed down
for more than a century by discussions which were
irrelevant,
because they were too far ahead of the experimental data. The
only work of the eighteenth century which continued the efforts
of FABRICUS, HARVEY, and MALPIGHI and deserves to be quoted
together with theirs was that of CASPAR FRIEDRICH WOLFF (Theoria
generationis, Halle, I759; Deformatione intestinorum, St. Petersburg,
I768-69). WOLFF'S investigations were very remarkable, and they
earned VON BAER'S unstinted admiration; in some respects they
were almost prophetic, for example we find in them an adumbration
of the theory of germ layers; yet his actual observations were
hardly on the high level which MALPIGHI had attained almost
a century before.
2. Baer's immediate predecessors.
- So much for the
distant background, but as we come nearer to the discovery
to which this paper is devoted, we want to see the stage more
clearly. A good account of the antecedents of his discovery
was given by v. BAER himself in his
autobiography (i866, 306-26),
and more briefly in the preface to the memoir reproduced below
(p.
i-v). I have checked the main points of it to my satisfaction.
V. BAER begins by explaining the unsuccessful experiments made
by HALLER, in 1752, on some forty sheep, and later, on other
animals. As HALLER failed to recognize anything like an egg
except in a relatively late stage (after a fortnight), he concluded
that only a fluid substance was carried to the uterus, and that
after a long time out of that fluid <(curdled )> (gerinnen) not only
the chorion but the embryo itself. This may seem fantastic,
but consider HALLER's evidence; he found no trace of an egg
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318 G. SARTON
anywhere if the dissection was made too soon after the ewes
had been covered, but if one waited a little longer a small embryo
was discovered in the womb. Thanks to HALLER'S immense
authority his conclusion was generally accepted, and it was taught
in the medical schools until the very time of v. BAER'S discovery;
v. BAER himself learned it in Dorpat. (2)
Yet glimpses of the truth had been already seen by at least
three men, duly mentioned by v. BAER. In I797 (I778)
(3)
WILLIAM CUMBERLAND CRUIKSHANK of Edinburgh had found ova,
considerably sinaller than the Graafian vesicles, in the oviducts
of a rabbit three days after impregnation, and on the fourth
day, he found them in the uterus. These experiments (29 in
number) were very remarkable indeed, and, being published in
one of the leading scientific journals of the time, it is strange
that they did not attract more attention. The only explanation
is that the prejudice against the concept of mammalian egg,
a prejudice confirmed by HALLER'S authority, was then too strong
to be shaken.
(4)
CRUIKSHANK'S observations were repeated by JEAN Louis
PRE1VOST (I790-I850) and the future chemist, JEAN BAPTISTE DUMAS
(I800-84) and published in their memoir De la generation dans
les mammiferes et des premiers indices du developpement de l'embryon
(Annales des sciences naturelles, vol. 3, II3-38, 3 pl., Paris, I824).
Finally, another approach to the complete discovery was made
in I825 by the great Czech biologist, JOHN EVANGELISTA PURKINJE
(1787-I869), a man whose versatile genius has not yet received
(2) CARL FRIEDRICH BURDACH, Die Physiologie als Erfahrungswissenschaft. Mit
Beitriigen von K. E. v. BAER und HEINRICH RATHKE (6 vols., Leipzig, 1826-40;
vol. I,
75).
(3)
CRUIKSHANK'S experiments were made at Chelsea in I778 at HUNTER'S
expense, but were not ((read)) until
I797
(Philosophical Transactions, vol. for
1797, I97-214, I pI.)
(4)
HALLER had expressed himself wery strongly. ((Denique, quod caput
rei est, neque HARTMANNUS cum experimenta Grafflana iteravit; neque VALISNERUS
tot et tam variis in bestiis; neque ego in pene centum experimentis; neque
nuperiorum anatomicorum quispiam, vesiculam, quales sunt in ovariis, post
c.onceptionem, aut in tuba vidimus aut in utero. )) Quoted by CRUIKSHANK
(Op. Cit., p. I99). CRUIKSHANK had an immense admiration for HALLER
-
((cujus
auctoritas (he said, repeating another's saying) apud me plus valet quam auctoritas
*omnium aliorum anatomicorum simul sumptorum)). Happily this did not blind
him to the facts.
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THE DISCOVERY OF THE MAMMALIAN EGG 3I9
all the fame it deserves. He described the germinal vesicle in
the chicken's egg (Symbolae ad ovi avium historiam ante incuba-
tionem, Breslau, 1825; quoted in the facsimile below, p. 25),
and thus by building so-to-say a bridge between the avian egg
and the mammalian one, made the concept of the latter more
plausible. Indeed mammalian ova as compared with bird's eggs
wvere exceedingly small, of microscopic size. This is accounted
by the fact that the bird's egg being expelled from the bird's
body, must be entirely self sufficient and contain all the food
which will be necessary to build up the embryo. But if one
considers only the germinal part of it-and PURKINJE's discovery
made this for the first time possible-the eggs of birds and mam-
mals are brought much nearer to each other.
3. Baer's own discovery.
-
It is thus clear that v. BAER'S
great discovery did not come out of the blue sky,-no discovery
ever does. The young K6nigsberg anatomist was well acquainted
with the works of his predecessors. None of these had actually
clinched the argument, and the best proof of it is that they had
failed to convince anybody; they had not even completed their
own conviction. Yet, thanks to their efforts the concept of
mammalian egg had become plausible; it had been rescued from
the oblivion to which HALLER's absolutism had condemned it.
Prejudices were not yet overcome, but the question was re-opened
and it was now possible for an intelligent and persistent man
of science to investigate it anew, more thoroughly, and perhaps
to solve it. This was v. BAER'S achievement. His own account
of his discovery is so moving that we cannot do better than to
reproduce it verbatim (Selbstbiographie, I866, 3IO-I 2):
((So standen die Untersuchungen ilber diesen Gegenstand, als ich mich in ihn
zu vertiefen anfing. Im Jahre i826 hatte ich schon mehrmals kleine durchsichtige
Eier von I /2 bis I I/2 Linien
(5)
Durchmesser, wie PREVOST und DUMAS sie
gesehen hatten, in den Hornern des Uterus und selbst in den Eileitern gefunden,
im Friihlinge I827 aber bedeutend kleinere, viel weniger durchsichtige und
deshalb kenntliche in den Eileitern. Ich zweifelte nicht, diese auch fur Eier
zu halten, da es ja wahrscheinlich war, dass die Dottermasse auch bei Saugethieren
ursprunglich undurchsichtig seyn werde. Ich sprach im April oder in den ersten
Tagen des Mai des zuletzt genannten Jahres mit BURDACH daruber, dass ich
gar nicht mehr in Zweifel seyn k6nne, die Eier der Saugethiere kiamen fertig
(5)
I. e., I to 3 mm. (G. S.)
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320 G. SARTON
gebildet aus dem Eierstocke, und dass ich sehr wunschte, eine Hiundin zu erhalten,
die erst vor ein Paar Tagen sich belaufen habe. Nach PRIVOST'S und DUMAS'S Beo-
bachtungen musste man namlich glauben, dass man um diese Zeit bei Hunden die
Graafischen Blischen noch geschlossen finden werde, aber reif zur Er6ffnung. Man
glaubte damals, dass die Eroffnung der Eikapsel oder der Graafischen Blaischen
unmittelbar von der Paarung abhange, was nicht richtig ist. Zufaillig besass
BURDACH im eigenen Hause eine solche Hiindin, die langere Zeit schon Haus-
genossin gewesen war. Sie wurde geopfert. Als ich sie offnete, fand ich einige
Graafische Blaschen geborsten, keine dem Bersten sehr nahe. Indem ich, nieder-
geschlagen, dass die Hoffnung wieder nicht erfilllt sey, den Eierstock betrachtete,.
bemerkte ich ein gelbes Fleckchen in einem Blischen, sodann auch in mehreren
andern, ja in den meisten, und immer nur ein Fleckchen. Sonderbar ! dachte
ich, was muss das seyn? Ich offnete ein Blaschen und hob vorsichtig das Fleck-
chen mit dem Messer in ein mit Wasser gefuilltes Uhrglas, das ich unter das
Mikroskop brachte. Als ich in dieses einen Blick geworfen hatte, fuhr ich, wie
vom Blitze getroffen, zuriick, denn ich sah deutlich eine sehr kleine, scharf aus-
gebildete gelbe Dotterkugel. Ich musste mich erholen, ehe ich den Muth hatte,
wieder hinzusehen, da ich besorgte, ein Phantom habe mich betrogen. Es scheirt
sonderbar, dass ein Anblick, den n-ian erwartet und ersehnt hat, erschrecken
kann, wenn er da ist. Allerdings war aber doch etwas unerwartetes dabei. Ich
hatte mir nicht gedacht, dass der Inhalt des Eies der Saiugethicie dem Dottcr dei
V6gel so ahnlich sehen wiurde. Da ich aber nur ein einfaches Mikroskop mit
dreifacher Linse hingestellt hatte, war die Vergr6sserung nur massig und die
gelbe Farbe blieb kenntlich, die bei stairkerer Vergr6sserung und Beleuchtung
von unten, schwarz erscheint. Was mich erschreckte, war also dass ich ein
scharf umschriebenes, von einer starken Haut umschlossenes, regelmaissiges
Kugelchen vor mir sah, von dem Vogeldotter nur durch die derbe, etwas abstehende
aussere Haut unterschieden. Auch die klevnen undurchsichtigen Eichen, die
ich im Eileiter gefunden hatte, hatten nur eine gelblich-weisse Fairbung gehabt,
ohne Zweifel veil der Dotter schon in Auflosung begriffen war; die grossern
waren durchsichtig. Es wurden noch mehrere solcher unaufgeloster Dotterkugeln
ausgehoben, und alle auch von BURDACH gesehen, der bald hinzugekommen
war. )
(The rest of v. BAER'S account is equally interesting, but more
technical.)
To those who would be tempted to give too much credit to
CRUIKSHANK, PR1EVOST, and DUMAS, for their remarkable anticipa-
tions of this discovery, I would point out in this quotation, the
sentences expressing v. BAER'S emotion when he had just made
it. When he first saw the minuscule sphere of yolk which was
the egg he had been dreaming of, he was so struck that he was
obliged to rest himself before he had the courage to look a second
time into his microscope; he was afraid of having been deluded
by a phantom. This proves satisfactorily that the discovery could
not be considered as already completed at the time that v. BAER
made it, for he who had read anterior observations, and had
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THE DISCOVERY OF THE MAMMALIAN EGG 321
pondered over them, was so far from being convinced by them
that he was still in the expectant and adventurous stage of mind
which his description reveals.
4. Publication of the Epistola (I827). --- The discovery was
made in April or in the early days of May. The author hastily
completed it by a number of correlative observations, and wrote
a long miemoir on the subject. The Imperial Academy of
St. Petersbrug had just elected him a corresponding menmber,
and to return the compliment the memoir was written in the
form of a Latin letter addressed to that Academy <(on the genesis
of the egg of mammals and of man>). This awkward title (as
if man was not one of the mammals) was used by the author
to assert that the discovery applied to man as well as to other
mammals; though his observations were made primarily on dogs,
he had actually observed the eggs of other mammals including
man (see fig. XIII). The memoir was sent about the middle
of July 1827 to the publisher LEOPOLD Voss in Leipzig. For
the amateur of bibliographical details, I miay add that though
its cover bears the date 1827, it did not appear until January 1828.
5. Analysis of the Epistola.
-
As this memorable publication
is written in Latin, a brief analysis of it will increase the usefulness
of the facsimile given below. The introductory letter addressed
to the Russian Academy contains a brief history of the subject;
note (on p. III) the discussion of the relation of the ova to the
Graafian vesicles to which I shall come back presently. The
treatise itself begins with a description of dog's embryos. In
the second chapter, the earlier stages of the development of the
dog's ova are considered. This may seem an unnatural order,
but it was justified because it was better first to consider the
more familiar objects, and then to pass on to the less familiar
and the unknown. It would be too long to give an account
of these observations, but they are not very difficult to follow
with the help of the author's drawings, and his references to
other observations can easily be detected even by one having
but little knowledge of Latin. Of course one weakness of this
memoir (and of many others for a long time afterwards) was
the very imperfect dating of some of the embryonic materials,
but this was unavoidable. Remember this was the very beginning
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322 G. SARTON
of modern embryology, and to make possible the dating-even
approximate-of eggs and embryos of various animals considerable
embryological experience was needed (unless they were dated
by
the very conditions of the experiment). In chapter 3, v. BAER
studies the ova found in dog's ovaries; in
chapter 4, the structure
of the Graafian vesicles and the ova of mammals in
general.
This completes the analytical part of the
work, which is followed
by the synthesis divided into two chapters: 5. Sketch of the
embryological development of
mammals; 6. Comparison of the
eggs of mammals with those of other animals. The writing
of this last chapter was made possible by PURKINJE's discovery
of the germinative spot in the chicken's egg; that discovery had
been published in 1825 but v. BAER
only heard of it in the autumn
of i826, a few months before his own discovery, when his mind
was maturing for it.
His conclusions with regard
to the relation of
eggs to Graafian
vesicles deserve to be translated verbatim (See p.
32;
the under-
lining is the author's own).
( When we take the
ovary and in general the maternal organism
into consideration, the Graafian vesicle is thus the real egg of mammals.
However, as far as its development is
concerned, it diverges widely
from the egg of other animals; these are carried intact out of the
ovary, and they not only provide for the fetus a place of develop-
ment, they transform themselves into that fetus. In the mammals
the embedded vesicle contains a more developed yolk and behaves
with regard to the coming embryo as the real egg. It might be called
the fetal egg within the maternal egg. The mammals have thus
an egg within an egg, or, if this way of putting it may be allowed,
an egg in the second power. >
These considerations must seem very strange to present day
embryologists, but to appreciate them correctly they must bear
in mind many facts. To begin with, v. BAER passed the formative
years of his youth-the years during which he finally found himself
-in Wiirzburg and obtained there the best part of his scientific
education under the guidance of the anatomist IGNAZ DOLLINGER
(I770-1841), and through D6LLINGER he also imbibed SCHELLING' S
( Naturphilosophie *>. It is not here the place to discuss the
scientific consequences of that romantic philosophy; some were
disastrous, but others were excellent, and among these must
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THE DISCOVERY OF THE MAMMALIAN EGG 323
be quoted the synthetic endeavors of such men as OERSTED and
V. BAER.
In the second place, and perhaps more to the point, the under-
standing of the Graafian vesicles and of their relations to the
;embryos was vague and uncertain in v. BAER'S time (see his preface,
p.
III). We may recall that a careful description of these vesicles
was first made by the Dutch anatomist REGNER DE GRAAF (De
mulierum organis generationi inservientibus, Leiden, I 672), and they
were mistaken by him for eggs (6); hence they were at first called
ovula Graafiana. HALLER and others investigated them and never
observed these so-called eggs except in the ovaries; in particular
they never found them either in the oviducts or in the womb;
on the other hand, after a longer time, eggs or embryos were
found in the womb. HALLER concluded, first, that these ovula
were not eggs, and their name was changed into vesiculae (or
folliculae) Graafianae, second, that the real eggs crystallized in
the womb out of a fluid substance. The first conclusion was
right, the second, wrong. Now the link between vesicles and
embryo which HALLER had been unable to find, had finally been
detected by v. BAER. This was indeed the essence of his discovery:
he had seen the real eggs appear within the walls of the Graafian
vesicles; he had followed them along the oviduct into the womb,
where he had watched their further development. Thus HALLER
was wrong: the eggs were not created in the womb, but in the
vesicles. In his reaction against the great master HALLER, V. BAER
was carried too far and returned with his enriched knowledge
to DE GRAAF'S original position, if not to a cruder one: the vesicles
Dfound in mammalian ovaries are equivalent to the birds' eggs.
But then what of the new eggs discovered by him ? v. BAER
saw no way out but to call them (eeggs within eggs #>, (< eggs in
the second power #>, a feeble compromise to be sure. We must
add that a deeper investigation of the facts was materially impossible
without the histological knowledge and technique which did not
become available until much later.
(6) DE GRAAF'S interpretation was far more
complex
and nearer the truth than
can be gathered from v. BAER'S summary of it. According to DE GRAAF the
vesicles were less eggs, than egg nests, but of course he had no idea of the nature
of the egg itself nor of its ulterior development. See B. OTTOW'S preface to
v. BAER'S memoir (Leipzig, 1927, p. VI).
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324 G. SARTON
I have discussed this question because of its psychological
interest. A man makes a great discovery and misinterprets it
because he is hypnotized by earlier ideas. The history of science
is full of similar examples. It shows that the most difficult
thing of all is to see things as they are, without preconception.
Few people are able to do it at all, and these few only by inter-
mittence.
I had another good reason for discussing it. v. BAER'S hesitant
explanation of his discovery is practically unknown. Indeed
nobody reads his memoir of 1827, and the few embryologists
and historians who have some knowledge of its contents, have
obtained it from v. BEAR'S autobiography. Now that autobiography
(like all other works of the same kind) does not tell the whole
truth. Though some twenty pages are devoted to the Epistola,
no mention is made of the author's half-hearted interpretation
of his own observations.
For other considerations on the Graafian and Purkinjean vesicles,
on the corpus luteum and the thecae folliculi, I must refer to
the original memoir (p. 25-35), as it is obviously impossible to
discuss every point of it. I shall only quote the final conclusions:
< Every animal, which is begotten by a sexual union, develops
out of an egg; none out of a formative liquor. (7)
< The male semen acts through the eggskin (cuticula ovi), which
contains no aperture, upon the egg and especially upon a definite
part of it.
< Every development strives from the center toward the peri-
phery. The central parts are thus formed before the external ones.
<( The process of development is the same for all vertebrates.
It begins with the backbone.))
6. Reception of v. Baer's discovery.
-
In spite of the pains
he had taken to re-explain his discovery in German in HEUSINGER'S
Zeitschrift fur organische Physik (vol. 2, January, I828), it made
(7)
Let me repeat that the concept of formnative liquor, whence the egg developed
in the womb long after mating, was the accepted one in 1827. A few years before,
in 1824, a memoir of HAUSMANN, explaining that concept had been crownedi
by the scientific society of Gbttingen. This HAUSMANN, who became director
of the veterinary school of Hanover, published an enlarged and improved edition
of his memoir in 1840 !(G. S.)
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THE DISCOVERY OF THE MAMMALIAN EGG 325
but little stir. Throughout the year i 828, the reaction toward
his memoir was-as v. BAER'S puts it-(( altum silentium >. When
he attended the meeting of the Versammlung der Naturforscher,
in Berlin, in September of that year, none of the anatomists
whom he met knew a word of it. He was too proud to mention
the subject himself, and it was only on the last day that he was
given a chance to demonstrate his views. This was due to the
interest of the Swedish anatomist, ANDERS RETZIUS (1796-I860),
whose mind was uncommonly versatile and receptive. Among
the small group of scientists who attended his demonstration
were JOHANN MULLER, ERNST WEBER, and PURKINJE.
The silence was broken in the following year (I 829). One
may say that v. BAER's discovery was on the whole well received,
without special enthusiasm it is true, but with few discordant
notes. A deeper appreciation of it happened only later, gradually,
as embryological knowledge developed.
After the establishment of the cellular theory by THEODOR
SCHWANN, in I839, V. BAER's discovery and its abundant fruits
were re-explained in the new language. (8) Of course this was
not a new discovery, but simply a re-interpretation. It is
interesting to note that embryology was already well advanced
when the cellular theory was finally understood. This is an
excellent illustration of the fact that discoveries do not necessarily
follow one another in a logical order; the human spirit groping
in the darkness does not follow by any means the shortest path.
7. v. Baer's later work.
-
I have devoted so much space to
the Epistola of i827 because it was truly the foundation stone
of modern embryology. It niust be judged in that light. Leaving
aside chronological considerations, its intrinsic importance was
much smaller than that of v. BAER'S ulterior publications on
the same subject. His main embryological work was the great
treatise entitled Uber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere. Beoach-
tung und
Reflexion of which the first part appeared in I828 and
the second in I837 (both in Kdnigsberg; for an account of them
see Selbstbiographie, i866, 297-300, 33I-43, 389-99, 447-51). If the
Epistola may be called the foundation stone of modern emibryology,
(8) In the Epistola reproduced below note that the term oviculum is practically
equivalent to our egg cell, while ovum refers to a later stage.
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326 G. SARTON
these two volumes were really the whole foundations of it. To
be sure they embodied the investigations not only of the author
but of many other scientists; they realized a great structural
effort: the creation of a new branch of science. They contained
a very elaborate account of one of the fundamental doctrines
of embryology, the theory of germ layers (Keimbliitter), which
had been vaguely outlined by WOLFF and clearly explained by
V. BAER'S colleague, PANDER, in I817. But they did not contain,
except by way of general indication,
the recapitulation theory
-i.e., the theory that the embryonic development of each creature
is a brief recapitulation of its ancestral history. That theory
was elaborated by FRITZ MUiLLER (I821-97) in his book Fur
Darwin
(Leipzig, I864), and popularized by HAECKEL.
(9)
As I have spoken above (? i) of the old conflict between the
epigenesists and the (< evolutionists >, it is well to state V. BAER'S
attitude with regard to it. It was to some extent a compromising
attitude. The egg and sperm do not inhe it and contain organs,
but in some way or another they must contain patterns, inasmuch
as the development of a given kind of fertilized egg always occurs
in the same way. To quote his own words (Selbstbiographie,
i866, 319):
("Vorhergebildet (praiformirt) ist das korperliche gar nicht, wohl aber ist der
Gang der Entwickelung ganz der Gang, welchen die Aeltern durchlaufen haben.
(9)
The law of development formulated by v. B3AER according to which the
growing organism passes from the general to the
particular,
would be
interpreted
to-day in the light of the doctrine of
recapitulation,
but v. BAER did not. On
the contrary he denied that doctrine for one reason because no adult animal
ever has a yolk-stalk or is surrounded by amniotic fluid.
Note that denial of the doctrine implied that it was already in existence, and
I have traced it back to JOHANN FRIEDRICH MECKEL (1781-1833) who wrote in
I8I I (I quote from HI. F. OSBORN: From the Greeks to
Darwin, 2nd ed., New
York, 1929, 308). ((There is no good physiologist who has not been struck,
incidentally, by the observation that the original form of all organisms is one
and the same, and that out of this one form, all, the lowest as well as the highest,
are developed in such a manner that the latter pass through the permanent forms
of the former as transitory stages.))
This was generalizing on rather scanty foundations but the idea was there.
Perhaps it even antedates MECKEL. I found a reference to a comparison made
in 1793 by KARL FRiEDRICH VON KIELMEYER (1765-I844)-a very inspiring German
biologist and philosopher who was CUvIER's teacher-of a tadpole to an adult
fish. I wonder if that had much influence in the development of the doctrine.
(From a private letter by J. P. M.)
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THE DISCOVERY OF THE MAMMALIAN EGG 327
So ist grade das Unsichtbare, der Verlauf der Entwickelung vorausbestimmt,
und giebt mit sehr geringen Variationen dasselbe Resultat, das der Entwickelungs-
gang der Aeltern gehabt hatte. Man kann also sagen, dass der Lebensprocess
ein continuirlicher ist durch den ganzen Stamm der Nachkommnenschaft, der nur
von Zeit zu Zeit schlummert (in der Eibildung namlich) und neue Individuen
schafft, indem er nach einer Befruchtung seinen Verlauf neu beginnt, bei der
Sprossenbildung aber seinen Verlauf nur fortsetzt, so dass die Sprossen, werin
sie vom Mutterkorper sich losen um ein eigenes Leben zu fiihren, den Anfang
desselben nicht selbstandig besassen, sondern ihn von dem Stammkorper hatten.
Je niederer die Organisation eines lebenden Individuums ist, desto mehr ist
die Fortpflanzung nur eine Verlangerung des individuellen Lebens, so dass auf
den tiefsten Stufen des Lebens das Wachsthum ganz unmittelbar in die Theilung
in mehre Individuen iibergeht.))
8. v. Baer's colleagues. The Baltic founders of modern
embryology. - If only to complete my account of the genesis
of v. BAER'S discovery, we must say a few words of at least two
colleagues of his, who share with him the glory of being the
outstanding embryological pioneers.
HEINRICH CHRISTIAN PANDER, born at Riga in 1794; studied
in Dorpat, Berlin, and G6ttingen, and finally, at v. BAER'S sugges-
tion, in Wiirzburg under D6LLINGER. His investigation of the
germ layers in the chick's embryo, published in I 817, was a
product of his Wiirzburg days. In I826, he was appointed a
member of the Russian Academy, but resigned the following
year. He died in I865.
MARTIN HEINRICH RATHKE was born in Danzig, 1793; he studied
in G6ttingen under BLUMENBACH, then taught physiology in
Dorpat, and after v. BAER'S departure for St. Petersburg replaced
him in Konigsberg. He discovered the branchial slits in the
embryo and the circulation ad hoc. This was a very startling
discovery, which would become a splendid illustration of the
future recapitulation theory. He continued his work in Konigs-
berg until his death in i86o.
It is very remarkable that these three men, v. BAER, RATHKE,
and PANDER hailed from the southern Baltic region.
v. BAER
was an Esthonian, PANDER, a Latvian, and RATHKE came from
Danzig. The three were at a time connected with Dorpat;
v. BAER
and RATHKE taught in K6nigsberg;
PANDER and v. BAER were
members of the Russian Academy, which was thus continuing
a fine tradition, for WOLFF had spent the last thirty years of
his life in its service (I764-94). PURKINJE, who has been many
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32 8 G. SARTON
tim,s m2ntioned above, and was also one of the
founders,
was
a Czech (born in Leitmeritz, I787; died in Prague, I869).
9. v. Baer s life.-KARL ERNST VON BAER was born at Piep,
in Esthonia, in 1792. His father was a srmall landowner. KARL
ERNST was educated in Reval and Dorpat, and finally in Wiirzburg,
where DOLLINGER exerted a deep influence upon him, at once
from the scientific and from the philosophic point of view. While
in Wiirzburg, he collaborated with PANDER. After a brief stay
in Berlin, he was invited by BURDACH in 18I7, to join him in
Kbnigsberg. He remained in Kbnigsberg seventeen years, being
in turn prosector and professor. In 1834, he was appointed
librarian of the Russian Academy. From then on the greatest
part of his life was spent in St. Petersburg, until his retirement
in Dorpat where he died in 1876.
The golden years of his life were undoubtedly the seventeen
years spent in Kbnigsberg. His main work was done then and
there, and his famie is based upon his activities of that time, I817-34.
After the publication of the second part of his Entwickelungs-
geschichte, in 1837 (which was really a fruit of the Kbnigsberg
period), his interest was gradually withdrawn from embryology,
and devoted to zoology (chiefly ichthyology), geography, anthro-
pology, and to historical or philosophical questions. It should
be noted that his anthropological curiosity, though greatly fostered
by the exploration of the immense Russian territories in which
he took part, was not a novelty. In fact in I824 he had already
published an elaborate treatise on the subject: Vorlesungen iiber
Anthropologie f ur den Selbstuwnterricht bearbeitet. Erster Theil
(XXVI
+
525
P.,
ii
pl.,
K6nigsberg, I824).
During the Petersburg years, v. BAER traveled considerably
and yet found time to write a large number of papers and books
on many subjects, in German and in Russian. Though his activity
was then of great importance for the organization of Russian
science, no publication of that time does begin to compare with
those which were written or matured in Konigsberg.
It is typical of v. BAER'S philosophical orientation that in his
old age he wrote a couple of papers against Darwinism (reprinted
in his Reden, vol. 2, 1876, p. 170-480) in the name of conformity
to natural law and <(Zielstrebigkeit >>. In this however his fortune
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THE DISCOVERY OF THE MAMMALIAN EGG 329
was very similar to CUVIER'S. Even as some of the best arguments
for the theory of evolution were found in the latter's own contribu-
tions, v. BAER became, in spite of his anti-Darwinian theories,
one of the apostles of the new biological philosophy. Indeed
one of the best approaches to that philosophy is the embryological
and v. BAER was naturally considered the fountain-head of that
particular line of argument. This is legitimate, even if one does
not ascribe to him the famous recapitulation theory which became
the favorite war horse of the evolutionists. HERBERT SPENCER
derived his theory of evolution from the homogeneous to the
heterogeneous in part from v. BAER'S investigations.
This is an additional proof of the preeminence of observations
over theories. The anti-Darwinian v. BAER was not simply the
founder of modern
embryology, he was one of the pioneers of
the evolutionary philosophy.
io. Bibliography.
-
The fundamental source is the Selbst-
biographie published in i866 (( Nachrichten iiber Leben und Schriften
des Herrn Geheimraths Dr. Karl Ernst von Baer, mitgetheilt von
ihm selbst. Verbffentlicht bei Gelegenheit seines ffinfzigj ihrigen
Doctor-Jubiliums am 29. August I864 von der Ritterschaft
Ehstlands # (xvi +
519 P.,
St. Petersburg, i866). With portrait
and catalogue raisonne of his writings. A second edition, not
available to me, appeared in Brunswick, i886.
v. BAER'S main philosophical and historical publications were
collected in his Reden gehalten in wissenschaftlichen Versammlungen
und kleinere Aufsdtze vermischten Inhalts
(3
vols., St. Petersburg;
vol. I, I864; vol. 2, 1876; vol. 3, I873). The following papers
deal with historical subjects. In vol. i, on SWAMMERDAM, SAMUEL
THOMAS von SOMMERING, ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT. In vol. 3,
on the views of the ancients concerning swan song, the travels
of ODYSSEUS, the commercial road crossing Russia in the fifth
century B. C., SOLOMON'S Ophir. Vol. z contains only philoso-
phical papers, e.g., his anti-Darwinian contributions.
Fragments relating to philosophical zoology, selected from his
works, in the Scientific Memoirs edited by ARTHUR HENFREY and
THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY
(P.
176-238, London, I853).
The Latin memoir reproduced below was republished in German
form, somewhat expanded, by the author himself in the Zeitschrift
Io
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330
G. SARTON
fur organische Physik (vol. 2,
125-I93,
i828). This was a short
lived periodical edited by C. FRIEDRICH HEUSINGER
(3
vOls.
I8z2-28). It was translated into French by GILBERT BRESCHET
Lettre sur la formation de l'wuf dans 1'espece humainie et dans les
mammiferes
(84
p., Paris, 1829), and into German by B. OTTOW:
Uber die Bildung des Eies der Sdugetiere und des AMenschen. This
German version was published in I927
by
the publishers of the
original memoir (LEOPOLD Voss in Leipzig) as a part of the centen-
nial commemoration (Isis, 12,
381).
REMIGIUS ST6LZE: KARL ERNST VON BAER und seine Weltan-
schanun1g (xi + 688
p.,
Regensburg, I897). WILHELM HAACKE
K. E. v. BAER (VII + 175
p.,
Klassiker der Naturwissenaschaften, 3,
Leipzig; preface dated i9o5).
Studies on v. BAER by V. VERNADSKIJ, NI. SOLOVJEV, and E. RAD-
L.OV, were published by the Russian Academy (71 p. in Russian,
Leningrad, 1927).
i i.
Iconography.
- The portrait of v. BAER which we reproduce
bears the inscription (( Stich und Druck v. WEGER in Leipzig a;
it was published in the first vol. of Reden (St Petersburg, I864);
also in the Selbstbiographie (St Petersburg, i866). Of the monu-
m-ient which was erected in Dorpat to celebrate his memory,
I have a faded photograph made by TH. JOHN, Alexander Strasse,
Dorpat, in or after 1876. Our reproduction was made from
a new photograph kindly sent to us by the librarian of the Univer-
sity of Dorpat (Tartu).
I2. Thanks. - The
present
facsimile- no. XIII of our series
of scientific classics-was made upon the original copy belonging
to the Harvard Museum of Comparative Anatomy whose courtesy
is hereby acknowledged. It was photostatted at the Library of
Congress, thanks to Mr. F. E. BRASCH's kindness. The facsimile
is complete but somewhat reduced, the original being of quarto
size
(30 X 23.5 cm.). Professor J. PLAYFAIR MCMURRICH, Of
Toronto, kindly read my manuscript, and added a note on the
theory of recapitulation (see p. 326).
November 9, I929. GEORGE SARTON.
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D E
OV I
MAMMALIUM
ET HOMINIS
GENESI
E P IS T O L AM
AD
ACADEMIAM IMPERIALEM
SCIENTIARUM
PETROPOLITANAM
DEDIT
CAROLUS ERNESTUS A BAER
ZOOLOGIAF. PROF PUBL. ORD. REGIOMONTANUS.
CIjM rTAB11L 1 IENE1.
LIPSIAZ, #4UMPTIBCS LEOPOLDI VOSSIL
MDCCC I\IV IL
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CAROLUS ERNESTUS A BAER
DE
OVI
MAUMMALIUM ET HOMINIS GENESI.
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VItI EXCELLENTISSIJ1 PERILLUSTRES!
SiffrragiuII VESTIIUMl,
qio
iIue Ae4adeniae
al)
epi-
stoLs esse voIuiuStiLs, quittito tme oxttulerlit, VoU is euiuuuciar-e
hlatiti contabor,
inip)rimiis
ciii mtie 9 lio iiine'lli iovtiu , Cvllii
viris conijulInxistiS, (tionriiii omina
piiruim
p)ouderis
stiiit in
relpIil)IiCaI
hterarltik. V)S ii1 ad(lholrtri voliiisse
puto,
iie
(tier , sedI initenlis vi-iibius tanforumu virormini vesti-rm
premaias.
CGiati..S 1)10O Vl,SSTIIA erga iue b)enieVOIeIiia 11)11 atiuis
itie
actuinkiui CeiiSco, quIamIi Si VO Iii Sc C Uoi itiiCiiIII 1OlISSilIiIIiiII
COIIliiiUIIiCi ,
(IO(
, Cilik adl histor4lill e'ohitionis
perli;ieal.
Sill) 'ESTR IS
IUSI)iCuiiS
ill IceiI
p)roI
i su(a
Slillihprl
1)11111
lae-
bel
vo1il)ptatemI.
VESTI A elilm A/c(a Iemia, 1)1i (le illve-
stigaiidis niaturae iysterniis ill ilabricatidis ko is
corlorilmls
or-
gaiucis serullo fit, p)1'.le CelriiS
(Iiaiili
itiluilika emine.i ,
(illis
es(,
(Illm
iiesciatl! Obserlvadores, fill hli'hlioer evohiuiioiiis ;aki-
iiialiiu
pr
fundamiensi oI la
SIitps
IrImt, !EST l 'RAI A c (1-
demiae miemibra vel fiieriiiit vel adilaic siwil: ir
semilpiler-
.ae gloriac (CAS"Aii F'lhim Rhicui WoS 11'r. C}l ingeio
pati
;;
per.severaniaui<
vero ill in1ve(ti'.l;;lidi;s reb}[is subiis)I mI;9;|;s 1iiliji
l),aremii
vidit orl)is terrarutn. Cii,jlls ikomnls .site rehigiosa illa vere-
Cundi(lia eminiikciare iIe(Jtico , (Jila res diviike ori,rgiiis
v (ileralniir
eI CiiIIS I IAN US PANi)DEll ad Cil CijlS Chl;iSSilil;a ("1 llceull lenie-
bris .tflereiues disjl-iisilionies (Ie Inilli evoltliioine anllsall
qua-
lIlCIiitcm Il b)CalO jib
lenlkpore prac.)Imisse.
(1110 1GTNATII DO) U1;-
L--NGAli
"ikrl,istSi niosiri a(I ciIiiCrs
iisqiie,
iiunrillialk ver'o
pro
iiiiliS Salis colIlCIHI, ilStililiiloe
cI
eQilksiIelli(lille ilSi SillilIlS,
sem1wiiCr
glorial)or.
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Colatigit miilui
etenjim, ut ov.i inaininalium 'et lhoininis pri-t
ilitrtdla in ovari(
ilivenirem,
qiiae
p)er
saeculormln seriem t)t
et tantis lab)orib)us fiustra
(pIItesita
stint. Circa bam ilein 1rm ,11 t-
rae scrutatores
(plain
inaxione (lissentire inater onmes coLstal1.
ClDiijani ex a uiqijitate notiiioi
esset,
vitelhliiii aviiiin il)
ovario iauilirescere,
tuirni
per
oviductuim devectiii, allbunIiie
et i inidhs
Ipirte
iferiori vel sic dicto iltero testa hi(diii,
11 E.-
NER
Dii
GIIAAF9, v-esictilaritimn ii1 ovario maiianinaliif iinl -si 1nonl ill-
vetor, prilmlils
tamien accuratior observalor, 110m1
p0otul1i
lo1
Ia.s
pr'
ovis
liabere; et
cuini praeterea
ova in
cmncilortiioimlii-
ULs iidissel, inilii.s dIiI)ibtavit, haec ov-a eas(lenil esse vesictilas (Ie-
Ila)sas. CIII
seteiifiaiC,
a inultiis
p)hysioI(ogis
receptae,
p)oslatC
coIItraria exstiterijiit eX.clta
experinenta
GUILIELMi CIIUmI -
SHANK,
qIIi
tiii(;mie
saeIptIs
ov-a in tubiS cuniciuloruin, vesicuIis
Graafiaiiis taiiiein 1iiliho niutiiora, observavit. Nostris
temlp1)oriblis
Criiksliankiania asserta a (IOlbi)us ob)servatotibuI)s accuralis et mii-
croscopoi
uIsiIi
q1lai31
Iniaxime assuetis, Pi11 I,l' Vo.ST C D
I)uMAS.
coiiiprobaca
sililt il caiiilbiis et cIuIIiciiiis. NCscio ergo.
(Ji(i)
fit()
sedctic6is s,.it auchor iiovissiitiiis , qImi
aittiquissimiaiii
CraafRiarim
SeCIlItiit;I
p)r()
nova vendidItit, ol)servatiommIIIl a liabita ratiouile.
COIiIphiires
ailatomiiCi saeciilo (decimo
septimo
ova nmami-
nlilitimil irltistra ill 1tibis (1taesiverbimt. et Iand(klIm
l)praeotmliie
*1Cer-
111( PIHILIPPO JACOBO IHARTMANN Ile(riomotitruio,
fideil
oIniiIm oI)semr aiiilmtis II EG(NEIIJ-. A)E G FIA Al" (ICI1(;irUnt.
Paticiores ei
jalim
catiores
saceulo
deClilO)lo odlav *1 i1ono0 O-
dem nitodo contia C UtIKS14ANK C4 egeruiiI.
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Sic lis adhuc sub judice est. Id
(antum
extra omnem
dubltationis aleam posilum videtlur, vesiculam Graafianam
ali-
quid ad ovi evolutionem conferre, quia post corceplionem
in
corpus lutenm inittatuir. De mnodo, (111 i ex
*esictIis
0a or-
antuir, (IuIate nostris
tempo)0riIuIls
-ale.lt
opiniones potiores
inter
aniatonlicos. Alii
pultanl
, vesiciahs (arafficemas %itellfs avalllnu
Iemlits
responzi(lere
elt hl.ui(him ililUIVIIIIIIIk'l 9|libranu|glal C'irC11110-
da;tum| iergro
Xs rilh f Omn i, *a tula)
reilpi.
thauteC scitellC111im
ipse IciuMisule 1;ni ol.
collspalciolil
SiuIIiliI(iiIudneI 'ititer ovaria
u,kitm.lliail
et a1viumIt
Wimmulyltle
evolutioMlefil. Aliu
litiutoresit
taniwalii vesicilarniun eicici el
per
se iel cinl sernline d-rili uanix-
tuiti 0111111 irin are inter ul;as crediuuit; ite cos d'caiut,
(plli
spretis ob)servatiouJlbls Ifiidalis, et miulla r;atione keiitiiut ex-
tra-uteritiormnll
ht;)ilta ovea ill iii(Tl-O)
grgtla pl)ta;i}.
I)e ouulis
a
Cesieldlis dli1el.sis
in
ovari( Om1iis
IX
I\llntletiO
fit a1) antioribuis,
iiiter qiios 111u1111tittiiitt auitil eitii
(Ii
iuliia ra foiwasse -ilit,
sed tamt ittale
desCripsit,
tit obsrl;t
ol
ejos oulminlo InegleaI
sint.
Quilmus
pi
niastsi.s e.1,
(11l
lpC
ipsee
C(gritIIVi
, einrr.are
Ii-
ceat.
IncipiialltttS
tii is ttt4ltiu1IilflI?
et
ab
mi"
Jal
plitiofl
traflse;ttllix , (111i;ii
IIc t, C gl
(piulfe
(letmollstraho,
clar0iorl
fient.
EwLuamllk 1 i%altt
i"I
(1iS41iiiSt1tilJls i')Si5 .e(giui Coutlttus1
qualaliti
potIipol
In
litn
V a
nuau
oli
1 n)dereCasut PtbIt(lt'uC(s
iII
non oilali uita
serie
perse(fiii posui-SIsII. uIteIIttnilt'l
Il.r
Camliis
ova
potilsi,1i1uuuit
evalunuuai..
(h w1uu tl
t W1
11lal
plurimioruim etatfei
iu(I icareC
11011
powli. UNi
de
Ilac
re cer-
tior eramf, cUrm ob$servali)lOibuls
a PUt 'VOST P.T D
D
MAS i11-titii
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(is earm non coinselLtre
experuiss
siui. Q'iiod num fe coeli di-
crlitate peiideat nec nel, nesc. Reluitioniem hac ex causa
noni ad termpora sed adl evYolJionins statim (ledi.
CeneiSeos OVI 1IM1arnrn1lium historiaini me ad tyradum qileil-
daim eri'Lsse
spero,
el quae tie e.a locui, errore graviori
premri
non tanieo. Qu.ae. vero ullima
paragmrapho
d& owis aninl.ium
ilferiorum orolinum pro(luli, eumnX in) linem aiantum olici-a esse
acciialais. ut Cmct-)tcralam vesiculae Craal'aa .iuni
)O
twO avtium
ct reliquomuin aiiinalium dtemiiollstrarenm, ilerrlm
iterlimfflye
Vo s
rogo. qQiim ConeOr(liarn o)servaiiiJonihus p)S 4jiIe1IS Waitia
in twiVS
reIiojuOlum
1T Miirnalimiin Inivenii. qae.l
lfthiicsPiCe
omI-1ralo1
icrn(Ka. erantXl u1 immi-t,l; ,crTitaitres ad. .|iii- lZlCjl. V ^b1ke i.sil( .l-i-
gatliotes adhomrwari hlialld
llurpnili
rnihii videreetir. Me lhan dlis-
oIIIi?itiO)lm Ic
n
s1o11 J
vI
i.
se.
.seot iichoiasse lauii licet
non
parl11111
[i
4)111llll 11111l- 11111
il) fit
div
r)
evollitilli.i i
Sl
taCi
ohserva-
veriill. ba1d i- 11i0Pr). Observata
msipprinere
tleamet n110111ii .41
adl
cmnpl)araiimlernm pIryaPlafitaua
siifhotiieil e1
(plia oqtilIle
(liffiCli.
lec n1jutis viri live i111105 aiiiii aSSe, li.n le d
iSiyisio^lit .SiPii110.9
siianc
inniieisi-s Sane
t
ichiihi j&sI
absl)Sver'e. ov:a
111lilll allll.l fla allulaia;llizzll
4i14 1.01ios1,1 110)11 tlautll(I e'kilialelt (ki
teillillate oll10s e,l fioieinta iiotsIora iludilrio laciuiimi, uf ver-
)bis vil in iIkili1)is dhibqIiisiCi0)J1ibIr. allaWtii's
iIViS
VC11sI.l1 itar.
sed el in
ate
C
lde
dIiSCPlp;aillt.
Wixiiii
Veio( dlilciZil,ias
in Co
n i
ti0tu11 rq$ii
piet
1 r1 d4 r)u)ll) 51r ( pianali (omla)samru
{}Y 0'l $'I'i.}
0li-S.
emullararl'Be' po}s*imUS.
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Fe.1m* cQantilu i prim ordiUa,
Jam
priiuo
fere imupetu, quo a collega illustri BURDACII mnonitus,
ut. ai1 cognosocenidain nanintualitim evolutionem
aliqliuid
conferrem, hlis im-e-
stigratioliduhs ne tardare iticeperani, coitem praegnanten' obIeQri'e licuiti,
Cii-
jus ova niulluni I[rolilil'int il coIImpar'anlda evolutioie mamimnaliumi oHm
eadenm ill ravibus. hliio, analomeai
liujus
evolimlioni's grAh.LS
pielle
absol-
rerU,
si
liUltui tempuorims
jaml salis
'ii
his disqui-sitionlil)lbs vei'saILs
fiis.setu.
Ex quiatuor
ovis lero bia, a 1 m al cilioto tsus, tlestruxi, quio factuma e-st,
ut. arcact vascuilo.sae aillibihIIIII i(i;eain'e niC iieqiienmn. In uteruim eiiim
cani vivae
er1epIIum,
o0k111i vitalilate,
p)rae(litum,
ilnCi(di, quiod liodlie valdle
dissuadeo. Jni i in
reliqllis
1i1imumalnib>iis dillicile scopUtni liac via attianges,
ill Calle vero
semper
ova juiniora contractionibus uteri (lil!aceanitiir,
quiod
et 'is accid1isx( vi(letur1,
qIjli p)ttrilms
hllebdolmllna(iI)l1s
pIost
coftceptionem
ova
iU uitero animiai litun liIon iliTerue-nIIlt. (6o6finger
goelchre
fnzeigen
vomn
Jlhwe 1 824,
pag. 1935). Teritiu (1W das horas ex tilero,
i-ilie jalm ex-perte,
enucleare sitiidii. ULteii coriitx stipria
o0-u11 cautissime
Sdisso,01 o1 i memlbranIaml externamuin villis iiuikcrosis
praedifaiIn
iftaciamla dlis-
tincte
con1spexi,
(itDaliu
vPJr0, tut(r'o Oll)lilliO
sepiosilo
COIIemllan)1.ts, teri
Inargillilhis, q1i -villi.s i11 alissimiu janii jGcta- elr.llt, rm'etr'li.s, di.s'imllpi
ldi ! lFetlmi t.n:llen integruml iltveiii et aream rasculoxs.na splenidide ru-
iutlet'l uillIamiraluIS s5ii11. QlIir1tmlII1 ule 4tiqeC ovi1i post meridirlia ex ltero
jPull
pauilidilil
11c(cilo inlegei't illllmiml evoll i. |11 esamililldis ('I delilleall-
t1i.s IIIe'mlbrmii ;alii.xfll^I(pe Xl relm }ts ho.9 llll (Otlio Cm-IIO esl't ly tit, il rlilnl
4d{ (|tllE ;l{ l{ A NIIl'lt ph.f'1 {} 4
l
re
p)s'1'
1
lli'')c(O }U k Ik. ' lle.b t
MllUS HIn)ItIIAIII 1-ildl;l ;IIIII)HIPSf dli-MI-1'll{V'(
P-MI){!j(n'll
'it"'c'} ;Ill 1Iio
ri;Ciliqlielre
malus; still. Ste( melliodhime eumn'a0 obser atla
Ti
iuj heiiOi i ds
otmBilm
AN (
rviin ilatNnts
*lixit
(an.
'loi*. qX.) l
otd
r
ob}sen-aionlm?IIs
BoJArIi (in
Notris Ychv it( Cf ;rJ. 7/'Vs8.
X.)
tx
tnlemPore
I
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iteriori, et
Conjinetorwum
amicortun PREVOST et DUIAS ex
temlpore
aute-c
cedenti (Jnnales des sciewces atitreles, Totte III.) sattis bene conigrullit,
miinine iero ctin
reliqtis
meis experimentis, quae viginti
(juattior
circiter
dies his ovis (darlent.
MIitto uteri conditioniem et omnia ,
qiiae
ton
jpelrtinlent
a(l
proposi-
Itun Inostrumn. Otum lU mtaIittilfine siua (Ile)iCtiiii iicituis
Fig. It1.,
binis
apicilbis
pelluci(dis, altero acutioie
1prcdteditin.
Prateter
apices
totiuIn ovum
obscuriits est villis membraiuve exterime aifixis, iani zona
p1acentarim
mnna-
x.ui.nu ovi pmrtem primituis cilgit, titi jalll ex BOJANI icoutibus coiistat.
Tmuicae duae
praeter apices
siatis (listaiut et fiicile di-scermintur. Quarnum
exteriol, (horwin vulgo (licta, omnino vasorum expers v illos gereus, tiliuicae
corticali vel mieinbhranae putlaniinis (S&kalelnhar) avium
respondet,
qutae
nona secitis vilos gerit, in testa cialcar;ia lecontlilos. V-illos chlorii, corum
fornia in lioininie et fugitiva exanmilntiolle se(iieli, mllatotuici noniilulli
pro
mieris vsisorumn linil)us idel pro vasor'tun t.sciciiis ls J)Imbe.
Quallu
senlleni-
wiiam ftmeile et in aliis mammaulibus, verb)i caus, in sUib)us et rumuiimaulib)us,
relmiaIdiaim Ovliul iostnritn ol)tiuIb dissoh
it,
Halml ijllos lime ex telli for mun.l-
tivam comitilttiuos esse sinie tasorum vestigio
microscopiurn
extria (Il1)iialioIIis
imleicamu
pollit
(Cf.
Fig,.
/1 ). Postluac vero vasorumi ramuis ftidiluini Irtilem
prac1bet.
HLmec inembranam corIelialfel in
posteleuIII
nomijiuiibo ,
cuIn *ox
,,chrii'-
anteps
sil et si canI imore solilo adbibiere placet, iiu(le ab (to ten-
pjore adhibeatlurl, 4Uo viasa imistuint,
ab
aliatuloide,
miie
jud(ice, sumppediiata.
Membraim interir'
uti(Itie
sa(XIium constuluiemis, j)aululum hla escit et
grimuilis
superhici
sua1 intelrima obsita est. His jalU nwmteobrananm eiWlhro-
idtein -et,I vivsculam umbiicalem se
probat,
qtuibtis vtsorum rele ct ratio
adI eOiPI)voiiit-il accedit. Ut lliolilie ultmnuir, (tu0o( t iiS ailhiOalib)us adllhi-
bern
lpossit, luihus
uiiibilicus verus dicest, saccus inlesdnalis (Darinsuak)
Enibryo, qItmiaor
lineas curvaturat
aeqtianis,
inmtre funicum corticaleml
,l Saccula- itnfedinalem locuIm teliet, etil satcco diclo ilan :onicluctms a,
ptul-
-ins
galiiaeuCtis CXcHlte (Iie terlio. Eoderm niodlo picrle. stia posleriore rectt
(2 ;
liuetruill) ientii
apewlo Uicmtuiit, (lOrStIi jaimi claisuom
timicie cmlii-
alli adver fi,
paile
aiiteniore,
vqgina
capitis obtecia ,
dlexitorosniaii
el (leon.-
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3
suM versa , lateri sinistro incuinbuit, ul)(iuCe aiea vascuiosa
circuludatusx.
I28,,Ir( nlostira 7. fetuin in situ tiia'tali exhihet, se(1
pars
awnica juisio bre-
'iomr videtiir,
(piia
sacco hilesthimali cuiiii aminiiale
capilis
va-hia imiimera esf.
Fg'ura
'1IP. fetuimi pingit cwII parne Sacci iistlsill;lis itat
Sul)
lmliCrO5COj)iO
p)ositulm,
Ut
p)ar
anilei'ioi'
penlitus
ei
palrs posterior pauiulum
lateri siiisti'o incumbat. In liac
positionie
min.is c(OlsClselis itliel' evolutio-
ietm
pulli
aviuin et mammaliumn
optime
persp'icitur.
-
Ilicip)iamus
cuni
I mgi.a cjl)ilis b c d e, cujus dimidium fetus
cap)iit
el collunt (lexIIo latere
Ohte-eiis resc'elii, ut
parles
hae clarius in lucenii veoiren, illaeso vineie
iC11;n (leseei)deniiis dexti'ae wtrunco, quem i'ecliiaii
(ef)
nie ejus con-
niexuIs cuIi COI'dis atrio, trans vagiinae initium, beite visus, tumrhetur. Lo-
cuan, queni ante recliuationene, tenuerat, signlo
f
noltai. D)cnudata iha-
quie corporis
)alrte curvata
optnme
in oculos cecidit cor(ris atrium (e g)
veiuas recil)ieIls, cl v-enitriculus (h) a sinistro ad( dextruii latus in
spiram
tortu.s et ita ac in pullis aviumn, (lehiciente
p)ectore,
a corporis Iateribus
nto1 tCctuni, XStatuii l1uIIc coI (deiiudatun (I;Cele
r
solent; attanfien v(er
ni(Iulil cor esse non
ipotest,
quani(do
capilis
vaginia jani
p)ectoris
regiowem
anuigit, (uarc cor, si un( uaii,
pCeI
bre%issimum ce'lte
teCip)ori5s
spatliml,
et
tantium ini i
parte
venosa, v-eie nutIum est. In inosti'o feti
p)raetelr
cit ict-
lcihil
pectus
legentem janm tenei'rimunt pericar(diunm (ii) adest, ((iiot1
ante
atrium et ventricldum flisthiouitu'. Ex coride
syslete
a arteriosunll (ellierge-
I'C vi(di, quod-utrimnqe
in
quatn1or
arcus ftnditui, twill, u1ii in
piSCiils,
sul
columnma veriebrali in truiicuni comminem (1)
- Aoi'tai
-
collectos. Ex
arcu anterio'i i'amus a(1
cap)itis
partem anterioreni
-
ad oculun fe're
-
vertitur, secuCi(lus ai'cus antne autris vestigiumil, leatlinis pone idena orgailoll
ramulumn millit. Primus et secundus ar'cusi
uiiius(lue
lateris ex b)lilbo) (111o-
dlam (k) enmergunt. Idem systema vasculo.suln ill
pullis gallilaccis
saplillts
obser'averi'int et jain .aestate 1826, aIIIe(qu1ant1 HUSCHKE inveia snaz.
1w11-
ldli('i jul'l-s 15ecer'at, exeircitatiOi(es fltt'as ('11111 RArTIIKE coIItWuitwi(vtri, adji-
ciewE nie
pulllare,
bio;|lmihia ab1 t-o dlectal; lilsiis l;abricae oI'i,ll('llll fiebere''(,
de( (IUO
puosthlac p)enuifus
Iei'tiO(ItIIIC
l (le (I (Isis
I X'25,
1p.
747 et I I
00).
N uno lbace sCr'ib)n'l4()o itltl,t sy.stelila.
I. asoi-'u11m
ill etllb)Iyollibuls l)ms tnimi'i'i.,s
Colunbri Natricis et La'eulae agilis parulmU disC('IT'.lis obsem'.avi. DPe I'aellis
I
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4
et salamandrs jaim dudum innotuit. Omnibus ergo aUim?libus vertebrati) s
;n statu Ietali talis convenit vasorum apparatus et in omnibussub capitis
parte posteriori
situs est,
uti et in nostra
figura
aur's locus docet. lino
cordis
ventriculus, ne dicam
capiti,
sane collo
respondet. Arcus arteriosi
uutiuum oesophagi eicumdant, cujus adlius, oris locum
tenens, anite hbd-
bum k
apertus,
visus e.st. Spinae dorsi et mledidlIae
spinalis culi cerebra
curvaturas, nec non vertebrarum prinmordia ita me
pinxisse
pltte,
ut coin-
nentanio non egeant. Auris jan disltinctissima inedidlawn. ohlongatam in-
dicat, quae,
ni
fallor,
ninuims a medulla
spinali
dilffrt,
quani
in pullis avilil
ex codem evolttiitiois stalu.
Jam. ad
partem
rectant transeamus. Titestinnn totm, tultimo fine
excepto, apertum est et ex asse iintestimunti
avi'tm, uti a (.C FIUIDERICO
WOLFF ex die tertio absoluto subtilisslnie deseribitur, et
plingitur (Novti
commenwot. acaden. Petropolit. Tom. XII.), refert. Seanicanalis enii1 est,
culus
fundus sulco levi notatur, quem VOLFF SlutIIIuI nomnilaflt et e xoa-
litione duarun
pticarum
amnii sui spurii ortmtu putat, qti veiro jlfne ori-
tur, tuod sub rhiacluhde binae taeniae sacci intestinalis, e situ horikowuali in
situim
perpeldicularem
vertantur,
parietes
ijudie senmicalialis constituentes
dunw
mpjorem
crassitiem induunt, et mnagis
magislue angulk
et tenuissiano
toro trainsilum- in saccum intestinasllein notent. Seetione transversa haec
optiane (lenltonstrantur. Sic Fig. rll'. intestini funditim (sutunrim) al
f; et angulum, de
quo
locuti' suinus, a(d e exhibet. In
Fig.
nostra
TIP.
e p fund(lus vel sutura inte.stiini est;
pnriruique
ischisas vel taenias s
1,
q r,
inltestnlimutascentis parietes, acu
patululuan separavi.
Fascia sinistra
e
p
q r anlguilo q r in saccun inte,stinalean (tv v) tranisit. A) angulo
(s 1) fasciae dextrae saccum intestinaleln usque ad r desecui , nie fetts
latus cImu amnio veletur;
vasorum
origines tainen indicare aptuaIn esse
l)utavi. Utri'inque eniml
in
sacco intestinali r(ete vasoi'tm
(w v) apparet,
quod
per truticuilos
plures
(quoruw septem atdl ittias sinistrum, sex ad
dextrum nunieravi)
cum truIcis majorlibus
in fe-tia
sitis comniunicalur.
Regio inter rete vaIsculosum et fetum (q i- w) aireae, quana pellutcidam
dicunt
n
avibus, respondet, licet liuc plurilPus vasis gaitdleat. Rete vascu-
losun arean vasculosain aviunm sistenas
per
plures
hlorits optnie quidenl
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vi(i, ihnes titmen exteriores
jain
d;iscei'nere lion
p)otui;
miuOris fruisse ani-
bittus, ratioiie a(l fetum habita, (quamn in avilLts, jamn inspectione teruii ovi
anite
mnicr'OsCOp)ium
adhibitur persuasulin mildi Ili)CO. Et sinitn termina-
lem mne 1'i1idse mcinin, (le
quo
co minius (du)ito, cuiii et Saurii ct
Ophi-
dii eo iioll careant. Intestini
parietes
y r et 8 t jam crassiores erant,
quani tit vasoruin trunicos sub iis recondulitos clarissiine (liscernere et in toto
nexIu
perse(jui
potulCriin,
(lUos tamen vi(di san-uin'is laud
exl)ertes, qutos
pro
aortae ramis
p)rincipail)Ls
liabui (de (quibus cf. PANDEII, Blrhiioe
zutr
L'nlvickclwngsgeschichle
(des lliihnchens ins Eie.
-
Iib-zuJrg 1817.
ieol. TAb. octav.); -enae scilicet in bac perio(lo sanlguinem citius amit-
tere solcut ac arteiiae, o) cor(dis vim sane suictoriail diuiius persistentem
quam vita in ramulisn minoribus. Trunculos ergo descriptos (w) pro ar-
teriis snlsi, licet venae inter CQs esse possint. Va.s Tero a
posteriori
fine
circa caudlae involucrurn (dCCuIrrhns tum ab uitestini crassi aditu (r) ocu1-
lixs stul)(buctwuu, vena vistum *.st adscendeais. De venis bini; (Isdecendlentil)us
jamii locutits suim. In vagina
calpitis
milores aiteriarurn fines adiuisse hau(i
dIUb)ito.
4nnion dorso tam arete inCUlbUit, Ut ante incisionen iLws tanium lociS
(liscerini posset, quilmlLs curvaturantm (tuand(laiu fetus liabet, V. g, m medio
dorso, si i0oin fallor, adi tran.situiin ne(lullae oblongatae in
colpora
qua(tri-
geiniina (?) ct ad1 liorumi transituim in cerebrum t?
)., potissinuarm
vero
,A fiUtls liiienm
posteriorem,
tubi involucri caudae laniinarn format supe-
iio-'eiu. Ubique jani clausulm crat et suturam lIau(1
amplitis
iuiveni. Proe-
terea eademn ratio ejus ad1 letuiain atque
in avil)us, (de
quo
coiaf. sectionem
lrail.sVellusal (Fig',. Vll &.). Nuillus ergo (duI)ito codeuim nxlo evolutuini esse.
Sacnsulus iniimrns (z) ex
apice
caudali vix einergens et involucrurn
(I.lidiet ill suzas1 linuas tindenls sinie dubio ineinbrana allantoi(des
et,,
quatn,
cunm ry ilhoiidem saccum inlestlimilem nonliihtveril, seaUea urinariuen
(Ilarnsaek) dlici v'e1iix.
Parthiun internarmu coniloriauatio iaul minus cum avicularia coni-
grit,
ut1i
p)oli*snimum
.sectio traiinsversIa dlocet, quam in medio dorso fCa
tanm
leig.
I'll .
phixi.
D)orsumun ex
coincretlis dIual)us Inini.is dlorsalidlIs
(pdliei.l
prhisnlivi PANDEIu) '(i b) nmedullanw
mpinalen
(k) circundantilms
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con.stitliftit"l
1'.1111111ik tVenlr;i-dibu
(bs c)
a(illticsummnnopsere
dlist.antibusl>. .Subl
c.aIali pro medluI' a .'piiiali columtliae 1-eitel)ralis
prl)lia
ve'tigia
appa11'IlI
(g) e i1a formnaivra deQ1Ixiore( ('oncrtef, quac ramnos lreves .iaasimaium ila-
niiias (1o01aI.e iiiiiiiiiit. Ii miiedia colminna erltebrali (corda dorsalis e-
ai.tis obseuritate snita ill
coll-Spectunll
veauit. Est enini in omnllibuis nimnia-
liUlil i'cib'telwatol111le asls (uld in
mnainunalibus,
av ibus ,
ophidiis,
wsmiiis,
l)atrachaiis, itec noni
piscibus
observavi) clorda (qum-amd ter-es a cauinda a(I
calpuat
Iuisqte, in quio cull tul)erclulo d1e.*ilnh, per
mdIllliluln coltmmmia (lorsa-
lent exitensa,
ah hlac soliditate lballd minus a1c Iracilitale 1010 (Uol O dliversii
et ante verfi'tdlutimai veCtigia oiiuiiii(la , (11111 tolumniiaia ('aIailagineo - liga-
mentosil, q(al
ill
p)i.%Cil)b1S
cartilagineis itoituuillis, v (!. ill Siirion el Pe-
ItoIUnzote.ZOI, per'1 101m1111 vil'.1a ill
spilla;u
(0lSi obi ial est.
p)ellllus
Collngrlua
In
pullis
gallinacis('S jalni
prilo
illUhalioniis (lie formaitultr loJiie atie lami-
tarliunrt dI0o'Sadliumii coaliltuiti. Hlaec chordis liuctis(qtue
penilus
1 ere neglecta
(DUTROClIET sotlUll Oam Cogiaoriisse se(I nioni in
primiordio,
ex ob.servatio-
nibus ejusdein circa ossitnun geniesiii in salaiuanmdris vi(deo)
saepius
fW0I1it
natlrallrc ScrutIatores. lila siICe ( ei,O pSt n PANbEIR
pro
mIiedilfla
spi-
niali hlauit al n iamedtillami
.spinMleun
11011 ante Jiminaruim (lorsaliun 'oa-
litumtt
arpparer pace
clai'r iluli SEunER S euero certins
compertinm
hab)eo, et
tlui apparuit,
acua IiWI(1Uuaii l)iscnn('lit. est. 'Eandemn cliordam PHt1vOST et
DUMI A.S in rixiiis
(liam
pro
nie(Itilla
spinali
habuertnt. (rinnale's des
se;ienies nir(iIiielle(. 'l,e HI.
j1.
113. vsqq.)
In his omlnibus gra'iio'ioribus rgo ema b 1 o canlimis ctnm aviculario
congruit et dlillerentia in aUihuu latilunli partium raIionii1 * ersatiir.
Sic
iransitus dorsi in nuclham niagis curvilus, cerebrum vero iiiLus a mdWut(lalIi
vpinali
(diflerre vi(leiur ini ibo q(iam
in avibus CiiuJl(eian ulleli
oloaplaf
x
gr(11,1d1u assecutlis. Area
Iteilcudla
et area vasculosa aninlores ei rajnli arlte-
rsi0i plti( .s -adsutil 111 icale. Quo 110(10 hi in vasa
ompl)halO
- 111n.Sielilterita
%el.uuttur, ultleriorib)um^ examllinibu.s li;ju(licaiitltuit
reliji(guo.
Qu)ite
(cumI11 ilta a ii11 essenlt i111(hnlda, val(loper'e
ol)tvi 0-a0 examsil-
11.lr1
qna
lptemediIumt(
Itnerell iitter illo(lo
dldsCipl)ta
ci ea , quale P1uu,O.Xr
I)u DUMAS Ill 12 (lieruna ova
-descripserunlt
et
piaixermint.
Canein er-go
dis.secui pjer1
diaAs hebfdomnades et
q(ioll
excuriit felani. Seo ova in utera
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7
libera
parvula,
diattietro linearm diii(liam
expletiiia,
sine tillo f tus ie-
stigio inlveli, (le
q(ul)us
iuifra serino fiet. AIterit callis ejtsuleni gravidi-
tatis
teniporis
eadem (ledlit ova. Cauient dleniiue culltio antatornlico subjeci,
(quam
oljtime
scivti (in mnea eniun domiio viveldt.) aiite vigitti (lies
priuna
vice et ante
seplen(lecim
dies ullima vice cmu nimare coivisse. D)eniuo
spes
me fefellit. Ova (luaruan 1inearuain diatnuetri janm tarn arcle utero cingeC.
baiitur, tit irrita omnli cura (lilacerala sint. Quite nielitis observare licuit,
fetun.u nondtun fovebant; in umn talantuin stri.a teiiuis (chor(la (Iorsalis?)
cuni airea
qjuadamn
opacat
felus
printordia
indlicare vi(lebatuir. Nec, blasto-
dierma clare
apparuit
et circa banic parteni oniiino diubius Iiacrerem, nisi
earm in cuniculis vi-disseni. Ex lhis oa ejusdlem evolutioiiis facile et sine
laesione evolvi,
quia
mnembrana corticalis crassior et 1iuiiinisi tantui vil-
lis obsita erat. Ini ovis no.stris cwninis metnbbrana corticali.s tenerrima vil-
[is suis magnis cutn uteri cing,ulo lam arcie cohaerebat, tit vix ars ulla
ean- sejungere posset. Si ca iniente recordlor, quae de ovis 12 dierun
PREVOST et DumAS docent, suispicarer
iiu mea cane ovoruin tunicas
prae-
ter naluram et
sup)pVesCsa
fetus evolutione crevisse; viii enini jam eow
fere ae(quabant,
qjuibus
ova ii1itio descripta obsita erant.
Practerea icoines fetuum caninorumn, quas laudati scrutatores Gallici
exbibuerunt, cum meis observationibus ex uilleriore et ainiecedeuite evnolu-
iionis slalu aIam bene congruunt, ut 'non laesitem, utiam in tabula nostra
Fi,,g.
6. et '1.
rep)etere
ad complendam seriem lormarttm. Docet enint
I('Itum caninum codem modo ac pubos aviuin oniri.
(,)tuibtts aniimo
perpensis
ioni (duibiltvi ovum maminlnitum in ovnaia
eatidetti habefe con(litioien,
qpiain
ov-um avium. Longe falia docitit ohi-
serva tio!
9. '2.
Ovi caniti-i evoelttio
prbi/lleia.
Praeter ova mo(to
dIescriplalt Xs.apitts
ItlI;I vidi ;
pellillis
pelilut-ida, uill-
to
mitorit, diudlidiall lineanm dialmalro aeqtialil ( Fi,. S
)( Ijllae lail
liheriv
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8
-
in uteri cavitatte jacebant, ut levissino Ilatu in liujus orgairi nmco ulos eri
i-el cultelli.'wanubllrio facillime atiolli
po.sseult, aItlqu(
ta)in toier'lrimli.s mem'1-
branig comstiluta erauit, ut
quinis
lialus formaui inutlaret codemire i(io utodo
.c bullae
sap)onaniae;
quibus; fabricandis et
pe
atrewn agitala is puiieni gau-
dent. Sul)
microscopio tvtle ovuml haud peitliis globosumi iil eni, sed
paultltiu
ill longitin(Iileut I)otiUS tllCictii. Priliuo illottWeito silIpieX vi(le-
bmtur tuniiea, iniox ver;o et jamI anite eain
temiporis parteli,,
quae ininula
(licitwi', lipsi'm i;tt"'teii qa
epiae(
la itlilita
sejunigt,i cocj)it ex
opfpositis
Inn-
bug,S
uti'
FZigD.
I". *locet. I-aciutiii ijitle ltiiii lli(ie orminii est- -signio-
idewuu. Ambo hbaec va;cua tiiut
pledetenltim ittreveiitut tisquiie (luin se tan-
gerent, ac
poSt
s.emilior'ai jaim totat m bCIrniaita imitterna ab externa se'ju-
cta repreelindelailur,
una tanturl i'egioite
excepta I (,pua
Colmarerel perge-
bant.
Adspeclus
oii ileo (diver'S1iS ertt (hkiIi acu suib
miicroscopio
verte-
hatur; ittox CItiMfl areitit
opacau
c ut ite(lio sitarn et telu annulo
pellucido
ciictain os-tendit, n1iox Vero 01'lbeilt
-OpaCutI
ill oIbe IUCi(IO hta sitilmn ut
iit se ii ttitgei'Ceit, ill(le vIacuo mtaguo semtilitari sejungereittur, pr'out r'egio
aidhatesioiis ill ai
lmiCr'OSCOpio.i0(p'
0pr
111) (IIICtIa siit t crat 1c II(C. Onliels
lios
adspeclLs pinigtere
itec tiabulae r'atio si$i11it le tile lieslfl i ('st. Pv-
tiores vet-o lta)Ct is, si E' mras JJi. IJi. J'.
J . itter se c(o1m-
parart'e p)latCet. ldteimi
elil lit in ovo
muinor'i, iiifa (IaSdcril)bteIo.
Loll
mitiae
11V}'LIti
prIilllzllll
membralll a 'mtltiierna. coIIllabilm, ita,
ut
pede1Uten1tim1 .sphaer'ticaml
foi'mitiii (oIiitiiito
d(plloat sp)eciellmque
siltCi in (111o0 iS o0o alioo
1 c0(10
(:OllapSi
itlduat. Hlae liuuwn liuilt, ietIttbrana extet-IIIa inilio fOt'Ittali seival sjltae-
ricill, titiii ftialn colltbi
itteipit
et
p)ost
hor-as toinutllass i-tiis (oarclatur
irregularibius. T6tle o0iim
Fig.
I"%
p)iCtln
vi(letis, Cujius dIitatmCIrus it
dimlidial Ilnea{e
partle-
adz tClI'i.lli
('jusdem(ll
mnIll-f'l.ll'e
parleml
dIim,inulta est.
Quateimmtt Itijus
phltaeiiomtteiti
caul.sa Sit, VESTRO judicio (lijIl(ia(nldIlun
sunfilto. (alorem anitiltlCt
a(pillil
firigidJ a, ill (ilit ovit sill) mticroscopio
colttpllmla SOIC(IeIIfuS
d(pImI'iti ilt(le(pl
teitsioiteit t
ct a )iiWI)in ol-oilim (di-
ltiltUi , itilitli11 ilbo. Plwiinut; scilicet ova ex ultej-is
Ilepromttsi
(i:dore
anaiit liol1l
pll'llistai
estttfis. "iI lStero refliaigeratioaitd eflivielda
phlti-
hIlli '1 it 1Qa
sufficeret,lClS (it)ihltlUtt
i
fldgltitUIoiflm 11011 s (XtCdCleS jriituri cimi)
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tfmporis
flnolillto retrigeretur necesse sit? cur noni loluIll ouwn depri-
nmitur luti lraepalrata anatomict caava,
(juae,
si halitu liuinaino extei-l
{tiilitiir, IlnOX CoIlalitii1ur, Nv1 Si ae-stlate (Onsecta et caute ai;re
atmosl)bae-
rAc0 ex(
i
aII?sa O II'Iia) slic;and i lti hene servaint, lhieme taiunen inagnas
impres-
sions
U1panci%suntur.
Ut olmervationil)us de bac- re
aliquid statuerem,
se-
mel triliorio post
uteri exuisionem ejus
cornu
aperui
et ova flaccida qui-
dem inveni, mel)nrianae vero, exceptis finilUs op)ositiis, cobaerebant (ut in
Fig. F i.), Ce lnesci noi sejnctio
in
fiiu.s
eo tempore sit
facta, quo
iicroscopium adaptavi.
).
Rerigerationem ergo ad membrauarum
sep)arationeml
et collapsumn
haud sullicere arbitror, praesertim ea perpendens, quae de serj)eretibum la-
certisque narralo. (Cf.
?.
6.). Meml)wana externa potius
aquami
hmlbiere
duim vtaitaltis aliqlui(l inest, et saccus interims Ialitliu
qualenicunulqle
vitalem a?miittere -idettti, (Jli
al) a(qtua fortasse extraltitur. Id
praepriniis
ova cuniculi dluas liueas diatnelro aequallia,
parvulis
villis ex pante jain
obsita docuerulnt, cuin in iis, collat)enti mnembrana interna, externa non
tantum turgidta miineret sed inagis tenldi videretlu.
Membhranas accurat ius
p)erlustrando.
exterioreu.
pellucidam
inveni et
tuberculis minhiii s
semipellucidis
obsitam, primis forsan villoruin *esti-
giir; 111nis eChill adliacreliant, quam quae pro copuitsculis extrauneis for-
tuito agglutinatis habeautur. Numierus eortum part11s ct uti forma valde
varialiffis. IMiemnbmiami corficalemt esse nullus dulhi1o. Bis Sgl) iuiCr'O.sCO-
pio imnultuim aniplificante
duias (liscreii striulas conceitnicas ac si ex (11la-
bus lamninis conflata esset. Cuin vero
simlilex
moculbrana sp)haerica, quiae
utrinque areani Ihabet p)ellucidlain, si su!) microscol)io valile
amplificante
observatur, duas- necessarie exinbeat uinbras, extenia scilicet et interna
facie, ex liac observatione
circa muembranuae Iamhias nihl colligi posse
ceiseo.
I) Iii alterum uteri cornti me )o.-t 30 lIotas unense JIinio, tempestate calidissina, incidiste,
ne Unullll
(Lititinu
osmIU vidisse, licet qtunttor corpora Ilitea in r odeio latere aihieritit,
eIuriumn in uisuIos , qul; talibt.is oIbservatiuiibwiv opera
dare- ini aniiino
Ilabeumt. refero, lie ilici-
SiuneIII justo luoigius difleramio. Ova tuim teniniora citO corrutiupotutur.
2
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10
Membrana interna sub lente simplici lepidlissimum praebet adspecutu
dum turget. Annulis enim vel sphaeitulis, centro
pellucido peripheria
ob-
scuriori praedita videtur. Quae maculae, si inajori microscopii vi subji-
ciuntur, aliam exhibent formam ac si -metamorphosini
passae
essent. .Sunt
enim nec sphaerulae nec veri annuli, sed ex grAnulis potius constituuntur
in orbes irregidares dispositis (Fig. F.), unde sub minori visus angulo
(Fig. V.):orhes continuos esse mentiuntur. Oculus microscopicis observa,
tionibus adsuetus facile cognoscit, las inaculas non ipsi membranae esse
innatas, sed ejus superficiei adhalerere interuiae. Major praeterea adest
macula multo magis opaca, orbicularis fere. Qui actttiori visu gaudet, eam
nu(li oculis uti punctulum albidum in ovo
pellucido
conspicit. M;crosco-
piurn maculam a memnbranae supenficie interna
paululurm
distare lineola
tenuisshna dernonstrat in eo situ
conSp)iCua,
(uO macula marginiem contem-
-planti a(lvertit (Fig. Va.). Tum et teiujitias Inijus corpusculi
apparet;
discus eumii
potius est, quam tunulus. Si licce (liscLs ita situs est, ut f a-
ciern extenioreim advertat observatori, praeter orbeiri
op)actuin
ambiens halo
lenuissirnis iionnunquain
percipitur.
In Fig. V &. hlalonein rudi modo
scuI{}tipun videtis. Tarn subtilissirua ne.mo iisi D'ALTON scaipro rite red-
dfeire valet.
Membrainam rnteriiaan saccumn esse clalusum rix crederes si colla-
pisain
coiu(eiiiplairis.
Dilaceiratione vero memnbranae corli(;alis de Itac re
certior factus sum, et niihil obstat, (quini illa
pro
metuibrana vitelli habea-
tur, el
(discns
opacus
pro blastloderm ale.
hi alia canle iliveili ova nminora, lertiaiin lieneae
partem (liametro ex-
plentia, qllae iiuiius attenite isIicielitem
eflluigere po.ssIimt
facillime. Non
ita pellllci(la ermt, ac 1101o(lo
desCripta,
iius
praeterea
vIIl(e sinmilia, si Ilon
forl{te i strictuins sphaerica. Eaedemi miembrai1iae CO(dCIIm 1110(1o (dishinCtae sunit
sul) micro.scopio; illa taiaen graitla
in
corticalfis meinibraiiae suiperficie
vix
conspicua erant; niacu.lda
parvae
contra ill sIl)erlicief intterna sacci in-
ter-ni ohsculioires sub
mnicroscopio
val1de
unplificante
uti acerviuli ie gratim-
lis minorilbus couggesli apparnerutlit (1ig. Ii a.); blasto(lerma crassius ei,
t
q(lain ill aliltecedlilfblis, uite disci foirmain exitibuit, se(d 1Uniuli fuiformnUis ac
Sai uon(1dull excilinis esst
dismus.
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fit eotlenli utero a(I tubae ostiuml granulunii
minimutit, albedine vero
cons014pieuunu,
libere natauis inieni,
quof
i microscopio subjectum globulum
meiuttli
opacunlI
cuni lhalone *-el
periplheria
lucida monstravit. Quid ? si
hoc
corpunsculum,
licet sit
opacuin,
ov-ums esset ex tuba inodo
deal)asum?
si globulus opacus viefllwn vel saccum intestialems futuruni
et
periphe-
riin membranam cortiCalemt sisteret?
His igitur cogitationibus iinpulsus caneni nilhi comparandi operanm
dceii, cujus ova in tubis adlhuc retenta essent.
QuoQd
bene successit. Cat-
netun eniin eini, in
(Iluo
corpora lutea valle hiantia, iullum ovujm
in utero,
in tul)is vero
corpuscula
alho - flaxescentia inveni
punctiformia,
quae
granulum imodo memoratum ex asse aequabant,
iisi quo(d hoc paululum
majus visutm est. lila nunc futius describant. M1edium tenet globulus
sub
microscoplio
penituis
opacus,
suuperficie noni laevi ct aequali sed granu-
losa, totus eniml glohulus e granulis constat dense stipalis, membrana cin-
gente vix
conspicua
( Fig. III a.). Globulun circumdat, ulterjacente
spatio
p)ellucido
arcto,
peril)pheria
qiuaedam,
stratu tenmii granulorum mini-
morum obtecta. Post nyetheunerac macerationem hujus pulveris majorem
partem sejunctam inveni, qua facto membrana continua et
simplex
renit
in lucem. Habemnus ergo nwenbranam corticalem et globulum internum,
qui
num omni careat cavitate me experimentiis eruere non tentasse
ma-
gnopere
nunc doleo; - solidus quidem visus est, quo(I vero a sequenlibus
refutatur. Quiem globulum vesiculae intestinalis vestigium, vel potius
vi-
tellun esse, j(am enarrata suadlent.
Mira est ovorum nostrorum parvitas. Quae sub microscopio metitur
sum, -T'7 lineae partem
tantum (liametro explebant.
Nihilo tamen
minus
o0) all)bedinem oculo nudo hene percipiuintuir,p qan(lo su.nt
in
conspectu.
Facilliuie vero a tubae rugis et inuterjacentibus valleculis velantur.
Sic
faceil fiteor, nie tria tantumi Uhienisse, (0piuivis
ex
corporuni luteorumiU
liU-
mnero sex
exspectarem.
Frustranceamn tamuien operanm mnultorulm
anatomico-
rumn in ovis intra tul)as (quaerendi5s eo tanturn) explicare possum,
quodi
eos ova pellucida (uaesivikse suspicer
et imd(le *era neglexisse.
Num
vero in ofinnibui5 inlanhhinlii)1u5 ova in Itibis sint opaca, nescio. Ova
suilla
in tubis liucutsque n1on1 vidi olh IuajoIein tenuitatein. Cuniculorwn
ova in
2
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tubis non
qpiaesivi.
CRIUMISHANK ilddz1ouOduml1 m;ncm (le iis tledit d1L.Scri-
pt ionem: ,, 1w:e anution (vecsieula in es6ntinafis) miu(ie a centre
spat"
(Philos. Transactions
for
the Year 1797.
pag.
208);
p)iIIgit
taimenl ita,
ac si essent pellucida, untle *ero nihil coiicludi pQec4t, nain Pim;VosT
(1
DUMIAS ova caninia in tubis vider uwt, certe,
opaca,
de
(Iqio
tYmen oI)ser-
vatores tacent.
'.R
3.
Ovula in ovari'o cantino.
Restabat ut de ovorim conditione in ovario certiorem me facerem;
nam ova tam parva vesa'culas Graalianas ipsas ex ovario expulsas non
sistere luce clarius visurn est, nee verisimile habui tam.solidIa corpu.scula
iu tubis ex vesicularum fluiditate nio(do coagutlata esse. Oari.a contem-
plans jami ante omnem incisionem in
(qiacuniqlue
fqre vesicula
punctum
luteo-album clare distimxi,
quod velamentis vcsiculae nullo ino(Io atffixiun
libere
liqluori
innatare pressio,
specillo
in vesiculam facta, manifeste do-
cuit. Curiositate quadam
potius
seductus, quain spe inotus me nudis ocu-
lis per omnes vesicularum GraaIi>inarumn tunicas ovula in ovariis vidisse,
vesiculam aperni, de
quo
(lixi punctum cultelHi lamina (tam distincte illud
vidi et a muco circumdante discrevi) arripui et microscopio subjeci. Ob-
stujp)i profecto,
cunm ovulum ex tubis jaim cognitum
tam clare viderem, ut
coecus vix niegaret. Miruiu sane est et inexspectatum, rem tam perti-
naciter
quaesitam,
ad nauseam usque in
quocunque
compendio physiolo-
gico Uti inextricabilem tractatam.,
tam faciUimo
negotio
ante oculos poni
pos.se
Ne longo sermone Vos, VIRi EXC)ELLENTISSIMI,
teneam, ex multo-
rum ovariorunm catiunorurn observatione )osthac instituta id tantum aflerre
libet, qod Io ie ullum (uitlem inter ca crtat, in quo non saltem inonaiulla
ovula, inlactis oi-ariis, nu(Iis oculis tianslucere viderini. In ctnibuts obesio-
ribus piniguedo etiam ovariis non penitus deest. in his
pasca
ergo ovlda
et haecce ab acuto oculo tdlibusque observationibus .ueto ante (iissectio-
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nlem
perCipiuinur.
ldem fere -ylet( de ovar?is
nonngllis,
quorum
rela-
mnent&t nescic cur solito crassiora sn
it,
uti in cane quadam
magna
obser-
vavi. In junioribus tandem canibus priina ice praegnanlius etiam pauca:
animadvertuntur ovula;-nmn
post
prinum coitum, ni f;allor,
praeter,
ovula
fecundata,
reliqua si non na
sci,
cius tamen evolvi videnitur,
unde
for-
tasse famosae illae observationes Anglorum
Hom,H
et GILEb intelligendae
sunt, fetus serioris prneguationis nominunuam patrem primae sobolhi ejus--
dem matris referre. (C. uieriorein disquiisitionem BURDACHII in
opere:
Die Physiologie
als
E'rfahungswissiischaft,
Bd. I.
pag.
506.). In
phIriius vero ovariis. canini.s complura ovula umudis quim etiam mediocri-
bus oculis per tunics apparent, uti nonnullis ea demtnstr
commiito
nibus.expertus sum. AdhIWita lente vtitrea. in omnibus fere vesiculis,
mi-
niini vix exceptis, ovurun percipitur, si canis non prma vice fecun-
dita est.
Ovula ex ovario promta osis tubariis consimiI'a ese jam dixit
centrinm enijn babent opacum granulosum cumm lialone. Ea tamen inter-
cedit diflerentia, quod jila imbo lato circuindata sint:, qui
augente i nmi-
-croscopii e granulis semiipellucidtis conflatus apparet, atque tam amnte cum
ovulo connatus est,
tit semel modo rnembr ae exterure (corticalis)
ali:
quam patrtem prors.us denudare possem
(41i.
I) Peripherica ila
conge
ries granulosa
non est globosa sed disiforinis, uti acu tenuissimno eam sub
microscopio vertento didici. Planetae Saturni annulum ita refert sutb mi-
croscopio,
Ut BURDAc eam mecum observans lane sinillitudinem
iisdem
fer&o verhis observaret, quibus
ajm diario notavemam.
Ovlda in vesiculis caninis magnitudine secundum evolitioneml
variant.
Majores
(sine dluiO aetate provectiores) dia-unetrt '-- lineae Parisi'-*
nae adwbitt mjinores,
'quorum
centrunm uimin- opacum
e1fst,
vix
i"
lineae
partem. Lamina annularis, quam diseum prolfgestm nomininabo,
"in omni-
bus adest, in junioribus tenuior, diametro ouluIN mIis circiter superante,
in
provectioaibus
obseitmior, pon senper eadein ratione a1mbiu suo crescens.
Media
pars,
quae ovullo arcte conjulncta est, manifeste crassior existlit
ovu-
nniqutle ita,1cingt, titi limbus artilicialls lelteim vitre<mn, si iion, qtod
ma-
gis.s
ithuc arridd, oviY supeIrficein iufiorent psut1lis O(lucit. Ito cuiwilo,
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14
de quo mox loqueemur,
canes sine dubio non
carent, licet non tamn pro-
mnineat quam in plurimis mammalibus. Ne
autem, quae
in canibus faci-
lius inveniuntur, his
propria credamus,
aliorum mammalium ovaria
perIul
strabimur omniaque, levibius varietatibus
exceptis, congruere inveniemus.
t. 4.
Yesiculae Grufianae quomodo construetae sint,
el de ovulo mammalium gevne;'atim.
Vesiculae Graafianae m canibus nimis parvae sunt, quam quae cum
magno successu examinari possint.
in suibis vero
saepissime et accuratis-
sime, credo, eas invesligavi. Cum his
vaccas, oves, canes, cuniculos,
erinaceum, delphinum, ptocaenam nee
non hominem comparavi, in omni-
busque eandem constare structuram
persuasum niihi habeo, quamvis in
minoribus non omnia strata ita benie
separare contigerit ac in sue, vacca
et delphino.
Vesiculas Graafianas ovariis plus minusve insitas esse prout major
minorve telae
.fotmativae vet sic dictae
cellulosae copia adest, easdemque
tempore oestri venerei et
post conceptionem magis turgere, ex ovario
emergere et deemum aperiri,
inter omnes constat.
Curn
ea ovarii pars, quae vesiculam circumdat, hujus vi in involucrum
tnutetur partem vesiculae tegens,
in describenda vesicula
ovarium negligi
non licet.
Ad quamque enim vesiculam Graafianam
emergentem duae pertinent
partes, pars includens vel putamen,
et
pars inclusa vel nucleus. Puramen
constituitut partibus adscitis i. e. non vesiculis
propriis sed ad ovarium
ipsum pertinenlibus, per
vesiculam
tantum sublatis et plus minusve in in-
dusiion mutatis, el thIkea quadam vesiculae propria.
A. Indusium prominentem tantuim partem vesiculae vestit et
conStiluitur:
1.
Epithefio
perdoneali (cf. Fig. IX. 1.);
2. Tela sic dicta cellulosa, quae magis stipata est ad vesicuiae
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15
parteiu
eniinentem
et
totam ovarii
superficiem, aique a (bwa apud ana-
toitico-s noullullos aili(lit, laxior inultisque iasis
perreptatii
adl vesiculae
patrtem
immersam.
Cum inter
albugifeam et par-elyut ovarii
*ix
litni-
tes bene (derulitos
obserlaverimi, et ilia in
pluurinis
inalu.talihus tellerrimum
efficiat stratum, diversis tuintris in icotie signare nolui. Pr.ielerea IIu-
nmero.s in icone IX. cuiI1 iis(lent in hIc expositione
couggrucre
jani olucet.
Supern-acaneum
igitur esse (duxi, figuram
semper
ciatare.
B. 7wTheca (ItObus stratis
coinpouiituri:
3. Strato e.rferi tenui se(1 tenace,
semnipellucido,
ex densa tela
vellulosa conllato uti nemb)ranae teltues solenit. Vasit recipii,
in se con-
hillet et eornin lhies in str.8tuin etjul se(us iUiitit.
4. Stralo hiloeno, cr.xxiore,
wnolliore,
magis opaco, cujiis
super-
licke'es interna slhilLssime granuloso-villosa et hibrica est. Superhicies ex-
lerna areti.ssime cuin stu'itto exterilto cohaeret. Lanminartuuin
.separatio
ildeI
ill IllilloI'ibus (t'l icillillna e.st, ill majoribus i-ero ulii
ill $sUUI itesiCIulis jai"
anite tlgeaseentialil,
HiniUiMs
post brevemt mtaCertationein1 cultello ellici
pot-
est et Saepisime a me licta est, r el vesictilis
plenis
vel evacuatis.
Abiatis eniiu
p)ai'enchylattie
et anid(uisio, stilatuni extel'niutin liecae iln con-
Spectu p)051
ti
vasis suis,
quo catile inciso et
ablato, stratum internum
imanifeste (tiversae structurgae colori'sqiie miiinus albi
appari'lit.
Rltiouem
intel' exteri'ium et iiiteritiii tii1o verbo in(licatti'us cactinlem e.se coetlted(l
kiq(lue
inter memubranas
p)ituitosais
et adljaceniten telam celislosaim , *qua;c
ap)ud
veteres Muinica nervea audit. ,Stratum internum revera menibranis
pituitasis, qtiod
ad lexturani attinet
respondere, nulitis (lutito. Adsmal.:-
scrObiculdI scrol)iculls
munciparis
similes. Va.sorim fines in Meatuf.lilm ilile-
llniln peleltrantes
it'lo in rainulos tenuissimos stib peniuCihllorumx lere irina
.s4 utulllr.-
Distinctin inter aambo .stratat- thletae ton Ii i's 11oinet* %idteur, p1i.ta
ca vanulin corporis
Iluti'i or'igineln nobiLs lenionstirlt.
Thecace ta pIrs,
(IUae
l)osI)lac
niilpitiur,
jam aliquIod wtempts allIt
pturt)aml8n
le'iliiior v-ideftur,
(iiiilOf p)tis-so-noml
al solatlo iillvrtUlo
vendere'(
c^redol.
A*-
ppfit miiim
in
vbesividis
scro1'lte luirgemutibuis saepluis
maciula
(iui.t'(atdaln
perlucicda
miarginibus tslbescentiiu,is irrgolaridnus (/uILLi exesix cirlmundaat
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-
.
16
el limbl)o laucimat0o, qulo
apertura corporis
Intei
postbac dingitur, simnillimis.
Maicula iila
(Fig.
xr.
piCit)
in
quacunique
vesicula diversam formnati
ge-
rens, oriri ind e videtur, ptood .sitrattu interntuni
opacumn
subito in hae re-
gione tenue fiat. Non vero In oniuibus ovis aattris tale st;gmxa an'lt.i
vertitur.
Theca cum iIdIsIio
0post rupturah
'el nuciei ejeclionlem
(al3yem
cotn-
stituunl.
('. Adti neleium
pertillent:
3. Mlensbrano grantil os lhuoremn resiculale Graafianae inichidons.
Cons.tat stralo leuil granulorunii. fit junioibus intulto crassior visa est ee
opacior ; in adiultioribuis teniuior, membranoosa, mnembranae vitelli aium
similior. Nuinquam vero tantae lenuitatis, J IIlucidihmti. et iaeIitatis illan
v;di ac haec esso solet
in viteliis inaturis avium. Si vesiculae G-raafianae
dli.sissae conlental in ritrumn excaratum eflundlutd ur, nicro.scoplo semnper
lituits strati
disrupli
frustula invenies (Fig. X.1). Ciarius idem videi)is,
xi
p)lacet
vesiculam
GIraafiainalII tirgilanm per
diem
vel
b)no0
dies
macera-
tioni siuijicere. Meliusits tiur n ta hrco solvittir et jamn
saepius,
intacto *esi-
(uliae inluslio, membrniuiam granulosami eollapianm
fransparere
idi. S8i re-
sCulia ifa jua-weraIt")a s'ewlione transversa su111) ata
fiinli'tur,
inijus meubranaeac
hina li i;inidi iia
illtigra
fimv
petries.
Sii etro ictin vel brevi sectione vesi-
culas Iaedis, uemlbl)raltl
senieper
p)re*siott
il)eacae dilaiceratur. Ildein fit cirn
miulu a latuba recil)itur. UNi eniru ova juniora in tuba uterove vidi, sem-
pr'r Iiiijilh
ill('l).l.4nae
fihustlula
in his
ofgaaais inveni.
De
superficie Imuju
mt.enilrattiae laevi ifina (lemumilxl locutuirus sunt.
6. Humlor iesicula contentus. util omnia lltidla organica, exqremen-
liti.; excepi,s ellit!1Il (t ii(letii pelitits,
ex Ji(lo nfotivo (quo
NEESII
(,rund.wlhins retlfere vonamur) ct
granui.s
i nuati'
coinponitur.
Praer
erc. globulli
oleosi iuleuliliiutr
jII)phs
minuisve in otunibu.s imamunmalibits, quae
itille il lilelI ex(amilnltavi, lie f'entinae deliciuntII hunmanae. Granula par-a
.suitl irregula,,lri;a blie et iam(de in acermvulo.s collecta, granuli,.
viltllinariis
silimlnlil;i. .sed ration;e ad JlatniCI'n'II
Pa.Iuca.
Fledti.lum niVIdim iiscislunat pel-
lucitiulilqulie ost. wk vesictli.s turgidis mantifeste fliie.scil,
quod
tantileni i gra-
nulis finVIasse
pltuiet. Lvuoaplhae
lraeflerca e.st simuillimus sed
lymphae
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17
spissiori,
nani major
(qitantitas, qiiualem
saepius ex puribilhs v.esicilis .Stlilk
.'aIle turgidis collegi,
placeI1taIin
verain et imiagii.tin (twldtInii
secernil.
Ova-
rio coclioni sub)jecto lhumiior vesicularui
peinits
ii(luirescit ini inassaill al-
)Uillilli cocto
qtuatti
sirilimuam,
(quie
disrupta
eo(leni fere iie(lo ac
AbIuii-
iniexi coctuni
sulerficiemu
striaitam exlinbet. In
slpiritu
lilli iltii(ue flurescit,
sed
potiuts
in massain
gpnanuloso-floccosam.
klieidumn ;ativtnt
ergo
al.bu-
rninosun Cs!.
7. Flti(lo ininatat i-el
imposilus
est dliscus ille
l)rOigetsrll.,
ie
(quo
!oculi
soimuist
et cumluths ex denise
stipalis
granulis conliati. Ilate; gra-
ulla allhedine tanitim abt htuinoris granulis
de.scriipti seniper
dillcrumi. Tltui
minora tutu in.ajor.a lisa swit; (le (iillerenitia niagnittuIimiis 1111il satiuer oA
cain causaiU atuleo. Discus
p)rolig-erits
liau(i ita In hiao lOllilonls t(Illiubus
notatur. Mlaxiiitnn lialonein in erinaceo * idi. Nulliiiii animtal
niii111ii|tii
lifs parlibus carere 'iesiculariin Gtraalianartni (discis.io Sill)
aquall
et (liigiiens
htuon-is
perlustratio
sul) lente %el
lilicroscopio
dlocet. Attainen (luoJ1io(1o
et
(luoliani
loco sitae siiut, haltld ita fatile eruitwr. Nar111 in sola canle
tianslucere solet oi-tultuni ctUII disco sulo. In l)iniS ovan-iis sUillis
t
lau)a-
tUni
epistoniio
involutis (initer cenintin feie a nie examinata') chain iliStii-
ctt
per
iliecain et inIdusitIin iiiajoruiI vesicutlaruII
ap)paruerunt.
In reliquis
ovariis, hicet aria iionnulla tubl)ae
anplexae
erant , nuni(qtarn vidi niisi
in-
ci.siolle. Ctlin vero jacu. minimiia tlicae laesioiie lutnttior ,
prosiliat,
(discnF
hlac, Uletliio(lo 11o01 inl sitt obs.5cr-att%. CoquCIe(lo
ii
i(nite spiri"n
litilloleln
cogigailav i, sd(l (iscEiN
p)rolgerIfis
(lisal)atlirat ClUii o0ulo.
,Sp)ilitu
(eIlli(tlie
iiiii v.alde (dihioo lhunioris
pal:mu pau.lululLil spissavi
el dliscam ei ilculn-
lblielti vidi, ut Fig. A.
pinxi.
Loctun tanien indicatre noni polui.
In
Cane 11u0bilmnil ini\eni, i sed
seiiiper
ad cactunen
magis
q(uam ad fun(dtuni
ve-
siculae olbservavi. Ini
s1p)ra
glictis o01r lis
p)rciis
ilunlnol)ilis erat et sutpre-
1tl11111 locuin in
qunacuinqiue
vesicula tlenUil,
(1t1o (likil't strato aiiunii
1)1p0-
lig,ero utl p utilurillitll Si)(liceilo silo. ('Ciin slnucs canes, qatts
(lissecui,
pI'I'gnaill(s', %esicuilav ego ililltlatulaC
('t
claIUSae fIier,,in,t, (tillnl 1p)0110'
in
Iuialirioril)bus
v
esiutils alu.; ,llimin atl niltklilllll din C1s11
proligeritfn iioniltlqI(liialu
imembirai /ttI,IIIo.s(w appre-S.Sull
illn enelim, ind(lc oolligerein, discum -pro-
Ii<f cram io ie.siculav iitlurIilatte Illagis,
IllaIiSqllue
% Oli ad
peripjierialiil.
3
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18
Cuntli caculneii at iiuteriora
senaper
etrstu est. Craterem
nunqjuam
dis-
linxi. Cumuli Cornma est varia iariis in animalihus
atique
in eodeem ani
mali manifeste rariat, forsan secund(luni maturitatemn; in cane
depre.ssus
est-; in iacca cylindricizin fere (in oi is iniunawris) (Fig. XI.) vel glo-
hosiun vidi; in clianicuilo sub iigdenrdornmis, ina femina (depresso-hbemi-
spliaericumn (Fig.
XIII.), in
porea. saepissinie
sub diversissinis formis oh-
scrravi. Quite alb eo foirasse
pendeuta, (I1to(1
ovulum mutet situm suum
et Itaud ininus quan
dliscus
pr'oligerts
a centro ad
periplieriam
tendeat
cutuhfun et li,scaunI
proligeruw pedleteLntim
penetrans. Ita suadent obser-
ataiones in aliorum ovis aninmalitun fiactae (v. 4S. 6.)
8. Ovltumn tandem in cumido (t in
ip.so
iksco
nonnunqaum
tale
obserratur
ciuale
de cane jani oescripsimnus.
In
reliqluis
animalibus vero
non tam
opactun
vitli; (qua ex causal, (iani in ovario sunt, sine microsco-
iio
in liis iix animadlvertuntur. In ownibus inassa globuilaris metlium te-
tet obscurinin et
peripiheria pellucida
(ltin mnemibrana corticali circum(Latur.
t I t conistaret, iutim niassa
opaca CeUalilis revea'aft gIOl)U1US Sit SOliMUS (talem
llillha b11e111l adspectullm), oiula canllauJ et v;acc.e
ve1
formu;ito el die intlu-
Ntria (lilacerala inicr-oscopio
contemaLatus s;ium, in(lequtte giobulumn ntoni esse
%oliuniaaia collegi secl griammila.l ejits perilaiheriati
crassanl circa caiuni lmtinimum
(olistitllere (Fig. 11 o.) Res salltem ita est iisa eic mainen fi.cilis est
dijudlicaitia.- Naglnitudo (Itniiiqlle oi nilomt iii riat. Satis miag-na suit
oi aii.l in
porcis,
vaccis, oribus ; Illinora in ('IInicillis; djUil)[is minora ad(litim
ill callibus, miilnlilma, ratiolle ad oviliul et boltinh
corpuvs,
in febnina fita-
IltaIIIa; ('0 alliaora elrgo il unii erstim *q11) altior
corporis
evolutio. In eni-
flaaeo tan'liell oitiIt el dis all '
proligertias
maaaxiiaa %.isa stint, ctim iesictilas
ret.spiijs
(raiaiauas e' corporis
an oleua
paarviki'll.
1)Maniqaae afieram me bina
(l ul;a sealnel ill c;alls iesacucln distinclictsim e idiss'e et ;ali.a vice i)ina o -iala
ill rrofIitsIt'micalaJ,l Iidis.sm m11e
pllumrne,
aanadW aminerums oiortun a
coirploramn
hlilat-rninaii iiiatro nonaumqauaitlla
ditr.'iesum fiarile
x'pIict.aII e*st.
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19
f.
S.
Jlistoriae evolutionis mammalUum brevis
conspectus.
Ut, quae *ia retrograda inuestigavimus,
clariora fiatit, mammalitum
evolutionem a primo ovuli vestigi( ad1 id usque tempus breniter persequa-
mur, quo jam manifestior fit.
Quid prius adsit, utrum mamrnalium ovulum an vesicula Graiafana,
num unquarn oculis percipi possit lumanis, nescio. Id vero certo certiuts
liabeo, in juioribus vesiculis ovualtint cum disco proliger jam adesse
nec
ad vesiculam cui pertinet ita parrum. In
miniTis
quuidem non vidi,
sed
disquisitio haec tantis prenitur difficultatibus, ut et in majoribus
interdum
fiustra quaesiverim. Observationibus deficientibus, rtum hiypotlbesin sub-
stituere licet, ovula priora esse crediderim. Detnonsurabo eni'ni mamma-
lium ovula vesiculis PURKIuui reliquorum anirnaliumn conmparandas esse,
quas in animalibus nonnullis molluscis, acephialis v. c. et lumbricis, ovO-o
rum evolutionem anteeedere clare mne vi(i.sse pubo.
Vesiculae GraAlianae humor
prinuilu,i
albumen
insxpissatumi,
aequal
(dum solum ovulqm granulosum est. Tum differenlia
polaris
in hirnmore
mags magisque evolvitur, fluidum nativum dilutius ftt et granula contra
pluma in eo evoiluntur.
Meinbrana, quam granulosani dixi, principio stratum salis crassum et
continuum est, tunm granula in ea magis excolunitir,
quiae
externa
super-
fide tenuissiino tegmine albumitoso legi nvidentur,
nunquuan
(iiiitlem ita
separato
ac in ovis aiuun, tameu mnemnbranae vitelli
(avini)
atuintulo. Di-
sus proligerus magis condensatur et ovuluin
p)edletentim
abl eo sejulgilut
lnemtbrana corlicali, quam utique
lpro
secretiole (ex ou ili
globldo
habeo.
LTi enim quodleiunqtue
granuluim leriplle
ianm halbet
p)('IIuIidam1
(iii granulis
uuuembran;ae granuulosue bwie
percepl)til1ulei
tor finlas^se (cuiII 1hauloue ab alieto-
'ibuus cirna ,olnutos sanUgUiinis ol)servato conparawnlani),
it.i et qIiaecqute
granulorium
congenues pelpherial
comiunutui se circuIlllWas. lIn oui-lo cavitlas
centralis oritur, g'antulis
ad
periplhlraiauu
lell t ellfeiluas. Olululis eniut ('10oll1-
lio in eo nititiur, quodi
a ceintro ad1
p)eRi'pl(1au1ii
temlatl ftiy-lia lo. Eliauis
discum proligerunm et onruluulu a(11
periplieriaui
pr'ogrndiellute.
colultione teli
3
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20
oli.servawiones in mamumalibus si uionditm sstricde
ptrobiant,
saa;adet tanieni
coinparatio
cunm ovis
relialuortma animanliunt. In vesictlis maturs's
d(leU(que
sir.almn internini theeae
cra6sius
fit, sfigmtr
vero teiuiuus demum evadit.
De corporis h-lei gentesi satis dissietiuitt obsern.atores. Me ju(dice,
iiiiinate
corpus
n0oi- 1111 est , sed( stratum tittrintiriu tliecae nagis evolutum.
Qaaod sequelntibtu.s1
olbservat ionlIibus demon.strari rnposse plato.
1. Circa
corporis
Itatei
lpartemu
iaun)ersak aunuama niodlo iniroltacriani
dIi.selIle're
ponili, q1u1od(
theme strato exteraao
resjp)Oadet.
Ex ca(flem enin
ela constiitlitur aitiiuc
pallutIllim
distensa , ati facile in maagnis vtcIca.II'IIru ;
oiitlun,
porcaruia corporibaus
Iuteis
probatuai.
Nec
reliquae
cirea
corporis
mlicel vestinaenta
dis(lui;sitioites
dlissaaadent.
2.
Aperitara orporis
lutei ioiaidiaiu coitieicti i(leiii (locet; cintgitar
(511iik)
peri;isIoilio
lac(iliaIlo. Hs laciiias miiiiii(aat esse inbis.ti
prolotigatio-
Itle, sd
ipsius coaporis
luitei, (distil(tisi'it iEli
pl)lliJ)
po0t 'liptalrila.l
ill
ovariiis caiinins, (aeimidaldiais et
lpOrcilitis.
Ii(/itd'i,
papeflla
it a llinnl major ('si
c
ilgilquel( petrist;omlinin
(lF'
,s. Xlr. . Peli.istoniitinil v-ero ealndeilll habejlt
ormanain ac stigna
stupra
descripu1ttit
Itec
quiid(paaatn
alitid est.
3.
'Expil.so
vesiculae rai(aiallae niOii' 1lilili 1 mil(lilauo.si aliqlaid re(-
lltlanets ex
(Iquo
vero aina(aiaui
corporis
Iluli mtassall aullger'i ilade coclalldo,
iaaioId 1)
siaperlicies
Iaijia.sce inaternat spe (Iedeinhte
circtinscriplta
sit in
ailalaclunqae prow iherl-1a hia ; 2) saepissinite
ha suihaas
corpora
lutea
per
totam
?"'M
iditatelai C411;1
ei
1111ti(Io spisso atlbuaitiaoso imI)Ieta i:-eaiaaatur , duamta
alia salinat s(lida. W I lid Je iile
peIideriC ileidia, qaio(i
in aiiis
(orporis
Itlei
exclre(Scentiae (prot
ll)benltite) iiit't'na.C <a tt eit('vila
COIam)compeat
et IIaifluaII
prop('j'l0alt anateqtiamaa la;ciitiac peristomii
concrei
raint,
in ahliis
lacilliae
con-
crescaaat ante
corporis
solifditlteain lutei.
Niiiatliatalll
Calilln
apertuara
clausa
litaialaor ta
Corpus
hlitewn italaasus tutaltiar. fii caanil)us ct tulflltlatibtis
(crpora
lautea, si claiasa erant, cav-a m1e iiatreitisse atoil llellui: iU his
apertara primtitaim
inajor est taana iaa saaildbus.
4.
Coptis
liatetiii satiaiit
p)ost
oiaaili jeiliollem adest. In ea canle,
aIallae
o
('x talbis Sappeditaverill't Cortipushe
lill
illvelli
('alUWIIt, Iat
;ataalu,1'ill Iltol Ialde crassaaaaa, isaajerficmi
extsta
rugatalaeta l
(quait suIperli-
dieati
vorpora
raaalitaaillaillata hia servare solenat ,l atande iaaaa Ella atpar;-.
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I
~ to r
io culn} glandulac; acinis), ;1inlerna ountil s> enlIiiiaenhiis , quas3. ('uniX rugti.s c'
iliis
comrpolierein
cramsi.s-simim, obsita. Emii tialike rihehanit
*
asik alliplis,
jnl nuflis ocuilis sinie inijectione
jpparentibus.
I)oleu, mue aiis ime-smigalt-
tionil)Ulls detenliiutm lhaec
corpora
ltiea ion1 delinieaieses. thilud
pauto
provectius Fig
AH'. exhibui lectoriilUs.
t. Se jni ainte nutclei ejectioneim thecae stratum utruiiea
S) Fed1
j;sl.atete
j''iIII 1(;1 l.li ileill'ltilI lllt.a-
niortlphosill
in
corpus
luteuni subire persuasui inihi hafio. bli ciinicuilo
tiqtod1ani, cujus
ova in. utero
jIni
jacebant,
nescio
(jUio casu, una i esicula
vaide turgemlLs aniuc clausa erat.
Apertan
eam .nondumt fidsse ovuli
prae-
sentia (Iemotistravil.
Corpus
luleUmi Celle tamI18en udrIuit
qaillaill
emq lane
et sine excrescentiis internis. Idemn in vesiculis turgidis
porcarunm
me (t oh-
servasse puto, in quibus stratum internum tliecae incrassatum et
paulniumt
ex licteo rubens inivenii.
Corpusl
luteum in suibus enhnli
niuq(ailmlllll
cre In.-
teniun est. Antie stnigmatis
aperturamn
lutescit qii(lem, seid
post
nuclei
eje-
chionem ruuI)rInm lit. Euidem colorem in canibus habet; in vacca lmlce-
aturantiacum est; in.hoinine in primordio flayturi.
Qtuenunam
colorem
post-
ham; in feminii lhimania habeat, non satis
expertus
sum in ovariis receuti-
bIu.s Persuansum ergo hiaheo, jam turgenite vesicil.a Graialiaua stratumai
liwea iiuternum incrassari et,
disrupto
indusio, a strato externno et an-
bioneic iela cellulosa nuuic se coutrahentibus crispari,
unfle rUg,.ac jaum na-
scuntutur interia e,
mjuiae tanmen sublito majores exeresceultias
propellunt
vii-
Iis inaNilnUs similes, el postremo
inter se 'oufltlulnt.
E x
quiolib)et
arteria-
1uiI liJe in straltum interniuIn
penetrante
inullc reliCtiluml11
)parvinu
excre-
scentiae
Cuilque
nascitur.
6. Halad nminu.s in vesim&liS porcris Iuorb)ose juuituo ihmmore (non-
mliullllnilll
tad oii gallibacei ininoris ambitnum) (listetisis
thect.e strattum
in-
leniuni corporis
itei inidlolemU
induil. Crassitiem senmlieae ;. sseeutunn
i id: nu
ll
ortlasse
corpora
ica
if
y(hrolpica
inec vesiculae morhoIosae
?
7. Quihus dimsqisitionillis 'it fiuelmu ip onmI aframlliran tamdem ici ne
in 1utiella lilkidinosat tisncae straltum iniernuilln vicsinlae adhucli' (alaL ja.11
minlllillo llalvllum viise. In alia pumuellka (ilae morti -se de(derlat, procul
dubio oh incaltonam graivlitaila corplm
liuteumum invenlli
aplmrturn.
('ums
cavitlaus, niutiomm atd resiclat6d Vt...i;!, iajor oral qnamn In nile e.por
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Utaeo alteritis animalis mini obvio, et prow iberamtiae iinternae muitores.
U,ndle,
qqaeso
, ha;ie (Iliflereiitia, nisi ex co
p)ewlet,
(111o(1 1 esieilca (rait-
faita huiam ;a (l'i).Niore It-la celltllo-sa Cil'lill' ata mutiuXlls eontr1;ahatillr
pia)%
evaciationeifl? Ovmi hi
)1 i; oc Castu rI'aI'issilml se oflereitiii 11011 I'mei,
qiiiod(
qitidlemn
tiliic
teinpois p)r'oll
dolor
!
0>n1|X1 tiilnilmilu lmamum nilondtlii
coguio er1aml.
Ad oitim redeamums. Ex ovario ejecitim a tilhae
aperitira
abdollli-
nali refCipitur. Quiodi ut celitis et melfitis fiat, luiae
apertura
)oiar1)) IiltiU
sill) inifundihuli fbriumk extendliltir, sed( et alia adlstiiii admilliuiclla. ItI anli-
mIail)dius n1onniullis,
in
quiilms
ala
Iespertilimioii
aiilaltomco1;11ii * ix C\ ll alatt
sedl
potius
pIaila
est ; inlfulnlilnli osililiil
perisfolilio
laciialo (illiilu' 'ci
sic dituis iHIIl)'iiS; itat in lioiniiCe, siI))ia. Iiu alis ala
espmertilioiis
aitte-
rioia versuis in l)tthlam extensa est, tio fit , tit ostiil wlbae 0. o.lrio Sit
p)ropiuts.
In lhiis ostinin
jain
inagis aperttmn fimihriis caret i-eicis.
Exempla
lnabemnus ili rtImiiiaitibtls. Stinit poI'Io alia aitinialia, in (luil)tus Willa di-
ct.a sit
profumlior
et posteriora versus ad aperturam qualdailaldaI
cointracI.
Ad liaec
pertinentl
su1s et
(lphtlinus.
Tutbae iinftmudlibuuliti a(1 b)dlae
apt-r-
tur'.anh
all)perili
lln is, ine jitlice, finbriis, sed rugis obsilumn el oslio 111;a-
g11()
ill. bl)lam rau ;l.sil.
Touporoe
oe.v;tii I-e'i'|^ei bu1lla
dle.scripla
O;liti-iii
tit Illitr'aI 01)(IlCii,
quod
ill scrofis
saepius,
in
Jphlocaena
seliel vidii.
Aper-
tiuti llIm
aiuIpla
es t, u1t btiUia ab oi-rtl'io sinie laesioile disiralli
p1o.Sil. 11.
iIIsee(liorim Inldia.
jalm1
in sa('t1u mintatilltr, 01 Jtiitnf liii tIli(ca * wilalalius
seliper
11ii'111(lllCs,
apertilra
Coara:Ila;
(ltilit'll
.i 1 Sed Satis
c6spicila.
Ill fi(-
eis jali ila co'IInIira iltit', tit adttims
plililO
ilililti
j)ritprae
ilinli
1po).1it;
in CamIIO
aila ailagaLsI, in
plhocaI
firameni parium adest. 11n imisfelas ii)(iiiir'eiifli
inmei( (leest oceatsio.
(Cumn tivilo
s5i)mper
membranae granmdowte finilstila ill 1111 als li.1trs-
*mliii: nanll ill ittelo hnatlnl nints quiam in Ituhis muit
( '
is priluiiliv;s
Urui-
s.inla dicla
semper
adlslinnt. Praeterea in liis organis
iml ui"
i tirr l'eXicillae
(elosm(-,
p-a1n11ila
p)olym))rpl)a
aitiullnlUis et
lriistula telftl( ('clhiloslacp I 'ul-
Il11111 1l fiolicein abscisil. Quits OnIlle)iX
re' obseni 6itor
odtUIII!;
s
1 (ml) lltl-
tIllmil i(deril, ova llilor'a ClliiS itOh
tio nhtnlfdel. Qiibiiiodo
l r'10 Il!4l(Lii-
lex,pro
tl I. haialt
posillt,
it
liii
PlREVOST CI D)u.MAN
AS t1tlNaiCMittr'
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23
tl4en 11011 inielligo. Hydalide.s eniirn flcet catfenas Ill x;in
lis villerin l, liuli-
1toan#i1 tamlien ill
I
itharnit ant uteei car
iait'm oll 1di.
('Coltpiwcnla
a
lieia,
l11l'lpalnill
pitlli, f7;g.
Ii ll( .
pIillt
;
pl)
tllij i d, ra
clipliollnm
m1pervipalwaiam
(II.N.Y (1ll('o. hel'
p)('r
oljiductlXl" bCi6'ns OiUllt
l)l;lilXll1;,16ll11t 1111l.h11l f('r'e suh|-
il 11
;l,lv(la|llorplwill
Ili-Si (|11iod llSllcuill *IIIbumtillOso
-
p+11,;l -lIm)Nli imbibal;l, hi-
*1|e
p.111ll1lu1ul
('t'(re-'at mW i1al
fillidfl(lt
llt;
graml)tl.1
l7ol)[11i infl-1 i
per ipheriallbi"I
niag
t0is lla 1i.;('tle colln.;itiflilt lIuinoieini icidlwleld in. Crama cai m (1Iliiiiiioreto
edr/?aIIm,l Si;NtlXli, (
11juls
cuileilla
giol)(1tilll
olu1lzgf1s ex Ilal -1X1i.s .secreIe. I-ix
perciilnr
, ni)Wlrlmbraia. (orlicrfli jaiiti liene excuillia.
Ill nieirtlt ira11Xl;w.IfI OlUnl Cifills 411CCIT'S'it
mllaijOr(m
ll in quaI;ni-.
taleml iiUl)iws1 el itle1 cal IIIIIu-e t pelitiCi(liduil fit. Granllla adl
p(
ripderialh
li;l.is
iI1agisql1e
recedlIlnt et ex
s.'uperticie
sua marleriaml exCeni'iiiiiit, ex qlua
ciaititlal t(')eimSissima concesc^;it,
cliillx
supe)rlkiei
internlae
gra*nlalz
adhav;renlt.
O'llivulalll#b 11.m. Inel 'librlla lilefli etb;6f et
graloinda,
(IC
fIpliblus
ag>imuis; g,ralim-
Ii,
I
il('IliliP av11i10 1
Ip1e011(nCllt.
Villor 1101i vcstigia i;1 mcmbr'auwa cor/iali
appallilif1
fl1ll ill liler-o oviu lihere niovetur. Vis formalu ivira a centro a1d
p(ripheld'i'l1lt1
agells ,
ctini
granula pri:uit,us
ad
periphlriam
egelit ,
umn in;
(Il1oculllIlu grllill( massaS%in en(iorem1 adt peril)pherliaiml cogit, (p1i1
lilIolldltue
971rMI;umu in orbein verti(iit, graniula minora circa cenitruin
pelIucidutmn
Si-
talnamophrlol1ouk
ovi ergo ve.siczdac Gtraaianlanne melamorl)hosi onninio
rel.i1ponidet.
Si(cut in liac grantila, plurima
stratum
peripher'iaumn
couisi tiiiilit,
(ll S
Sl.
purjocut'(iuull
:'vins memln'anula secet'ni incipit,
ita (t in fornuanal
oembrulatia
lit vifllillnali. Porro, in vesiCula IirGaaiiatua stratum proligerum
c1uull (.11tl(o alte.st, ('li rcs1)ondet bllastodermatis Iuistoria. Pat's gr;intilo-
'111111' e11ini ill 010o suI) mlmbrana, itelliiuali tuinuiliini con0flsilt ,
p)dlteiIifilu
ill dlisetiuunhu 11n11allum. NIllmbrana
corlicalis ftheac vic1es geril.
O 1i111 ante
pra es
l1reu(ntiam lele crexcert nmiihi vi oum esi . Pe-
ins codei 111 )l11o ('1 (ilur, (1110 in avibilsl1,
nvc
siltlis
il
ai
ilitlSI smai
.dilleri. Pr'iniiib LspillaIe 1loiSalis IAS1i"ililn .tppl'tlC i idelu. Es 1101 Ia-
Mill.-e lll)l-sall5-s (/clicet' pri;tiluhIem
PANNDEu1)
el
pailI() otlloantiailc
Ilt-
clies riluga
111
o libilsor il, pIll)01 ; trllitllib)l i v(clulrlmIns m
vollitio
(.riel-
pe.cliiilga)
il co nilifurl {luto(i (es wzro cellfralli (columlaeverfe(b,ral,,,l.
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-s~~42
vestigio) binae Iamniiuae 1surMum ten(lant ai1 caaitatem pro medIulIIa mpintali
et: Cerebrto (con.siilueIndaIIJ,
et biniae de(orsum ad cavitates4
pro
organis
ph.s-
sticis
i
asontinquto
truniwc formanflas. QuaIl evoi.o1uiineint fershtulus su81)
ill balralcliIS,
op)hidiiS
('1. sanrim is. lialati millus
qlu-il
ill aijuS. In
p)isci-
bus
pritnam qt11id'tU
11011 Vi(li
PVOli0;Olueiki, sed quauiunt ex pisciculihs pellus-
ciuli-s fIrim linearumit , in coneharumu branchiis seniel obviis et b)reliier ex-
anui)i I bsl'e
x
ma1jorib)u1s octo ad(I duodeuit lfitcas
explenlib
us, in spirliu
Tilli 'Ser'atis
colligere
p0Illai,
eandImIIE esse Wc1nsea, (lC (plo
clarissimuts
*RATIME
exsjpeclaiissiniio
sIO8110 (Ie
piHClln
etoltitoie
Opjnre
ce1 CeilOre.s 1108 fi-
clef. V erunIII.ad 4-iliiieilsl veIl(lrfe Sbrzis 'arltia
(11WOZI allino,'
(-OI'WIU SOlliltiF-
neiti it arliculatls li *leili ad W
tt'rgium procedere
jitlil
a11ne RATHIKII `Xo)0-
sii.IOnes (I4.ss 182.5
pag. 1098) ciii)1 Bt't DAV1I
CXIlLs
811111 it
jI11an
anno
1824
p)ubi)lici. pr1'aele'(cion1i1u
(kloci
uIi , U tia(liorltlim sclietfulIc le*siabutitur.
RtATIIKti hal. fl(e
a-- -I 11tRDACII IflOllitiSi vere('1 t iliileti aesti.ie ;e alli
1 82' lii(tIir
c'OIxIIiXit, alucIt lIImuto t (ajnl8(IC1U UIIIli
pmublice
(am dlo-
cuiII,
p riop6is
salle obsealr iuioiilmhui xtiliissiis edoctus i )
I)Duum tm111I))'> 0o eioi
;t(r.,
IlasiItIoidal 11.-11(1 (I1II)INC eXiteI8lsin et
ImPlia.-
1U111 Clili) hhemln'dnue C011resch('i1 IIIi (1110
iIo
tinC I'US SamUCs infe1stiIllais
('conshfiiuiilr, .111 ill mll ibm.i ,e1)1I1lr)e corlicalic s vis i mulillo mllagis8 p)ropul-
fill-lit et 01111)1
ahlutfero,' (.; lli
Illi(iqite excrc'seUli, arcliimel ci'ingilttr.
S1Iirala)iliae lt'ItIrililae, qiti1his 01 ili1)al111t111
Jaill))
ailie
par111illm
p)1'018118s
ili-srili-
lnir; ill
;Wd11U,14,4
811a ii i ci klhuituuiiql)Ii tiaihaie cx
ut'1oa nhl)UIJIUilJIIn
('1 1111Wtr(iO 1illr'um1)
ped('deteIIim))
01o
tIj)uppedilaltillr,
qno iiit II a mus5i inlue-
.stil.lx il lailxl.l I)4lxfe(*al(;1ll perela xIell)l.| r o
grm. Wdilieamll.
S(ed lUJIev sttilhiii,tiif tI1( 11i11m1iUi)s1 ne repeiain qutae ice -coneorflia
tIt 4filli''('lliia ill Imallmlliuill m"ilU) WIIIEj lmoluliolne
jani1j'lU
dociui.
)
Q9aiito.
naanr puAfalii.. *aflriA.tiw intiar ism1. pi% Nit
pwst
lei m tomachumt, quem eatn
i.auila1aa,1a e al.a am
pratauatjaau
j
nr
aa
tui, tmul
gidmmio
a
t
aaaa'
iscrtaa'aa ilalta' aaliataaiia wtrtdI,ris
V.1rauia et *a'rtahrata
praaaaaaalgareiaa,
.i latn dimisaititinib,aas hrbrat iJhos tam'ut1iat'aastal ad, laate diwri-
tilets dijudicanadulot *afficieaatiblus frelu., peraveritaa, sue laaic amuicai ou,ervationiaiam, isblitu-
wIUug) t-'.'..
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25
~s. (I.
(C,Ivllpti"Ptio
oviiii mflUnlin lit(l( l (11111 oGis' I''liqiora
in
a n i )nl o I i t 1/11.
Rlela,t. Mi cum ii.s
COmparanl'l-nS
, (111,11C
(IN t! llllltl OVis Il1CU.S(gall
nota crant ; o-a mnamimnaliumii, ad giensin jluo(t
altilet, 11 diffilIerre talltill
se(I oii11ii11o
p)'culia'riaR
e.sse( v-idenitrll. A1'lens 1lmman;a I%
*ro| t11|llo iIIOdo
.C-
(Iiliescit
in sola
(liileIIeiitia iiter
ie.s nalitales
e'jilkdel dintlalis
et relatio-
ills CO-nOgs(ceId(a. Jam111U(IU (lOCllit
lIiOr)pliologimie
StIl(liilli, OfhiiCein
CUjU.-
*iis organi (nie oniiiiin .dicanius organormni ) dillevrentiam inter 1iiuiites
mtlajOrLS
.siniltlu(dilnis teneri. QuidI ? Ova Ilianlillialiuin Ic doc tlillalte
a
CASP. FitID. IV OL FF tanta jam claritate (demiIonstiralte contradicereilt!
Hisce cogiltationiibus coinmotus
compltii11itii
ii anintalinin o1 ii accIralitiUs
exanminare coiistitui. Exercitationibus cirCa liaic rein i(acem
pratelulit
ex-
ceelleitissiinia
dissertatio, qua
JOANNES Ev. PUIIKINJE ieneraInli BIu MNEN-
B ACIH semisaecularia gratidatus est. Libellus,
plai
quideIIm amII)ius,
Sell
gr1
k1\ ;.ssim;Ii argiwiueuiti
, jiiblice ,
quanttun
scio , nIon iedaiur isI; , sedl imiutuo
acadIemniartliI comumercio literario duntaxat distril)lIlus eSt, (qliO eeiiiiti,
LIhatd(I ant1e autumnuin anni1i 1826 cumi C cognoverim. TtuItiiu liabet sequel-
teiii: Jotn. f-ied. Blumoiu bachio etc. swlnmorain in m edicina hwnoraii
.olCiisecularia ,gratiladir or(do edwicorain 1'atislaviansilJl iiile)pi'epe
Joanne Ev. Pukin P 1'. 1'. 0. Stibjeclae .snt
.syibolue
adl
ovi aVhiaii
histlo)am ai0c imwiba/t nemi ; caOI datubuts
lilhograp#hi.
J'l8alidlatvia,
lypfis
lniversiOts (anno 1 825 mense
Sept.
edit.).
Quite
oialatissinius PUR.KINJE t bKI Navollit, soil haec.: III avmiull 01is,
lunli nl 0a1 ro jae(nlt , sub elmlbhrai)a 1ilelli Sirtillil tlenilissimllUIn fgrillilo-
itUi)I vilelliolla adist- , -1.ti 1110 10(o 0
c
aIglmist slipal.1t zoniilain (quaxllu
(Iiscai
pro0;eb"'o'lJ)
noll()iill;%lli)tl> c'ollslittililill. 7ioII;av
superfici(:'s
intlerna;e( c'itlkililltil
Imaillulll olOl)ml1J11 ('01Und((1il grallililoiiii adl interior;)I 'ergenitell exiil bel.
In
c(lhlille t i ll tili
pIoIiI' p(I(icIil
S, (Iill ai killlfI(Jllf( dlisci piagmill (cOnspic)i
poteie
I,
l iii, I ( Si(1l iis inwt-err)iltivi outil lvl', ('ll1jl" fli;talltial rl;iIltt
lilt'll'1)ll'{'ll \1lE'. 1lil( l}l'ill, lil lll'lilIl cica;tl-iculaf;
,
8'lilli'lUIUli p)'r-
1tlllalei iflblldere '6C11. (.siculla O mCl;t lillilli.sNillil;, (iiilst( .suslan)tNaelXl< gra;tllillo-.S(
4
12
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26
immersa, duias tantum
facies,
alterin versus menibranam vitelli, alteramn
per colliculi caclunen cratere ilbi parvulo circumdatan, liberas 1)raesenltatt
ita tarmen, ut ibi aliquantulum membrrainae adlhaereat, liurc vero s1rittrni
sii.-
plex granuiloruin initer
se
cohaereptinlini per
eanm
contimnatur.
Vesicula
hlnoioein dillluum conitifet Iiinpi(lissirnuin. In cicatriciua oiornIi
piartorumI
et in uteio vel in ovidiuctu latentiniill niuinquiani inmvenitur, in vitellis auten),.
(luin i -ovario sunt, ne minirinis quiilein
exceptlis, semper
adesse
videtur,
qiuaIre
Cl. PURKINJE
vesicildarni (lietain o0i l'(ilordia coiistituere suspicltur.
Quihus tIuneit liceat atidere, iie
(quo(qIIe
in ovis iiinimiiis, oh granu-
lorum tdetcttiun pelluci(dis, vesictillllm (Itumd(Iai vidisse, et quien, ni tI-
lor, ad cenii-tium magis
po0silaimi quam
posdi
'ac
si1ta est. In
ovis
a
IT
mn.
aifl Ilinius liieae diiamletrUIm excretis, Ob)scuIrioribus et
afbI)escetib)us,
vesi-
culaI jamill sine dissectione 11011o V)dreI. \i11us
(itlIe(eil
siub).
mllicroscopiao
orbem in oA) salis
inau1mm,
(Ilti tameui lioni a vesicula sed a vitelli Ileni-
1)i ilmII p)euIdIe{t per
thecam transp),arcutte. Vitelli membraa hloc
empel)oe
crassissima et
graItIlosa
est ita, Ut opItime mereatur iiomet mnembranae
gr-aiwl10osa'e, qttam PURaK&NJE q.oq(ule ita. descriil. Atummat vero grnt-ul.a
sup)erfick!Xi
iiilei-iiae meCmIbrauac| adha11erer; se}(i imiaml. stiIi, 11|e 'ti(fiee,
et umenibriman
-potiuS
ex iis qlIo(aIImmOdo coiistitUituir;
abstergi
cilint 1101o
p)ossumt.
Posthlac memb,'ana
gmrailosa
in
sir8ttuil exteriniiwU 1aeve,
contii-
1111t1111
-
mehl)raitaml *iteli
puitla
-- (t Striatuml graliulosulml, litelli
peri-
pheriali
eIciviells, Stjunglti milhi v isa est. Quae
qutalitiumque
iii0(o sese 5ha-
beantl, id
tlqimidle
ceriul halwo, l'icla e illa n iv
telliporis
n1on1 in strato
graIlluO.S( jacer'e, set( stil co lociiiii liabere.
eiileiiqlue
alb inlteriori latelre
IUpressioiell
(lare ut, Ill O} iii o l a inaiiIIliuii.
Qtiae praeterea
excellenlissinma (locelitUir in
opere (licto,
liuc
jiou
JFf('sivtiI Purkinzji (hoc" lnomlen einizn juisto titulo geret ia, licet
11m-sall janii
a
;almhio observatore i isa sit , CliIInt auctor io.sier eamI tai
acduratis Cte; tl,iiiliiis iii'. o'tigilit t ,
lit IlitliW (ICIIIIIIiI
ti01a 'I lhistoria etjis
hii o-o ;allic;(eo 1'( rca.sliollha iideatm'iil) il mliis oimis
(ilma ei.ti, aiqil, lvst Iii iis(ld1l i'elituliiiii
tplis
et iii NtiiiiIilfllIS ill Oeiiliil)lr
Jill ('ll. h{isv illes.qti!atliOimil)iIs^ iiiihimmil.i temniris et1 OjR)'rael ilditali, a '1i;*'er
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27
ilonfluml absolutas esse optiie .scio., neque absolvi
posse
nisi
p)luri'11tlX
zannorum Iitl)ore cre(lo.
Ouillia
, qftuae circa
(luo(liuni(jie qvorImui
gemis vidi, dll;i.avi
ci re-
,iidi, liic
penitus
rIeferrel' tlawo-SiIIIi esset.
Saepe
enjini est (dibeit;le
dlijtidi-
catu, qtiodnamii nomen pars aliqua merealur. Ea igitiur taiitIuil exponam,
(tilae iuilli *sunlilmil ol)bservationuIl conficere iidenuiril,
et quide in on ovo-
ruimii gene ra
secuturus,
sed
partes
constitutivas. Ov a
manimnaliunm nuoi'C
pelituls
iaegliganius.
III o6mnibus igitur ovis a imie exalnialati.s vesiiefta Purkhinji adest
ainte ev oliltionem n absolutamii. In minoribus jamII
appareti
timo primum
oni Ve.stig,ium4 . esse videtur, circa fuiofd %iltellus colligitur. Niollusca chica
lanc origiiem me ifecerunt ceitioremn; in mollusc-is enim iesiculas
p)ellu-
cida.s minimnas ante ova vi(i , fum v-esiculas strato vitcili obtectas et po-
strenao ov-a magis
niagisque
ecolula. Id(lm, ni fiallor, v.alet de Linbrico
11ec ion (le Hirdiaciile. In aLiiis ovis evolutiis ita (leIliiiej observari nion
potest, (Itioniani quilem
thecis
conl(luntur.
V'esicula cwnu(lo innata est, ralione ad. vesictilamn ad(mioduni variamnti.
In aliis enim iinaximus, uti in iuolihiscis, in aliis minor, uihi -esicuIla Ina-
gis exculta est, uti in sawriis et
ophldiis.
CG wimths praeterea in anii-
ina.il)bu. iiferiorum classitimn nioni ita iuianifeste graniilosus est
(piam
in sem-
periorum:
inliiiolliscis
all)Uinlli inspissatO fer'e par
est. In insectis cumal-
ltim lbucts(qtue dliscernere 10oii po0tli ; i(lel fle
p)iscibu)Is
conaileor; in his
enimii i-c.sicula satli.s magnia a globulis oleosi.s stratiuin
(Imiodd(lam
conlicieu-
tibus cito ohvelatur. Quod stiratumi nim (lisndiscu reIlerat
cIlllmuilum(qule
nescia. Ili
batrachiis,
quibius utique
vesicula e.st minaxinla, distile appa-
ret Circa ean m.massa
plectiliaris,
(qiuami plro cilnlulf)
lhao.
N'ec v-esicuila praeter muagaitudineni
ejIlusde imtholis est. In It s
junioribus oflit'lliIi anhlilalilluli
pellucidi;a
est, fluido14) 11111Wii India nun imimi-
tis.sinla graul
a 1v PIlte
ie1impl'tea.
In 111011115wis , a)IlIme(liI)il)S, im1c(f1lsl5
crustaneig (A.staco lu':.) ,latcll-a;iis i almihus ill hoc Aatlu remuallere *'
(hetlm qur ui is ill mionlltlls .d(a mlalturitdt(l1l1 Jamil) gr,llull'MIMl copia
aglbeatnr.
Il
opfli(hiis
et xaUIriis CeIo grallllid Ililiflu idiin(Jsi mlajorat ('1 h
i nrwllaiora
piI)llIrltsB
ttit luiescuugti 4' ad malilirlaileilli tallfl(elnl sateilil) intcl'1111111
celo-
4
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Stiltiont, resiculhe jumhranae adIjacenlem; in ovis mtuiris
Specus'
intel'riu1
gramdilmu a- tembrnula esic-ae externa
pedetentimu
recedit et Collahituir,
v uesicula
aquae suboiersa
est; de (qo conf.
Figuras
AP'I'I et AX III.,
XXI. et XXII.
III 011111i)Us animalibus
,
iii fallor, vesicula a meldio ad1
peripIleriauI
r-ecedlit , jtiiOe iLeS ill J)dtIafrchiiS 0j)til OJme obser1atur. In raiis eiiim uWf1-
ibUSsi .daillainii.d
compliribus
vesicniana in oivis iiiinalituis a inemibrana
itelti satis (listanitein iinveni.
Idietui(uite
dic avi us jam docui, ubi vero
miulto citius in
superhicie apparet.
I)itilius in Jacertis renlialet,
ita lit in
oais jali duduii lutaeis
p)licilCum
pellucidmu
(vesicl;a scilicet)- non aniwmad
verrtatur. Talia ova stub a(qa tiwiln cate secaitur, tlisinilcte iivellitur
stratum vitellinarium, ctii vesicula PurAisji janil iuttrioii lateri facit im-
pressiollem
(Fig.
XIX.). Postea sil)b membrana vitelli jacet, sirato gt'a-
Iuloso
peuibrato,
(It0io(
luce clarlis v-idi in raiarmiu avis
,
ub)i inwo Vesi-
V'ul11a IIIat IilemIrallamI iitelli in collicultul elevat. ilaudi u6ttus in Anio-
4lo01111 icsiculam cuiin cui1iud1lo e iiello
pjroluiberaro
ividi.
III oRi l's parti jllntltSIU}lslIilU2 -'i'Il (p ti.'PIlI ovl' In 0
is1~ituijam
edliis iuuiiq(uaini invienii vesiculai i. (Pisciinov
parla
(cxalimiwrcli buicusquei
dattum non est). Ja.1ti in OVi(ductu 11011 invelli-
tlur. -Niilollihuus (onll PUItKINJE noi
1iuci(,
(pili
Oiiducluts
pressione
vesi-
(i0llall
(di-SI'ni1pi
crCdlil. Semiel enIUnl fii ov.o gallj'inaeo mnaturO, il ovario
ttiildemi retento s(1 ad e jevliolleill
parl'ktO,
vesicUlah no10 iiveili. Quami
iiinicaim ol)bs(lrvaiollell) iiuli 1o01 Iatzcio, 01i Ia.Xe,illimiuni sit in errOfl ell
Ibi. iAlsjowi.s nuildi videftur iiioillent, (jUiod in tenieris
serpentum
omidlucti-
1)u1s
ova 11011
ula11
1(
jicIiii
caero VI&
sinit,
et qtiOl vesiculamii Io1'otuIb)e-
raiteiin jall,i ill oIS rvio milital retcnlis ol)serlvaerilll. I) iiiqul?C
ov1a illn 01aii.^;s uiisectorlinil mllatura vesicula careut, i'mmatura vero in ova-
i'io'IIIII Ij)icibI')ll llidulalia ei('ieiii
Inpraedita
stinit. Nuinli ilor'an fecuwdiiia-
iOle 1 Vesicuila d1;issolvitur? 191
(?Iiditeqie
nioi credo; ill bzlilculiijis t'lluii ova
in oviduciii i ca vesikula cmaent lotige
atille lcu1in{latiotelOli; in isllseclis
perflictis
leutlndafio in aflteiro file
apparallts
gellialis hieni viidetull, ova
atilelii jal oIUni,
suprelilis
(i1 vix
appar'enitil)iIs
tanumat
exiepteli.s,
'Ves;icutla
(ar('Iil11. liio ill
iymulphluis
1 a iiajOi'a (m1 a aor c niatimttautielil inagis
p)rve(clat,
r't'te ve1ra0 noiiduii Ii'u(1ai1und carent csivulh .
quiae
taniell illn ; mio'ibrblis
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adest at(jlue superioli'ius.
fit 01 is
dlenique, quae
gallinae s'ie gallo viven-
tes elixale swit, vesicula deest, et jam i'n ovi(luctu
deerat, It
PUItKINJE
jainjamn
observatit
attque ego experltu sum. Jntle vesicuilani
colligo
ex
ovo naturo protrudi et dissolv'i inter vitellunu vitellique metubranam aitue
fecundationem. Nusqluatn
tamenu membranam vitelli
perforat.
I)oceuu
(lui(lem
PnE'VOST
et
UAMAS, ova
ranarum recenls
etliti
poruIm
bl)bere
in
membraniis Contrarian ego quidem labeo sententiam. Maculam cniin
lu-
teamr in sunumo vertice ovoruin ranae saepius obviaim ea stubtilitate et
pertinztcitate
examinavi, qualem
rei diflicultas tantorunique virortuin
gra-
vitas reqiuirunt,
at foramen ilon inveni in vitelli memubrina. Piinctulum
obscurtium ;i Inacula lutea ab fovea angusta et profuinda in
ipso
vitellI
pendet.
Stratum praeterea granuloruin nigrum foramine IlertusiiIu
esse
idli (Fg. X,VYI
b.) et vitellum cum iwateria
aliqua
minuills
gi'uniilosa
(nWcke4 scilicet) supra marginees strati dicti eniinere, ut laec outliia
Fw.
X HFA 0.
pmius.
Ita(que stratum
nigrum
ab interiore fadie ad exterio-
reni1, illaesa. vitelli inenibrana,
pertusum esse clare apparuit. Hfaec ine
ens
Aprili
in Ratna temporaria
visa et
p'icta
oplime congruinit cunm ivesicula
protul)eranti'a
mense Majo exeunte in Rana esculenta olbservata et magna
caverna
it us ovis, in qunibus vesicula modo disparuerat.
Nec PunKINJE,
qui iu avintm ovis.
ex vesicula dissoluta nawi conjicit sic (lictuini colliqua-*
meititiuit, se(ulii (queo, cum quidnem in ovo maturo vesicula certe ex strato
grantuloso jailijiM
pronuineat. Practerea,
num revera in ovi(diuctu
jaln,
colliquainento gau'dent
ova
galliinacea?
Liceat igitur mnili quoquie
pn--
ponere lhypotliesin,
ab ulterioribus disquisitioniul)Us
vel i'n (togmila
ancien-
dlain vel ctun aliWs refittanidlam. Yesicdlam Purkilji
l
pariem
ovi eflicacem
essie credo, qua factilta.s newiiinuna vl'in exerceat, tit facultas umascidlill:
se-
niini illst virili. Vesiculae igitur protrusio
et dis-solutio
ah
ni-
llttltiitiItO
et forsani irrit.iouell
)peullderenit.
Post feculidationein vertumu
blastoderuiw
eO loco evolvitr, (ibio
ve(Is
il.ae lilitior e'Hluslius
est. Macula
ellilin
ill ovis
'aollitaceis obI0
'
iI itini
l
m )YMario contui)itii', lmlasloderm,atis
jioiln nuoni
nieretur,
sed
ejuss prutlrin ollpos %i(detur.
Vitello
p1)atIl Iilliln
mmsa
eSt et 4a1ib)itit
11011
gIuel definiNt cir ripn. in omnl1libus
, Ili Uizwl.,
ovi.s s1iatlum (l(loalli -ralltdilosililh ante btlastoderaitl
is
evolutioueiii
adesi.
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-
-
34)
v?4 sob *iscil, vvl sadli
tmioi4i'
mnagis exteisiae i cr1viatat forima, seiii-
gKr Iteo d1i1sci
prolii(9ri
iIn.aumnlimImIn, fie
(11lO
di;il\il;
I* louin teuiells.
Nlioora . ,.stimv [lii iti ;.ntii; ()X; sa
mnulivro 111otagnopere comuplanat.Ia suilt,
quottinlai (ill'idem
nihil liii e coliniI)entI , nisi straltim grallulosuln cwn iesin
cUla et C(UlilO (F'ig. AXII X i.). In
Ophidil'is
ei saillriis tmlenm (lisciiiii ill
ovis ad sunnnmmh:n1
pn(1)('1
tiialtif'i;tatell) IpIrO1tefi.S; ilt muililm' ef1'cnltlU ilmili
halO1)il)blUque
p)l).
mllnl)Usi e InOtaitimil. Granuht IiIim ili ciltilosl itat Coi)-e-
slta ertant, iit ill aliis vnagi, luteis - granolah
pl'v.aclercnt , Ill alii.s-
ti.a;is oninsetiris -
Iatiex grimuola- colnjunig-4-is (- Fg. XtIl.). BlIastodeo1m111. t
Conltr'ario ill OidlUOtil
serlpellim) post conceponealrn
et viesicuikin
(lismipIdtU
crassitts
reperi , supra
X iteilloni elevalum 1"tdci('(lelm aol'(rll(ci'c
oi.,
licet-mIa-
ginihu!s coUi %iltello concre. m *r I Ihuc esset, ntillis halonibus
primimitls
nota-
tuit,
1 i1n0 oblo)0gul: (liim)
(litlenl
StIraltun,
quo(l
ciili di(sco
p)roliger4i
COIll)O00 , ot')iculIare (e.sCt. Iii
batrachsiis,
aceplhalis,
gastr'opodiitus
di-
scum
piroligerum
circa -esiculam non A-i(li ; in lis eitcmiim
l)pro
diseo imn-
nwrsI-M) granulosumn stratum circa vitelli
lpatl
en majorem blene
percipittnr.
lIn balraclhi's niigi'tiui est ovn(ille diimnidininil
amp)lecclitIur.
11 , I)os1(li;ki
VesicUla iwrtforatum est , (t1ra.^,s;siuis fit mtilil ioue in aIIIbitu cresci t, jam
bLislodermatis. ivics gerelfs. Discuts vel stratimn
proligerum
in onlnib)us
forsaitan ovis
iliqunid
ad blistoderma constituendinmn confert ; uibi vero
pri-
uiliis muagis
a nieI)1ln)tba t;itelli (listat , ion fam directe in hlasloderiow
mutatur. Sir in Astaco, Iliviaf liii excumite uuminno discuIm
proligertuiI
in
ovis Ill ajoril)umad miuonl.s discrevi, qua;
n nmininiis
p)ost
annos
(lC)polel0l-
dlis. Menlse, Ar)i'li vero, ub)i ova jam
parta
sulb cauda inlenniititulr ', pn'i-
aiuiltLs l)lastodlermna adest xitilitii, tuni sub fin'ma nebulae indeterminalae
apl)Paret
(Fig. XXX.), illox solidescit et lilmites (distinclos exilibet, quasi
disvi
proligeri
substantia sensimu
semisixiqtiue
hliuc inuigraret. Sinmile
qluidI
IIEIIOLD iin aranearumn ovis obser'va-sse videtur,
cumn de nuaculat loquatur
dissoluia et dlentio foriuata,
Ague ad oorunu conditionem quod attinet, liaec (lulItaxat inonel)o.
Ov;i ginionttir iit o0-1aJriortioo
p)arenchymte
,lu
quo( in
superioribus
anima-
libius, gneratiit sumitis, denflsius esse solet (quamni in inferioribus, in quilms
milI stattin) liquidUm ikei fe
iioniquil(luai
accedit. Cuin rebus coml)araln(dis
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31
semper
cLaritatem afltert, eakautern
rem,
quaeunique sltf) foaita
j)appret,
eotlein nomine signare, voce uti v*li'i,
qiaae
ut)uilue aldhibetia
.sit. Vox
,,Sarcoc.arpiuml"',
a RICHARD
pro
p)arlewchymatte p)eriClaiipi
(et iltoll eli'a
germiniis)
pljantarum
proposita
i alnimabta iion
satis
i
iqutdrare
%iletur; Ialiiiii
ergo de mycopiltis
desuimam,
sirorna (Lager) scilicet. Siroma ciliu ovuar;
indusio id constiluit,
qluoi
BuRDACH ;1n onibilius orguni.s
proliferis,
iel
ov a fovealnt vel
sporuns,
mairieem )lOlnilat.
Ova stromtiali
vet innata shtsut,
ut in pluribus aniunalibus; vel ilnfposita, Ut ill HirUtlinibus, qtauarui.ml-roma
singularem tilorum crassiorum formam bla?bet, distamle indUisio. Ova
p)rae-
terea vel theris coulinenitur (in
plurimis
animualiibus), vel ;;s carient
(in
annelilibtus, acanthocephalhs, trematodibus aiiisque). Thecae
flenique
ve tb
ovo cui;ue sunt propriae, qufae res, ni fialsor, tie aunialuail)us verte-
brati.s omnblbus v.alet,
pluri)usvo
ovis communes. 7'heIae commenes pi)r.e-
ter ova ina.sam continenit stromalis vices
pro
singutis ovis gerentem,,
et
porangiig
l)olanicoruin
acqulliplrall(dlae
subit. Inclusum ihulld stronli
itkul
dtromualis inter)u nontine a stromale extra thecas
posibo
dIiuscerlo.
vI'/e.-
eae ommumnes,
quaniumn
scio, nunqiaam cum ovalrii ind.iisio concreacke sunt,
veruna parlu
ejiciunbur cuIn stromiiatbe inferno. In
acepialis
tadles thert
e
comnntines manifestae
apparent. Quid
tlImen de insectis senhliui,
dubilus
mhuc
s.umii:
Ovaria igitur iha dlicta
pro
ineris
theeis sumerem
communi-
bms, sic ult stromila exterinuian omninao (leesset, et materia
pulposa
iliter ova
.sub)
tuniris formis (miotlo clavas constituit inter ova silis, modo corpora
utriiii(lue
excavalta,
P
isciu v verwebris similnibias, motlo oinumilao deesse vide-
bur) oliservaiuda stromalis tnterni nomen menemt-ecbr. Hlaem
suadet ovario-
runm connexus cunm vase dorsali vel cordle, nec non indusiuma, (111o
ovaria
inl oIrIcis circuindmabtur. Quo(i si a i-ero noii rece(lere vstifetur, tl;itt
tie
naemotoideis
censendum e.s1? In
acanthocephaliis
ova ana-issae settifluitlae.
inuala snut, ijllult,
ctii iii 01aiuii cavitate sit, ati stromta inthernims
ilnse.cbto-
t-um
accetlil , thec;.x
%
(1o co0m ulInllli)Us n on icltuittibr.
Sed bllae sistlli
ad va-1,4i; 11143toUvraialitim comtpra11ntta
eoruta1lttu
coitbenba ciuuit
ovario t(tl oiSs idliijiitoihi iliiiiatimalium.
Stroma hiubeiitiis
in
matmmiaibis)
.lip5
1i)ihlllI. ('1li stel lt.l i i,ituialae. Nshult vesicululae G.aafiuiuae.,
4IIJ4l (:cul1 rtl.aitjoi- inO aimllu1.aliulmJ 0
tos
(tmplad'.41;1ae itlirait e\hiui)enlt
t0o1cotr-
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32
xIiani, ctmni ;,d
p).tritas
cowsiiluenies ti.ntuli
re-spicimfs.
Contle-raims v. v.
mananaaualis ctjts.tana ov;aiUIlI CiJi avis ovlriq 1i 1et 1iiie. Ov;rii iliadmiiuian},
stromlia, I1teac tsl-unit, ea Iuttuaaa diJlea'eu;ia ,
quod(1
i'tidIisitni et csiro-
ma in avibus
ranisque
telanlior sint, quod iln rtlaids
praclerea
in(ds'lmui
internumn propter
initernats cinitates
appareat
tenuissimuni,
quodlque
taxulemn
lieca Ui raiis ad interiora aj)eri.ttinr et
calycena
iuiterioreaii .bene diisliam-
gueudtuu elliciat. -Veadi tur1 i ielli aueinbraiina, quac in ialhimmalilus ad-
est sub nienbranae loruian grauialossae. 'titu miemsabrauna vielli ill a;I)u.%
et
repiilibus prinlitis
stalb inembrintac forman
tppareal
grtalilIlosac et ex
hac
sejiungatur,
dthljius aon lItatreo vesiculanJa1 ullilllaaurnlinanll (0raaIianain circat
lianic patienil tcuI1 ovo reliqntiornnxli aTtinaiiiaw vcrelwtbioruno inntauituro Coikn-
poncre.
Vitellus aviuni et rt1marumti e granull's
pernulltis
vitellitais Ianillo-
ri(uc
(quantitate
alb)utliliis Iluidli Consult. Vesicultie Graalianae eo (tillual-
X.It (Jil ulntli, plO(l uliaillor'eav hiheanlt grilumforumn qu.aniitatnm,
majorean
conitra Iluiii haulii allibuminosi. Praelerea ovis siniiles siilt. Hhbaeit vce-si-
culanai catiaia incluisauti (ovuiuitn scilicet iU nlamanialib)us) cunUtlo ian mersaiU
stiratuanlllte Proligeruia
nitIlle I e(sicll1alu cingeus tun ic ei
sul)Ceajicenl.s.
Fesi-
elta ergo (ira(fiana ro ad ovaU#ritnI generawlimte ad
corpits
rn(der-
niiun
respiriamUas,
oe'vtl .saCie est m,a,nunalitan. Sell evolutionein qulodt
atiliel , iceiitenilier
(liscrepidt
it reli(jnortlni ovo a9itinalitim, quoruiii ovi
ntucleus integer ex ovario dlev-eaiitur ,
fetni nasciluro noni selede tnintuii
praeltilurIs se(I in
ipssum potius
fetuni ii'ansformiand1nis. In wanailnlat ibut s
vero ve*kicta iin(uda vitelIuna mlagis exutluiti contuinet ct rationte
adfti-
tuta geNtiitirian hab/ua veruna sese proba! ovumiii. Ovium fetale dici possit
in ovo mnaterno. 1launknalia ergo habI)enat ouani in ovo aut, si h1uc dlicenili
Ioratula uii licet, ovunu in sec-untla
potenlia.
)
Quam
flifereni.a-n ut nkaelius concipiamus,
ad saurio.s redleamuus el
ophi(liOiio, quorlulOal OvitIi -ad( ill.ainlollitnau oiuIIt i
prOplius)
acce(it (,u.n1i(nli-
qtiuldeia v'esirala P'trkisji ad1 iaaturiittema graitulormin vitelliamoruni
haitudl
?3
Quajinyter
in vesicIta Graariana. *dtxcriIwnda
J.
4. voce .#li emper umin stuu, 1ui.
,sicllsa Grai.datiau ispa o tii i ert. rtrrpectio novar;s, t'* Ovio) autlt fit o0luil fetale.
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33
parvam continet copiarn in
ateculumn initernuurnni
demum coaulescenlitnu. Uiide
haec concordia! Lacertaruin
et
serpentuin
ovia
in o-iduictu
saelpius
exaimi-
n.a-vi et fettim in oviduct
per
plures liebdomuades enoIi
didlici, et 11O01
deponii, nisi allaitoide jamn beuie exculta ad I
reSpiratio'nlilnlue
in se reci-
piendaln apta, serpenitbhus alilitot ct lacerva crocea
exceplis,
fetum us(jue
a(d ovi velamentorum rupturam retinentil)us.
I)
Ix
(1110
coincludo:
quao
dliot-
tius in corpore niateno
felus
foventtur,
co
mUagis
jant
primilus
exeti1la
videtutr ovi vesicuda inuaala, quae in ,nammalibus eo
p(ervenit
ut OMlnes
ovi virliies iw sese recipiat et
reliqutae
ovi parkes
1rvlvi
n1olnenti extra-
neac quasi
fiant. Quae senitentia
ex ohservationibus liausta niirifice sane
cum
bypothiesi
nostra
congruit,
vesicidlanm Purkinji partem esse effica-
cemn sexus sequioris; nam quo major ;is matris in (NeLimn, eo magis
ex-
culta esse dehet pars ovi eflicax,
eoque
diutuiriior
pulli
sedes in matis
corpore. Crediderin fere comnnioratioiiem fetus a fl.itris
potius
vi et iiide
ab indfole ovi
pelidere, quam
a fetus necessitate. Nam ovil ex oiductu
Lacertarum promhi.i fetu's mirniime moritur.
Finemr jamjam assecutus quandiani solvere lul)et d6u)itationem. Quae-
rent enim fortasse nonnulli: quid? cum vesiculae Graafianae ova reli(quo-
rum animaliumn
aequant,
quae est causa, cur in mammalibus duniiaxat cor-
pus luteum oriatur? Quibus licQ ab ovarii stromate et thecae indole pendere
respondeo. Ilud enim in solis mammalibus tantae est densitatis,
ut thecae
cito collabi
nequeant.
Atque thecas quod attinet,
in avibus, quas exempli
gratia eligimus, microscopio adhjibito, puncta in stramto interno exIlibent pel-
lucida, quae vel pervia vasorumque fines sunt, vel cuticula tenui tanitun
teguitur. Quibus igitur punctis secretio facillime efficitur. in .ni alibu-s;
lucidiora quidem iuon desunt puncta;
minime tamen perforata-,
verwn ita
constituta, quales sunt cryptae
mucip)arae
in -nieilulaiiis mnucosis, quan-
tum anatoniicis innotuerutlt: conitra in mammalibus Vasa in uterun
') Lacerta crocea %Volffti ccrtb vi'ipara est. Ejutsdem fetuas jam
tere contecto
ex ovi-
ductu excidi. A Laceria agili,
noni obstante magna verhornuo tarragiine
a
FEfuo.
SCmULTZ
in
Verzeichniss der Doubleern dles z-onlogikhen
M,uaetunq :u Berlia,
1823, p.
93
seq. prolatal
toto
coelo diversa est. Differt uon) tantunm
colore et
agotudine,t
sed poris (emoralibus4
collaris
et quanmarum structura.
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34
hiant, ubi humorum tuztritiorun major quam in tlhecas affluxus esl. Ete-
nim talia ostia nec ita parva in
aliquot
uteris vidi distinctissime. Itaque
ian manmalibus secretionem in theca eo modo perfici persuasum baheo,
queni
D)OELLINGER
eXpOSUit,
i. e. praeeuiite organi secernentis autriti-
one, in ceteris aniniaLbus *itellum ex sanguine
polius
ita secerni, qua-
lem veteres secretionem generatim cred(lderunt. His qtiam plurimun arri-
dere JOANNIS M1UELLER detectt in insectis, non est, cur moneam. Trans-
itum enim viisoruiu in oi'arii thecas
expowuit.
Quuae cum ita sint, fa-
cile profeato perspicies, in mammalibus materia Iormnativa per humorum
congestionem advecta thecas aniphlicari
incr.sarique,
atque in avibus ex
eadem materia jam statim fieri secretionene. Xitello eiuim ai ium ejecto
diminui qulidem illam secrotionem se(I noni
prorsus
sisti, inde colligo,
quod,
si contra regulam in avibus stigma (lenuo concrescit, calyx
liumore
vitello simili impletur. Calyces liujusnio(di Pu INI N!E pro ovis corruptis
habet, at vero, nisi niemoria me falit, enibeiraia sitefli carent.
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35
C
) II C-
I/ t V i O.
Oinnie aninual,
qpuod
coitin aris et efeillinae giglntur. ex ovo evol-
vitur, iullunii ex inero liquor-e ioriuia1iio.
.Semten virile per cuticulani owi, iulIo ior'aiuiiie
perviam.
in onvtn et
praepriniis
in partem
quandaip
ovi innatlan atgit.
Evoluiio omnis e centro ad
peripberiain
tend(lit. Partes ergo ceii-
trales ante pei'ipliericas formantur.
Idein evolutionis mo(Ius in omnibus aninialibus vertebr'atis a rbaclbide
incipiews.
Sed finem imponam epistolae
jain aequo
longiori,
VESTRO judicio,
quae in hac dlisqui.sitione exposui, subjiciens.
In mammalibus si quid novi inveni, id non perspectum babuisse mne
confiteor, nisi DOELLINGERI ac PANDERI observationibus edoctus fuissein.
Quapropter yoti, quod intimo pectore foveo, enuncianidi veniiain a Vois.s
peto. Faxit Deus ter Optimus MNaximus, ut VESTER PANDER pertina-
cissimo morbo a titeris detentus pristinam recuperet valetudinem, ut cuin
laurea,
annis jam juvenibus sibi
vindicata, alias aetate tirili paratas con-
jungat in patriae gloriam et scientiae naturalis increinenlumn.
Valete mihioue favere nolite (lesinere.
Dahain Regiomonti. Prid. ldumu
(Oinct.
1827
Baer.
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Tabulae explicatio.
Figpras exhibitas Ita
disponere
studni, tit earurn
conspecti contempIa-
tor citiuis ea
perspiciat, quae in epistola tractavi. H;ic ex
ca1Usa,
eaedem res,
si magititudine
naturali
et turm aucta niaguiitudinie
proponuntur,
iisdem numeris
signanttiur, et quident ita, ut signa aralrbic maigimititlitiem naturilrem,
romaila
decies atictam, romana cumin asterisco (11*) tricies aluctanin nm.agiuitutdiiiem imtdi-
cent. Ubi liieola suipra nunmerinm ronianium aa(lest, figura vicies aucta est,
lineola, inifra niumeri sigiuniin roinaiini
quinq(Iiuies
aticinn
fbigran
indicdt.
Praeteren nagnituidinis inaturalis figuiras in primiani scriein
disposui,
tricies
auietas in tertiani seriem.
Moneudtuni deiii(qiuc est, in binis zouns atris ea,
quac
pelluicida sunit olb
scuriorai v-idcri, coiitra,
(Jl1iUi
ala
pictat sittit, albedinemi oli
pollicidimn
Itabere.
Zomis illas clegi, ut ob)scurit.s ovuloruim nuiiioriim miielihis in ocuilos iuicidat.
Ha.ee jamil est figurartini siuglIarumn cspficatio:
ill
primal
serie, obviartim'
Fig. 1. Oi-ltttni minuts ex
ovario c'.li-si disco
0tXs.
Syzmicetriitceaii
sa
t,lutuiui figtirkie auIctu'.
llC il miagitudiie
iiuitllriili ii(ljiecre voltii,
lie. t ovi n tim
puarvtiii
sit, tit u scilpltore it..
ex;irari n1oni possit, man
al) ocullis aicutioribus vix
p)ercil)itllr.
Fig. 2.
(Oytluni
eiiniis ex
1a ario, IllAutrius, cillia
isi;co
piroli-ero. Magn,
nact.
ill sccitiuida scrice ot)viaruln
F;g. 1. Leuiii dlccies atu-
Kg.
IL tlen ee .i
-efilln.Par.sd{isci
p-rolig,eni
atIlatta est tit meuuhra-l
1;a cortticllix jsla forinia-
t;, ill
VoInpcuttI
tilm) * Biat.
il tertia serie o)vianiruml.
F.g. L. Itdeni tricics atu-
cthiui ad dhiscinn
proli-
gertini
plcniis
demoll-
straIxl(IIJfl.
Figr. 1I." Ejusdern globuluas
tlilalceraltuts ;1(} demeioni-
straud(l.unm cavitattem.
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- 37
Fig, 3
OvuIn cais ex tuba
Fig. III. Ident Mdecies uu- Fig.
IiI.
*Idem
trices
Fallopii. Magu. Iiat.
ctllu.
allCtuim.
Fig. 4. OvumL caiis ex ute. Fig. IV. Idlem decies
au-
Fig.
IV.
"
Ejusdem
ovi
ro, jam pellucidutm,
liai- ctunm et
(Illidem
il.
particila mmb)ranie
metro. lin. MagL. nat. iinteriuae tricies
;ucta.
Fig. Ir.i' ita vsuns,
uvt
blastodermatis primor-
dliunnw infiniuiim locuarn
tenieat, qut;lre oblscurians
apparet;
Fig.
IV.b a lattere visuim
post
nicnibrallarum,
se-
parationent.
Fig. 5. Ovumn canlis ex Fig./,. Iden decies an-
FKg.
V. Ejlsdem
ovi
uItero
ina.tgis
evollttuiil ctUflu
particula
membranue
et
pellutidluni
(In,umctr.
iuteriiae tr'icies
aucta.
a
bin. )h.,ag.
nat.
Fig. V. post muiltas boras
vatldc
collapsuum,
l)Idsto-
dlerinate a ialtere viso.
Fig. V.b Turge,is,
blasto-
doernate locitiun
Mipre-
mansll1 teaiciite.
Fig. 6. Ovum
Kgmfm
F. VI. Ejutsdsem
ovi rc-
dillodecin diernuiis
cam tius aluctuis.
cmnlryolie
mnagniitudinie
nit,tulrali
(adl
icoiieni,
(ian (leldertit
Pr
E
-
YosT .et DUIAS,
recu-
slim.)
Fig. 7. Oviiui C1aiiitnlln F;igr. rii. jusdlem.
ovi fe- Fig. FI.
Villi ejusdlem
tritins circiter
hebdo- tits (lecies aiuettis,
a li-
ovi tricies aucti.
ma(lum, mnigulitLdile
tore et sectioiie traiis-
nautrali,
versa pictus. Apparet
eniini in
Fig. Yl.^ Fettus caniiiuls, lateri sinistro
imicumbens, resecta
raginae capitis
pnrte
dlextra, ucc tiott sacci itettstinlalls
Innprte
dextra.
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38
a. 6. Transitus laminlae pituitosae
sacci i 8testitklis
in vaginuam capitis.
i. e. d. e. Vagina
capitis
lissecta.
e.f. Vena descendens tiectra reelicnata. f"' locus, quiemx primitus teistueriat.
e. g. Atrium cortis.
h. Ventricultis cor(lis.
i. i. PericarditLn.
A. BuUmis.
1. Aorta.
m. n. 0.
Encephalon.
iw. Auris et nmedllla obloit.ata.
n.
Corpus
qaua(lrigelnilultm.
o. Oculuis et cerebrum.
p. Adituts ad intestitiiiani erasslurn.
e. p. Sutuara vel sulcuts initestiini medii.
q.r.e.p. Intestini paries siinister.
s.t.e.p. blitestini parics dexter.
q.-r. Angidus,
quio
paries
itntestinii sinistei- in saccuni intestirillein trallnsit.
u.v.w. Area vasciItosa.
q.r.w. Area peflltcida.
u.s. Vena ascendeus.
X.y.
'
et 4 Amniiou.
_. Sacus utriniarius s. Allanitois.
Fig. VID.
Ei:jusdem
emlbryonis sectio transversa in nedlio dorso lacta, Iclies
aucta.
t. Dorsi clminen.
a. 6. Lainina dorsalis.
6. c. Laniuiia ventralis.
d. Saccuts initestin;alis.
e. Aiiglultls,
(lquo
intestihd panries
ins sacuni intestinalem transit.
d. e. ergo linibus sectiunduis WOLFFII.
f. Sutura nlltestinli
aped
UvoaJF.
g. Coluimnae vertebralis primiordiulr.
hi. Chordla dorsalis.
;. Aniiiiitln.
k. Medulla spillis.
fig. VII.
Corlora a,lieiia, in uttero et tiibisi obvi,t, deiexs anuta.
1. 111111451' oleosae)
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39
II. Concrementa albuminosa.
mII.
Telan
celulosae particulee.
IV. Membrauae granulosae fruistuila.
Fig. LX. Vesicula Graafiana (mediae magitudinis) scrofao,
1ecies aicta,
ad
axin dissecta.
I. Epitheliuim peritoneale.
2. Tela formativa (stromat).
3. Stratum externum
4. Strattum internumt tbecae.
xx Stigma
5. Membrania granuulosa
6. Fliditm contenitii n|
e
7. Discuis proligertis
8. Ovulum
Fig. X. Discuts proUgeruis
suis Ctiwni fluidli condensati parte.
Fig,. XI. Menmbrauuae
grqaulosac
frutstiliuini,
decies
auct.
Fig. XIl. Ovultim cii (liSCO proligero
v4.CC,lC
decies auct.
Fig. XlII. Ovulinm cium slisco
proligero
et memlbrana granilosa honisni
de-
cies axictiun.
Fig. XIV. Corpus luteum cauis, slecies
illict.
1. Epithelilim peritoneale.
2. Tela formativa.
3. Thecae stratm externum.
4. Corputs luteum.
i. Ejus apertura.
6. A1;1ssa albluminosa.
7.
Corporis
luttei cicatricula
inchoata.
Fig. XV. Stigma vesiculae Graafiauae suais deorwum inspectum,
decies aictum.
Fig. XVI. - XXX. Animalium inferiornm ova,
vel
horunm
partes.
Fig. XVI. - XrIIl. Ova serpentum.
Fig. XVI. Stratum proligerum
ex ovo Colub. N.stricis
maturo, quinquies
auctum.
Fig. XVII. Ejusdem
'
esicula Pttrkinji inimatura,
decies
aicta.
Fig. XVII. Eadem matura, decies auct.
Fig. XIX - XXIL Ova lacertarum.
Ftig. XIX. Stratum granutlosuim
ex ovo Lacertae agilis,
dec. ait.
Fig,.
XX. Lacertac agilis ovum junitls,
decies
auict.
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Fig. XXI. rVesictIa ex ovo fere anatutro Lacertae agilis, dec. anct.
KFig. XXI. Vesiciala. ex ova matturo Lacertae croceac, dec. auict.
Fig. XXII. - XAVI. Ova railartun.
Fig. XXJiI. OVim immaturuinf Ranae temporari;ae, (lec. aict. Lociit
i
Wi
stratutm
proligertim
orittir.
Fig. XXI[r. Ovunm Ralaa
temp.
fere matturtim, acido nitrico diluto condensat.um
*-et MId axiii lowaiorem
dissectuam,
decies atlcturn.
NB. Colores tales dedimus iccesi, qttales ovumn ramiilun iii acido aiitrico diltato iidciii, quu1a
his
optiuce pares diversae disceniaicatir.
ig. XXV'. Idem ovum miittturtin
proptillaiite
v-esictula, dec. atact.
Fig. XXI!. IdeIii ovIIm
exptilsa evesictila,
dec. atuict.
In tribuas siltinmis figuris uiotavimus ctina signo
o, menibranam vitelli,
6, blastoderma in statia evoluto (Fig. XXVrI) et in statit imnmaturo, qllo
str.atum
proligeruim
nostrtum est,
c, vitelluim,
d, %-esicudlam Paurkinji.
Fig. XXVl. Ejusdem ovi
pars suprema
vicies aucta.
Fig. XXVII. - XXX. Astaci fluviatilis ova.
Fig. XXVII. OvIIN juniius Astaci flitviatilis ciam lisco
proligero
deor'sun i
-
spectatm,
decies aucttum.
Fig. XXVI"IlI. Idem a lattere.
Fig. AXIX. Ovtm provectius.
Fig. XXX. Ovum mciaturum cum blastodermatis primordiis, quinquies aucttuni.
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C o r r i
ge
i i d11.
Pag.
4) vera. 3
pro
consecta lege: conrecia
- 10 6 - Fig. V. - Fig. Va.
-12 2- pat -
Apo%
- 14 - 10 - delphinnm, phocaenam
lege: delphinuqp
phoiacnam
- 14 - 23 - vesiculis lege: *caiculae
- 17 - ultimo v-ox: a deleatur
- 23 I - catenas
lege:
centenat
-
31 I -
apparet
-
appareat
- 31 - 23
-
t;milibus sinti1ia
Priorem libelli partem perlegens, quam ex
typo:heca
jam remissam habeo, vereor
-ne ea, qutae pag. 4- de canalis intesiinalis origine obiLer docui, Iect9res in erroreso ducane.
Clarin. ergo ita exponam. intestini fundus not ex coalbtione dtzarum plicarurz oritur. Co-
lescuint qitideen plicae strati vasculosi blastodermatis, quo fit mesenterium; stratma mucostum
vero inde protruditur et funduam intestini cum parietibst conatituit. Q(ae lio loco ftsiti,
tenionstrabo.
13
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