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# United Nations Office for Project Services

## Afghanistan Rural Rehabilitation Programme

UNOPS-KABUL
Engineering section

## PARACTICAL DESIGN OF CULVERT & BRIDGES

R.C.C Slab Culvert
R.C.C Bridge,
R.C.C Foot Bridge,
R.C.C & Steel Composite Bridge
Suspension Bridge

## Prepared By: Eng. Sayed Khan Ahmadzai

UNOPS-Kabul

Design of culvert
10/Aug/2002

R.C.C CULVERT
Data Collected from Project site:
Cross Section of culvert site.
Clear Span
= 7.50m
Wash slope
= 0.029 1n 100 m
= Hs20 = 20 m.ton
Assume:
Thickness of Slab
Thickness of wearing coat
Clear Width of culvert

=50cm
=7cm
=5.0m

## Data from R.C.C books:

fc (Compressive Strength of Concrete )
fs (yield or proof strength of steel)
Specific unit weight of R.C.C
Allowable strength of concrete fc
Allowable strength of steel
fs

=210kg/Sqm
=2800kg/Sqm
=2400kg/Sqm
=0.4*210=84kg/Sqm
=0.5*2800=1400kg/Sqm

Design Process:

Hydraulic Calculations:

Fig.1
1-Total wetted cross section area
2-Total wetted perimeter

A= 26.265 Sqm
P=24.869m
R=A/P=26.265/24.869=1.056m

## 4-Velocity of water in wash stream

Where:

V=1/n*S0.5*R2/3
S=Slope of wash bed
n=coefficient of roughness=0.03
V=1/0.03*0.0291/2*1.0562/3=5.88m/sec

5- Discharge:
6- Scour depth:

Q=A*V

Q=26.265*5.88=154.4cum/sec
D.scour=0.475(Q/f)1/3

Where :
f=lacey silt factor=0.9
D. scour=0.475(154.4/0.9)1/3=2.63m below the H.F.L
Max.Scour depth=1.50*D.scour=1.50*2.36=3.94m
7- Average Max.F.L = (1.20+0.74+2.14+2.33+2.33+0.87)/6=1.60m
Therefore:
Scour depth under river bed=3.94-1.60=2.35m
Vertical Clearance above from H.F.L=60cm

## Slab Design of culvert:

Effective span of slab= 1.05*7.50=7.875m
Bearing of slab on each support=30cm
L=Effective span=7.50+0.30+0.30=8.10m

Therefore:

fig.2
Self weight of slab
= 0.50*2.40 = 1.20 Ton/m
Weight of wearing coat = 0.07*2.10 = 0.147Ton/m

fig.2

fig.3
Where:
P=Load on each rear tire of vehicle/E
E=1.22+0.06*Leff.=1.22+0.06*8.10=1.706m
Load on each rear tire of vehicle =7.25 ton
P=7.25/1.706=4.24 ton/m
B.M. live .load= P*Lefc./4= 4.25*8.10/4=8.606 Ton-m
Impact Factor, If =15/Lefc.+38=0.33
Iefc.>0.30 , Therefore: Impact Moment=8.606*0.33=2.64 ton-m
r=fs/fc=1400/84=16.70
k=n/n +r=10/10+16.70=0.37
fc=210kg/Sqm<275kg//Sqm therefore: n=10

j=1-k/3=1-0.37/3=0.876
Slab thickness :d min.=(2*T.B.M./fs*k*j*b)1/2=(2*22.50*105/84*0.37*0.876*100)1/2=40.65cm
D real=50-(5-2.50/2)=43.75cm, Where:
Thick. of slab=50cm, Protection. layer=5cm,

## Area of Steel bars in 100cm 0f slab:

As=Total B.M./fs*j*d=22.50*105/1400*0.876*43.75=41.93cm2
#9 dia. 25mm in 100cm of slab

## Longitudinal or distribution steel bars in 100cm of slab:

As=0.55/(L effect .)1/2 * As main steel bars When the main steel bars is parallel to the
Line of traffic
As=1.20/(L effect.)1/2 *As main s.b, When the main steel bars is right angle to the
Line of traffic
As=0.55/(8.10)1/2*A main steel bars=0.20*41.93=8.36Sqm ,
Hence provide # 8 dia.12 @ 13cm center to center

## Design of Curb or Kerb:

Fig.4

B.M. live load = 0.10*7.25*8.10=5.87 ton-m
Total B.M.=6.64+5.87=12.51 ton-m

## Area of steel for curb:

As=T.B.M./fs*j*d=12.51*105/1400*0.876*75=13.60 Sqm
#4 dia. 25mm in 50cm , also provide #2 dia 25mm in the top of curb.

## Check for shear:

Fig.5
Shear Force:
MB=0, RA*8.10-q*8.12/2

## RA=(1.347*8.12/2)/8.10=5.45 ton , RA=RB=5.45 t

Fig.6
MB=0, RA*8.10-7.25*3.85

RA=10.70 ton

## Total Shear Force (Q)=5.45=10.70=16.15 ton

Allowable shear stress: V=0.03*210=6.30 kg/Sqm
Real shear stress : V=Q/b*j*d=16.15*103/100*0.875*43.75=4.21 kg/Sqm
Real shear stress =4.21kgsqm<6.30 kg/ Sqm , Hence safe against shear force

## Check for bond shear stress:

Real bond shear stress : V bond=Q/0*j*d , Where: 0= # of unbent steel bars *Perimeter of bar
Here: From 9 steel bars , 3 bars is unbent in 100 cm
0 = 3*pai*2.25 = 3*3.14*2.25 = 23.55
Real bond stress = 16.15*103/23.55*0.87*43.75 = 18kg/Sqm
Allowable shear stress = 0.1*fc = 0.1*210 = 21kg/Sqm
Therefore:
Real shear stress=18kg/Sqm<Allowable shear stress=21kg/Sqm
Hence safe against bond shear stress

## Dimensions of Abutment and Wing walls(for culvert):

Max. Pressure on soil
ton/Sqm

Dimension

20
20
20
40
40
40

A
B
C
A
B
C

## Value in m for height of meter

1.50

2.0

2.50

3.00

3.50

0.75
0.20
0.45
0.30
0.20
0.15

0.90
0.30
0.45
0.45
0.30
0.15

1.20
0.45
0.45
0.55
0.45
0.15

1.65
0.65
0.45
0.75
0.65
0.15

2.60
1.06
0.45
0.90
0.85
0.15

Wing Walls:
1-Length of wing wall 1.50-2.0m times the height of abutment:
L=(1.50 or 2.0)H
2- The width of the wing wall at the base should be from 0.35H to 0.40H
where: H is height of wing wall.

R.C.C BRIDGE
Selection of Bridge site:
123456-

Suitable foundation
Straight line
Firm and well defined bank
Stream line flow
Minimum width
Right angle crossing

## Bridge and Culvert :

1- Span of bridge form 3 to 7.5 m, made form R.C.C slab.
2- Span of bridge 7.5 to 12 m, made form R.C.C beam and slab.
3- Span of bridge more than 12 to 28 m, made form iron beam and R.C.C pre-cast
slab.
4- Span more than 28 to 40 m, made form R.C.C pre-cast beam.
Diaphragm:
Location of diaphragm:
1- Up to 12 m span, two diaphragm in each end of beam.
2- Span from 12 to 15 m, 3 diaphragms, two in each end and one in the middle of
span.
3- Span more than 15 m , after each (span/3) one diaphragm.
Depth of Tee beam:

## Depth of Rectangular beam:

1- For span up to 10 m
: Span/20
2- For span longer than 10 m: Span/12

## Vertical clearance above H.F.L:

Discharge cum/sec

## Below 0.30 cum/sec

0.30 up to 3.0 cum/sec
3.10 to 30.00 cum/sec
31.00 to 300.00 cum/sec
301.00 to 3000.00 cum/sec
Over 3000.00 cum/sec

150
450
600
900
1200
1500

Hydraulic Calculation:
Cross section of bridge site:
Hydraulic calculation for bridge the same as for culvert , (see the hydraulic calculation for culvert)

Example:

## Clear span according to the site

Width of the bridge with curbs
Width of curb
Width of beam
Depth of beam = (span/17)
Thickness of slab (assume)
Thickness of wearing coat

= 14m
= 5m
= 0.60m
= 0.40m
= 0.80m
= Hs20
= 0.20m
= 0.07m

Design of slab:
Weight of slab
= 0.20*2.40*= 0.48 ton
Weight of wearing coat = 0.07*2.20 = 0.154 ton
Total weight (q)
= 0.48+0.154 = 0.634 ton

## = q*l2/8 = 0.634*1.072/10 = 0.073 ton-m

Fig.7
B.M. for live load = (0.80*1.64*l+1/16) P20 = (0.80*1.64*1.07+1/16) 7.25 = 0.998 ton-m
Impact factor

B.M. Impact

Total B.M.

## Area of steel bars:

fc = 100 kg/cm2
Min.depth of slab
Real depth of slab
Therefore real depth

## fs= 1400 kg/cm2

j = 0.86
k = 0.42
= (2*B.M/fc* k * j * b)0.50
= (2*1.369*105/100*0.42*0.86*100)0.50 = 8.70 cm
= (20-5+1.60/2) = 14.20 cm use dia of 16 mm bar with
5cm protection layer in 2 faces of slab
= 14.20 cm > Min depth = 8.70 cm
O.K.

As = B.M/fs * j * d
= 1.396 * 105/1400 * 0.86 * 14.20 = 8.16 cm2
Spacing of steel bars in 1m of slab = 100*2.009/8.16 = 24.6 cm say 20 cm c/c
Use # 5 dia 16 mm bars @ 20 cm center to center (As = 10.048 cm2)
Distribution or longitudinal steel bars:
As = (120/(L)0.5 ) /100 = (120/1.070.5)/100 = 1.16 > 0.67

therefore :

## As = 0.67 * 10 .048 = 6.73 cm2

Spacing = 100 * 1.13/6.73 = 17 cm center to center, Use # 7 dia 12mm @ 17 cm
center to center.
Design of Interior beam:
Effective length of beam

= 14+.06 = 14.60 m

Weight of slab on beam
Weight of wearing coat

## = 1.47* 0.20* 2.40 = 0.735 m.ton

= 1.47* 0.07* 2.20 = 0.226 m.ton
= 0.80* 0.40* 2.50 = 0.80 m.ton

= 1.76 M.Ton
B.M = q* span2/8 = 1.76* 14.62/8 = 46.89 Ton-m

## B. Moment for live load:

Distribution of Wheel load on longitudinal beam = Span1/1.89 for one line of traffic.
Where: Span1 is center to center distance between two beams, and 1.89 is constant
Therefore : Distrib. wheel load on long. beam
= 1.47/1.89 = 0.742
Exerted load from rear tire of vehicle = 7.25* 0.742 = 5.379 Ton
Exerted load from front tire of vehicle = 3.625/2 = 1.82 * 0.742 = 1.345 Ton
Where: 3.625 ton is load on front wheel of vehicle .

Fig.8 & 9

## Total Mr = 0 = -Rl*14.60 .+ 5.38*10.84 + 1.345*2.34 + 5.38*6.59 = 6.638 ton-m

Threfore Rl = 6.638 ton-m.
y2/8.01 = 6.59/14.60
y3/8.01 = 2.34/14.60

y2 = 3.615
y3 = 1.284

y1/6.59 = 3.76/14.60

y1 = 1.697

## Max.B.Moment = 3.615*5.38 + 1.697*5.38 +1.284*1.345 = 30.305 ton-m

Impact factor

= 15/14.60+38 = 0.285

## Impact Moment = 0.285* Max.B.M. = 0.285*30.305 = 8.637 ton-m

= 46.895+30.305+8.637 = 85.837 ton-m
Shear stress:

q = 1.76 ton/m
RA = Qmax = 1.76*14.60/2 = 12.848 ton

Fig.10

Fig.11
MA = -RB* 14.60+ 7.25*14.60+ 5.38*10.35+ 1.34*6.10 = 0
RB = 11.626
Qmax = RB = 11.626 ton
RA = 2.349 ton
Shear of Impact :

## Effective depth of beam = 100- 3.60*3/2 3.6-5 = 86 cm where:

Space between each row of steel bars dia of bar = 36 mm = 3.60cm , total # of rows is = 3,
Protection layer = 5 cm
Area of steel bars in beam:

## As = B.M/fs*(deff.-t/2) *j = 85.796 105/1400(86-20/2) 0.86 = 97.762 cm2

Where : (t ) is thickness of slab
AS = 97.762 therefore : # 10 dia 36 (As = 101.80 cm2)

## P = As/b*d = 101.80/147 * 86 =0.0052

P*n = 0.0052 * 10 = 0.052
t/d = 20/86 =0.232
1/2p*n = 1/2 * 0.0052*10 = 9.60 j = 6-6t/d+2(t/d)2+(t/d)3* (1/2pn)
j = 0.825
6-3t/d

## k = n*p +1/2(t/d)2 = 10* 0.0052+ (20/86)2 = 0.28

n*p + t/d
10*0.0052+20/86
Therefore : As1 = M/fs*j * d = 85.796 *105/1400 * 0.825 *86 = 86.37cm2
As = 101.80< As1 = 86.37 cm2 therefore the section is O.K
Area of steel bars for shear force:

fc = 250 kg/cm2

## Allowable shear stress = 0.03 * 250 = 7.50

Mark of concrete = 250 kg/cm2
S = 2.2 (coefficient of safety)

## Allowable shear stress (V) = Tc/S = 20/2.2 = 9.09

V= 9.79 > V= 9.09
From other hand : V = 9.79 < Tc= 20,
beam.

## Therefore, need for shear steel bars

There fore no need to change the section of the

Now determine the distance from where shear steel bars required:
Lx = (V-V/V)*Span/2 = (9.79-9.09/9.09)*14.6/2 = 0.56m = 56 cm
Resultant shear stress:R = 0.50(V+V) B*Lx = 0.50(9.79+9.09) 40* 56 = 21145 kg
R = 21245kg = 21.145 ton
We will use stirrup dia 10 mm in the spacing of 10 cm , in the distance of 56 cm
No of stirrups (Ns) = 56/10 = 5.6 , say 6 stirrups. m = 2 where (m) is number of stirrup
arms.
Shear force to support by stirrups Ts = Ns * m * Qp/ S
where :
Qp = plasticity limit of steel bars = 2500 kg/cm2 , and S=2.2 (coeff. of safety)
Ts = (6*2) *2500/2.2 = 13636.36 kg = 13.636 ton
Shear stress to support by stirrups Vs = m*As.s*Qp/ Spacing*b =2*0.785*2500/10*40= 9.813 kg/cm2
Shear stress to support by main bent steel bars: Tm. bar = 0.80 R-Ts = 0.8*21.145- 13.636= 3.28 ton
Therefore from the table of steel bars strength the dia of 36 mm has strength =18897
kg/cm2 hence no need to bent the main steel bars, however one main bar will be bent up.
Note :

If the depth of the beam exceed 60cm skin reinforcement on both faces ob web or beam in
the form of Longitudinal bars (min 12 mm bars spacing not more than 20 cm should be
provided. Such reinforcement on each face should be at lest 0.05% of cross section area.

10

Fig 12

11

## Design of masonry abutment for bridge:

Normal scour depth:

Dscour = 0.473(Q/f)1/3

## where: Q is max .river discharge or quantity of river flow

(f ) is lacys silt factor

## Table of Silt factor(f):

Type of bed soil
Very fine soil
Fine silt
Medium silt
Medium sand
Coarse sand
Standard silt
Heavy sand

f
0.40
0.60
0.85
1.25
1.50
1.00
2.00

Size of particles mm
0.052
0.120
0.233
0.505
0.725
0.323
1.290

When the width of stream abstracted by abutment or pier than the scour depth :
Dscour = D (W/Labst.)2/3 , where: W is normal width of river and Labst. is length of
abstracted water way.
Dscour .max.= (1.50 to 2.0) D scour
Design Example:
Data:

## Type of river bed soil

: Medium silt
River discharge (Q)
= V * A = 300.00 cum/sec
Assume V = 2.5 m/sec, and Cross section Area (A) = 120.00 m2
Supper structure : T- Beam and slab one lane bridge of clear span 14m
: HS20
Backfill
: Gravel with angle of repose = 400 , w = 1.80 ton/m3
Angle of internal friction of soil on masonry = z =200
Angle of abutment slop with ground level = 108.160
Angle of backfill soil with ground level = s = 0

Solution:
Normal scour depth
= 0.473(Q/f)1/3 = 0.473(300/0.85)1/3 = 3.34 m.
Max. Scour depth
= 1.5 * 3.34 = 5.01 m below the average height of flood level.
(see scour depth calculation in culvert).

## Load from beam = (0.80 * 0.40 * 14/2 * 2.40)4 = 21.504 ton

= (0.20 * 5.00 * 14/2 * 2.40)1 = 16.80 ton
= (0.55 * 0.25 * 14/2 * 2.40)2 = 4.62 ton
Load from wearing coat = (0.07 * 3.80 * 14/2 * 2.20)1 = 4.09 ton
= 47.02 ton
Live load from two rear tire of vehicle
Load per m width of abutment

12

= 15 ton
= 62.02 ton
= 62.02/5 = 12.404 ton/m

## Assume Preliminary dimension of abutment :

Fig.13
Width of abutment in foundation = 250 cm , Height of abutment
Top width of abutment
= 120 cm

= 300 cm

## Self weight of abutment per m length W= w1 + w2 + w3 + w4 + w5 + Pearth V =

= (0.60 * 3.0) 2.20 + (0.60 * 4.40) 2.20 + ( 1.30 * 3.0) 2.20 + (0.70 * 0.40) 2.2 + (2.50 *
2.50) *2.20 = 3.96+ 5.808 + 4.29 + 0.616 + 13.75 + 0.962= 29.38 ton/m.
Total vertical forces per meter length of abutment = 12.404 + 29.38 = 41.78 ton/m
Longitudinal forces:

a. Force due to attractive effort = 0.20 * HS20 load = 0.20 * 20 = 4.0 ton
Force per meter length of abutment = 4.0 /5 = 0.80 ton
b. Force due to temperature variation = 0.15 * total load per meter width of
abutment = 0.15 * 12.404 = 1.861 ton.
Total longitudinal forces = 0.80 + 1.861 = 2.66 ton, this force act at the bearing level.
Earth pressure :
2
P=
w * h2( cos * sin ( ))
= 1.80*4.4 (cos 108.16 * sin(108.16-40)
1/2
1/2
( sin ( + )) + ( sin (+) * sin (-) (sin(108.16+20))1/2 + sin (40+20)1/2 * sin(40)1/2

P = 3.086 ton/m
Horizontal component of (P) = 3.086 * Cos(108.16-90) = 2.932 ton/m
Vertical component of (P) = 3.086 Sin(108.16-90) = 0.962 ton/m
Height above base of center of pressure = 0.42 * 4.40 = 1.85m

Fig14

13

## Moment of vertical forces from the abutment toe:

Source
Abutment Structure
Do
Do
Do
Do
Super structure
Earth
TOTAL:

Force
symbol
w1
w2
w3
w4
w5
ws.s
Pearth.v.

Total
ver.Force
3.96
5.808
4.29
0.616
13.75
12.404
0.962
41.79

Arm (m)
0.30
0.90
1.63
0.35
1.25
0.35
1.20+2.60/3=2.5

Stab.Moment
ton-m
1.188
5.227
7.007
0.215
17.187
4.341
2.405
37.57

## Resultant force location from point B(Toe):

Arm = Stab. Moment/vertical forces = 37.57/41.79 = 0.899 m

Source
Structure
Earth(backfill)
TOTAL:

Force Symbol
Sf
Pearth H.

Total Force
2.66
2.932
5.592

Arm (m)
3.0
1.85

Overturning .M.
7.98
5.424
13.404

## Resultant force location from AB line:

Arm = 13.404/5.592 = 2.397 m
Check for overturning and Sliding Moment :

Overturning:
S.Foverturning = Stab.Moment/Overturning Moment = 37.57/13.404 = 2.80 >
1.50 O.K

Sliding:
S.Fsliding = V.Forces * f / H.Forces = 41.70 * 0.60 / 5.592 = 4.47
S.F sliding = 4.47 >> 1.4 Hence abutment is safe against sliding .
Check location of Resultant :

## (H.F * Arm) + (-V.F * X) = 0

=>
(5.592 * 2.397) + ( - 41.70 * X) =>
X = 13.404/41.70 = 0.321 m
a = Arm X = 0.899 0.321= 0.58 m
e = B/2 a = 2.50/2- 0.58 = 1.25-0.58 = 0.67 m
Total downward forces = 41.79 ton/m
EXTREME STRESS = T.V.Forces/B * (1 + 6*e/B) = 41.79/2.50(1+ 6*0.67/2.50)=
= 43.59 ton/m or - 10.16 ton/m Hence both extreme stress(positive and negative ) are in
safe limit, therefore the assume dimensions of abutment are O.K

14

Fig15

Fig 16

15

## R.C.C FOOT BRIDGE

Data given:
Clear span of bridge
Height of bridge from river bed
River bed elevation
High flood level
Clear width of bridge
Bearing capacity of foundation soil
Assume slab thickness

: 18 m
: 4.39m
: 94.38
: 97.33
: 2.50 m
: 32 ton/sqm
: 15 cm

Design process:

Height (depth) of beam : (span/15 to 20) for light load : 18/15 = 1.20 m
Width of the beam
: 2/5 * depth = 2/5 * 1.20 = 0.48 m, assume 0.40 m
Slab design :

Weight of camel with load : 160 ser = 160 * 7 = 1,120 kg
Live load = 1120/1.5 = 746.70 kg/m2 , Live load = 750 kg/m2
Where: (1.5 m) distance between two legs of camel.

Fig 17
Leffect. = 1.70 * 1.05 = 1.785m
B.Mmax. = q * Leff.2/8 = 1,110 * 1.7852/8 = 442 kg-m
Area of Steel in one meter of span = As= B.M/fs* J*d = 442 *102/1400 * 0.876 * 15 = 442*102/18396
As = 2.403 cm2
Hence provide # 5 dia 8mm @ 20cm center to center (As = 2.51cm2 > 2.41cm2)
Design of beam:

16

## Dead load of beam : b*h*2400 = 0.40* 1.20*2400 = 960 kg/m

Total load (q) = 944.0+ 960.0+ 30.0 = 1,934.0 kg/m
Effective length of beam = 18*1.05 = 18.90 m
B.Mmax. = q*Leff.2/8 = 1,934*18.902/8 = 86,355.52 kg-m
Area of steel bars in beam:
As = B.M/fs*J*d = 86,355.52*102/1400*0876*120 = 8,635,552/147,168 = 58.80 cm2
As = 58.80cm2 , Hence provide # 12 dia 25mm bars in two rows.

Fig 18

17

## COMPOSITE (STEEL & CONCRETE ) BRIDGE

Design of composite bridge with reinforcement concrete slab and steel plate girders to cover
23 m clear span .
Given Data:

Clear span
: 23 m
Width of bridge
:5m
Foot path
: 0.40 m
Concrete M-200
fc
: 2100 kg/cm2
fy
: 2800 kg/cm2
: Hs20
The abutments of bridge are already existing .

Fig19
DESING OF RCC SLAB:

## : 0.20* 2.4 + 0.40* 0.25* 2.40 = 0.72 ton/m2

: 0.07* 2.20 = 0.15 ton/m2
: 0.87 ton/m2

Live Load Moment = 0.80 (1.64*L + 1) *Load on rear tyre
16
Live Load Moment = 0.80(1.64*1.57+1) * 7.25 = 1.30 ton-m
16
c. Impact Moment : 0.30 * 1.30 = 0.40 ton-m
Total Moment = 0.27 + 1.30 + 0.40 = 1.97 ton-m

18

fc*
f*steel

## : 0.50*2800 = 1400 kg/cm2

: 0.40*2100 = 84 kg/cm2

## r = fs*/fc* = 1400/84 = 16.70

n = 10
k = n/n+r = 10/10+16.70 = 0.375

## dmin. = (2*M/fc* k*J*b)1/2 = (2*1.97*105/84*0.375*0.875*100)1/2 = 11.89 cm

Eff.depth = 20-(5+1.8/2) = 20-5.90 = 14.10 > 11.89 cm
O.K
Bar to be used = 14 mm
As = M/fs* J*d = 1.97*105/1400*0.875*14 = 11.49 cm2
Hence provide # 5 dia. 18 mm (As = 12.72 cm2)
Spacing = As1*100/As = 2.545*100/12.72 = 20 cm center to center.
Longitudinal steel bars = 0.67 * 12.32 = 8.25 cm2

## Spacing = 1.539*100/9.24 = 16.6 cm = 16 cm center to center.

Design of Interior steel (I ) beam:

Wt of (I) beam +Wt of diaphragms +Wt of angle Iron Wt of RCC slab =
(0.90*0.02*7.85) +(0.04*0.30*7.85)2 + (12*0.0054)/23 + (0.60*0.01*7.85) +
+(0.15*0.017*7.85)2 + 1.56*0.20*2.4 + 0.07 *2.20 = 1.30 ton/m2

## Leff.= 1.05*23.0 = 24.20

Coeff.of load distribution = Span/1.68 = 1.57/1.68 = 0.935

Fig.20
Load from the rear tire = 7.25*0.935= 6.78 ton/Sqm
Load from the front tire = 1.81*0.935 = 1.692ton/Sqm
Ra*24.20 = 1.692*15.62 +6.78*11.37 + 1.692*7.12 = 195.044/24.20 = 8.06 ton
Mmax = 8.06*12.83 6.78*4.25 = 74.595 ton-m
Impact factor = 15/24.20 = 0.241

19

## Impact Moment = 0.24*74.595 = 17.98 ton-m

Total Moment = 95.17 + 74.595+ 17.98 = 187.75 ton-m
Selection of Steel Section :

## Moment of Inertia for composite section (Steel & concrete)

Note : To work together the RCC & steel , the span of RCC slab between two I beam will
decrease 10 times , therefore
span/10 = 157/10 = 15.70
Total Area of I beam and RCC , A = A1+A2 = (15.70*20) + ((90*2) + (30*4)2) = 314
+ 420 = 734cm2
Statically Moment = A1*y1 + A2*y2 = 314*118 + 420* 49 = 57632 cm2
Center of gravity of composite section :

## Y = Mstx-x /A = 57632/734 = 78.52 cm

Fig 21
Moment Of Inertia or Second Moment :
A. Moment of Inertia of steel about the x1 Axis:

## Ix1 = b* h3/12(b*h3/12+4*30*472) + (b*h3/12+4*30*472)

Ix1 = 2*903/12+(30*43/12+265080)+(30*43/12+265080)
Ix1 = 121500+265240+265240 = 651,980cm4
B. Moment Inertia of Concrete section about the x2 axis:
Ix2 = b*h3/12 = 15.70*203/12 = 10466.67 cm4
C. Moment Inertia of composite section about the x0 section :
Ixo = Ix2 +A2* 29.482 + Ix1 + A1* 29.52
Ixo = 10466.67+314*869.070 + 651980 + 420*871.430 = 1301335.418 cm4

20

Fig22
Coefficient of Strength :

## Wbottom= Ixo/center of gravity from the top = 1301335.418/78.52 = 16573.30 cm3

Wtop = Ixo/C.O.G from bottom = 1301335.418/19.48 = 66803.67 cm3
Stress:

## Stress bottom b = Total Mload/Wb = 18,775,000/16573.30 = 1132.85 kg/cm2

Stress top t = T.Moment/Wt = 18,775,000/66803.67 = 281.05 kg/cm2
Allowable stress for steel = fsteel = 2800/2 = 1400 kg/cm2 therefore:
Strtess b = 1132.85 kg/cm2< 1400 kg/cm2
Stress t = 281.05 kg/cm2 < 1400 kg/cm2

OK
OK

Design of fillet welding ( Design of suitable welded connection between the web and the Flange):
Size of Plate Girder : h = 90 cm , Flange size: wide= 30 cm , T= 4cm
Clear Span of bridge : 23 m
Design Process :
Horizontal shear per cm length of plate girder :
Q1 = F/I *(A*Y) , F = F1*Span/2
of girder
F1 = 1.30 + 6.78 = 8.08 ton/m, F = 8080*23/2 = 92,920 kg
Ix1 = 651.980 cm4,
Y(center of gravity) = 49 cm,
A*Y = 120*49 = 5,880 cm3

A = 30*4 =120cm

## Q1 = 92,920/651,980*(5,880) = 838.015 kg/cm

Vertical loaded Flange (Comp. Flange) :
F1 = 8.08 ton/m = 8080 kg/m = 80.80 kg/cm
Resultant Shear (Q) :
Q = (Q12 + F1)1/2 = (838.0152 + 80.802)1/2 = 841.90 kg/cm
Welded shall be applied on both sides of the Web plate for top Flange as well as for
bottom Flange. Weld could be continuous.

Continuous weld :

21

## Strength of weld per cm length = 2*s*k*Pq ,

Pq = Permissible stress = 1100 kg

## S = Q/2*k*Pq = 841.90/2*0.70*1100 = 0.54 cm = 5.40 mm

S = 5.4 mm < 8 mm (minimum thick.of weld)
O.K
But for more safety we will take 10 mm
therefore

S = 1cm

## Strength of the Joint = L * t * Pt

Where : L = Effective length of girder , t = Effict. Throat (0.70*S = 0.70 *1.0 = 0.70 cm)
For single (V) type butt welding = 5/8*S = 5/8*1 = 5/8 cm
Pt = permissible tensile stress = 1500 kg/cm2
Strength of the Joint = L*t*Pt = 45*5/8 *1500 = 42,187.50 kg OK

Fig23

22

SUSPENSION BRIDGE
Data :
Data collected fro bridge site:
Clear span of bridge

:270 Feet
: 25 lbs/ft2
: 30 lbs/ft2

## Size of various wooden components of bridge:

1. Transom
2. Bearer
3. Planks
4. Post
5. Back Stay
6. Diagonals

7. Guard Rails

: (3inch*5inch/144)* 6foot * 1
: (2" * 4"/144)* 3'-6"*4
: (1.5"/12) *1'* 4'*3.5
: (2"*3"/144)* 4'*2
: (2"*3"/144)* 4'-6"*2
: (2"*3"/144)* 5'-6"* 4
: (2"*3"/144)*3'-6"*2
TOTAL

= 0.625 cuft
= 0.778 cuft
= 1.75 cuft
= 0.333 cuft
= 0.375 cuft
= 0.91 cuft
= 0.292 cuft
= 5.0694 Cuft

Weight of wood
: 50 lbs/cuft
Total weight of wood : 50*5.07 = 253.50 Lbs
Weight per running Foot of Bridge = 253.50 lbs/3.5 = 72.43 lbs/ft

Fig 24
Calculation the length of suspenders :
Suspenders are provided at (L1 = 3'-6") intervals .
Dip = Span/15 = 270/15 = 18 feet

## Inverted Dip = Span/60 = 270/60 = 4'-6"

Length of least suspender (assume) = 2 feet
Height of Tower = Dip + Inv.Dip + Length of least suspen. = 18' + 4'-6" + 2' = 24'-6"
Length of the suspenders can be calculated by the following formula:
Length of suspenders Y= (4d/L2)*x2

23

Where : d = dip

L = Span of bridge

## Therefore: Total length of suspender :

Y = 4d1*x2/L2 + 4d2*x2/L2 + 2'
Y = 4/L2(d1 + d2) x2 + 2
d2 : Inverted dip
x = 3.5 ft
Y1 = 4/2702 (18+4.5)* 3.52 + 2 = 2.015 ft
x = 7.00 ftt
Y2 = 4/2702(18+4.5)*7.02 + 2 = 2.0605 ft
x = 10.50 ft
Y3 = 0.1361 + 2
= 2.1361 ft
x = 14.00 ft
Y4 = 0.242 + 2
= 2.242 ft
x = 17'-6"
Y5 = 0.378 + 2
= 2.378 ft
x = 21.00ft
Y6 = 0.5444 + 2
= 2.5444 ft
x = 24.50 ft
Y7 = 0.741 + 2
= 2.741 ft
x = 28.00 ft
Y8 = 0.9679 + 2
= 2.9679 ft
x = 31.50 ft
Y9 = 1.225 + 2
= 3.225 ft
x = 35.00 ft
Y10 = 1.5123 + 2
= 3.5123 ft
x = 38.50 ft
Y11 = 1.8299 + 2
= 3.8299 ft
x = 42.00 ft
Y12 = 2.1778 + 2
= 4.1778 ft
x = 45.50 ft
Y13 = 2.5559 + 2
= 4.5559 ft
x = 49.00 ft
Y14 = 2.9642 + 2
= 4.962 ft
x = 52.50 ft
Y15 = 3.4028 + 2
= 5.4028 ft
x = 56.00 f
Y16 = 3.8716 + 2
= 5.8716 ft
x = 59.50 ft
Y17 = 4.3707 + 2
= 6.3707 ft
x = 63.00 ft
Y18 = 4.90 + 2
= 6.90 ft
x = 66.50 ft
Y19 = 5.4596 + 2
= 7.4596 ft
x = 70.00 ft
Y20 = 6.0494 + 2
= 8.049 ft
x = 73.50 ft
Y21 = 6.6694 + 2
= 8.6694 ft
x = 77.00 ft
Y22 = 7.3198 + 2
= 9.3198 ft
x = 80.50 ft
Y23 = 8.0003 + 2
= 10.00 ft
x = 84.00 ft
Y24 = 8.7111 + 2
= 10.7111 ft
x = 87.50 ft
Y25 = 9.4522 + 2
= 11.4522 ft
x = 91.00 ft
Y26 = 10.2235 + 2
= 12.2235 ft
x = 94.50 ft
Y27 = 11.025 + 2
= 13.025 ft
x = 98.00 ft
Y28 = 11.568 + 2
= 13.8568ft
x = 101.50 ft Y29 = 12.7188 + 2
= 14.7188 ft
x = 105.00 ft Y30 = 13.6111 + 2
= 15.6111 ft
x = 108.50 ft Y31 = 14.5336 + 2
= 16.5336 ft
x = 112.00 ft Y32 = 15.4864 + 2
= 17.4864 ft
x = 115.50 ft Y33 = 16.4694 + 2
= 18.4694 ft
x = 119.00 ft Y34 = 17.4827 + 2
= 19.4827 ft
x = 122.50 ft Y35 = 18.5262 + 2
= 20.5262 ft
x = 126.00 ft Y36 = 19.60 + 2
= 21.60 ft
x = 129.50 ft Y37 = 20.7040 + 2
= 22.7040 ft
x = 133.00 ft Y38 = 21.8383 + 2
= 23.8383 ft
x = 136.50 ft Y39 = 23.002 + 2
= 25.0028 ft
Total length of suspenders one side half = 388.6355 Feet
Total length of suspender cable ( for entire bridge) = 388.6355 * 4 + 4 = 1558.542 Feet
Total number of suspenders = Span/L1 *2 = (270/3.5) * 2 = 154
Average length of each suspender = 1558.542/154 = 10.120 feet
Increase length by 20% = (10.120)* 1.20 = 12.144 feet
Weight of suspender cable = 1.0 lbs/ft

24

## Two suspenders cable in design panel , therefore : Wt = 2*1*12.144 = 24.288 lbs/ft

Weight of suspenders cable per running foot of bridge = 24.288/4 = 6.072 lbs/ft
Weight of Main cable:
Self weight of main cable = 2 lbs/ft
LENGTH OF MAIN CABLE : L = Span(1+8/3(d/span)2)
L = 270(1+ 8/3(18/270)2) = 273.20 Feet
Three cables on either side , therefore :
Weight of Main cables per running foot of bridge = sides*No of cables * Self wt of cable =
= 2*3*2 = 12.0 lbs/ft
Snow weight = 25 * width = 25 * 3.5 = 87.50 lbs/ft
Live Load = 30*3.50 = 105 lbs/ft
Total Load = ( Wt of wooden deck + Wt of Main cable + Wt of suspenders + Snow + Slings)1.1 +
+Live load =(72.43 +12 +6.072 +87.50 +8)1.1 +105 = 309.602 lbs/feet = 0.3096 Kips/ft

Fig 25

25

## DESIGN OF MAIN CABLE :

Uniformly distributed load (w) = 0.3096 kips/ft
Horizontal Thrust :H = w * Span2/8d = (0.3096 * 2702)/8*18 = 156.735 kips

Using :

Vertical Thrust :

## V = w * Span/2 = 0.3096 *270/2 = 41.796 kips

Tension in cable :

## Working Load = 104,500/3.2 = 32,656.25 lbs

Number of cables required for entire bridge = 162,212/32656.25 = 4.967 for both side
of bridge.
Therefore : We Take (3) Cables of (1) inch on each side.
See annex No 1(cable table)
Design of Anchor block for Main cable :

Fig 26
Span/4 = 270/4 = 67.50 Feet,
= 14.930 = 140 ,55', 53"

## tan = H. of Tower/67.50 = 18/67.5 = 0.2667

= 180- ( + 90) = 75.06860 = 740,4',7"

Fig 27
TA = T * Sin 14.9310 = 162.212 * Sin 14.9310 = 41.795 kips
TB = T * Cos 14.9310 = 162.212 * Cos 14.931 = 156.735 kips
F=R

F = Force of Sliding

Assuming that the total tension in cable can cause sliding and is increased by 50%
Therefore :
F = 162.212 * 1.50 = 243.318 kips

26

## = Co-efficient of friction = 0.60

R = weight of Block
243.318 = 0.60 R
R = 243.318/0.6 = 405.530 Kips
Volume of block required = Total Wt/Unit Wt of block = 405.530/0.15 = 2703.533 cft
Size of Block = 17 feet x 17 feet x 10 feet,
Wt = V*0.15 = 433.5 kips

V= 2890 kips

## Bearing Pressure = Wt of block/Contact Area = 433.50/17*17 = 1.50 kips/ft 2 < 2.24kips/ft2

Hence O.K
Check for Overturning :
Self weight of block = 17 * 17 *10 *0.15 = 433.50 kips
Overturning Moment: TB*10/2 + TA*17/2 =156.735*5 + 41.795*8.50 =1138.933 k-ft
Resisting Moment = 433.50*17/2 = 3684.75 k-ft
(F.O.S) Factor of Safety against Overturning = Resist. Moment/Overt. Moment
F.O.S = 3684.75/1138.933 = 3.235,
Hence O.K
Design of wind-guy cable for wind :
Calculation of area in direct contact with wind :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Transom :
Bearer :
Planks :
Post :
Backstay:
Diagonal :
Guard Rail :

## (3*5/144)* 1 = 0.104 sft

(4 inch/12) * 3'-6" *1 =1.1667 Sft
(1.5 inch/12)*3'-6"* 1 = 0.4375 Sft
(3/12) * 4'* 1 = 1.0 sft
(3/12) * 4'*1 = 1.0 Sft
(3/12) * 5'-6"*1= 2.75 Sft
(3/12) * 3'-6"*1 = 0.875 Sft
Total Area
= 7.333 Sft

## Total Area of Wood in contact with wind = 7.333 sft

Total Area of cable in contact with wind :
Main cable dia (1 inch):
1/12 * 3'-6" *3 = 0.875 sft
Suspender Cable dia.(1/2 inch): 0.5/12 * 11.545 = 0.481 sft
Total area
= 1.356 sft
Total Area of bridge in contact with wind = 7.333 + 1.356 = 8.689 sft
Taking wind pressure = 20 lbs/sft
Total pressure = 20 * 8.6893 =173.79 lbs
Total load per running foot = 173.79/3.5 = 49.65 lbs/foot = 0.05 kips/foot
Selecting wind tie cable dip : d = Span/15 = 270/15 = 18 feet
Tag =18/135 = 0.1333

= 7.59460

Say. = 7.60

Horizontal Thrust :

## H = W*L2/8d = 0.05*2702/8*18 = 25.3125 kips

Vertical Thrust :

## T = ((H2 + V2))1/2 = ((25.3125)2 + (6.75)2)1/2 = 26.20 kips = 26,200 lbs

27

Using: Locally made inch diameter cable 19 wires strands each of 0.2 inch diameter.
Extra high strength grade with breaking strength = 58,300 lbs
F.O.S = 2

## Number of cables required = 26,200/29150 = 0.90

Taking (1) cable dia inch on each side.
Design of Anchor block for win-guy cable :
R = Weight of block,
F = Sliding force = 26.20 kips
Sliding increasing by 50% : F *1.5 = 26.2 * 1.5 = 39.30 kips
39.30 = 0.6 R

= 0.6

R= 65.50 kips

Fig 28
Volume of Anchor block required for wind cable = Wt of block/Unit Wt of block =
= 65.5/0.15 = 437 cft
Size of Anchor block for wind cable = 9' x 9' x 6'
Bearing Pressure = Wt of Block/Contact Area = 65.50/9*9 = 0.81 k/ft 2 < 2.24 K/ft2
Hence O.K.
Design of Suspender for win-guy cable :
= 72.43 * 3.5/2 + 87.5 * 3.5/2 + 105 * 3.5/2 = 463.63 lbs
Using :

## Dia (1/2) inch wire rope , 1x7 (0.165)

High Strength grade with breaking strength = 18.800 lbs
F.O.S = 4
Working Strength = 18,800/4 = 4700 lbs
Number of cable required for Suspender = Load/working Str. = 463.30/4700 = 0.1
Taking # 1 dia inch cable for suspender.

## Design of wind ties :

Total Thrust on bridge : 0.05 * 3.5 = 0.175 kips = 175 lbs
Using : dia inch cable with 7 strands each dia 0.165 inch .
High strength grade = 18,800 lbs
Breaking strength 18,800 lbs
F.O.S = 4
Working strength = 18,800/4 = 4700 lbs
Number of cables required = 175/4700 = 0.037
Taking # 1 dia inch cable for wind ties
Design of column :

28

= 14.930

## H = T * Cos 14.93 = 162.946/2 * Cos 14.93 = 78.75 kips

Where: T = Tension in main cable.
V= T * Sin 14.93 = 162.946/2 * Sin 14.93 = 21.0 kips
Load on column = 2*21 = 42 kips
Increasing by 70%,: Pu = 42*1.70 = 71.4 kips
Concrete Column : Pu = (Stress Concrete * Acc) + (Stress Steel * As)
Pu = 1000*24*30 + As *18000
Min As = 0.01 Agross of Concrete = 0.01*24* 30
Min .Asteel = 7.20 inch2
Using : Dia. inch bars.,

## Number of bars Required = Asteel /Abar = 7.2/0.2 = 36 bars

Fig 29
Design of combine footing :
Load on the top of column = 71.40 kips
Load on Footing =71.40 + (18*24/12 * 30/12) 0.15=71.40 + 13.50 = 84.90 Say 85.00
Total load on Footing = 85 + 85 = 170 kips
Self weight of Footing = 10% of the total load = 170* 0.10 = 17.00 kips
TOTAL LOAD ON FOOTING : 170.0 + 17.0 187.00 kips
Area of the base of footing slab : 187/1.90 = 104 Sft
Where : 1.90 k/sft is allowable soil pressure.
Area Required :
A = 9' * 12' =108 sft > 104 sft
Net upward pressure of the soil = 170/9 *12 = 1.574 k/sft
The arrangement of the columns with their respective position shall be as shown in
Figure.

Fig 30
The load per foot run of the footing = 9 * 1.574 = 14.167 k/ft

29

## Shear force and Bending Moment :

Shear force to the left of the column (A) = 14.167 * 3.25 = 46.043 kips
Where: 3.25 = distance from the left side toe of the footing to column center.
Shear force to the right of column (A) = Load on footing 46.043 = 85- 46.043 = 38.957 kips
Shear force just to the left of column B :
S.F = 38.957- 14.167 * 5.5 = 38.962 kips
Shear force just to the right of the column (B) : S.F = 85- 38.962 = 46.038 kips

Fig 31
Bending Moment :
Bending Moment at column A & B = 14.167 * 3.252/2 = 74.189 k-ft
The Max. bending Moment will be in the center of both columns at the distance of
Distance = 3.25 + 2.75 = 6 ft from either ends.
Max. B. Moment = 85 *2.75 14.167 *62/2 = 233.75 255.006 = -21.256 k-ft

Fig 32
Depth of the foundation :
A. From punching shear consideration:
Total punching force around the perimeter of column (A) :
=Load on footing Upward load * b * L = 85.0- 1.574 * 2 ft * 2.5 ft = 77.13 kips
Where : b and L are the dimension of column : b= 24inch = 2ft & L = 30 inch = 2.5 ft
Let (d) be the depth of the footing under the column.
Total resisting force against punching : 4*b*d*S p
Where : b = One dimension of column
d = Effective depth required
Sp = Punching shear stress and its for 1:2:4 mix is 150 psi (10 kg/cm 2)
Total force resisting punching = 4*24*0.15*d kips
77.13 = 4*24*0.15*d
d = 77.13/14.4 = 5.36 inch

30

## Max. Bending Moment = 74.189 k-ft

Depth of Footing = (B.M/QB)1/2

## d = (74.189*12000/185*108)1/2 = 6.67 inch

Adopt an overall depth = 12 inch
Effective depth = 9 inch
Area of steel bars in footing :
As = M/fs* J *d =74.189 * 12,000/20,000 * 0.872 * 9 = 890,268/156,960 = 5.67 inch2
Provide 1/2 inch dia bar .
#31 dia inch @ 3.50 inch center to center (#31 dia 12mm @ 9 cm c/c)
Area of Transverse steel bars : # 42 dia 0.39 inch (10 mm) @ 3.50 inch

Fig 33

31

32

33