Paper 72
©CivilComp Press, 2013 Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering Computing, B.H.V. Topping and P. Iványi, (Editors), CivilComp Press, Stirlingshire, Scotland
Seismic Assessment of an Historical Masonry Building using Nonlinear Static Analysis
F. Bucchi, S. Arangio and F. Bontempi Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
Abstract
According to the existing technical codes and guidelines, various methods for the seismic assessment of historical buildings exist. They range from simplified models to equivalent frames, up to detailed finite element models. In the first part of this paper the advantages and drawbacks of the various approaches are briefly discussed. Some of them are simple but they rely on very strict assumptions and cannot be used in all the situations. Others are able to give very detailed results but are computationally intensive and time consuming. In this work, the attention is focused on an intermediate approach, the nonlinear static analysis of equivalent frames models. This method is able to give a measure of the response of the structure but at the same time it is simple to implement. In particular, its application with the code SAP2000 is presented. In the second part of the work, this approach is applied to a façade of an historical building that was damaged by the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake (central Italy). The considered building is the Camponeschi Palace, located in L’Aquila city center. The damage mechanisms obtained are compared with the observed damage and with those obtained from other approaches and reported in the existing technical literature.
Keywords: masonry building, existent building, seismic assessment, nonlinear static analysis, Eurocode, Italian Code.
1
Introduction
The seismic assessment of historical masonry buildings is a complex task because the global behaviour of this kind of structures depends on various factors, as the behaviour of the single walls, the connections between them, the typology and stiffness of the floor (flexible or rigid diaphragms), and the strong nonlinearities of the material [1, 2, 3].
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Considering a single wall, for example, it is possible to distinguish two different types of failure (Figure 1) that lead to two different collapse mechanisms: outof plane and inplane failures, which correspond to collapses that are called I and II collapse mechanisms respectively. The first mechanism regards only parts of the wall (Figure 1) and occurs when a wall is subjected to an outofplane action and there is poor anchorage of the orthogonal walls or a poor connection between floor and walls. The second mechanism regards entire panels and occurs when a load is applied in the same plane of the masonry wall [4]. Usually, in the global analysis of the structures only inplane mechanisms (II mode) are considered. Actually, an exhaustive seismic verification would require to take into account also the possible occurrence of outofplane mechanisms; however, if the attention is focused on the overall seismic behavior of the structure, common practice is to neglect this class of mechanisms because they usually involve parts of the structure that does not affect significantly the global response [5, 6].
Figure 1: Outofplane and inplane behaviour of a single wall (left) and collapse mechanisms (right) (adapted from [5]).
In order to describe the seismic behaviour of masonry structures, it is possible to identify two types of panels in each façade: the ‘piers’, which are the principal vertical resistant elements for both dead and seismic loads; and the ‘spandrels’, which are secondary horizontal elements, coupling piers in the case of seismic loads. There are three classes of spandrels, which have different behaviors [7]:
• “weak spandrels” that have not tension resistant elements, as steel chains or similar;
• “strut spandrels” that have at least one tensile resistant element that allows the setup of a ‘strut and tie’ resistance mechanism;
• “beam spandrels” that are reinforced with two elements, one above and one below the panel. The spandrel behaviour affects the response of the adjacent piers that can act as:
• “cantilever”: in case of “weak” spandrels;
• “partially coupled”: when the spandrel is of “strut” type;
• “shear type”: in case of “beam” spandrels. The different types of piers strongly influence the global seismic response of the structure.
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Another aspect that affects the response of masonry structure is its nonlinear constitutive law because it is influenced by many factors that are difficult to
compute, as the type and dimension of bricks, lack or presence of mortar, physical and chemical degeneration.
It is evident that there are a lot of source of uncertainty that have to be considered
for the seismic assessment of existing structures [8]. For this reason, according to the available information, different methods can be implemented. In the following they are briefly discussed, highlighting their advantages and drawbacks. Then, one of them, the ‘equivalent frame model’, is presented in detail and an application is carried out.
2 Masonry buildings modelling
Different models for the assessment of masonry structures exist in the literature:
they are both onedimensional (frame or macroelement) and twodimensional (finite elements).
A simple approach includes models that schematize the structure as an equivalent
frame. The first frame model was proposed by Tomazevic (1978) and it is the well known POR method [9], where the masonry walls are schematized by a set of piers connected by a rigid spandrel. This model considers the piers working in parallel with a sheartype behaviour. This scheme is reliable only for structures with few floors and rigid spandrels because, if used in different conditions, it could overestimate the resistance. Another model, proposed by Calderoni et al. [5, 7], schematizes the wall as a set
of panels. The resistant part for each panel, is schematized as a strut, where the inclination and stiffness are calculated in such a way to reproduce the global behaviour of the panel. The panel collapses when it reaches a limit equilibrium configuration or the maximum compression strength of the strut.
A more detailed approach, that is also considered in the building codes, is the
Simplified Analysis Method (SAM), developed since 1996 by Magenes and Calvi [5], and then modified by Magenes and Della Fontana [10]. The SAM, differently from the POR, considers that spandrel as deformable; furthermore it can move horizontally (as in POR) and can rotate (not allowed in POR). In the SAM, the wall is schematized with an equivalent frame (Figure 2, [11]) composed by: column elements representing the piers; beam elements representing the spandrels; rigid offsets describing the joint panel. The joint is considered infinitely rigid because generally (but not always) this area is not cracked.
Figure 2: Equivalent frame of the Simplified Analysis Method (SAM).
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Both the pier and the spandrel have an elasticplastic behaviour with a deformation limit; in particular, the element is considered elastic until it reaches the threshold of a failure criterion (rocking, diagonal shear and sliding shear for pier; rocking and shear for spandrel); once the threshold is exceeded, a plastic hinge is activated. Another method to schematize a masonry wall is the onedimensional model at macroelements. Various authors proposed these kinds of models, as for example D’Asdia and Viskovic [12], Gambarotta and Lagomarsino [13, 14], Caliò et al.[15]. In this approach the wall is described by a set of macroscopic no tensile elements, which represent the piers, spandrels and joints. The advantage of the macroelements approach is represented by a reduction of the degrees of freedom that reduces the computational effort. D’Asdia and Viskovic [1995] suggested an approach based on linear finite elements with variable adaptive geometry (known with the Italian acronym PEFV). In this method the pier and the spandrel are subdivided into triangular elements that can change dimensions according to the existing stress state.
Figure 3: Discretization of a masonry wall with PEFV [12].
Gambarotta et al. [13, 14] proposed a macroelement that works in plane. This macroelement (with width b and thickness s) consists of three parts. In Figure 4, the top and bottom elements 1 and 3 have an infinitesimal height _{Δ} and are infinitely rigid to shear action; the central element 2 has a finite height h and it is rigid to axial force and bending. The DOFs of a single end joints (i, j in Figure 4) and interface joint (1, 2 in Figure 4) are three: two horizontal translations u, w and one rotation φ, so the entire macroelement has 12 DOFs. By applying some simplifying assumptions, the compatibility conditions can be defined and the DOFs became 8 for each macro element: six components at the end joints i, j (u _{i} , w _{i} , φ _{i} , u _{j} , w _{j} , φ _{j} ) and two components that describe the entire macroelement (δ, _{φ}_{)}_{.} This model is implemented in the code 3Muri and more details are given in the manual of the software [16]. Another type of macroelement was proposed by Caliò at al. [15]. It is represented by an articulated quadrilateral frame with four rigid edges connected by four hinges and two diagonal nonlinear springs (Figure 4). Each side of the panel can interact with other elements, or external supports, by means of nonlinear interface orthogonal and longitudinal springs. The internal and external springs are
4
able to reproduce the inplane failures. Each macroelement has three DOFs that describe the displacements in the plane and a further DOF describing the shear deformation.
Figure 4: Kinematics (a) and statics (b) of the macroelement proposed by [16] (left); Simulation of the main inplane failure mechanisms of a macroelement with springs proposed by [15]: (a) rocking, (b) diagonal shear, (c) sliding shear (right)
A more detailed modelling can be obtained by using finite elements codes
because:
 the interaction between the different parts of the structure can be properly taken into account, obtaining information about the redistribution of loads;
 the nonlinear behaviour of the structure can be considered;
 the development of cracking in the walls can be reproduced in an accurate way. There are several drawbacks, however. The main limitation is that they are very
computationally and time consuming [17, 18]. Moreover, to perform a finite element analysis, a detailed model of the existing building is needed; thus the structural element characteristics shall be (exactly, as much as possible) known. This requires a full set of plans that lay out each member size, locations and connections. Constructing a model with this amount of detail will be extremely time consuming. For old buildings, plans with enough details are often not available, and many assumption need to be made in the model, thus reducing the confidence level of the results. Summarizing, the main limitation of the simpler models is that they rely on strict assumptions and cannot be used if the basic assumptions are verified. On the other hand, more detailed methods require a large computational effort. The choice of the modelling strategy should be in accordance with the available information and related to the importance of the structure [19].
In this work, after a brief description of the approaches accepted by the European
technical codes, an intermediate model has been chosen, the equivalent frame approach known with the acronym SAM. This method is able to give a measure of the response of the structure but at the same time it remains enough simple. In the following, its implementation for the seismic assessment of the wall of an historical masonry building in L’Aquila (Italy) is presented.
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3 European
and
Italian
masonry structures
codes
for
the
assessment
of
According to European code for the seismic design of building, Eurocode 8 ([20], § 4.3.3), a seismic analysis of a masonry building can be carried out with different methods:
• “lateral force method”, that is a linear static analysis;
• “modal response spectrum analysis”, that is a linear dynamic analysis;
• “pushover”, that is nonlinear static analysis;
• “nonlinear timehistory analysis” or nonlinear dynamic analysis.
An important difference among the different methods is the way the seismic action is modelled; for example in the first method it is schematized with equivalent horizontal static forces while in the last one it is applied in form of accelerograms. These methods can be applied both for the design of new buildings and for the assessment of the existing ones. In this paper the attention is focused on this latter category. As support at the analysis of existing building, the Eurocodes have introduced two important concepts: the knowledge levels (KL) and the confident factors (CF) ([20]§ 3.3). Three different levels of knowledge are defined:
• KL1: limited knowledge;
• KL2: normal knowledge;
• KL3: full knowledge.
The level is assigned according to the available information on geometry, details, materials, and boundary conditions [21]. On the other hand, the confident factors are additional partial factors that are considered in the analysis for taking into account the uncertainties due to the actual conditions of the structure. Of course, if the level of knowledge is high, the uncertainties will be less and the confidence factor will be small, or even unitary. In the practice, the KL influences two aspects: the type of seismic analysis that have to be used (for example for KL1 it is possible to carry out only linear analysis) and the values to be adopted for the confidence factors (CF). The Eurocode 8 recommends the following values: CF _{K}_{L}_{1} =1.35, CF _{K}_{L}_{2} =1.20 and CF _{K}_{L}_{3} =1.00. They are applied
together with the coefficient for the material γ _{M} to reduce the masonry strength. The concepts of level of knowledge and confident factors have been introduced in other technical code, as for example the Italian National Technical Code for Constructions, shortly named NTC08 [22], and the relative Guidelines [CNTC08, 2009], which have been written in accordance with the Eurocodes. In this paper the analyses are carried out by using the Italian code.
4 Nonlinear static analysis with commercial codes
In this work, the seismic analyses are carried out using the equivalent frame approach known with the acronym SAM and implemented with the software SAP2000® (see for example, Pasticier et al. [23]).
6
The various panels of the masonry façade have been modelled by defining the dimensions and position of the piers, spandrels and rigid joints. The linear part of the constitutive law of the masonry has been modelled with a stress–strain linear curve where the Young modulus is half of the real one (E/2) in order to consider the material in cracked conditions. The nonlinearity of the material is taken into account through the use of plastic hinges, in accordance with the Italian Code (NTC08, §7.8.1.5.4). Three types of plastic hinges are used: shear hinges (V type), bending hinges (M type) and rocking hinges (PM type). For example, with reference to a onespan frame (Figure 5, left):
• for the piers are used V and PM hinges. The V hinges are placed in the middle of the deformable part of the piers, the PM hinges at the end of it;
• for the spandrels are used V hinges in the middle of the spandrel, and M hinges at the end of it. In the right part of Figure 6 the behavior that has been assigned to the various hinges, according to the Italian code NTC08, is shown: the V hinges take into account the relationship between the ultimate displacement of the panel _{δ} _{u} and the limit shear V _{u} , and the M hinges between the moment M _{u} and ultimate rotation φ _{u} ; on the other hand, the PM hinges consider the interaction between the normal stress P and the ultimate moment M _{u} .
Figure 5: Location and type of plastic hinges (left); behavior of the different plastic hinges according to the Italian Building Code NTC08 (right).
5 Case study: Camponeschi Palace (L’Aquila, Italy)
The SAM approach has been applied for the seismic assessment of a wall of an historical building, Camponeschi Palace, located in the centre of the city of L’Aquila (Italy) (Figure 6) [24, 25]. The building was severely damaged by a strong earthquake on April 2009. It has an L shape (Figure 6) and it is organized on three levels: ground floor, first floor, and second floor. The geometry of the Palace is not very complex, but it was built in different steps that go from 1626 to 1933, so it exhibits a complex stratification (Figure 7). The various phases of construction have influenced the structural organization that is extremely varied: there are different horizontal structural systems as vaults, reinforced concrete floors, wooden trusses, as well as different kind of walls (small and large bricks, different types of mortar, etc). In this
7
work is analysed in detail the wall situated along Camponeschi street (Figure 7). It is 59 m long and 6 m high with fairly regular openings on the three levels. Part of the wall is below the street level.
Figure 6: Render of Camponeschi Palace (L’Aquila, Italy). Aerial view (left); view from Camponeschi street (right) [24, 25].
Figure 7: Construction phases of Camponeschi Palace (from [24]).
The first two floors of the considered brace along Camponeschi street have barrel vaults on the hallway and cross vaults on the corner between the two brace of the L (Figure 8). The roof of the last floor is supported by wood trusses. Considering the observed floors, in the model of the wall it is assumed for the spandrels a “weak” behaviour. On the base of the available information, for the analysis it has been assigned an intermediate knowledge level (normal), KL2 of the Eurocode. The corresponding confident factor CF is equal to 1.2. The main properties of the material are summarized in Table 1. For pushover analysis, the partial coefficient of the material γ _{M} is equal to one. The wall is loaded by: dead weight of the masonry (see Table 1), dead weight (structural and nonstructural) and the variable loads given by the different type of floors (Table 2).
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Figure 8: Ground floor of the brace along Camponeschi street (from [24]).
Properties of the masonry
Volume weight w 
18 kN/m ^{3} 

Longitudinal elastic modulus E (cracked conditions) 
601 
N/mm ^{2} 

Tangential elastic modulus G (cracked conditions) 
150 
N/mm ^{2} 

Compression strength f _{m} 
270 
N/cm ^{2} 

Design compression strength f _{d} 
225 
N/cm ^{2} 

Shear strength τ 
0 (o f _{v}_{m}_{0} ) in absence of normal stress 
6 N/cm ^{2} 

Design shear strength τ 
0d 
(o f _{v}_{d}_{0} ) in absence of normal stress 
5 N/cm ^{2} 

Diagonal shear strength f _{t}_{d} 
9 N/cm ^{2} 

Sliding shear strength f _{v}_{d} in absence of normal stress 
Function of the normal stress σ 
n 

Characteristic compression strength of the elements in the parallel direction on the 
202.5 N/cm ^{2} 

acting force 
f bk 
Table 1: Mechanical properties of the considered masonry.
Gravity loads Roof 
Gravity loads  Barrel and cross vaults 

Type of load 
Value 
Type of load 
Value 

Variable 
0.50 
kN/m ^{2} 
Variable 
3.00 
kN/m ^{2} 
Dead weight of wood beams 
0.41 
kN/m ^{2} 
Floor tiles 
0.40 
kN/m ^{2} 
Wooden system of the floor 
2.80 
kN/m ^{2} 
Concrete slab (5 cm) 
1.25 
kN/m ^{2} 
Tiles 
0.60 
kN/m ^{2} 
Cement mortar screed 
0.40 
kN/m ^{2} 
Ceiling 
0.30 
kN/m ^{2} 
Abutment 
18.00 kN/m ^{3} 
Table 2: Gravity loads.
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Two nonlinear static analyses have been carried out on the wall, considering two different distributions of the forces: the first one proportional to the seismic masses, the second one to the equivalent static forces. These distributions, according to the CNTC08, are used regardless of the participant mass of the principal modal shape. It has been hypothesized for the spandrel a “weak” behaviour and, according to the Italian Code, the equations in Table 3, have been used to calculate the ultimate values of moment and shear. For a complete description of the quantities, the reader should refer to the Italian Code [22].
Pushover analysis for existing masonry building with “weak” spandrels
Panel 
Collapse moment M u 
Collapse shear 
V u 

type 
and ultimate rotation ϕ u 
and ultimate displacement δ 
u 

Minimum between: 

M 
= ⎛ l ⋅ t ⎜ 2 ⋅ σ ⎞ ⎟ ⎛ σ 
⎞ ⎟ 
t
f
σ
td
0
⋅
1
+
b
f
td


pier 
u 
⎝ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 1 − 0 2 0 ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ 0.85 ⋅ f d 
V t 
' = l ⋅t ⋅ f vd 
and 
V t 
= 
l 
⋅ 

ϕ u = 0.6% 
δ 
u 
= 0.4% ⋅ h 

M u negligible 
V u 
negligible 

spandrel 
ϕ u = 0.6% 
δ 
u 
= 0.4% ⋅ h 
Table 3: Values of M _{u} and V _{u} in case of existing buildings with “weak” spandrels.
5.1 Pushover analysis
The pushover analysis was carried out by means of the code SAP2000®. In Figure 9 the drawings of the considered façade, its equivalent frame model and the extruded model are shown. The control node 31 is also indicated. The vertical loads have been applied as concentrated forces at the upper end of the piers and have been evaluated taking into account the different types of floors described below. The V, M and PM hinges have been defined according to the Italian code. For convergence issues, a little hardening has been assigned to the φ _{u} – M _{u} curve. The horizontal force distribution, proportional to the equivalent static forces, has been calculated using the software “Spectrums – NTC ver 1.03”. Two different response curves are compared in Figure 10. The black one is obtained considering the distribution of forces proportional to the seismic masses, while the grey one considering the distribution proportional to the equivalent static forces. In the first case the maximum shear at the base is about 2500 kN, in the second one is around 2000 kN [11]. In Figure 11(a) the final distribution of the plastic hinges is shown: first the hinges in the “weak” spandrels are activated then the hinges of the piers. It is interesting to compare these damage mechanisms with those obtained with other approaches and reported in the existing technical literature. In Figure 12(b) for example the results obtained with the software 3Muri® [24, 25] are shown. It is
10
possible to notice that the damage pattern is in substantial accordance. Moreover, the damage on the spandrels is observable on the actual structure (Figure 13).
Figure 9:Considered façade of the Camponeschi Palace: drawing (a), equivalent frame model (b), extruded model in SAP2000® (c).
Figure 10: Pushover curves obtained with different distributions of the forces.
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(a)
Figure 11: Comparison of the damage mechanisms obtained by using SAP2000® and 3muri® (image from [25]).
Figure 12: Observed damage due to L’Aquila earthquake on April 2009 (picture shot in July 2010)
6 Conclusions and future works
In the first part of this work, various methods for the seismic assessment of existing masonry buildings have been briefly discussed. Then, in the second part a case study has been carried out by applying one of this methods. The chosen buildings is Camponeschi Palace in the city of L’Aquila (Italy). It has a L shape and it is organized on three levels. Its geometry is not very complex, but it was built in different steps so it exhibits a complex behaviour due to the stratification. A façade of the building has been studied in detail by applying the SAM approach to evaluate its shear at the base. The obtained results are in substantial accordance with results
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reported in the technical literature on the same structures and with the observed damage. In order to improve the results further studies could be carried out, by considering different types of constraints, able to accurately represent the interaction with the adjacent building and the part of the façade that is under the level of the street, and by developing different models, as more detailed finite element models.
Acknowledgements
The team www.francobontempi.org from Sapienza University of Rome is gratefully acknowledged. This work was partially supported by StroNGER s.r.l. from the fund “FILAS  POR FESR LAZIO 2007/2013  Support for the research spin off”.
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