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PART I

CAROLA CASTEDO

The doorbell rings. I answer the door, and I find the postman there with a letter. It is from my sister
Carola, who is in the United States now. She has one of the scholarships that the Institute of
International Education gives to worthy students each year. My sister says that she is learning a
great deal at the university which she is attending. We expect to see her again next summer. We
know that she is having a good time, but we miss her very much.
VOCABULARY
Again
To attend
Doorbell
Each
To expect
To find
To learn
To miss

Otra vez
Asistir a
Timbre
Cada
Esperar
Encontrar
Aprender
Extraar

Postman
To ring
Scholarship
To see
That
Worthy
Which

Cartero
Sonar
Beca
Ver
Que
Digno, apto.
A que

IDIOMS
A great deal (of)
To answer the door
Every year
To have a good time
Is it correct to say ...?
To miss a person

Mucho
Abrir la puerta (ir a ver quin es)
Todos los aos
Divertirse, estar contento
Es correcto decir ...?
Extraar a alguien

CONVERSATION
Comprehension
1 Who rings the doorbell? 2. From whom is the letter? 3. What is her name? 4. Where is she now? 5.
What is she doing there? 6. Where is she studying? 7. Is she learning a great deal? 8. Is she also
having a good time? 9. Do they miss her very much? 10. When do they expect to see her again? 11.
Who gives scholarships to worthy students? 12. Does Carola like the United States?
Personal questions
13. Who answers the door at your house? 14. What is your name? 15. Are you living with your
family? 16. Where are you studying English? 17. Are you learning a great deal? 18. Are you having
a good time in this class? 19. Is your teacher speaking English now? 20. Is there a university in your
city? 21. What do people study at a university? 22. Why is it that some people like to go to the
United States to study? 23. Is it necessary to know English to get a scholarship? Why? 24. What is
the meaning of Who? Whom? Where? When? How? What?
EXERCISES
A. Practice reading the words in these statements in the correct order, with the subject first
Example:
Is going Carola to the university.
Carola is going to the university.
1. Is studying Carola at a university
_______________________________________________________________________
2. Has my sister a scholarship
_______________________________________________________________________
3. Is interesting her work
_______________________________________________________________________
4. Says my sister that she likes the United States
_______________________________________________________________________
5. Is beautiful the country
_______________________________________________________________________
6. Rings the doorbell
_______________________________________________________________________
7. Has a letter the postman from my sister
_______________________________________________________________________
8. Is difficult English pronunciation
_______________________________________________________________________
9. Is easy English grammar
_______________________________________________________________________
B. Practice changing the words in italics to pronouns.
Example: The University is very large.
It is very large.

1. My sister is in the United States.


_______________________________________________________________________
2. The doorbell is ringing.
_______________________________________________________________________
3. Her scholarship is a good one.
_______________________________________________________________________
4. The scholarships are for worthy students.
_______________________________________________________________________
5. The postman comes very late.
_______________________________________________________________________
6. The students are taking English lessons.
_______________________________________________________________________
7. The letters are in English.
_______________________________________________________________________
8. Her sister speaks English very well.
_______________________________________________________________________
9. The university has a beautiful campus.
_______________________________________________________________________
C. Practice writing each sentence, using he or she instead of I.
Example: I like the university.
She likes the university.
1. I have a scholarship.
_______________________________________________________________________
2. I want to see you.
_______________________________________________________________________
3. I speak a little English.
_______________________________________________________________________
4. I always learn the new words.
_______________________________________________________________________
5. I expect to see you soon.
_______________________________________________________________________
6. I have a letter for you.
_______________________________________________________________________
7. I give English lessons.
_______________________________________________________________________
8. I answer the door.
_______________________________________________________________________
D. Change the following nouns to their plural form.
Scholarship
Class
Baby

Church
Cuff
Leaf

Handkerchief
Dish
Sister

Box
Loaf
Thief

Dress
Sound
Watch

Doorbell
Wife
Shoe

Wish
Life
Fox

Knife
Shelf
Idea

E. Fill in the missing words, using the simple present tense or the continuous present tense, as
required, of the verbs in parenthesis.
1. Carola ______ (speak) English very well.
2. She always ______ (want) to practice it.
3. She ______ (learn) a great deal this year.
4. The doorbell ______ (ring) very often.
5. The doorbell ______ (ring) now.
6. Carola always ______ (have) a good time.
7. She ______ (have) a good time now.
8. We ______ (miss) her very much.
9. I ______ (write) many letters to her.
10. I ______ (write) a long letter now.
11. This class ______ (begin) at eight o=clock.
12. Now we ______ (begin) to understand some English.
13. We ______ (study) the present tense now.
14. We ______ (like) this class.
15. The bus ______ (stop) at the corner now.
16. The bus always ______ (stop) there.
17. It ______ (rain) a great deal in the tropics.
18. It ______ (rain) a little now.
19. The Institute of International Education ______ (give) scholarships to worthy students.

LESSON II
THE HOUSE WHERE MR. AND MRS. MILLER LIVE

Carola Castedo lives with Mr. and Mrs. Miller in a college town. Their address is 431 Clark Street.
Mr. Miller is renting the house from a real-estate company. He pays one hundred dollars a month
for it.
The house is made of brick and wood. There is a large front porch and a big yard around the
house. There is no wall around the yard. The front yard has a nice green lawn, and the back yard
has many pretty flowers.
It is an eight-room house with four rooms downstairs and four rooms upstairs. The rooms
downstairs are the living room, the library, the dining room and the kitchen. There are four
bedrooms and a bath upstairs.
The living room is large and light. It has a fireplace, several tables and chairs, a sofa, a floor lamp
and three table lamps. There are also a bookcase and a radio with a record player. There is a large
rug on the floor, and there are some pictures on the walls.
VOCABULARY
Address
Direccin
Around
Alrededor de
Back
(de) Atrs
Bath
Bao
Bedroom
Dormitorio
Bookcase
Estante para libros
Brick
Ladrillo
College town Ciudad universitaria
Dining room Comedor
Downstairs Abajo
Fireplace
Chimenea
Floor lamp Lmpara de pi

Kitchen
Cocina
Lawn
Csped
Library
Biblioteca
Light
Claro, iluminado
Living room Sala de estar
Made of
Hecha(o) de
Nice
Lindo(a)
Picture
Cuadro, foto
Porch
Prtico
Real-estate
Bienes races
Record Player Tocadiscos
To rent
Alquilar, rentar

Rug
Alfombra
Several
Varios
Town
Vecindario, Pueblo
There is/are Hay

Upstairs
Wall
Wood
Yard

Arriba
Pared
Madera
Patio

IDIOMS
Expressions of Time and Measure with the Indefinite Article a or an.
TIME: seventy dollars a month (por mes); three classes a week (por semana); one hour a day (por
da); forty pages an hour (por hora); a mile a minute (por minuto).
MEASURE: five dollars a pair (el par); twenty cents a gallon (el galn); eighty cents a pound (la
libra); fifty cents a dozen (la docena); one dollar a bottle (la botella). Five dollars each (cada uno);
five dollars a piece (cada uno).
CONVERSATION
Comprehension
Answer these questions in complete sentences.
1. With whom is Carola living? 2. Is she living in a college town? 3. What is her address? 4. What is
the house made of? 5. Is there a wall around the yard? 6. Is Mr. Miller renting the house? 7. From
whom is he renting it? 8. How much is the rent? 9. How many rooms are there downstairs? Name
them. 10. How many rooms are there upstairs? Name them. 11. Is the living room small? 12. What is
there on the floor? 13. Are there any lamps? 14. Where is the green lawn? 15. Where are the
flowers?
Personal Questions
16. What is your address? 17. Are you living in a house or an apartment? 18. Is your house made of
brick? 19. Is there a yard around your house or is there a patio in the center? 20. Is it an eight room
house? 21. Are there two floors in your house? 22. What are the names of the rooms? 23. How many
bedrooms are there? 24. Is there a fireplace in your house? 25. Are you renting the house from a realestate company? 26. Are houses to rent difficult to find in your city? 27. Are the rents high or low?
28. Are there many new houses in your city?
EXERCISES
A. Practice using the correct object pronouns instead of the words in italics. (Me, you, him, her, it,
us, them)
1. Mr. Miller is renting the house.
_____________________________________________________________________________
2. I see Mr. Miller every day.
_____________________________________________________________________________
3. Carola attends the university.
_____________________________________________________________________________
4. The students like Carola.

_____________________________________________________________________________
5. We like her letters very much.
_____________________________________________________________________________
6. They are speaking with the teacher (la profesora)
_____________________________________________________________________________
7. The teacher is explaining the lesson to the students.
_____________________________________________________________________________
8. Carola usually answers the questions correctly.
_____________________________________________________________________________
9. Carola is going to the party with John.
_____________________________________________________________________________
10. We receive many letters from Carola.
_____________________________________________________________________________
11. You have the letters in your pocket.
_____________________________________________________________________________
12. The news is about George.
_____________________________________________________________________________
13. She likes the college town very much.
_____________________________________________________________________________
14. He is giving the news on the radio now.
_____________________________________________________________________________
15. I like those people very much.
_____________________________________________________________________________
B. Practice using the correct preposition, if one is needed.
1. _____ Sunday
2._____ First Street
3._____ 431 Clark Street
4._____ the evening
5._____ night
6._____ next Sunday
7._____ December 7 (Seventh)
8._____ December
9._____ the spring
10._____ 1941
11._____ the summer
12._____ Saturday
13._____ last Saturday
14._____ 1950
15._____ the top of the page
16._____ July 4 (fourth)

17._____ noon
18._____ Fifth Avenue
19._____ 1025 Fifth Avenue
20._____ the morning
21.She is _____ the university this morning.
22.He is sitting _____ the table.
23.The lamp is _____ the desk.
24.Mrs. Miller is _____ home.
25.They live _____ Clark Street.
26.There are many flowers _____ the yard.
27.The name is _____ the door of the house.
28.His birthday is _____ June.
29.His birthday is _____ June 4 (fourth)
30.He arrives _____ Miami _____ six oclock
_____ the morning.

C. Practice changing the following sentences to questions.

1. The house is on Clark Street.


_____________________________________
2. The bedrooms are upstairs.
____________________________________
3. They are renting the house.
____________________________________
4. The front porch is large.
____________________________________
5. The address is 431 Clark Street.
____________________________________
6. The doorbell is ringing.
____________________________________
7. Mr. Miller is coming now.
____________________________________
8. He is late for dinner.
____________________________________
9. Carola is having a good time.
____________________________________
10.We are expecting her next year.
____________________________________

11. John is very busy now.


____________________________________
12. He is writing a letter.
____________________________________
13. They are standing at the door.
____________________________________
14. His name is Smith.
____________________________________
15. They are speaking to Mr. Miller.
____________________________________
16. Carola is a good student.
____________________________________
17. The lessons are easy.
____________________________________
18. They are living in an apartment.
____________________________________
19. The news is very interesting.
____________________________________
20. The people are ready to go.
____________________________________

D. Replace each blank with the correct translation of hay; then change the sentences to questions.
1. _________ many students in the room.
6._________ a nice front lawn.
2. _________ a big map on the wall.
7._________ four bedrooms upstairs.
3._________
Tuesdays.

classes

on

Fridays

and
8._________a telephone downstairs.

4. _________ a lecture tomorrow night.

9._________ some letters on the desk for you.

10._________ twelve months in a year.


5._________ five children in the family.
E. Practice changing these verbs with as subject.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Go
Do
Study
Fly
Cry
Reply
Pay
Buy
Say

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Miss
Pass
Express
Notice
Pronounce
Cease
Close
Use
Change

19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

Wash
Wish
Cash
Catch
Watch
Teach
Fix
Mix
Buzz

UNIT III
AT THE GROCERY STORE

Carola Castedo goes to the grocery store with Mrs. Miller. She listens to Mrs. Miller talking with
the clerk, Mr. Brown.
Mrs. Miller:
Mr. Brown:
Mrs. Miller:
Mr. Brown:
Mrs. Miller:
Mr. Brown:
Mrs. Miller:
Mr. Brown:
Mrs. Miller:
Mr.Brown:
Mrs. Miller:
Mr. Brown:
Mrs. Miller:
Mr. Brown:
Mrs. Miller:
Mr. Brown:

Good morning Mr. Brown.


Good morning Mrs. Miller.
Can you wait on me?
Yes, what can I do for you?
I have a lot of groceries to buy this morning.
What would you like?
Are your vegetables fresh? I need some radishes, tomatoes, and lettuce for a salad.
How do you like these tomatoes? They are fresh this morning. Some are a little green;
but if you put them in the sun, they will be all right for tomorrow.
I think they will do. Now, do you have string beans and cauliflower?
Yes, the beans are fifteen cents a pound, or two pounds for a quarter.
The cauliflower is thirty cents. Will one cauliflower be enough?
Yes; please give me two pounds of beans and one cauliflower. I also need a quart of
milk, a pound of butter, a dozen eggs, a loaf of bread, and a pound of steak.
Is that all, Mrs. Miller?
Yes, thats all this morning.
All right. If you want to go to the meat counter and pick out your steak, I will get the
rest of your order ready in a minute.
Thank you, Mr. Brown.
Youre welcome.

VOCABULARY
A lot of
Muchos
Butter
Mantequilla
To buy
Comprar
Cauliflower Coliflor
Clerk
Dependiente
Counter
Mostrador
Egg
Huevo
Enough
Suficiente
Fresh
Fresco
Groceries
Abarrotes
Grocery store Almacn de vveres
Lettuce
Lechuga
To listen to Escuchar
Loaf of bread Pan
Meat
Carne
IDIOMS
Can you wait on me?
How do you like these?
I think they will do.

To need
Necesitar
Order
Pedido
To pick out Escoger
Pound
Libra
To put
Poner
Quarter
Moneda 254
Radish
Rbano
Rest
Resto
Salad
Ensalada
Steak
Bife
Store
Almacn
String beans Habichuelas
Sun
Sol
To think
Pensar
Vegetables
Verduras

Puede atenderme?
Qu le parecen estos?
Creo que sern suficientes.

CONVERSATION
Comprehension
1. Where does Mrs. Miller go this morning? 2. Does Carola go with her? 3. Does Carola listen to her
conversation with Mr. Brown? 4. Does Mrs. Miller have many groceries to buy? 5. Who is Mr.
Brown? 6. Is Mrs. Miller a customer? 7. What does the clerk do? 8. What does Mrs. Miller need for
her salad? 9. Why is it necessary to put the tomatoes in the sun? 10. Does Mrs. Miller think that they
will be enough? 11. How much is the cauliflower? 12. How many does she buy? 13. What other
things does she need?
Personal Questions
14. Who buys the groceries for your family? 15. Do many North American families have maids? 16.
Do you buy meat and vegetables in the same store? 17. Do you like green tomatoes or ripe tomatoes?
18. Which vegetables do you like best? 19. Do you like your steak rare, medium or well - done? 20.
How much are eggs now? 21. How much is butter? 22. Is meat cheap or expensive now? 23. Where
do you buy your groceries, at a grocery store or a market? 24. Do you like to go to the market? 25.
Are the markets clean or dirty?
EXCERCISES
A. Practice changing these sentences to questions. Do not use Question Words.
1. Mr. and Mrs. Miller rent the house.
__________________________________________________________________________

2. It has a nice living room.


__________________________________________________________________________
3. They have four bedrooms in the house.
__________________________________________________________________________
4. They speak English and Spanish.
__________________________________________________________________________
5. He speaks Spanish very well.
__________________________________________________________________________
6. The students understand their teacher.
__________________________________________________________________________
7. She wants to study English.
__________________________________________________________________________
8. We learn the vocabulary and the idioms of each lesson.
__________________________________________________________________________
9. Mr. Miller has a new car.
__________________________________________________________________________
10. They go to New York on business.
__________________________________________________________________________
11. Carola goes to the grocery store with Mrs. Miller.
__________________________________________________________________________
12. I have many things to buy today.
__________________________________________________________________________
13. The clerk waits on Mrs. Miller.
__________________________________________________________________________
14. She puts the tomatoes in the sun.
__________________________________________________________________________
15. Mrs. Miller thinks that they will be enough.
__________________________________________________________________________
16. I need to buy meat and vegetables.
__________________________________________________________________________
17. The cauliflower costs thirty cents.
__________________________________________________________________________
18. You have my order ready.
__________________________________________________________________________
19. Mrs. Miller picks out a good steak.
__________________________________________________________________________
20. We listen to the radio after dinner.
__________________________________________________________________________
B. Answer these questions in the affirmative, using complete sentences
1. Do you like the movies?
_____________________________________
2. When do you like to go to the movies?
____________________________________

3. Which do you like best, peas, or carrots?


____________________________________
4. Do you like to drink coffee or tea?
____________________________________

5. Does Carola like the United States?


____________________________________
6. Do you like music?
____________________________________
7. When do you like to listen to the radio?
____________________________________
8. Do you like to speak English?
____________________________________
9. Do students like to study English?
____________________________________
10. Does Carola like to dance?
____________________________________

11. How do you like this weather?


____________________________________
12. How do you like this office?
____________________________________
13. How do you like the computer lessons?
____________________________________
14. What do you like to do on Saturday?
____________________________________
15. What do you like to do during your
vacations?
____________________________________

C. Insert the definite article, if necessary.


1.

North Americans usually like _________ sports of all kinds.

2.

_________ sports which Americans like best are football and baseball.

3.

_________ exercise is good for ones health.

4.

_________ exercise which he receives from tennis is good for his health.

5.

_________ oil is found in _________ eastern part of _________ Texas.

6.

_________ bananas are exported from _________ Central America.

7.

Do you prefer _________ coffee or _________ tea?

8.

He is from _________ Argentina, but he lives in _________ Havana now.

9.

Lake Ontario is situated between _________ United States and _________ Canada.

10. _________ Captain Smith is not at _________ home now.


11. Where does _________ Professor White live?
12. Does he live on _________ Seventh Avenue near _________ Morton Street?
13. I live on _________ (Street or Avenue).
14. Is _________ English more difficult than _________ French?
15. People say that _________ English language is more difficult to learn.

D. Answer these questions.


1.

Is Mrs. Miller a North American?


__________________________________________________________________________
2. Are you an American?
__________________________________________________________________________
3. Are you a Latin American?
__________________________________________________________________________
4. What is your nationality?
__________________________________________________________________________
5. Is Mr. Brown a clerk?
__________________________________________________________________________
6. Is he a bank clerk?
__________________________________________________________________________
7. Are you a salesperson?
__________________________________________________________________________
8. Is Mr. Miller a Doctor?
__________________________________________________________________________
9. Is his friend an engineer?
__________________________________________________________________________
10. Is she a teacher or a secretary?
__________________________________________________________________________
11. What is your profession or occupation?
__________________________________________________________________________
E. Fill in each blank with the correct English translation of the Spanish preposition.
1.

She is sitting _________ the door. (cerca de)

2.

He always sits _________ the window. (al lado de)

3.

The teacher is standing _________ the class. (delante de)

4.

He is standing _________ the blackboard. (junto a)

5.

The car is _________ the house. (delante de)

6.

My sister lives _________ the church. (frente a)

7.

Her house is _________ downtown. (lejos de)

8.

Washington is _________ New York. (cerca de)

9.

_________ a coat, I need a new hat. (adems de)

LESSON IV
INTRODUCTIONS, GREETINGS, LEAVE-TAKINGS

The customs of one country are often different from those of another. For example, North
Americans do not shake hands as much as Latin Americans do. In introductions, a woman
sometimes extends her hand to a man or to another woman, but this is not necessary; two men,
however, always shake hands. Men also stand up, but women rise only to show respect to another
person because of age or position.
North Americans are friendly, but their greetings and leave-takings are short and informal. When
two friends meet or when they say good-bye, they sometimes shake hands, and sometimes not. They
do not embrace. This is different from the Latin American custom, but it does not indicate that
North Americans are unfriendly.
Introductions
Mrs. Miller, this is my friend, Mr. Jones.
How do you do, Mrs. Miller?
How do you do? Im glad to meet you.
Good-bye. Mrs. Miller. It was a pleasure to meet you.
Thank you. The pleasure was mine.
Greetings
Formal:

Formal:

A. How do you do, Mrs. Miller?


B. How do you do, Mrs. Jones? How are you?
A. Very well thank you. And you?
B. Fine, thank you.
A. Good Morning (Good afternoon, Good evening) Mr. Miller.
B. Good morning, Mr. Jones. Im glad to see you.

Familiar:A. Hello, Jim (James)


B. Hello, Carola. How are you?
A. Just fine, thanks. And you?
B. Oh, so-so (fair)
Very Familiar:
A. Hi, Ginny.
B. Hi, Jim. Whats new?
A. Oh, nothing in particular. Hows everything (with you)?
B. All right, thank you.
Note: How do you do? Is only a preliminary greeting. The second person usually repeats the same
phrase and then says How are you? The answer Very well or Fine generally follows.
Leave-takings
Formal:
A: Good night, Mrs. Miller.
B. Good-bye, James. I am so glad to have seen you.
Formal:

A. Good night, Mrs. Miller.


B. Good night, James. It was nice to see you.

Familiar:A. So long, Jim. Ill see you later.


B. So long, Ginny. See you tomorrow. (Ill be seeing you)
Note: At night, Good night is used only to say good-bye. The greeting is always Good evening.
VOCABULARY
Another
Otro
As much as
Tanto como
Because of
Por/a causa de
Common
Comn
Custom
Costumbre
To embrace
Abrazar
Ever
Alguna vez
To extend
Extender
Fair
Regular
Familiar
Familiar
Fine
Muy bien
To follow
Seguir
Formal
Formal
Friendly
Amistoso
Generally
Generalmente
Good-bye
Adis
Greeting
Saludo
IDIOMS

However
Introduction
Leave-taking
To meet
Mine
Often
Pleasure
To rise
Seldom
To shake
Short
So long
Sometimes
So-so
To stand up
Unfriendly
Usually

Sin embargo
Presentacin
Despedida
Conocer
Mo
A menudo
Placer
Elevar, levantarse
Rara vez
Sacudir/dar (mano)
Corto
Hasta luego
A veces
Ms o menos
Pararse
Poco amistoso
Usualmente

Different from
For example
Hows everything (with you)?
Im glad to meet you
Im so glad to have seen you
Ill be seeing you
See you later
Just fine
Whats new?
Whats up?

Diferente de
Por ejemplo
Cmo le (te) v?
Gusto en conocerlo (te).
Tanto gusto haberlo visto.
Te ver ms tarde.
Lo ver despus.
Bin no ms.
Qu hay de nuevo? (Formal)
Qu hay de nuevo? (Familiar)
CONVERSATION

Comprehension
1. In introductions, do North Americans shake hands? 2. Do the men shake hands? 3. Do the women
shake hands? 4. Does a woman shake hands with a man? 5. In the United States, is it necessary to
rise when one is introduced? Is it necessary in your country? 6. Are North American greetings long
and formal? 7. Do two North American friends shake hands when they greet each other? 8. Do they
sometimes embrace? 9. What greetings do they use at night? 10. When do they use the expression
How do you do? How do they answer it? 11. What is the usual name for James? For Carola? 12.
What is the meaning of Hi, and when is it used? 13. Are the customs of one country different from
those of another?
Personal questions.
14. In your country, do you shake hands with a man when you greet him? 15. Do you shake hands
with a woman when you greet her? 16. Do two women shake hands? Do they embrace? 17. Do two
men shake hands? Do they embrace? 18. Are greetings the same in all Latin-American countries?
EXCERCISES
A. Change theses sentences in the negative, with contractions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

He needs to learn French.


__________________________________________________________________________
They like to study English.
__________________________________________________________________________
John has good pronunciation.
__________________________________________________________________________
They want to live in the United States.
__________________________________________________________________________
My friend has enough time.
__________________________________________________________________________
We need vegetables today.
__________________________________________________________________________
He eats lunch at one oclock.

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

__________________________________________________________________________
They come to class early.
__________________________________________________________________________
George studies very hard.
__________________________________________________________________________
We practice our English every day.
__________________________________________________________________________
Carola speaks Spanish well.
__________________________________________________________________________
It rains a great deal there.
__________________________________________________________________________
They use formal greetings.
__________________________________________________________________________
She notices the difference.
__________________________________________________________________________
I understand Mr. Miller because he speaks slowly and clearly.
__________________________________________________________________________

B. Change these sentences to the negative. Use contractions.


1.

The lesson is difficult


__________________________________________________________________________
2. The classes are small.
__________________________________________________________________________
3. The students are late.
__________________________________________________________________________
4. Carola is speaking English.
__________________________________________________________________________
5. I am waiting for her.
__________________________________________________________________________
6. We are writing letters.
__________________________________________________________________________
7. That is a familiar greeting.
__________________________________________________________________________
8. They are Colombians.
__________________________________________________________________________
9. He is a South American.
__________________________________________________________________________
10. They are shaking hands now.
__________________________________________________________________________
11. We are leaving tomorrow.
__________________________________________________________________________

12. She is living on Clark Street.


__________________________________________________________________________
13. I am studying the lesson now.
__________________________________________________________________________
14. The teacher is explaining it.
__________________________________________________________________________
15. They are coming to class today.
__________________________________________________________________________
16. He is very glad to see them.
__________________________________________________________________________
17. We are ready to go now.
__________________________________________________________________________
C. Change the sentences in A and B of this lesson to negative questions.
D. Write NO or NOT, as required.
1. He notices _____ difference in their pronunciation.
2. The room has _____ windows in it.
3. That store does _____ sell paper.
4. They have _____ fireplace in their house.
5. They do _____ have a class today.
6. We have _____ time for that now.
7. _____ news is good news.
8. _____ a man in the room speaks English.
9. _____ sentence is complete without a subject.
10. There is _____heat in the building.
11. _____ many people like to wait.
12. _____ much light enters this room.

13. _____ other class wants to do that.


14. There is _____ time like the present.
15. _____ many students are in the library now.
16. Mr. Miller is _____ at home now.
17. There is _____ a store near our house.
18. There is _____ bread in the house.
19. The teacher is _____ difficult to understand.
20. Is the pronunciation easy? _____ .
21. There are _____ students absent today.
22. We have _____ hot water today.
23. She does _____ like to speak English.
24. There are _____ new houses on that street.
25. Do you often go to the movies? _____ .
E. Answer these questions, using different adverbs of frequency, (1) in the affirmative (2) in the
negative.
1. Do you ever look at Life magazine?
__________________________________________________________________________
2. Does he ever study his lesson?
__________________________________________________________________________
3. Does she ever play the piano for you?
__________________________________________________________________________
4. Do they ever wait for you?
__________________________________________________________________________
5. Dont you ever see Mr. Miller?
__________________________________________________________________________

6. Doesnt it ever rain in December?


__________________________________________________________________________
7. Do you usually write letters on Sunday?
__________________________________________________________________________
8. Do they sometimes shake hands?
__________________________________________________________________________
9. Does he often come to class late?
__________________________________________________________________________
10. Does she always have coffee for breakfast?
__________________________________________________________________________
11. Are you ever at home in the afternoon?
__________________________________________________________________________
12. Is there ever a lecture in English?
__________________________________________________________________________
13. Is she ever ready on time?
__________________________________________________________________________
14. Are they ever late?
__________________________________________________________________________
15. Arent you usually busy in the morning?
__________________________________________________________________________
16. Isnt he sometimes in that room?
__________________________________________________________________________
17. Isnt she often there on Saturday?
__________________________________________________________________________
18. Are you always serious?
__________________________________________________________________________
19. Is it always hot in Panama?
__________________________________________________________________________

F. Translate into English.


1. Los parques de la ciudad.
____________________________________

5. La direccin de la carta.
____________________________________

2. La vista de las montaas.


____________________________________

6. Las puertas de la casa.


____________________________________

3. El precio del vestido.


____________________________________

7. Las costumbres del pas.


____________________________________

4. El nombre de la calle.
____________________________________

8. El color del sof.


____________________________________

LESSON V

NORTH AMERICAN NAMES


There are five members in the Miller Family. The fathers full name is Charles Edward Miller.
Charles is his first name or given name, Edward his middle name, and Miller his last name or
surname. A North American has only one surname because he never uses his mothers maiden
name after his fathers name.
Mr. Millers wife is Mrs. Charles Edward Miller, or Mrs. Charles E. Miller. Before her marriage, her
name was Alice Grant, but now it is Alice Miller. In business letters, she uses the signature Alice
Miller, with Mrs. Charles E. Miller in parenthesis below. On her calling card, however, her name is
always written Mrs. Charles Edward Miller.
Mr. and Mrs. Miller have two sons and one daughter. The name of one son is Charles Edward Miller,
Jr. The word Junior (Jr.) follows the name of this son in order to distinguish it from the name of
his father. The name of the other son is Paul Andrew Miller. The daughters name is Mary Grant
Miller. On her calling card, it is always written Miss Mary Grant Miller. The parents select the first
two names of their children, either given names or family surnames; but the last name is always the
fathers surname.
VOCABULARY
Business letter Carta comercial
Calling card Tarjeta de presentacin.
Either or o o
Given name
Nombre de pila
In order to
Para
Junior (Jr.)
Hijo
Maiden name Apellido de soltera
Marriage
Matrimonio

Middle name
To sign
Signature
Surname
Stepfather
Stepmother
Godfather
Godchild

Segundo nombre
Firmar
Firma
Apellido
Padrastro
Madrastra
Padrino
Ahijado(a)

CONVERSATION
Comprehension
1. What does this lesson explain? 2. How many members are there in the Miller Family? 3. What is
Mr. Millers full name? 4. What is his first name? His middle name? His surname? 5. Who selects
the first two names? 6. Does a North American use his mothers maiden name after his fathers
name? 7. When does a woman change her name? 8. What is Mrs. Millers full name? 9. What is the
name on her calling card? 10. How is it different from the calling card of a Latin American woman?
11. How does Mrs. Miller sign a business letter? 12. What are the names of the children? 13. Do they
use their mothers maiden name after their fathers surname? 14. Why is Jr. sometimes used after the
name of a son?
Personal Questions
15. Does the teacher explain North American Names? 16. Does the teacher understand the LatinAmerican custom? 17. What is your complete name? 18. What is your first name? Your middle
name? 19. How many surnames do you have? What are they? 20. How would the name on your
calling card be written in English? 21. What are the principal differences between the customs of
North America and Latin America? 22. How would you sign your name in the United States? Why?
EXERCISES
A. Complete the following sentences with the appropriate word.
1. My fathers mother is my ______________.
2. My mothers brother is my ______________.
3. My sisters husband is my ______________.
4. My uncles son is my ______________.
5. My nephew is my brothers ______________.
6. My sisters daughter is my ______________
7. My fathers sister is my ______________.
8. My husbands mother is my ______________.
9. My fathers second wife is my ______________.
10. My daughters husband is my ______________.

B. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the past tense of the verb to be.
11. There ________ five members in the Miller family.
12. Her name ________ Alice Grant before her marriage.
13. ________ you in class yesterday?
14. He ________ not in the office yesterday.
15. His calling card ________ on the desk this morning.
16. We ________ very busy last week.
17. ________ her signature at the end of the letter?
18. The children ________ not in school last week.
19. He ________ never in the United States.
20. His grandparents ________ from Spain.
C. Use the correct form of each verb in the past tense with ING. Then write the sentences in the
negative.
1. My niece _____________ (visit) me.
2. I __________ (study) my English lesson.
3. They ________ (have) a good time.
4. We ________ (listen) to the radio.
5. She ________ (write) a letter.
6. I ________ (go) to the library.
7. ________ you ________(sleep)?
8. ________ he ________ (wait) for her?
9. ________ the children ________ (play) in the yard?
10. ________ you ________ (expect) to see her?

D. Answer the following questions in complete sentences.


1. What are you going to do tonight?
__________________________________________________________________________
2. What are you going to do tomorrow morning?
__________________________________________________________________________
3. What are you going to do tomorrow afternoon?
__________________________________________________________________________
4. What are you going to do tomorrow evening?
__________________________________________________________________________
5. What are you going to do on Saturday? On Sunday?
E. Answer these questions using the present tense.
1. When are you going downtown?
__________________________________________________________________________
2. When is he leaving for his vacation?
__________________________________________________________________________
3. When does the lecture begin?
__________________________________________________________________________
4. When do you leave for your vacation?
__________________________________________________________________________
5. When do classes end this year?
__________________________________________________________________________
6. When are you finishing this course?
__________________________________________________________________________
F. Translate the following sentences.
1.

Los amigos de Carola.


__________________________________________________________________________

2.

La casa de mi padre.
__________________________________________________________________________

3.

Los libros de los estudiantes.


__________________________________________________________________________

4.

Los libros del estudiante.


__________________________________________________________________________

5.

La casa del presidente.


__________________________________________________________________________

6.

La opinin del profesor.


__________________________________________________________________________

7.

El automovil de mis amigos.


__________________________________________________________________________

8.

La casa de la seora Miller.


__________________________________________________________________________

9.

La conferencia del director.


__________________________________________________________________________

10. La pronunciacin del seor.


__________________________________________________________________________
11. El perro de Jaime.
__________________________________________________________________________
G. Use the possessive adjective that refers to the person or persons mentioned in the sentence.
1. The boy usually helps ________ sister.
2. The boys usually help ________ sister.
3. Carola has a present for ________ sister.
4. We like to visit ________ friends.
5. We are waiting for ________ class to begin.
6. On what days do you have ________ English classes?
7. Charles and ________ brother are studying Spanish.
8. Mrs. Miller loves ________ children.

9. Carola says that ________ North American friends use short greetings.
10. Mr. and Mrs. Miller have three children. ________ last name is Miller, and ________ first names
are Charles, Paul, and Mary.
11. The North American man does not use ________ mothers surname.
12. ________ middle name is Edward.
13. On ________ calling card ________ name is written Miss Mary Grant Miller.
14. The children do not use ________ mothers surname.
15. ________ name was Alice Grant before ________ marriage.
16. I am learning ________ lesson.
H. Use a possessive pronoun in place of the words in italics.
1. The signature is her signature.
_____________________________________
2. Is the book your book?
____________________________________
3. The letter is my letter.
____________________________________
4. The shoes are his shoes.
____________________________________
5. The house is their house.
_____________________________________
6. Is that your hat or Pauls hat?
_____________________________________
7. The room is his room.
_____________________________________
8. The radio is my sisters radio.
_____________________________________

9. The car is Mr. Millers car.


_____________________________________
10. The calling card is Charles calling card.
_____________________________________
11. Here is my calling card on the desk.
_____________________________________
12. The desk is my brothers desk.
_____________________________________
13. The coat is Carolas coat.
_____________________________________
14. Is the magazine your magazine?
_____________________________________
15. Is her name the same as my name?
_____________________________________
16. The dog on the porch is our dog.
_____________________________________

I. Translate into English


1. Estos nios estn felices hoy.
__________________________________________________________________________
2. Este perro es muy simptico.
__________________________________________________________________________

3. Esta casa no es muy grande.


__________________________________________________________________________
4. Estas casas son pequeas.
__________________________________________________________________________
5. Aquel seor es mdico.
__________________________________________________________________________
6. Esta casa es nuestra. Esa es la de l.
__________________________________________________________________________
7. Esta casa es bonita pero aquellas no me gustan.
__________________________________________________________________________
8. Estos lentes son de usted. Dnde estn los mos?
__________________________________________________________________________
9. De quin es este perro? Es de ellos.
__________________________________________________________________________
10.De quin son estos libros? Son de mi hermano.
__________________________________________________________________________
11.De quin es esta firma? Es de Carola.
__________________________________________________________________________
12.De quin es aquel automvil? Es del seor Miller.
__________________________________________________________________________
13.Qu es esto? Esto es un borrador.
__________________________________________________________________________
14. Esta firma es difcil de leer. Esa es fcil.
__________________________________________________________________________
15. Ese nombre es muy usado en ingls.
__________________________________________________________________________
16. Esta prima est casada y esta no est casada.
__________________________________________________________________________
17. Mi nombre es muy usado; el suyo no es muy usado.
__________________________________________________________________________

18. Esas tarjetas de visita son diferentes de stas.


__________________________________________________________________________
19. Esta estampilla es nueva; sa es vieja.
__________________________________________________________________________
20. Estos cuadernos son mos; sos son de ella.
__________________________________________________________________________

LESSON VI
A LETTER FROM CAROLA
431 Clark Street
Baton Rouge, LA
November 1, 2002
Dear Isabel,
As you know, I am attending Louisiana State University. There are so many things to do and to see
that it is hard to find time to write letters. Besides, I have to study very hard, because my courses
are difficult, and my English isnt very good yet.
I think that you will be interested in the North American custom of dating because it is not like the
custom at home. To have a date means to have an engagement for a social affair with a friend,
usually a friend of the opposite sex. For instance, one has a date to go for a walk, to go to the
movies, to go to a party or to a dance, to go to a lecture or a concert, to have dinner at a restaurant
or at the home of some friends. The young people go without a chaperon. The basis of this North
American custom is that parents teach their children to be independent and responsible for their
actions whether there are adults present or not.
One of my cousins is Robert Anderson. I met him in one of my classes, and of course an
introduction is not necessary when you see each other in class every day. One day after class he
asked me to go to the drug store to have a Coke, and then he walked home with me. A week later he
invited me to go to the movies, and last night I had a date to go to a college dance with him. He is a
very good dancer, so I had a wonderful time.
Now I have to stop, because I have an appointment with my history professor. In my next letter Im
going to write more about my classes and my social life. Please give my regards to your family, and
let me hear from you soon.
Affectionately,
Carola
VOCABULARY
Appointment Cita
As
Como
Basis
Razn, base
Chaperon
Acompaante
Coke
Coca-cola
Dance
Baile
Dancer
Bailarn
Date
Cita (sex op.)
Engagement Compromiso
To find
Encontrar

Hard (adj.)
Hard (adv.)
Interested
Lecture
Like
To meet
Movies
Of course
Opposite sex
Party

Difcil
Mucho
Interesado
Conferencia
Como
Conocer
Cine
Por supuesto
Sexo opuesto
Fiesta

Regards
So
Social affair

Recuerdos
As es que
Relaciones Sociales

IDIOMS
To see each other
To ask someone to go
For instance
To go for a walk
To have a wonderful time
To have dinner
To have to
To invite someone to go
Let me hear from you
So many
To walk home with someone

Whether or not S o no
Yet
An
Young people Jvenes

Verse (el uno al otro)


Pedir a alguien que vaya
Por ejemplo
Ir a pasear (a pie)
Divertirse mucho, pasarla muy bien
Comer (cenar)
Tener que
Invitar a alguien a ir
Permite que reciba noticias tuyas
Tantas(os)
Acompaar a casa a alguien (a pie)
CONVERSATION

Comprehension
1. What is the name of the university that Carola is attending? 2. In what state is the university
located? 3. In what city is it located? 4. In what part of the country is Louisiana? 5. Why is it hard to
find time to write letters? 6. Does Carola speak English well? 7. What is the difference between an
appointment and an engagement? 8. What is the difference between an engagement and a date? 9.
What different kind of dates are there? 10. Does Carola often go to the movies? 11. Did Robert invite
her to go to the movies? 12. Did a chaperon go with them? Why not? 13. Where did Carola and
Robert go to get a Coke? 14. What other things are sold in an American drugstore? 15. What is
Carola going to tell us in her next letter? 16. How does one usually end a friendly letter? 17. Did
Carola have a good time at the college dance? Why? 18. With whom did she have an appointment?
Why?
Personal Questions
19. Do you like to write letters? 20. Do you have time to write any? 21. Do you notice any difference
between the style of an American letter and one of your letters? 22. Do you live in a college town?
23. Do you buy Cokes at a drug store? Where do you usually get a Coke? 24. How are your
drugstores different from North American drugstores? 25. Do many young people here go to the
movies without a chaperon? 26. If several couples go together, is a chaperon necessary? 27. Did you
have a date last Saturday or Sunday? Did a chaperon go to? 28. Do you like to dance? Are you a
good dancer? Do you often dance? 29. Did you have an appointment with the doctor or a dentist last
week? 30. Do you have an engagement for next Saturday?

EXERCISES
A. Write these sentences in (I) the interrogative, (2) the negative.
1. We changed the sentences to questions.
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
2. We pronounced the words many times.
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
3. The teacher asked many questions.
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
4. I answered all her questions.
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
5. Carola embraced her mother.
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
6. Our friends rented the house.
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
7. They liked the lecture very much.
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
8. She received several letters yesterday.
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
9. He wanted to have his lunch early.
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
10. Mrs. Miller prepared lunch for him.
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
11. The car stopped in front of my house.
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
12. They walked home from class.
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
13. She selected new calling cards.
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
14. He lived on College Avenue last year.
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
15. They needed to buy the tickets early
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
B. Answer these questions in complete sentences in (1) the affirmative, (2) the negative.
1. Did Carola meet Robert in class?
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
2. Did he ask her to go to the drugstore for a coke?
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
3. Did he walk home with her?
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
4. Did Carola have a date with him last Saturday?
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________

5. Did she dance with him all the time?


(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
6. Did she have an appointment with her history professor?
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
7. Did she study hard for her examination?
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
8. Did you learn your English here?
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
9. Did the maid answer the door?
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
10. Did you like the movie last night?
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
11. Did he pronounce the words well?
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
12. Did you notice Carolas new dress?
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
13. Did you miss me last night?
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
14. Did they arrive this morning?
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
15. Did you sign your name?
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
16. Did he use the correct word?
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
17. Did they wait for you after class?
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
18. Did she invite you to her party?
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
19. Did you expect to see her yesterday?
(1)________________________________ (2)_____ ________________________________
20. Did you receive a letter this morning?
(1)________________________________ (2)_____________________________________
C. Translate these expressions into English.
1. La leccin de ingls.
_____________________________________
2. La clase de historia.
_____________________________________
3. Un vestido de seda.
_____________________________________
4. Un sombrero de verano.
_____________________________________
5. Un abrigo de invierno.
_____________________________________

6. Un vestido de lana.
____________________________________
7. Un plato de vidrio.
_____________________________________
8. Un vaso para agua.
_____________________________________
9. El jugo de naranja.
_____________________________________
10. Un plato para ensalada.
_____________________________________

11. Una lmpara de mesa.


_____________________________________
12. Una estacin de radio.
_____________________________________
13. Un billete de cinco dlares.
_____________________________________
14. Una estampilla de diez centavos.
_____________________________________

15. Una lista de telfonos.


_____________________________________
16. Un cheque por cincuenta dlares.
_____________________________________
17. El orden de las palabras en ingls.
_____________________________________
18. Los programas de radio.
_____________________________________

D. Re-write these sentences in the correct word order.


Example: Do you have (a, book, new, telephone)
Do you have a new telephone book?
1.The library has (English, easy, books, very, several)
__________________________________________________________________________
2.Mrs. Miller has (suit, pretty, a, green, very)
__________________________________________________________________________
3.The church has (pictures, very, old, some, Spanish)
__________________________________________________________________________
4.I like (two, silk, those, dresses, blue)
__________________________________________________________________________
5.(Black, dress, pretty, her, wool) is at the cleaners.
__________________________________________________________________________
6.The parents select (names, first, their, two, childrens)
__________________________________________________________________________
7.(These, bills, one-dollar, new, five, are)
__________________________________________________________________________
8.He is (young, a, student, North American)
__________________________________________________________________________
9.(First, names, daughters, her, two) are Mary grant.
__________________________________________________________________________
E. Translate the preposition.
1. He isnt ______ home now. He is ______ the office. (en)
2. They are going ______ the lecture tonight. (a)
3. The train arrived ______ five oclock. (antes de)
4. I always read the newspaper ______ breakfast. (despus de)
5. Our friends were here ______ midnight. (hasta)

6. I like to study ______ class. (antes de)


7. She is going to be busy ______ four oclock. (despus de)
8. We walked ______ the corner together. (hasta)
9. I want to see her ______ writing the letter. (antes de)
10. Robert invited Carola to go ______ the party. (a)
11. We played bridge ______dinner. (despus de)
12. She listened to the radio ______ going to bed. (antes de)
13. They are going ______ Miami by plane. (Hasta)
14. I was tired ______ dancing to much. (despus de)
15. Good-bye ______ tomorrow. (hasta)

LESSON VII
THE MOVIES

There was a good movie at the Columbia Theater last week, so Carola and Robert decided to see it.
They arrived at the theater at seven oclock, in time for the newsreel. (In cities in the United States,
shows usually begin at one oclock in the afternoon and are continuous until midnight.) Robert
wanted to sit in the balcony; but because Virginia preferred to sit downstairs, they sat on the main
floor.
The main feature was about college life, as Hollywood interprets it, and was very entertaining. In
the picture, the students played football, went to dances, and sang songs to pretty girls. In fact, they
did everything but study. The acting and the music were good, but the film did not show how North
American students really live. It is true that students dance and play on weekends, but during the
week they study hard.
Carola sees many movies, and she says that they do not present a true picture of American life. The
movies often exaggerate or emphasize the sensational and the exceptional instead of showing how
most people in the United States really live. The fact is that North Americans usually go to the
movies for amusement; they want to escape from the monotonous routine of everyday life. They
do not take the movies seriously, because they know that the films are made especially to entertain
the public.
VOCABULARY
Acting
Amusement
Attraction
To be about
Coming
To emphasize
To entertain
Everyday
Equipment

Actuacin
Diversin
Atraccin
Tratarse de
Por venir, futuro
Enfatizar
Entretener
Cotidiano
Equipo

Fact
Hecho
Film
Pelcula
Main feature Pelcula principal
Main floor
Platea
Most
La mayora de
Newsreel Noticiero
Picture
Pelcula
To play
Actuar, jugar, tocar
Preview
Anticipos

Really
Routine
To show

Sang
True
Weekend

Verdaderamente
Rutina
Mostrar

IDIOMS
Everything but study
In fact
In the balcony
In time for something
On the main floor
On time
To take it seriously
The fact is that

Cantar (pasado)
Verdadero
Fin de semana

Todo menos estudiar


De hecho, en efecto
En el balcn
A tiempo para algo
En la luneta (platea)
A tiempo
Tomarlo en serio
El hecho es que
CONVERSATION

Comprehension
1. What time do shows usually begin in the United States? 2. What time do they end? 3. To what
theater did Carola and Robert go? 4. What did they see first? 5. Did they arrive on time for the
newsreel? 6. Where did Robert want to sit? 7. Why did they sit downstairs? 8. What did they see
after the newsreel? 9. What was the main feature about? 10. How were the music and the acting? 11.
Do university students play, dance, and sing all the time? 12. Does Hollywood show how North
American students really live? 13. What does Carola say about the movies? 14. Do North Americans
take movies seriously? 15. Why do they go to the movies?
Personal Questions
17. Do you like to go to the movies? 18. What time do you usually go? 19. Are the shows
continuous? 20. Which theater here do you prefer? Why? 21. Do you like to sit in the balcony or on
the main floor? 22. Do yo like to sit in the front or in the back of the theater? 23. How much do the
movies cost here? 24. Who are your favorite actor and actress? 25. How many times a week do you
go to the movies? 26. Did you go to a show last night? Last Saturday? 27. What was the name of the
movie? 28. At what theater was the movie? 29. Who were the principal actor and actress? 30. Did
you like the movie? Why? 31. Do you like North American movies? Why? 32. Can you understand
what the actors say?
EXERCISES
1. Memorize these irregular verbs.
PRESENT
BE
BECOME
BEGIN
BREAK
BRING

PAST
WAS - WERE
BECAME
BEGAN
BROKE
BROUGHT

SPANISH
SER - ESTAR
LLEGAR A SER
EMPEZAR
ROMPER
TRAER

BUY
CATCH
CHOOSE
COME
COST
CUT
DO-DOES
DRINK
DRIVE
EAT
FALL
FEEL
FIND
FLY
FORGET
FREEZE
GET
GIVE
GO
GROW
HANG
HAVE
HEAR
HOLD
KEEP
KNOW
LAY
LEAVE
LEND
LET
LIE
LOSE
MAKE
MEAN
MEET
PAY
PUT
READ
RIDE
RING
RISE
RUN
SAY
SEE
SELL

BOUGHT
CAUGHT
CHOSE
CAME
COST
CUT
DID
DRANK
DROVE
ATE
FELL
FELT
FOUND
FLEW
FORGOT
FROZE
GOT
GAVE
WENT
GREW
HUNG
HAD
HEARD
HELD
KEPT
KNEW
LAID
LEFT
LENT
LET
LAY
LOST
MADE
MEANT
MET
PAID
PUT
READ
RODE
RANG
ROSE
RAN
SAID
SAW
SOLD

COMPRAR
COGER
ESCOGER
VENIR
COSTAR
CORTAR
HACER
BEBER-TOMAR
CONDUCIR
COMER
CAER
SENTIR
ENCONTRAR
VOLAR
OLVIDAR
CONGELAR
CONSEGUIR
DAR
IR
CRECER
COLGAR
TENER
OIR
SOSTENER, ABRAZAR
GUARDAR
CONOCER, SABER
COLOCAR
SALIR, DEJAR
PRESTAR
PERMITIR
YACER, HECHARSE
PERDER
HACER, CREAR
SIGNIFICAR
CONOCER, ENCONTRAR
PAGAR
PONER
LEER
MONTAR, IR (EN BUS)
SONAR, TIMBRAR
LEVANTARSE
CORRER
DECIR
VER
VENDER

SHAKE
SHINE
SING
SIT
SLEEP
SPEAK
SPEND
STAND
STEAL
SWIM
SWING
TAKE
TEACH
TEAR
TELL
THINK
THROW
UNDERSTAND
WAKE
WEAR
WIN
WRITE

SHOOK
SACUDIR
SHONE (SHINED)
BRILLAR
SANG
CANTAR
SAT
SENTARSE
SLEPT
DORMIR
SPOKE
HABLAR
SPENT
GASTAR, PASAR (TIEMPO)
STOOD
PARARSE
STOLE
ROBAR
SWAM
NADAR
SWUNG
BALANCEAR
TOOK
TOMAR, LLEVAR
TAUGHT
ENSEAR
TORE
ROMPER, RASGAR
TOLD
DECIR, CONTAR
THOUGHT
PENSAR
THREW
ECHAR, BOTAR, LANZAR
UNDERSTOOD
ENTENDER
WOKE
DESPERTAR
WORE
USAR (EN EL CUERPO)
WON
GANAR
WROTE
ESCRIBIR

B. Answer these sentences in the affirmative.


1. What did he buy?
_____________________________________
2. When did he come?
_____________________________________
3. Where did they eat?
_____________________________________
4. Did you understand?
_____________________________________
5. Why did they run?
_____________________________________
6. What time did you get up?
_____________________________________
7. Where did you find it?
_____________________________________
8. When did you see him?
_____________________________________
9. When did you sell your radio?
_____________________________________
10. How much did the movie cost?
_____________________________________

11. When did you read it?


_____________________________________
12. What did they say?
_____________________________________
13. Where did they sit?
_____________________________________
14. When did he call me?
_____________________________________
15. Did you write a letter?
_____________________________________
16. Did you have a vacation?
_____________________________________
17. Did she forget her book?
_____________________________________
18. Where did they go last night?
_____________________________________
19. Who put it there?
_____________________________________
20. Who sang songs to the girl?
_____________________________________

21. Did the class begin on time?


____________________________________
22. Did you bring your notebook?
_____________________________________
23. Did he break the glass?
____________________________________
24. Why did you choose that hat?
____________________________________
25. When did she cut her finger?
____________________________________
26. When did he become a Doctor?
____________________________________
27. Did you drink all your coffee?
_____________________________________
28. Did they drive to the office?
_____________________________________
29. Did he feel alright?
_____________________________________
30. Did you fly or take the train?
_____________________________________
31. Did the lake freeze in the winter?
_____________________________________
32. Did he give you his seat?
____________________________________
33. Did Virginia have a wonderful time?
____________________________________
34. Did you hear the serenade?
____________________________________
35. Did he know her before?
____________________________________
36. Where did I leave my gloves?
_____________________________________
37. How much money did you lend him?
_____________________________________
38. Did she make her sweater?
____________________________________
39. Where did Virginia meet Robert?
_____________________________________
40. Did he pay for his tickets?
_____________________________________

41. Did you ride on the street car?


_____________________________________
42. When did you send the package?
_____________________________________
43. Did they shake hands?
_____________________________________
44. Did you sleep well last night?
____________________________________
45. Did she speak to you?
_____________________________________
46. Did he swim across the river?
____________________________________
47. Did she teach English here?
____________________________________
48. Did he tell you the truth?
_____________________________________
49. Did you think of me?
_____________________________________
50. Did she wear her new hat?
_____________________________________
51. Did they take Virginia with them?
____________________________________
52. Did you win the prize?
____________________________________
53. Did she spend a week there?
_____________________________________
54. Where did he fall?
____________________________________
55. When did you get the tickets?
____________________________________
56. Where did he hang his coat and hat?
_____________________________________
57. Where did they keep their car?
_____________________________________
58. Where did I put my keys?
_____________________________________
59. Did the teacher stand?
_____________________________________
60. Did you mean that?
_____________________________________

C. Practice changing these sentences from the present to the past tense with USED TO.
We see him every day.
We USED TO see him every day.

1. He speaks English well.


_____________________________________________________________________________
2. The two friends often have dinner together.
_____________________________________________________________________________
3. She comes to class early.
_____________________________________________________________________________
4. They go to the movies every Saturday.
_____________________________________________________________________________
5. I write many letters.
_____________________________________________________________________________
6. Robert forgets his books.
_____________________________________________________________________________
7. He takes a bus every morning.
_____________________________________________________________________________
8. Our class begins at six oclock.
_____________________________________________________________________________
9. I often walk home.
_____________________________________________________________________________
10. She reads a book every week.
_____________________________________________________________________________
11. He sings very well.
_____________________________________________________________________________
12. They go for a walk every Saturday.
_____________________________________________________________________________
13. Virginia studies almost every night until eleven oclock.
_____________________________________________________________________________
14. She has a date during the week.
_____________________________________________________________________________
D. Practice reading the following sentences in the correct word order.
1. That movie was -last week
-at the Columbia _______________________________________________
2. Mrs. Gmez was not
3. Does he live

4. I saw

- on Monday
- In class_______________________________________________

- now
-on Nineteenth Street_______________________________________________

-a good movie last week


-at the Columbia Theater_______________________________________________

5. Please close

-when you leave


-The door
-quietly ______________________________________________

6. Please use - in a sentence


- this word_______________________________________________
7. He explained

- yesterday
- the lesson
- in class _______________________________________________

8. He gave

- this morning
- very slowly
- his lecture _______________________________________________

9. They live

- now
- in New York _______________________________________________

10. She is

- at the university
- a student
- this year _______________________________________________

11. I liked - very much


- last night
- the program _______________________________________________
12. Please read - slowly
- that sentence
- now _______________________________________________
13. She brought - yesterday
- a friend
- to class _______________________________________________
14. I went

- once
- there_______________________________________________

15. She sang - last night


- very well
- that song _______________________________________________
D1. Use a lot of or lots of to complete each sentence.
15.___________ South Americans speak English.
16.The teacher has ___________ patience with the students.
17.They drink ___________ water with their meals.

18.There are ___________ pretty girls in the class.


19.Do you use ___________ sugar in your coffee?
20.They have ___________ rain in the tropics.
21.Does he have ___________ time to study?
22.Not ___________ students wear hats.
23.I dont have ___________ money with me.
24.Are there ___________ good movies at the Columbia?
D2. Complete each question with an expression of quantity, and answer the question.
1. Do you have ___________ time to study English?
2. Do you have ___________ opportunities to speak English?
3. Dont you have ___________ work to do now?
4. Does Virginia have ___________ social life?
5. Do you see ___________ movies?
6. Do you hear ___________ English?
7. Do North Americans drink ___________ coffee?
8. Doesnt she know ___________ people there?
9. Do you write ___________ letters?
10. Does she speak ___________ English?
E. Fill each blank with the correct preposition. (In some cases, two are possible.)
1.Mrs. Miller hung a beautiful mirror ______ the fireplace.
2.In the winter, the temperature is sometimes ______ zero (Fahrenheit)
3.Usually it is not so cold, about ten or twenty degrees ______ zero.

4.The money rolled ______ the chair.


5.I live on the fourth floor. He lives ______ me on the fifth floor.
6.During our plane trip, we saw many mountains ______ us.
7.We flew ______ the clouds.
8.He jumped ______ the hole.
9.He put his hat ______ the seat in the theater.
10.The wastebasket is ______ the desk.
11.The plane flew ______ the city.
12.She hung her coat ______ mine.
F. Translate the prepositions in parentheses.
1.

Robert went ______ the movies. (Fu a)


He went ______ the theater. (Entr en)
Now he is ______ the theater. (Est en)

2.

He went ______ the house (sali de)


He went ______ his office. (Fu a)
He is ______ his office now. (Est en)

3.

Mr. Miller went ______ the bank. (Entr en)


He was ______ the bank for a few minutes. (Estuvo en)
Then he went ______ the bank. (Sali de)

4.

They are walking ______ the corner. (Hacia).

5.

He took the money ______ his pocket. (Sac de)

6.

I didnt see him come ______ the store. (Salir de)

7.

The thief went ______ the house and jumped ______ the window. (Atraves, salt por)

8.

She was waiting ______ the front door. (Esperaba en).

9.

We walked ______ the garden. (Por)

LESSON VIII
WHAT IS THE OBJECT?
One evening when Carola and some of her friends were together, Robert said, Lets play a game
called What Is the Object? The others agreed, and the game began.
One person went out of the room; and while he was outside, the other people picked out an object.
The person outside returned and tried to guess the name of the object. When it was Carolas turn to
leave the room, the object that they chose was the sofa. She asked different people many questions
about it.
Carola: Is the object inside the room or outside?
Answer: Its inside the room.
Carola: Is it in front of me or behind me?
A.: It isnt in front of you, and it isnt behind you.
C.: Is it beside me, then?
A.: Yes, its beside you.
C.: What size is it? Is it large or small?
A.: Its rather large.
C.: What shape is it? Is it round, square, or rectangular?
A.: Its rectangular, more or less.
C.: Is it long or short?
A.: Its quite long.
C.: I know. Its the piano.
A.: No, its not the piano.
C.: Is the object hard or soft.
A.: Its soft.
C.: Is it heavy or light?
A.: Its rather heavy.
C.: How much does it weigh?
A.: Oh, about a hundred pounds, perhaps.
C.: What color is it?
A.: Its brown.
C.: Is it light brown or dark brown.
A.: I think its light brown.
C.: Oh, dear, this is so difficult. I cant guess it. I give up.
A.: Dont give up. Please ask another question.
C.: Well, is it high or low?
A.: Its low.
C.: Is the object yours or mine?
A.: It belongs to Mr. and Mrs. Miller, but many of us use it.
C.: When do we use it?
A.: When we want to read or to talk.
C.: Do I often use it?
A.: Yes, you use it every day.

C.: Is it the sofa?


A.: Yes, thats it.
VOCABULARY
About
Acerca de
To agree
Estar de acuerdo
To belong to Pertenecer a
Chose
Elegir, escoger (pasado)
Dark
Oscuro
Game
Juego
To guess
Adivinar
Hard
Duro, difcil
Heavy
Pesado
High
Alto
Light
Ligero, claro
Long
Largo
Low
Bajo
Perhaps
Talvez
IDIOMS
To ask someone a question
To be ones turn
To give up
Oh, dear!
Thats it
The Millers

Quite
Rather
To return
Short
Shape
Size
So
Soft
Then
To try to
To weigh
Well
While

Relativamente
Bastante
Regresar, volver
Corto
Forma, figura
Tamao
Tan
Suave, blando
Entonces, luego
Intentar
Pesar
Entonces, bueno
Mientras

Hacer una pregunta a alguien


Ser el turno de alguien
Rendirse, darse por vencido
Oh, Caramba!
Eso es!
La familia Miller (Los Miller)
CONVERSATION

a. Your teacher will select an object that you will describe based on the following questions:
1. Is it large or small? 2. Is it big or little? 3. Is it long or short? 4. Is it high or low? 5. Is it hard or
soft? 6. Is it wide or narrow? 7. Is it round or square? 8. Is it heavy or light? 9. Is it light brown or
dark brown? 10. Is it yours or not? 11. Is it ugly or beautiful? 12. Is it inside or outside? 13. Is it
behind me or in front of me? 14. Is it near me or far from me? 15. Is it above me or below me?
b. Personal Questions
16. Are you tall or short? 17. How tall are you? 18. How much do you weigh? 19. Are you rather
heavy or are you thin? 20. What color is your hair? 21. What color are your eyes? 22. What color is
your pencil (or pen)? 23. How many colors can you name? 24. What shape is this room? The chalk?
The light switch?

EXERCISES
A. Practice making polite imperative sentences that contain the following verbs (I) in the
affirmative, (II) in the negative.
1.ask
2.be
3.choose
4.explain

5.give
6.help
7.open
8.put

9. repeat
10.sit (down)
11.try
12.write

B. Practice making sentences with lets and the verbs in C.


C. Change the words in italics to indirect objects, and read the sentences in the correct word order.
Did you give me the books?
Did you give them to me?
1.Yes, I bought the ticket for you.
_____________________________________________________________________________
2.She gave the books to us.
_____________________________________________________________________________
3.He read the letter to us.
_____________________________________________________________________________
4.We sent the photograph to her.
_____________________________________________________________________________
5.She is getting a glass of water for you.
_____________________________________________________________________________
6.I am going to leave my books for him.
_____________________________________________________________________________
7.He sold this car to his brother.
_____________________________________________________________________________
8.Please show these photographs to Mrs. Miller.
_____________________________________________________________________________
9.They sang some North American songs for Carola.
_____________________________________________________________________________
10.I took the flowers to my friend.
_____________________________________________________________________________
11.She taught Spanish to North Americans.
_____________________________________________________________________________
12.She told a story to the class.
_____________________________________________________________________________
13.When are you going to write a letter to Carola.
_____________________________________________________________________________
14.I sent a book to Carola for her birthday.
_____________________________________________________________________________

15.He lent a dollar to his sister.


_____________________________________________________________________________
D. Use the past tense of say or tell, as required.
1.The man ________ me (that) my suit was ready.
2.He ________ (that) the suit was ready.
3.She ________ (that) those people were not at home.
4.She ________ us (that) they were not at home.
5.She ________ (that) she went to the lecture last night.
6.She ________ me (that) she went to the lecture last night.
7.She ________ the lecture was wonderful.
8.She ________ to me, I understood almost all the lecture.
9.She ________ me (that) she understood almost all the lecture.
10.Mr. Miller ________ his wife (that) he was going to New York.
11.My friends ________ (that) English was difficult.
12.I ________ (that) I didnt understand English.
13.He ________ me (that) he was sick yesterday.
14.What did you ________?
15.What did you ________ her?
16.Did he ________ you about his vacations?
17.He always ________ the truth.
18.Did you ever ________ a lie?
19.Did she ________ your fortune with tea leaves?
20.He ________ the people is instead of the people are.
21.Virginia ________ (that) she liked Baton Rouge very much.

22.They ________ some good stories last night.


23.What did she ________ when you saw her?
24.She ________ to me, I dont believe everything he ________ us.
E. Practice completing these questions and answering them.
1. How tall ________?
2. How big ________?
3. How long ________?
4. How wide ________?
5. How cold ________?
6. How expensive ________?
7. How early ________?
8. How late ________?
9. How fast ________?
10. How well ________?
11. How far is New York from here?
_____________________________________________________________________________
12. How far is New York from Washington?
_____________________________________________________________________________
13. How far is it from Cuba to Miami?
_____________________________________________________________________________
14. How far is it to Buenos Aires? To Panama?
_____________________________________________________________________________
15. How far is the ocean from here? The river?
_____________________________________________________________________________
16. How far is the hotel from here? The church?
_____________________________________________________________________________

F. Complete these questions, using much or many as required, in the first blank of each, and
answer them.
1. How ________ fingers ________?

6. How ________ toes ________?

2. How ________ students ________?

7. How ________ languages ________?

3. How ________ milk ________?

8. How ________ misreaks ________?

4. How ________ people ________?

9. How ________ paper ________?

5. How ________ money ________?

10. How ________ noise ________?

G. Complete these sentences with between or among, as required, and practice reading them
aloud.
1.The book store is ________ the bank and the theater.
2.Virginia found a program ________ her souvenirs.
3.Her calling card was ________ those on the desk.
4.Thursday comes ________ Wednesday and Friday.
5.I am going to look for it ________my papers.
6.They will arrive ________ five and six oclok.
7.You will find your book ________ the magazines on the table.
8.There is no comparison ________ this book and that one.
9.The teacher distributed the papers ________ the students.

LESSON IX
A TELEPHONE CONVERSATION

Is there anything more difficult than to speak in a foreign language over the telephone? Even if you
make yourself understood, the chances are that you will not understand the person at the other end of
the line. When you know what he is saying, the difficulty is to answer him immediately before he
becomes impatient and hangs up.
Robert wanted to call Carola; so when he didnt find her number in the telephone book, he dialed
Information.
Voice:
Robert:
Voice:
Robert:

Information.
Will you please give the telephone number of Mr. C. E. Miller at 431 Clark Street?
Just a moment, please ... the number is 8974.
8-9-7-4? Thank you very much.

Robert then dialed 8974, but a constant buzz indicated that the line was busy. He waited a few
minutes and dialed again.
Voice:
Robert:
Voice:
Robert:
Voice:
Robert:

Hello.
Hello. Is this Mr. Millers residence?
No, it isnt.
Isnt this 8974?
No, you have the wrong number. This is 8975.
Im Sorry. I made a mistake.

Robert hung up the receiver. After a minute, he picked it up and tried again, being very careful to
dial the right number this time.
Voice:

Mr. Millers residence?

Robert:
Voice:
Robert:
Voice:
Robert:
Voice:
Robert:

Id like to speak with Carola Castedo if shes there.


Im sorry, but she isnt here right now. Whos calling, please?
This is Robert Anderson speaking. Will Carola be back soon?
Yes, probably about five oclock. Do you want to leave a message?
Well, just tell her that I called, please.
Wait a moment. I think shes coming in now.
All right. Ill wait.

Carola:
Robert:
Carola:
Robert:
Carola:
Robert:
Carola:
Robert:

Hello.
Carola, this is Bob.
Oh, hello Bob. How are you?
Just fine, and you?
Very well. Its nice to hear your voice.
Carola, are you going to be busy tomorrow evening?
Well, I planned to study my English.
How about a date for a movie? Theres a good picture at the Columbia this week. Well
go early, and then you can study afterwards.
All right, Bob, Id like to go. Thanks a lot.
Then Ill call for you a little before seven.
O.K. Ill be ready.
Good-bye, Carola. Ill be seeing you.
So long, Bob, and thanks for calling.

Carola:
Robert:
Carola:
Robert:
Carola:

VOCABULARY
Afterwards
Posteriormente
Anything
Cualquier cosa
To be back
Estar de regreso
To become
Impatient
Impacientarse
Busy
Ocupado
Buzz
Zumbido, sonido prolongado
To call for
Ir a buscar,
To call (up)
Telefonear, llamar
Chance
Oportunidad, probabilidad
To dial
Marcar un nmero
Even if
Aun si...

IDIOMS
To be careful
How about...
Id like to...
Im sorry
Just tell her that...
To make oneself understood
To talk over the phone

Foreign
To hang up
Just a moment
Line
Message
To pick up
Receiver
Right now
Right
Wrong No.

Tener cuidado
Que tal...
Me gustara...
Lo siento
Solo digale que...
Hacerse entender
Hablar por telfono

Extrao
Colgar
Un momento
Lnea
Mensaje
Descolgar, contestar telefono
Audfono, Auricular
Ahora mismo
Correcto
Nmero equivocado

WORD STUDY
Other useful telephone expressions
Long distance
Heres your party
Your party is on the line
The phone is out of order
He isnt in now

Larga distancia
Est comunicado con {la persona}
Est comunicado con {la persona}
El telfono est daado
No est aqu ahora
CONVERSATION

Comprehension
1. Whom did Robert want to call up? 2. Why did he have to call Information? 3. What did he say to
the operator? 4. Why did he get the wrong number the first time? 5. Was Carola at home when he
called? 6. Did Robert leave a message for her? 7. Where did Robert ask her to go? 8. Did she accept
his invitation? 9. What did she say? 10. What time was he going to call for her? 11. What is the usual
nickname for Robert?
Personal Questions
12. Do you have a telephone at home? 13. Is it a dial phone? 14. What is your telephone number? 15.
Is it difficult for you to speak over the phone? 16. Can you make yourself understood? 17. Can you
understand what the other person says? 18. When you use the telephone, what do you pick up first?
19. How do you know that the line is busy? 20. What do you say in English when you answer the
phone? 21. What do you say when someone dials incorrectly and your phone rings? 22. Is it difficult
to get the right number? 23. How do you answer the question Whos calling? 24. Do you often call
up your friends? 25. What do you do when you finish your call?
EXERCISES
A. Answer the following questions (I) in the affirmative, (II) in the negative. Use contractions.
Will you call her up later?
Yes, Ill call her up later.
No, I wont call her up later.
1. Will he call for her before seven oclock?
_____________________________________________________________________________
2. Will she be ready on time?
_____________________________________________________________________________
3. Will you see her today?
_____________________________________________________________________________
4. Will they be back at six oclock?
_____________________________________________________________________________
5. Will you dial the number again?
_____________________________________________________________________________

6. Will he answer the phone?


_____________________________________________________________________________
7. Will she accept his invitation?
_____________________________________________________________________________
8. Will you talk English with her?
_____________________________________________________________________________
9. Will they wait for us if we go now?
_____________________________________________________________________________
B. Complete these sentences with the correct translation of no es verdad?
1.It is difficult to speak English over the telephone, ____________?
2.You make yourself understood, ____________?
3.The other person sometimes becomes impatient, ____________?
4.Robert didnt find her number in the book, ____________?
5.He dialed Information, ____________?
6.Mr. Miller lives on Clark Street, ____________?
7.The line was busy, ____________?
8.He had the wrong number, ____________?
9.Carola wasnt at home, ____________?
10.Robert didnt leave a message, ____________?
11.Carola is coming in now, ____________?
12.Carola wants to see the picture, ____________?
13.Carola isnt going to study very much, ____________?
14.Bob hung up the receiver, ____________?
15.Bob called up for her before seven, ____________?
16.You have a telephone, ____________?
17.It is a dial phone, ____________?

18.The phone isnt out of order, ____________?


19.You didnt call me up yesterday, ____________?
20.You werent at home yesterday, ____________?
21.The telephone didnt ring, ____________?
22.Your number is in the telephone book, ____________?
23.You usually answer the phone, ____________?
C. Fill in the blank with to, in order to, and for
1. Robert called for Carola ___________ take her to the movies.
2. They went early ___________ get a good seat.
3. Lets take a taxi ___________ arrive on time.
4. I called Mrs. White ___________ ask her about the lesson.
5. Mrs. Miller went to the store ___________ buy some vegetables.
6. She went to the post office ___________ mail a letter.
7. Then she went to the florists ___________ buy some flowers.
8. We invited Carola to our house ___________ have dinner.
9. We invited Carola to our house ___________ dinner.
10. They stayed after class ___________ the lecture.
11. They stayed after class ___________ sing.
12. Robert is studying tonight ___________ an examination.
13. Robert is doing his homework ___________ his Spanish class.
14. Robert called Carola ___________ ask her for a date.
15. Robert called up Carola ___________ a date.
D. Answer these questions using for to show duration of time.

Example:
How long did you wait for the bus?
I waited for five minutes
1. How long did you play tennis yesterday?
_____________________________________________________________________________
2. How long were you downtown this morning?
_____________________________________________________________________________
3. How long was he sick?
_____________________________________________________________________________
4. How long did you stay in the country?
_____________________________________________________________________________
E. Practice completing the following sentences with for and a personal noun or pronoun.
It is too hot for me to live there.
1. North American movies are difficult ___________ to understand.
2. That radio is expensive ___________ to buy.
3. This book is easy ___________ to understand.
4. It is necessary ___________ to call her up.
5.It is important ___________ to dial the right number.
6.It is possible ___________ to make herself understood.
7.It is difficult ___________ to speak English over the telephone.
8.I think that it is too late ___________ to go to class.
F. Write these questions using what ... for, instead of, why. Then answer the questions using
because, in order to, to, or for.
Example: Why did Carola go to the United States?
What did Carola go to the United States for?
Carola went to the United States because she wanted to learn English.
1. Why did Robert call her up?
_____________________________________________________________________________

2. Why did he hang up the receiver at first?


_____________________________________________________________________________
3. Why did they go to the Columbia Theater?
_____________________________________________________________________________
4. Why did they sit downstairs?
_____________________________________________________________________________
5. Why did you go to the drug store?
_____________________________________________________________________________
6. Why did you go to the library?
_____________________________________________________________________________
7. Why did you take a taxi?
_____________________________________________________________________________
8. Why did you go to the bank this morning?
_____________________________________________________________________________
9. Why were you absent yesterday?
_____________________________________________________________________________

LESSON X
A RIDE ON A BUS

One Saturday afternoon while Carola was in New York on her vacation, she went to the Paramount
Theater for a matinee. Mrs. Miller was already downtown; so Carola had to take a bus alone. First
she went to the bus stop near her hotel. After a few minutes, a crowded bus came along; she got on,
but she had to stand up.
Carola: Does this bus go down Broadway?
Driver: No, down Fifth Avenue. Where do you want to go?
C: To the Paramount Theater
D: Well, then you will have to transfer at Fifth Avenue and Forty-Second Street. There you catch a
cross-town bus marked Forty-Second Street and go to Times Square.
C: Whats the fare, please?
D: Twelve cents.
C: Can you change a dollar bill for me?
D: Yes, I think so.
C: Please, give me a transfer, too.
D: Im sorry, I cant. The Forty-Second Street bus is on a different line. Youll have to pay another
fare on that bus, but its only eight cents.
C: Will you please let me know when we get to Forty-Second Street?
D: Yes, of course.
C: Thank you.
Carola got off and had to wait only a few minutes for her second bus. As she got on the crosstown
bus, she gave the driver eight cents.
Carola: Does this bus stop in front of the Paramount Theater?
Driver: No, but it will take you near there. You get off at Forty-Second Street and Broadway; then
you walk one short block straight ahead, turn right, and youll see the theater sign ahead on
Broadway. You cant miss it.
C: Thank you very much.

VOCABULARY
Ahead
Adelante
Already
Listo
Bill
Billete, Cuenta
Block
Cuadra, mansion
Bus stop
Parada de bus
To catch
Coger, Tomar un bus
To come along Venir
Downtown
Centro de la Ciudad
IDIOMS
To be downtown
To get on a bus
To get off a bus
To get to a place
To let someone know
To think so
To walk straight ahead
You cant miss it

Fare
Left
Right
Sign
Square
To transfer
To turn

Tarifa
Izquierda
Derecha
Letrero
Plaza
Transbordar
Doblar, girar

Estar en el centro
Subir a un bus
Bajarse de un bus
Ir (llegar) a un lugar
Avisar a alguien
Pensar que s
Seguir derecho
No puede perderse

OTHER USEFUL EXPRESSIONS


Crosstown bus
Is this taxi (cab) free?
Is this taxi taken?
To tip the driver

Bus que cruza Nueva York de extremo a extremo.


Est libre ste taxi?
Est ocupado ste taxi?
Dar una propina al conductor.
CONVERSATION

1. Is there a bus stop near your house? 2. How far is it from your house? 3. Do you usually take a bus
or a street car to go downtown? 4. Which do you prefer, a bus or a street car? Which is faster? Which
is more comfortable? 5. Do the buses stop at every corner in your city? 6. How much is the bus fare
in your city? 7. Is the street car fare the same? 8. Do you use a system of transfers in your city? 9. Do
you get on at the front door of the bus? 10. Where do you get off the bus? 11. Do you pay your fare
as you get on? 12. To whom do you pay your fare? 13. Can you always get a seat? 14. Do you
sometimes have to stand up? 15. Does a man sometimes give a woman his seat? 16. How do you
indicate that you want to get off? 17. If the bus is crowded, what do you say in order to pass through
the crowd? 18. Did you take a bus this morning? Which bus? 19. Did you have to wait a long time
for the bus? 20. Where did you get on? Where did you get off? 21. Did you have to stand up, or did
you find a seat? 22. Are the taxis in your city cheap or expensive? 23. Are they more comfortable
than the buses? 24. Do you usually tip the taxi driver? How much? 25. How often do you take a taxi?

EXERCISES
A. Practice answering the following questions with IT as a subject.
1. What time is it now?_____________________________________________________
Is it early or late? ____________________________________________________
Is it time to go now? _________________________________________________
Is it time for the class to end? ________________________________________
2. Is it hot today? Warm? Cool? ___________________________________________
Does it ever snow here? _____________________________________________
Did it rain yesterday? _______________________________________________
Was it nice yesterday? __________________________________________
3. How far is it from here to your bank? _____________________________________
How far is it to the business district? ___________________________________
How far is it to the nearest bus stop? ___________________________________
How far is it to the park? ____________________________________________
How far is it from here to other cities in your country?______________________
4. Which is it, a Broadway bus or a Fifth Avenue bus? ___________________________
Who is it, Charles or his brother Paul? ___________________________________
Carola answered the phone. Who was it? _________________________________
5. Is it easy to learn English? _______________________________________________
Is it correct to say go down from the bus?______________________________
Is it customary here to pay immediately when you get on a bus? _______________
Is it necessary to buy theater tickets in advance? ____________________________
Is it necessary to stand in line? ___________________________________________

Is it important to be on time? ____________________________________________


Is it time to go now? ___________________________________________________
B. Fill the blanks with WHICH or WHAT, as required; then practice reading and answering the
questions.
1._______ is the name of this book?
2._______ is your first name? Middle name?
3._______ is the building opposite the library?
4._______ is the bus fare?
5._______ is that mans surname?
6._______ is the price of the theater tickets?
7._______ is our homework for tomorrow?
8._______ is the best way to go to the theater?
9._______ was the result of the election?
10._______ was the reason for your absence?
11._______ did the bus driver say?
12._______ are you eating now?
13._______ building across the street is the library?
14._______ language does he speak, English or Spanish?
15._______ kind of music do you like, classical or popular?
16._______ is more comfortable, a bus or a streetcar?
17._______ man in the class is Mr. Rodriguez?
18._______ students in the class understood the lecture?
19._______ book are you reading?

20._______ book (of the three from the library) are you reading?
C. Fill with ONE or ONES, as required.
1. The first bus was full, so I took the second _______.
2. This bus goes down Fifth Avenue, and the other _______ goes down Forty-Second St.
3. Is this taxi taken? Yes, but that _______ isnt.
4. I dont like to ride on the old taxis, I like the new _______.
5. The closed streetcars are new. The open _______ are old.
6. This seat is more comfortable than that _______.
7. This street and the next _______ have some good stores.
8. This lesson is easy. The last _______ was more difficult.
9. We have a blue book and a light brown _______.
10. In the library there are books of all sizes, big _______ and little _______ .
11. We are going to sing old songs and new _______.
12. In the living room we have one large lamp and two small _______.
13. That camera is small, but it is a good _______.
14. She has a new red dress and also a new black _______.
15. He sent his brown suit and his dark blue _______ to the cleaners.
D. Fill the blanks with the correct form of the reflexive pronouns and practice reading the
sentences aloud.
1. Carola took the bus by _____________ .
2. I need to buy _____________ a new hat.
3. She lives by _____________.
4. Why dont you speak for _____________.

5. Did you hurt _____________ when you fell?


6. He locked _____________ out of the house. Did you ever lock _____________ out?
7. We excused _____________ because we had to leave.
8. Please read to _____________, not aloud. (imperative)
9. Sometimes you have to introduce _____________ to other people.
10. She doesnt like to eat by _____________.
11. The taxi _____________ was all right, but the driver wasnt careful.
12. I _____________ prefer to take a streetcar.
13. Mrs. Miller answered the phone _____________.
14. Mr. Miller _____________ came to the door.
15. I gave the telegram to Mr. Miller _____________. (two forms)
16. The house _____________ is not large, but it is comfortable.
17. The theater _____________ is not beautiful, but the shows are good.
18. Please do the work _____________. (imperative)
19. If you do it _____________, you know that it is done.
20. The trip _____________ is very expensive, even without the cost of hotel rooms.
E1. Practice answering these questions, using a construction with by.

1. How did you come to class today, by bus, by streetcar, or on foot?


2. How did you send the letter, by air mail or by ordinary mail?
3. Do you prefer to travel by boat, by train, by plane, or by car?
4. Is that handkerchief made by hand?
5. Did you pay for it by check?

6. Did she order her groceries by telephone?


7. Did you ever read a book written by Mark Twain?
8. Did he send you the money by his brother?
9. Did you do your homework by yourself?
10. Does that train run on steam or on electricity?
E2. Fill in these sentences, using the preposition BY.
11. He drove _____ me in his car, but he didnt see me.
12. I pass _____ the park every day when I go downtown.
13. Many buses go _____ my house every day.
14. Perhaps I went _____ your house, but I didnt recognize it.
15. On your way to the hotel, will you pass _____ a church?
16. I went _____ the drugstore and forgot to get the medicine.
E3. Practice using an expression of time with BY to complete these sentences.
Example: If you write today, youll have an answer by next week.
1. Are you going to finish your work ________________?
2. Lets be there ________________ in order to get good seats.
3. They are leaving the city ________________, perhaps before.
4. You will know more English ________________.

LESSON XI
AT THE DOCTORS OFFICE

One day Carola wasnt feeling very well, so she decided to see Dr. Stone. She went to his office in
the National Bank Building. Since there were many people in his waiting room, Carola sat down to
wait for her turn. While she was reading a magazine, the nurse opened the inner door and said to
her, the doctor will see you now. Come in, please.
Dr. Stone looked very professional in his white coat. He told Carola to sit down and then asked her
many questions.
Dr.: What is the matter with you, Miss Castedo?
Carola: Well, I have a bad cold and a fever.
Dr.: Hmm. Do you have a sore throat, too?
C.:
No, not today, but I have a cough, and its hard for me to breathe through my nose.
Dr.: Do you have a headache?
C:
Yes, doctor, and I ache all over.
Dr.: And how is your appetite?
C:
Not very good.
Dr. Stone then felt Carolas pulse and took her temperature. Her pulse was a little fast, and the
thermometer showed that she had two degrees of fever. Next, the doctor examined her nose
carefully with a small light. All right, now open your mouth, please, and let me see your throat. Say
Ah. Then he took his stethoscope and listened to her chest. Take a deep breath, please. Last, he
checked her blood pressure and found it a little low.
Now, Miss Castedo, you seem to be a little run-down, too much studying, perhaps, or too many

parties. I am going to give you a shot for your cold; and here are two prescriptions, one for some
pills and one for a tonic. I advise you to rest, to stay at home for a couple of days, and to go on a
light diet. If you dont feel better then, come back and see me again, and Ill give you another
injection.
Thanks, Dr. Stone. I feel better already. How much do I owe you?
That will be three dollars. You can pay the girl; or, if you prefer, Ill send you a bill at the end of the
month. Good-bye, Miss Castedo.
Carola left the doctors office and went directly to a drugstore, where a druggist filled her
prescriptions while she waited.

To ache
To advise
All over
Bill
Blood pressure
To breathe
Chest
Cold
Cough
Degree
Druggist
Fee
Fever
Headache
Inner
Last
To let
Light

doler
aconsejar
por todas partes
cuenta
presin sangunea
respirar
pecho
resfriado
tos
grado
farmacutico
honorarios
fiebre
dolor de cabeza
interior
finalmente
permitir
luz, brillo

VOCABULARY
To look
Magazine
Next
Nose
Nurse
Office
To owe
Pill
Prescription
To rest
To seem
Shot
Since
Stethoscope
Throat
Too many
Too much
Waiting room

IDIOMS
A couple of days
un par de das
To be run-down
estar agotado
Come and see me
venga a verme
To fill a prescription
preparar un receta
To go on a light diet
ponerse a dieta ligera
To have a bad cold
tener un resfriado fuerte
To have a sore throat
Tener dolor de garganta
To take a deep breath
respirar profundo
(The) day before yesterday anteayer
What is the matter (with you)?Qu tiene usted?

parecer, verse
revista
prximo, seguidamente
narz
enfermera
oficina, consultorio
deber
pildora
receta
descansar
parecer
inyeccin
desde
estetoscopio
garganta
demasiadas
demasiado
sala de espera

CONVERSATION
Comprehension
1. Why did Carola go to see a doctor? 2. Where was the doctors office? 3. Why did she have to wait
to see him? 4. Who finally opened the inner door? 5. What was the doctors name? 6. What was the
matter with Carola? 7. Did she have a sore throat or a headache? 8. What was the doctor wearing? 9.
How was Carolas appetite? 10. What did the doctor use to listen to her chest? 11. Did he examine
her throat? 12. Did he check her blood pressure, too? 13. What did he advise her to do? 14. Did he
give her a shot for her cold? 15. How much was the doctors fee? 16. How many prescriptions did he
give her? 17. Who filled the prescriptions for her?
Personal Questions
18. Do you sometimes have a headache? An earache? A toothache? A stomach-ache? 19. Do you
ever have a sore throat? 20. Do you often have a cold? Bronchitis? 21. What do you do when you
have a cold? 22. Do you sometimes have shots for a cold? 23. Do you have high or low blood
pressure? 24. Do you sometimes feel run-down? 25. Do you like to go on a light diet? 26. Does a
doctor usually wear a white coat? Why? 27. Where is your doctors office? 28. What is his office
fee? 29. Do you pay your doctor at the end of the month? 30. In the United States, is a dentist called
a doctor? Is a lawyer? Is an engineer?
EXERCISES
A1. Replace each blank by SOME or ANY, as required, and read the sentences aloud.
1. There are _________ magazines on the table.
2. There arent _________ magazines on the table.
3. There is _________ paper on the desk.
4. There isnt _________paper on the desk.
5. Would you like _________ dessert now?
6. Did you buy _________ stamps?
7. She didnt have _________ mistakes on her paper.
8. You dont need _________ heat today.
9. His father gave him _________ money.
10. I met _________ North Americans there.
A2. Answer these questions affirmatively and negatively.

1. Is there any good music on the radio?


____________________________________________________________________________
2. Do you have any money for a tip?
____________________________________________________________________________
3. Is there any sugar in the house?
____________________________________________________________________________
4. Do you have any time to write it this afternoon?
____________________________________________________________________________
5. Are there any classes on Saturday?
____________________________________________________________________________
6. Do you have some paper for dictation?
____________________________________________________________________________
7. Do you need some stamps?
____________________________________________________________________________
8. Did you receive some letters today?
____________________________________________________________________________
9. Did you buy some vegetables for dinner?
____________________________________________________________________________
10. Are there some seats in the center of the theater?
____________________________________________________________________________
A3. Replace each blank by ANY or NO, as required, and read the sentences aloud. (See Lesson IV)
1.

He doesnt notice _________ difference in their pronunciation.


He notices _________ difference in their pronunciation.

2.

The room doesnt have _________ windows in it.


The room has _________ windows in it.

3.

They dont have _________ fireplaces in their house.


They have _________ fireplaces in their home.

4.

We dont have _________time for that now.


We have _________ time for that now.

5.

There isnt _________ heat in the building.


There is _________ heat in the building.

6.

There isnt _________ time like the present.


There is _________ time like the present.

7.

There arent _________ students absent today.


There are _________ students absent today.

8.

We dont have _________ hot water today.


We have _________ hot water today.

9.

I didnt receive _________ letters today.


I received _________ letters today.

10. She doesnt ask _________ questions in the class.


She asks _________ questions in class.
B1. Use the infinitive construction to translate the words in parentheses.
1.

The nurse asks Carola (que espere) _________________


The nurse asked her (que esperara) _________________

2.

She allows Carola (que use) the telephone. _________________


She allowed her (que usara) the telephone. _________________

3.

The doctor asks her (que abra) her mouth. _________________


The doctor asked her (que abriera) her mouth. _________________

4.

He says, Please let me (que vea) your throat. _________________

5.

He tells her (que respire profundo) _________________


He told her (que respirara profundo) _________________

6.

He advises her (que descance) _________________


He advised her (que descansara) _________________

7.

He wants her (que se quede en casa) _________________


He wanted her (que se quedara en casa) _________________

8.

He urges her (que vuelva) if she isnt better. _________________


He urged her (que volviera) if she wasnt better. _________________

9.

Robert invites Carola (que vaya) to a party. _________________


Robert invited her (que fuera) to a party. _________________

10. I beg you (que repita) these sentences many times. _________________
I begged you (que repitiera) these sentences many times. _________________
B2. Answer these questions, using the infinitive construction.
1. Did Robert ask Carola to dance?
___________________________________________________________________________
2. Did she ask him to wait for her?
___________________________________________________________________________
3. Who advised you to enter this class?
___________________________________________________________________________
4. Does your teacher advise you to study?
___________________________________________________________________________
5. Do you want me to help you with your pronunciation?
___________________________________________________________________________
6. Do you want them to go with you?
___________________________________________________________________________
7. Do parents here let their daughters go to the movies without a chaperon?
___________________________________________________________________________
8. Did you let her use your books?
___________________________________________________________________________
9. Did she tell the druggist to fill her prescriptions?
___________________________________________________________________________
10. Where did he tell us to buy that book?
___________________________________________________________________________
C1. Use the past tense with ING in the following sentences.
1. Carola _________ (go) to see the doctor when I met her.
2. She _________ (read) a magazine while she _________ (wait).

3. She _________ (sit) in the waiting room when the doctor arrived.
4. He _________ (take) her temperature when the nurse came in.
5. He _________ (listen) to her chest when he said, Take a deep breath.
6. He _________ (examine) her throat when the phone rang.
7. While the druggist _________ (fill) her prescriptions, she called up a friend.
8. She _________ (sleep) while I _________ (write) those letters.
9. It began to rain while I _________ (wait) for the bus.
10. People _________ (get on) the bus while others _________ (get off).
C2. Use the past tense with ING or the simple past, as required.
1. I _________ (write) a letter last night.
I _________ (write) a letter last night when they came.
2. The doctor _________ (give) her a shot for her cold.
The doctor _________ (give) her a shot when she fainted.
3. The sun _________ (shine) brightly all morning.
The sun _________(shine) brightly when we left.
4. It _________ (rain) hard last night.
It _________ (rain) hard last night when we arrived.
5. I _________ (walk) down Madison Avenue to the theater.
I _________ (walk) down Madison Avenue when you drove by me.
6. We _________ (take) a streetcar to go downstairs yesterday.
We _________ (ride) on a streetcar when you passed us in your car.
7. She _________ (have) her dinner early last night.
She _________ (have) her dinner when he called her.

8. Carola _________ (wait) for us for half an hour.


While Carola _________ (wait) for us, she saw an accident.
9. The doorbell _________ (ring) only once this morning.
While I _________ (listen) to the radio, the doorbell rang.
10.She _________ (lose) the money yesterday afternoon.
While she _________ (go) to the doctors, she lost the money.
C3. Answer these questions in complete sentences.
1. Where were you going when I saw you?
___________________________________________________________________________
2. Was the sun shining when you got up this morning?
___________________________________________________________________________
3. What was the teacher saying when you came in?
___________________________________________________________________________
4. What was Carola doing while she was waiting for the doctor?
___________________________________________________________________________
5. What was the druggist doing while Carola was telephoning?
___________________________________________________________________________
D. Complete the following sentences with the correct one of the above prepositions, and read the
sentences aloud.
1. I would like _________ leave class early today.
2. We learned the address _________ asking a friend.
3. We will stay _________ two hours; we have to leave _________ ten.
4. They sold the desk _________ fifty dollars.
5. Those shoes are too wide _________ me _________ wear.
6. Did you go _________ the movies last night?
7. Robert called Carola _________ ask her _________ a date.
8. Mrs. Miller gave a party _________ Carola.
9. Are you going _________ way of Miami or Mexico City?

10. We hope _________leave _________ two oclock.


11. Do you wear glasses _________ reading?
12. We waited _________ fifteen minutes and then took a taxi.
13. Lets ask Carola _________ have dinner with us.
14. She got to the theater _________ taking two buses.
15. I sent a letter _________ air mail yesterday.
16. I hope _________ learn _________ speak English some day.
17. I have a little notebook _________ addresses.
18. He earns his living _________ selling shoes.
19. Please call me _________ Friday morning.
20. Robert is going to the drugstore _________ some ice cream.
21. They lived there _________ five years before coming here.
22. He waited after class _________ talk with the teacher.
23. If you write now, you will have an answer _________ Monday.
24. Carola needs _________ have more rest and _________ stay at home a few days.
25. The bus goes _________ my house every half hour.
26. They stayed after class _________ sing.
27. They stayed after class _________learn some new songs.
28.They are learning _________ speak English _________ practicing it with North Americans.
29.Robert calls Carola up _________ ask her _________ go _________ the movies.
30. People usually use a pen _________ writing letters.
31. _________ the way, do you know the idioms _________ heart?

32.Paul went _________ his room _________ get a book.


33.It is important _________ you _________ come _________ class regularly.
34. Carola is going _________ the grocery store _________ buy some fruit.

LESSON XII
EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES

Carola: How many years did you go to school before you came to the university?
Robert: Thirteen years.
C: What a long time! And it didnt cost you a cent?
R: No, because I went to public schools, as most Americans do.
C: How old were you when you started school?
R: I was five years old when I went to kindergarten.
C: And after kindergarten?
R: Then I went to first grade, second grade, and so on, through eighth grade. That made eight
years in elementary or primary school.
C: Do all children go to high school then?
R: Well, almost all, because education is compulsory until a certain age, and in most states the
age is sixteen.
C: Was the high school in the same building as the elementary school?
R: No, there are five big schools in my hometown, and I went to the nearest one: Monroe High
school. It was five blocks from my home.
C: How many students were there in the school?
R: If I remember correctly, there were about fifteen hundred boys and girls. Most of our public
schools are coeducational, you know.
C: And how many years did you go to high school?
R: Four years. The first year we are freshmen, the second year sophomores, the third year juniors,
and the fourth year seniors.
C: And when you finished high school, did you get the degree of Bachelor?
R: No. When we graduate from high school we get a diploma. A student does not receive a
bachelors degree until he graduates from college.
C: Then what is college? I thought that it was the same as high school or colegio.
R: No, not at all. A colegio is similar to our high school; when we graduate from high school, we
are ready to go to college.
C: Then a college is like a university?
R: Yes, Virginia, thats it. The principal difference is that a university has several colleges or
schools, such as the college of Engineering, the School of Medicine, and the School of Law;
but the largest unit of the university is usually the College of Liberal Arts. There are also many
liberal arts colleges which are not connected with any university. They offer a general four-year

C:
R:

C:
R:
C:
R:
C:
R:

C:
R:
C:
R:
C:
R:

C:

course and give a bachelors degree to the graduates just as the corresponding college of a
university does. In any case, a college or university student does not begin to major in a special
field until his junior year.
Did you have to take an examination to enter the university?
No, fortunately, but that depends on the college or university. If we graduate from high school
with good grades, many colleges or universities will accept us without requiring an examination.
It is necessary, however, to make an application for entrance many months in advance. The
school year always begins in September or October and ends in May or June.
Did you ever fail an examination?
Oh, yes, but I never flunked a course, thank goodness!
What does flunk mean?
Flunk is a colloquial expression used by students instead of fail
How large are the colleges and universities?
There are schools of every size and description: large and small, public and private,
coeducational and for men or women alone, schools with a campus and without, schools in
large cities and in small towns. Some universities have twenty thousand students or more,
whereas some liberal arts colleges have three hundred students or even fewer.
Do many girls go to college?
Oh, yes, the ratio in general is about three men students to two woman students.
Is it very expensive to go to college?
Yes, it is. But remember that education through high school is free, and most young people
finish high school. Many cannot go to college because it costs too much.
How much does it cost?
Well, about a thousand dollars a year, more or less. Thats an average, and it includes tuition,
board and room, books, laboratory fees, travel expenses, and some clothes. It really depends on
the school and also on the person.
Please forgive me for asking you so many questions, Bob, but it is all very interesting. I
understand your educational system much better now than before. Thanks a lot.
VOCABULARY

Age
Almost
And so on
Application
Average
Bachelor
Campus
Certain
Clothes
Coeducational
Colloquial
Compulsory
Degree

Edad
Casi
Etctera
Solicitud
Promedio
Bachiller, licenciado
Terrenos de la universidad
Cierto
Ropa
Mixta (varones y mujeres)
Familiar, de uso corriente
Obligatorio
Ttulo
acadmico

Engineering
Ingeniera
To enter
Entrar (en)
Entrance
Admisin, ingreso
Expenses
Gastos
To fail
Fracasar, reprobar
Fees
Derechos
Field
Campo (de estudios)
To flunk
Fracasar, aplasarse
To forgive Perdonar
Fortunately Afortunadamente
Free
Libre
Grade
Ao escolar, calificacin
High school Colegio
de
educacin
secundaria

To include Incluir
Law
Ley, derecho
To major in Especializarse en
Most
La mayora de
To offer
Ofrecer
Private
Privado(a)
Ratio
Proporcin
IDIOMS
Room and board
To depend on
To fail an examination
To go to college
In advance
In any case
Start school
To take an examination
Thank goodness!
Thanks a lot!
What a long time!

Similar
Such as
System
Travel
Tuition
Unit
Whereas

Similar
Tal(es) como, como ser
Sistema
Viaje, viajar
Valor (costo) de la enseanza
Unidad
Mientras que

Alimentacin y alojamiento
Depender de
Aplazarse en un examen
Seguir estudios universitarios
Con anticipacin, adelanto
De cualquier manera
Empezar la escuela
Rendir un examen
Gracias a Dios!
Un monton de gracias!
Qu tiempo ms largo!

CONVERSATION
Answer the following questions in complete sentences.
1. Are there more public or private schools in the United States? In your country? 2. Do most
children go to public schools in the United States? In your country? 3. Do all children go to
kindergarten in the United States? In your Country? 4. How many years do they go to elementary
school in the United States?, in your Country? 5. How many years do they go to high school in the
United States? In your Country? 6. Are American high schools larger than yours? 7. Do you have
high schools that are coeducational? 8. Why do most American children finish high school? 9. Is a
college the same as a colegio and a liceo in your country. 10. What is the difference between an
American college and a university? 11. Do you have a University in your city? What is its name? Is
it very old? Where is it situated? How many students attend it? How many women students attend it?
Is it very expensive? 12. What degree is given after four years at an American University? What
degree is given to the graduates of your universities? 13. When does the school year begin and end in
the United States? In your country? 14. Explain in English the meaning of tuition and room and
board. 15. If the teacher gives you an examination on these questions, do you think you will flunk
it?
EXERCISES
A. Practice writing these sentences in the affirmative, then in the negative.
1. The high school was in the same building as the elementary school.
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2. A high school is the same as a colegio.


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3. Virginias classes come at the same time as Roberts.
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4. Virginia is as old as Robert.
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5. She studies English as much as he studies Spanish.
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6. This course is as difficult as that one.
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7. The School of Medicine is as large as the School of Law.
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8. This college is as good as that one.
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9. This college campus is as large as that one.
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10. Tuition is as expensive as room and board.
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B. Practice changing these comparisons from Type 1 to Type 2.
Example: Virginia is like her mother in many ways.
She and her mother are alike in many ways.
1. His new coat is similar to his fathers.
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2. The new clothes are different from the old ones.
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3. Your telephone number is similar to ours.
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4. The customs of one Latin-American country are much like those of another.
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5. North American customs are often different from South American customs.
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6. The Colombian flag is similar to the Venezuelan flag.
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7. A Bachelor of Arts degree is different from a bachillerato.
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8. A high school diploma is similar to a bachillerato.
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9. A separate liberal arts college is like the corresponding college of a university.
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10. The schools in one state are similar to the schools in another state.
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11. This application form is like that one.


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12. Roberts program of studies is different from Virginiass.
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13. His tuition is not like Charless.
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14. This engineering course is similar to that one.
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C. Practice completing these sentences, using the comparative and superlative forms of the
adjective or adverb.
Example: This is a good college.
This is a better college than that one.
This is the best college in the state.
1. I have a bad cold.
My cold is _________ yours.
I am having my _________ cold of the year.
2. Robert doesnt have much money.
Robert has _________ money _________ some of the university students.
His friend George has the _________ money of all.
3. There are many colleges in the state of Ohio.
There are _________ colleges in New York State _________ in Ohio.
Pennsylvania has the _________ colleges of any state.
4. There is little difference between the English of the East and that of the West.
There is _________ difference between the English Boston and Chicago _________ between
the English of the North and the South.
There is the _________ difference between the English of Chicago and that of San Francisco.
5. Few children go to private schools in the United States.
_________ children go to private schools _________ to public schools.
This class has the _________ students of all.
6. She speaks English very well.
He speaks it _________ his brother.
He speaks it the _________ of anyone in his class.
7. He writes badly, and its hard to read his writing.
He writes _________ his brother.
He writes _________ of anyone in his family.