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Parts of Speech: Nouns

Noun: person, place, thing,or idea.

common noun: names any one of a group of persons, places, things or ideas.
proper noun: names a particular person place, thing or idea.
compound noun: two or more words that together name a person, place, thing or idea.
Common Proper
person president Barak Obama
place beach Cape Cod
thing stereo Ipod
idea generosity
collective noun: names a group of people, places, or things
collective audience jury bunch
concrete nouns: name a person, place, or thing that can be perceived by the senses.
abstract: name an idea, feeling, a quality or a characteristic.
concrete abstract
dog, sunset, Nile River beauty, success, sympathy
Parts of Speech: Pronoun
Pronoun: takes the place of one or more nouns or pronouns.
Personal pronouns: refer to the one(s) speaking (first person), the one(s) being spoken to (second person), and
the one(s) being spoken about (third person).
Reflexive: refers to the subject of a sentence and functions as a complement or as an object of the preposition.
ex. I am not quite myself lately.
Intensive: emphasizes its antecedent and has no grammatical function in the sentence.
ex. Ray painted the mural himself.
Demonstrative: points out a person, place, thing, or idea.
ex. 1: This is our favorite campsite.
ex 2: This tastes good. (words that can be used as dem. pro. can also be adjectives).
Interrogative: introduces a question.
ex. What is the address of the house?
Relative: introduces an adjective clause.
ex. The dog that you trained is very well behaved.
Indefinite: refers to a person, place, thing, or idea that may or may not be specifically named.
Pronoun Type Example
personal 1st person sing. (i,me,mine), plur. (we, us, our)
2nd person (you, your, yours)
3rd person sing. (he, him, his, she hers, it) plur. (they them, their)
reflexive & intensive 1st person (myself, ourselves), 2nd person (yourself, yourselves), 3rd person
(himself, herself, itself, themselves)
demonstrative this, that, these. those
interrogative who, whom, which, what, whose
relative that, which, who, whom, whose
indefinite all, any, both, one another, some, everybody, few, many, neither, such, nobody,
none, each
Parts of Speech: Adjectives
Adjective: modify (describes) a noun or pronoun. An adjective is a modifier that tells what kind, which one,
how many, or how much.
ex. English tea, that house, twenty miles, enough water
An adjective can be separate from what it modifies.
ex. 1: She is clever.
ex. 2: The sky has become cloudy suddenly.
Articles (a, an, the) are the most frequently used adjectives.
ex. A park ranger helped us.
Parts of Speech: Adverb
Adverb- modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. They tell us where, when, how, or to what extent.
where The bird was chirping outside.
when The bird chirped today.
how The bird chirped loudly.
to what extent (how much, how
long, how often)
The bird never chirped.
Adverb modifying adjective: It was a fiercely competitive game.
Adverb modifying another adverb: The teacher spoke extremely slowly.

Parts of Speech: Verbs
Verbs - express action or state of being
Verb phrase - consists of one main verb and one or more helping verbs
Main and Helping Verbs
Forms of Be am, be, being, was, are been, etc...
Forms of Have had, has. have, having
Forms of Do did, do, does
Modals (auxiliary word used to
express an attitude toward an
action or state of being)
can, might, shall, would, could, must, should,
may, will, etc...
ex. Can you speak French?
ex. 1: may go to the concert after all.
ex. 2: Did she paint the house?
Action Verbs: express either physical or mental activity.
Linking Verbs: connects a subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject.
Which one is action? Which one is linking?
Emilia Felt calm at the seashore. _____________
Emilia felt the waving strands of kelp. _______________
Transitive (has an object or word that receives the action) and Intransitive (does not have an object) Verbs
Transitive: Elsa swam the channel. Intransitive: Elsa swam for many hours.
Parts of Speech: Prepositions
Preposition: a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun, called the object of the preposition, to
another word.
I rode past the village.
I rode through the village.
I rode around the village.
I rode toward the village.
Prepositions: for a large list of prepositions, check page 24 in your Holt Handbook.
examples include: below, from, onto, concerning, among, around, outside, under, until.
Part of Speech: Conjunction
Conjunction - joins words or word groups.
Coordinating conjunctions: joins words or word
groups that are used in the same way.
and, but, or, nor, so, yet
The orkestra played waltzes and polkas.
Correlative Conjunctions: pairs of conjunctions
that join words or word groups that are used in the
same way.
both...and, not only.... but also, either....or,
Neither the baseball team nor the soccer team has
practiced today.
Part of Speech: Interjections
Interjections - express emotion and has no real grammatical relation to the rest of the sentence.
ex. ah, ouch, ugh, oops wow