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Refereni tiinifici: conf. univ. dr. Delia Lungu
conf. univ. dr. Nicolae Florin

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naionale a Romniei

Limba englez : Anul I : Inginerie i management
naval portuar / Camelia Alibec. - Constana : Editura
Academiei Navale "Mircea cel Btrn", 2009
ISBN 978-973-1870-38-0


Editura Academiei Navale Mircea cel Btrn, 2009, pentru prezenta ediie

Corector: Ozana Chakarian
Tehnoredactare: Gabriela Marieta Secu
Copert: Gabriela Marieta Secu

Editura Academiei Navale Mircea cel Btrn
Str. Fulgerului nr. 1, 900218, Constana
Tel. 0241/626200/1219, fax 0241/643096

ISBN 978-973-1870-38-0














Cursul de limb englez pentru exploatri portuare contribuie la nsuirea
cunotinelor generale de limb englez precum i a termenilor de specialitate,
fiind structurat n opt uniti. Cursul este destinat studenilor de anul I de la
specialitatea exploatari portuare i este un mijloc eficient de formare i instruire
a viitorilor specialiti.
Cursul i propune consolidarea cunotinelor de baz n domeniul
gramaticii limbii engleze precum i dezvoltarea capacitilor de nelegere i
exprimare oral, citire i scriere n limba englez, extinderea vocabularului,
nsuirea i aplicarea normelor gramaticale n exprimarea situativ conform
tematicii prevzute n unitile de studiu din program. Extinderea vocabularului
se face prin abordarea textelor care conin temeni de specialitate referitori la
nomenclatura navei, operaiuni portuare precum i expresii recomandate pentru
traficul maritim i portuar
Limbajul de specialitate este dublat de cel lingvistic care are ca scop
folosirea corect a diverselor structuri gramaticale n scris sau n conversaie.
Cursul poate fi considerat i un punct de plecare pentru aprofundarea
studiului de specialitate, de cunoatere mai detaliat a structurilor limbii engleze
i folosirea lor n ndeplinirea atribuiunilor profesionale.
Cursul este structurat in 8 uniti, fiecare unitate fiind compus dintr-un
text de specialitate, urmat de traducerea vocabularului si expresiilor aferente
textului. Partea de vocabular este urmat de problema de gramatica, care este
introdus de elemente de teorie urmate de un grup de exerciii pe tema de
gramatic respectiv. Dup parcurgerea celor 8 uniti, cursul se ncheie cu 2
teste de autoevaluare cu cheie de rspuns, o list de verbe neregulate si n final
Nu uitai c acest curs este un instrument de autoinstruire i chiar dac
problemele de gramatic nu sunt tratate n mod exhaustiv, putei s v completai
cunotinele alegnd orice alt culegere de gramatic de limb englez.

Good luck and keep up your English!


Why do you learn a foreign language? Because it is a necessity, an act of culture, it
is something you like, it is fun, it is challenging!
Speaking about English, learning it, it is more than a necessity, it is an emergency!
English is a global language. It is the language of world diplomacy, business,
finance, science, and technology.
- 350 million people speak and write English as their native language.
- An additional 350 million people speak and write English as their second
- Half of the worlds books are published in English.
- 80 % of the worlds computer text is in English.
Last but not least, the international language for airline pilots is English. No matter
where you fly, that is what is spoken.
You are able to say that you know a language well if you know how to
communicate in that language. Good writing and speaking meets five basic standards: it
is clear, complete, correct, efficient, and effective.
In order to write and speak well you have to know the grammar rules that seem to
be scary, more frightening than a sail on the Titanic or a night with Michael Jackson!
English rules are scary, yes- but difficult, no.
What is grammar? Grammar is a branch of linguistics that deals with the form and
structure of words. Grammar is one of the oldest fields of study, as well as one of the
most durable. Even Plato can be labelled an early grammarian, because he was
responsible for dividing the sentence into subject and verb.
Apart from grammar we also deal with usage. Usage is the customary way we use
the language in speech and writing. Because we use language for different purposes, there
exists various levels of language:
- formal usage (They have done nothing)
- informal usage ( Theyve done nothing)
- Non-standard usage ( They aint done nothing)
Standard English is composed of formal and informal usage. It is the language of
education, legal, professional, and governmental documents.
Good or bad it indicates social class. It is the right stuff of speech and writing.
Standard English is used in business letters, rsums, cover letters, serious
speeches, newspaper articles, scholarship.
Informal English is used in most books, newspapers, magazines, informal letters,
many textbooks, political speeches.
Substandard English is used in conversation, movies, television, radio, regional
The correct level of usage is the one that is appropriate for the occasion.


The last element related to language is style. Personal style is the way you dress,
walk and talk to make an impression on those you meet. Writing style is the words you
choose for your writing, how you connect them, and the impression they make on your
A writers style is his or her distinctive way of writing.
They say that English has far more lives than a cat. People have been murdering
English for years, and it refuses to die. If anything, it just keeps going stronger.
Believe it or not, grammar comes from the same word that glamour comes from. In
the 1700s, grammar meant enchantment, magic.
To most of us, actors like Tom Cruise have glamour, but not grammar. But you are
wrong! Grammar can have glamour. It can even be sexy!
Sentences are made up of words. Any number of words can be used in a sentence:
He left us/ Until tomorrow then/ Yes. We can combine words with each other in many
ways to make new sentences: I can help you/ Can I help you?
Grammar describes how this is done. Each word in a sentence belongs to a
particular set or class, depending on how it is used. These classes are called parts of
All sentences begin with a capital letter and end in either a full stop, a question
mark, or an exclamation mark. When we describe the use of these marks (commas,
semicolons, full stops, brackets, and so on, we are talking about punctuation.
The term clause is used to describe a group of words that contain a verb, the
subject of that verb, and an object: I live in London/ They were writing a letter.
A sentence can contain one or more clauses: I can help you if you will let me.
A clause always contains a verb (run, walk, believe). A sentence does not always
have to be a clause: Certainly not/ Why/ Yes.
A phrase is just a group of words: the other day/ in spite of/ over the hill/ my friend
Henry. The term phrase is usually kept for words which go together naturally.
Many words can refer to one thing only or to more than one. We use the term
singular and plural for this. A more general term is number.
When we want to identify the speaker or the person spoken about in grammar, we
use first person to mean the speaker, second person to mean the person who is spoken
to, and third person to mean the person who is spoken about (I, you, he, she, we, they).
A verb informs us about an action or a state of being. Ordinary verbs are called
main verbs (come, want, go, believe). A main verb is sometimes called a doing word.
A special group of verbs are called auxiliary verbs (am thinking, has seen, can help).
These combine with main verbs to form different tenses.
A noun is a word that labels a thing or an idea (table, time, ship); they are also
called naming words. If we do not want to repeat the same noun in a sentence we can
replace it with a pronoun. A pronoun is a substitute for a noun phrase or a noun.
An adjective gives further information about a noun; they are also called
describing words(a tall person, a big ship, a rusty hull).
A determiner is used to point more precisely to the person, thing, or idea to which
reference is being made. Among the determiners are definite and indefinite articles and
possessives (a ship, the captain, my company, their voyage).


An adverb gives information about the way that an action is performed or when
and where it takes place: She ran quickly down the path/ He lifted the box slowly.
A preposition is one of a small group of words that can be used with nouns and
verbs. They give information about position or movement (on the deck, to the harbour, at
the gates, over the bridge).
A conjunction joints two or more nouns or clauses to each other; they are
sometimes called joining words (He picked it up and ran over to her).


Historical perspective: The first boats
Nobody knows exactly when people first started using craft to travel on water, but
it must have been tens of thousands of years ago. The first craft were probably extremely
simple-just a log, an inflated animal skin, or a bundle of reeds tied together.
People discovered that craft like these could help them to cross a stretch of water
more easily. These craft probably developed into early simple boats, such as dug-out
canoes and skin-covered boats, in which a person could sit while fishing or travelling
along a river. The basic designs are still in use in many areas of the world today and have
many advantages over modern boats.
Facts: A dug-out canoe is made by hollowing out a thick tree trunk to leave a thin
wooden hull. The hull is smoothed and shaped so that it moves easily through the
In 1970, Norwegian Thor Heyerdahl built a large Egyptian-style reed boat called
Ra II. He sailed it from Africa to the Caribbean. This proved the Egyptians would
have been able to reach America more than 4,000 years ago.
The age of sail
Sails capture the wind and use it to push ships and boats along. Sails first appeared
on ships on the river Nile in about 3500BC. These ships had one simple square sail on a
single mast. They were only useful when the wind was blowing in the same direction that
the crew of the ship wanted to go. Viking boats in the AD600s used square sails to sail
the coasts of Scandinavia.
In the Middle Ages, the lateen (triangular) sail allowed ships to be sailed with the
wind from the side. This type of sail was invented by the Chinese and Arabs.
From the 1100s, European sailors began building fully rigged ships with a
combination of square and lateen sails. This allowed them to make the maximum use of
the wind.
Steam power
The first steam engines were developed in the early 1700s for pumping water out
of the mines. By the end of the century they had become small and engineers began to use
them in trains and ships. Steam power meant that a ship could keep going even if the
wind was in the wrong direction.
Early steamships used paddles, but propellers gradually proved to be more
efficient. After the 1850s, shipbuilders began to use iron instead of wood. The superior


strength of iron meant that much larger ships could be built, which could also be fitted
with more powerful steam engines.
Facts: The first craft to use steam power was a small river boat called the
Charlotte Dundas, launched in 1802.
Ship Power
There are many different ways of propelling boats and ships through the water. The
most basic, such as rowing and paddling, are human- powered. Today they are only used
in small vessels.
Sails harness the natural power of the wind to propel a boat or a ship. Engines
convert the energy stored in fuel into the movement of a propeller. As the propeller spins,
its blades force water to rush backwards, which thrusts the boat or ship forwards. Most
engines used in boats and ships are diesel engines.
Other types of marine engine are petrol engines, gas turbine engines and steam
turbine engines. Other craft, such as hovercraft, have aircraft-like propellers.
Facts: In 1845, two ships, one with a propeller and one with paddlewheels, fought
a war. The battle was to find the most efficient. The propeller easily won.
Craft ambarcaiune
Bundle of reeds snop de stuf
Stretch of water ntindere de apa
Hollow out a scobi
Hull corpul, coca navei
Dug-out canoe piroga, luntre din trunchi scobit
Sail pnza de corabie, vela
Mast catarg
Rigged ships nava cu velatura
Steam abur
Steamship vapor cu abur
Paddle zbat, padela
Propeller elice
Harness a intensifica
Spin a se roti
Blade pala de elice, paleta de turbina
Thrust a mpinge
Hovercraft ambarcaiune pe perna de aer


What is a noun?
A noun is a word that names a person, place, or thing. The word noun comes from
the Latin word nomen, which means name. Nouns are of different kinds: common nouns,
proper nouns, abstract nouns, compound nouns and collective nouns.
Proper nouns name a specific person, place, or thing. They are written with capital
letters Bob, Bucharest, Britain, Monday, April, Mars, the War of the Roses etc.
The days of the week and the months of the year are always written with capital
letters (unlike in the Romanian language) and also the names of nationalities and
languages, no matter the position in the sentence.
Some proper nouns have become common nouns, therefore they are not written
with capital letters anymore. Here there are examples of: objects named after their place
of origin (China, Holland, Oxfords) or objects named after those who invented,
discovered, inspired them (a hovercraft, a mackintosh, an Oscar, a tommy-private in the
army, a volt, a watt).
Common nouns name any one of a class of person, place, or thing: boy, city, dog,
family, food, water, happiness. They are divided into the following groups, according to
their meaning:
Abstract nouns name actions, states, sensations, senses, relations, considered to be
notions. They refer to intangible items. Examples: joy, love, friendship, greatness, labour,
rest, force, etc.
Concrete nouns name objects, plants, things, phenomena and events, which we are
aware of using our senses. They refer to tangible items. Examples: moon, lion, tree, John,
Collective nouns name groups of people or things: audience, family, team, crowd,
council, association, government, crew, congress, the public etc.
Compound nouns are two or more nouns that function as a single unit. A
compound noun can be two individual words (time capsule), hyphenated words (great-
uncle), combined words (basketball).
Another important criterion in selecting nouns is their countability. According to
this, we can divide nouns into: countable and uncountable nouns.
Count nouns refer to things that we can count; they have singular and plural forms
and can be preceded by the definite article a, an.
Examples: one (a) cat, two cats, flowers, children, families, days, birds, crowds etc.
Uncountable nouns name objects that cannot be counted, they do not have plural
form and do not get the definite article. In this category we have:
- names of sports (football, tennis, rugby),
- material or concrete mass nouns (steam, smoke, meat, silver),
- natural products (fat, marmalade, milk, oil),
- fruit, vegetables and cereals (corn, maize, rice, rye, celery, spinach,
- abstract mass nouns (admiration, applause, age, homework, peace, youth).


! Note that nouns that are uncountable in English may be count nouns in other
languages (information, advice), or there are nouns used only in the plural form even
when we are talking about one item (trousers, clothes, jeans). We have to use a partitive
noun with of when referring to a single item (a pair of trousers, an item of clothes, a pair
of jeans).
Gender of nouns
Gender is the grammatical category specific to nouns and it represents the form of
nouns to show sex difference, when speaking about animates, and the absence of gender
when speaking about inanimates.
English grammar has 3 types of gender:
Gender of personal nouns:
- masculine gender: man, actor, landlord, hero, bull, brother
- feminine gender: woman, actress, landlady, heroine, cow, sister.
This type of gender can be expressed in 3 ways:
a) lexically - with the help of different words:
brother/ sister, king/ queen, man/ woman, uncle/ aunt.
b) morphologically
- by adding a suffix to the masculine form (actress, hostess, princess, goddess,
waitress, heroine).
- by adding a suffix to the feminine form (widow- widower, bride- bridegroom)
c) common gender one form for both masculine and feminine: artist, cook,
doctor, friend, musician, cousin, parent, person, student, teacher, writer.
Gender of animate nouns animate nouns are classified into:
a) names of big animals, which are generally of male gender (horse). There can be a
distinction male-female: horse (stallion-mare); deer (stag-hind); sheep (ram-ewe), or
adding suffixes (lion-lioness, tiger-tigress).
b) names of small animals, which are neuter, being replaced by it. In some cases there
are lexical differences: cock-hen, gander-goose, dog-bitch. There are also special
gender words: he goat-she goat, Tom cat-she cat, male frog-female frog.
Gender of inanimate nouns these nouns are neuter: Where is my umbrella? I t is in my
bag/ The truth will emerge; it always does.
Case of nouns
Case is the way in which a noun can be given a change of spelling (an inflection),
which indicates that the noun has a particular function in a clause, Case is used to denote
the syntactical functions of nouns.
The nominative case for the nouns which are subjects in a sentence (My boy is waiting
for his friend), or predicates (He is a teacher).
The accusative case is the case of the direct object (I ate an ice-creaman hour ago).
If there is only one object in the sentence, this is a direct object in the accusative
(Shut the window, please); if there are two objects, both could be direct objects in the
accusative (I asked him a question), or one indirect object in the dative and one direct
object in the accusative (I lent her my umbrella).
The following verbs are followed by two accusatives: ask, envy, excuse, give,
forgive, offer, save, strike, etc.


The dative case is the case of the indirect object. It is marked by the prepositions to and
for (She gave some sweets to the children/ I bought a present for my mother).
The genitive case expresses possession and the syntactical function of attribute. There
are several types of genitive:
a) Thes genitive (synthetic genitive) operates as follows: for singular nouns (girls
dress, Anns bag, teachers book), for irregular plural nouns (mens car, childrens
toys), for plural nouns (boys cars, Dickens life).
b) The of genitive is used as an equivalent of the s genitive (the plays of
Shakespeare). It is used with nouns, names of things (the title of the book), with
geographical places (the city of London), for emphasizing (the arrival of his
grandfather), with names of small animals (the tail of the mouse).
c) The implicit genitive no s: audience participation, student hostel, afternoon tea
(this type of genitive is used in contemporary English, especially in journalism).
d) The double genitive s genitive + of genitive with names of people (this joke of
The vocative case Bob, hurry up! / Have you got a minute, Mr Brown?
Number in nouns
Singular number is used when the noun refers to one item. Plural number is used
when the noun refers to more than one item. Count nouns have both singular and plural
forms. Uncountable nouns and mass nouns do not normally have a plural form.
The regular plural ending of an English noun is s (cat-cats, ship-ships, sailor-
These are the exceptions to the normal pattern:
Singular noun ending Plural noun ending
-s, -ss, -ch, -x, -zz es`
examples: focus-focuses, princess-princesses, church-churches, box-boxes, buzz-buzzes
-o -s or es
examples: hero-heroes, piano-pianos, potato-potatoes
consonant + y -ies
examples: baby-babies, hobby-hobbies, spy-spies
vowel + y -s
examples: boy-boys, key-keys, ray-rays, play-plays
-f -s or ves
examples: thief-thieves, wolf-wolves, leaf-leaves, roof-roofs, dwarf-dwarfs/ dwarves
-fe -ves
examples: life-lives, knife-knives
Irregular plurals
Some nouns have two plural forms (fish-fish/ fishes). Some of them have the same
form in the singular and plural (a sheep-ten sheep, a deer-ten deer). A few change a
vowel to form the plural (man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese, tooth-teeth,
mouse-mice, louse-lice). Some nouns form the plural in en (child-children, ox-oxen).
Compound nouns normally form the plural by adding s to the last word of the
compound (a girl friend-two girl friends, a bookcase-two bookcases). A compound noun


formed from a verb and an adverb adds s to the last word (a take-away/ two take-aways),
but a compound noun formed from a noun and an adverb makes the first word plural (a
passer-by/ two passers-by). Compound nouns with man or woman as the first word make
both words plural (a manservant-two menservants, a woman doctor-two woman doctors).
Some nouns referring to clothes and tools where two equal parts are joined together
(trousers, binoculars, scissors) are treated as being plural and are followed by a verb in
the plural (My trousers are torn/ The scissors are on the table). To talk about one of these
items we use the expression a pair of(John bought a pair of jeans). To talk about more
than one we talk about however many pairs of(Martina bought five pairs of tights).
When used as ordinary numbers, words such as dozen, thousands, million have no
plural form (nine million stars/ two dozen glasses). When used to mean an indefinitely
large number, they do have a plural form, which can be used as a partitive (There are
thousands of people here/ I saw dozens of children in the playground).
Foreign plurals
Nouns that have come into English from foreign languages can:
- keep the plural form of the language they come from (an axis-two axes, a crisis-two
crises, a thesis-two theses, datum-data)
- have plural formed according to the rules for plural in English in preference to the
foreign plurals (a memorandum-two memorandums/memoranda, a stadium-two
stadiums/ stadia)
- have two plurals: one from the foreign language and the other formed according to
the rules for plural in English (an index-indexes/indices, a formula-formulas/
The foreign plural is usually kept for scientific or specialized use.
Singular and plural verbs
Generally if we want to talk about one thing we use a singular noun/pronoun and a
singular verb-form:
This is the new engine. The engine/I t works very well.
If we talk about more than one thing we use a plural noun/pronoun and a plural verb-
Have you seen the new engines? The new engines/They work very well.
Subject-verb agreement means to choose the correct singular or plural verb after the
subject for present. An uncountable noun takes a singular verb-form:
Seawater is getting colder and colder in winter.
Singular and plural subjects
Two or more phrases linked by and take a plural verb:
J amie and Emma go sailing at the weekends.
Wheat and maze areexported.
When the two words express something that we see as a whole we use a singular verb:
Bread and butter was all we had.
When two phrases are linked by or the verb usually agrees with the nearest:


Either my sister or my neighbours arelooking after the dog when Im at sea.
A phrase of measurement takes a singular verb:
Ten miles is too far to walk.
Thirty pounds seems a reasonable price.
Titles and names also take a singular verb when they refer to one thing:
Star Wars was a very successful film.
A phrase with as well as, with, and, in brackets or between commas takes a singular
George, together with some of his friends, is buying a yacht.
After not only...but also, the verb agrees with the nearest phrase:
Not only George but also his friends arebuying the yacht.
If a phrase comes after a noun, the verb agrees with the first noun:
The ship between the two ferries is damaged.
After a subject with one of the verb is singular:
One of these messages is for you.
When a plural noun is preceded by: a number of, a majority of, a lot of the verb is in the plural:
A large number of letters werereceived.
We use a singular verb after a subject with every and each, and compounds with every,
some, any, no:
Every student has to take a test.
Nothing ever happens in this place.
All and some with a plural noun take a plural verb:
Some passengers weresitting on the deck.
We use a singular verb after who or what:
Who knows the answer?
After what/which + noun, the verb agrees with the noun:
Which day is convenient?
After none of/ either of/ neither of/ any of + plural noun phrase we can use either a
singular or a plural verb. The plural is more informal.
I dont know if either (of the batteries) is/aregood.
After there, the verb agrees with its complement:
There was an accident.
There weresome accidents.
Nouns with a plural form: a plural noun takes a plural form
Some nouns are always plural: belongings, clothes, congratulations, earnings, goods,
odds, outskirts, particulars, premises, remains, riches, surroundings, thanks, troops,
tropics etc:
The goods werefound to be defective.
Some nouns have a plural form but a singular meaning: news; subjects (of study);
sports; games: billiards, darts; illness: measles, mumps etc. therefore the agreement is
made with the singular verb:
Billiards is a game.
Pair nouns: binoculars, glasses, jeans, pants, pincers, pliers, pyjamas, scales,
scissors, shorts, spectacles, tights, trousers, tweezers etc. A plural noun takes a plural


Where are the pliers?
Group nouns, also called collective nouns, can take a verb in the singular or plural,
depending whether we see the noun as a whole or as a number of individuals:
The crew was / werein a cheerful mood.
Some group nouns are: army, association, audience, board, choir, class, club, college,
committee, community, company, council, crew, crowd, enemy, family, firm, gang,
government, group, jury, majority, navy, orchestra, party, population, press, public,
school, staff, team, union, university etc.
The names of institutions, companies and teams are also group nouns:
Brazil is/areexpected to win.
Grammar Practice. Noun
Exercise 1. Use a collective noun for the following:
1. father, mother, sons and daughters;
2. the eleven players in a game of football;
3. a multitude of persons;
4. the group of sailors working on a ship or boat;
5. scores of sheep together.
Exercise 2. Use a compound noun to illustrate:
1. a desk for writing at;
2. an engine driven by steam;
3. a wall made of stone;
4. a man who makes a wall by laying bricks one on top of the other;
5. a machine for washing clothes;
6. a box for holding matches;
7. a room in which you sleep;
8. a room in which you wash;
9. a pen containing ink in it;
10. a railway carriage in which people can take their meals.
Exercise 3. Give the plural of the following nouns . Use them in sentences.
a) bus, town, woman, box, fly, key, bee, Englishman. tooth, wish, goose, city, potato,
book, child, leaf, life, foot, apple, toy, ball, wolf, safe, ox.
b) brush, thief, Chinese, German, donkey, shelf, fish, cliff, Swiss, inch, sheep, louse,
bamboo, handkerchief, axe, proof, phenomenon, dynamo, means, piano.
c) echo, loaf, niece, half, chief, volcano, Japanese, deer, mouse, knife, birth, daughter,
buffalo, atlas.


Exercise 4. Give the plural of the following nouns; explain the differences between
the two forms and use them in sentences: fruit, fish, damage, air, compass, pain,
Exercise 5. Fill in the gaps with the most suitable noun:
Model: a . . . of cards; a pack of cards:
1. a ... of boots; 2. a of sheep; 3. a of cattle; 4. a of hounds; 5. a of birds; 6. a
of mosquitoes; 7. a of fish; 8. a of trousers; 9. aof swine; 10. a of robbers;
11. a of stockings; 12. a of whales; 13. a of footballers; 14. a of wolves; 15.
an at a concert; 16. a of flowers; 17. a of lies;
Exercise 6. Give the feminine correspondents of the following masculine nouns:
a) man, father, brother, milkman, Englishman, son-in-law, sportsman, nephew, boy, Mr,
husband, uncle, chairman.
b) widower, wizard, waiter, bachelor, lord, king, bridegroom, hero, dog, bull, horse,
gander, ram, peacock , drone.
c) duke, prince, actor, god, host, waiter, manager, tzar, sultan, poet, nephew, vixen.
Exercise 7. Form nouns by adding the appropriate noun-forming suffixes to the
following adjectives:
SUFFIX 1 2 3
-ness short existential mean
-ism cruel foolish childish
-th sane social anxious
-dom gay short long
-(i)ty/iety free wide strong
Exercise 8. Give the corresponding nouns for the following verbs and adjectives:
To bleed, to bath, to sing, to believe, to breathe, to feed, to lose, to live, to prove, to
Broad, deep, long, strong, wide, new.
Exercise 9. Use the Saxon genitive (s) in the following sentences:
1. He knows nothing about the climate of this country.
2. Do you know the name of the typist of the manager?
3. The new car of the friend of his cousin is a Dacia 1300.
4. Jane doesnt know the time table of her daughter.
5. She does not doubt the good intentions of the parents of her husband.
6. You can easily notice the first signs of spring.
7. The dresses of the shop-girls are the best advertisement.
8. They all welcomed the protection of the police.
9. These are the best plays of Shaw.
10. He has been studying the folklore of Scotland for several years.
11. The parents of all the children are present at the meeting.
12. She wont say a word about the purpose of her life.
13. The industry of Romania is in full swing.
14. The high note of the nightingale can be easily heard.


Exercise 10. Translate into Romanian:
1. Weve run out of orange juice; youd better go to the grocers and buy some.
2. My husbands new suit is not ready yet; it is still at the tailors.
3. When you go to UK dont miss the chance to go to Madame Tussauds.
4. They usually buy fresh fruits at the greengrocers every Monday morning.
5. Have you ever seen St. Jamess?
6. They decided to go to the lawyers tomorrow at noon.
7. On your way home you might stop at the tobacconists and buy some cigarettes for
8. I have been an employee at Fords for twenty years.
9. Ill go to the hairdressers later.
10. Before my coming back home, I dropped into the bakers where I bought a loaf of soft
bread and these delicious rolls.
Exercise 11. Translate into English paying attention to the genitive case:
1. Strzile acestui ora sunt foarte largi.
2. Cstoria copiilor prietenilor mei a avut loc acum dou sptmni.
3. Acesta este noul profesor de matematic al fiului meu.
4. nainte de a ncepe orele, am fcut o plimbare de douzeci de minute.
5. Personalul acestei companii este format din treizeci de oameni.
6. In intervalul de o lun care urmeaz, terminm toate examenele.
7. La vrsta lui, o cltorie de zece ore cu trenul trebuie s fie foarte obositoare.
8. Nu trebuie s uitm niciodat de drepturile celor sraci.
9. O ateptare de cinci minute nu mai conteaz.
10. Ziarul de ieri a publicat multe tiri interesante.
Exercise 12. Form derivative nouns from the following
1. to decide approve 3. to discuss 4. to refer 5. to discover 6. to teach 7. to weigh
grow 9. to pay

10. to perform 11. to limit 12. to betray.
1. national 2. wise 3. likely 4. free 5. great 6. weak 7. kind 8. happy 9. true 10. deep
11. high 12. warm
1. dictator 2. friend 3. scholar 4. leader 5. child 6. piano 7. music 8. mathematics 10. host 11. widow 12. waiter.
Exercise 13. Rewrite in the plural:
1.This is a box.
2. Thats a lorry.
3. Wheres the knife?
4. Is it your watch?
5. This is a new house.
6. Thats an old chimney.
7. That isnt my dress.
8. Thats a shoe.
9. Whos this man?


10. Hes a farmer and this is his wife.
11. Thats a row of people.
12. Is it a new bridge?
13. There is a match in the box.
14. Theres no child in their family.
15. Is there a dictionary on his

16. Is there a desk in that room?
17. The face of that woman is attractive.
18. The house isnt large but its comfortable.
19. Whos that person?
20. Which book is yours?
Exercise 14. Put into the singular:
1. Balls are round.
2. Houses have roofs.
3. These are phenomena.
4. Foxes are animals.
5. Roses are beautiful flowers.
6. Watches are small clocks.
7. Dogs have tails.
8. Those boys are good friends.
9. These are simple sentences.
10. These arent boxes.
11. The children are at school.
12. These are my notebooks.
13. My friends want to study German.
14. His brothers work hard all day.
15. Housewives have to work very hard.
16. Children receive a lot of pleasure from this game.
17. They live in small houses.
18. The postmen bring letters three times a day.
19. The boys wake up at six.
20. There are some pictures on the walls.
Exercise 15. Match A and B in order to obtain compound nouns. Use them in
arm sitter
bottle pages
fast heating
yellow chair
lawn directory
telephone mower
chewing conditioner
central bag
air opener
tea food


alarm gum
post clock
baby stop
heart tale
burglar attack
fairy office
credit lenses
bus card
bank alarm
contact account
Exercise 16 Underline the nouns in the texts and put the plural ones in the singular:
1. Thieves stole the cameras and videos from two shops in Stapleton Road
yesterday. They also took several boxes of video cassettes and hundreds of audio
2. Two police officers were injured in a fight last night. One policeman lost four
teeth. Three other people were also injured. The police were called to the Central car park
where there was a fight involving about two dozen young men and women. Dozens of
cars and two buses were damaged.
Example: pl. thieves = sg. thief
Exercise 17. Complete the sentences with the plural form of the words in brackets:
My hotels a bit primitive. Ive seen (1 mouse)_____ in my room! And there are (2
fly)_____ everywhere during the day and (3 mosquito) _____ at night. But the (4 beach)
_____ are beautiful.
There are a lot of old (5 church) _____ on the island and Ive taken lots of (6 photo)
_____ of them.
Every day I buy two small (7 loaf) _____ of bread and some (8 fruit) _____ , usually (9
peach) _____ , (10 orange) _____ and (11 tomato) _____ . But the (12 shelf) _____ in the
shops are almost empty, so yesterday I went fishing and caught two (13 fish) _____ for
my lunch.
There arent any (14 bus) _____ so I walk everywhere. My (15 foot) _____ really hurt. I
want to go into the mountains. They say there are (16 wolf) _____ there.
The (17 person) _____ are very friendly. Sometimes (18 family) _____ come out to say
hello when I walk past. The (19 man) _____ have two or three (20 wife) _____ and
dozens of (21 child) _____. I dont think their (22 life) _____ have changed for (23
century) _____. Its certainly one of the most unspoilt (24 country) _____ Ive ever been
Exercise 18. Which are the 15 countable nouns in this news report?
Hi! Youre listening to GWR Radio. What a terrible morning! There have been
several accidents on the roads. A number of people were hurt in an accident on the M 32
motorway when two cars crashed near Junction 4. And there are a few problems for rail
travellers. Many trains between cities in the west and London are running twenty to thirty
minutes late.


Exercise 19. What are the eight uncountable nouns in the news report of the
explosion at Brislington?
An explosion has destroyed a chemical factory in Brislington. Thanks to the
courage of the fire-fighters no one was hurt. The air around the factory is still thick with
smoke, and for their own safety, residents have been told not to drink the water. Residents
are worried about their childrens health and the damage to the environment caused by
the explosion.
Noun + verb agreement
Exercise 20. Choose the right form of the verbs in brackets:
1. His family (is/ are) in Bucharest now.
2. The news (was/ were) a great surprise for all of us.
3. People (rush/ rushes) home when the days work is over.
4. Our football team (plays/ play) this evening.
5. Your group (is/ are) made up of thirty students.
6. The audience (is/are) listening to the piano player.
7. The cattle (is/are) entering the ranch yard.
8. The committee (agrees/agree) with all the changes.
9. The furniture in my daughters room (is/are) new and modern.
10. The crew of the ship (was/were) gathered on the upper deck.
11. The parliament (is/are) voting a new law.
12. The luggage (was/were placed) on the luggage rack.
13. Where (is/are) my glasses?
14. Mathematics (is/are) his favourite subject at school.
15. My cousins trousers (is/are) very expensive.
16. Proceedings of the conference (is/are) published within a week.
17. The particulars of the witness (is/are) taken down by a young policeman.
18. There (is/are) enough money in the drawer.
19. Measles (is/are) a very dangerous catching disease.
20. The customs (is/are) not far from here.
Exercise 21. Choose the correct form of the verb:
1. Clothes (isnt/ arent) cheap nowadays.
2. People (doesnt/ dont) buy clothes that are too expensive.
3. 60 pounds (is/ are) a lot of money for a pair of jeans.
4. The government (is/ are) trying to keep prices low.
Exercise 22. Choose the correct verb forms:
His clothes (1 are/ is) _____ very old. His trousers (2 has got/ have got) _____
holes in them and his glasses (3 are/ is) _____ broken. All his belongings (4 is/ are)
_____ in a bag on his back. The police often (5 stops/ stop) _____ him and (6 asks/ ask)
_____ him questions. People (7 avoid/ avoids) _____ him in the streets. His earnings (8
are/ is) _____ very small. He gets 40 pounds a week from social security. For him 40
pounds (9 is/ are) _____ a lot of money. Im not interested in possessions, he says,
mathematics (10 are/ is) _____ my passion.



What is a port?
A port is a place where goods, passengers and mail are transferred to, from, or
between carriers of the same or different modes.
Ships and cargo move cargo and people from one place to another place, so they
need ports where ships can load and unload.
Every port has areas called docks where ships tie up along the quayside. The docks
are often inside an area of water called a harbour, which is protected from the sea by a
massive stone wall or natural cliffs. On the docks there are huge cranes for unloading the
ships and warehouses for storing cargo.
In the port area there may be ship repair yards, parts shops and customs offices.
Until recently, large numbers of people were employed as dockers and many major
coastal towns and cities have grown up around ports. But the increased use of containers
has dramatically reduced the number of workers.
Huge merchant ships now dock at purpose-built ports or terminals, which are
specially designed for handling cargoes, such as containers, oil and gas.
Tying up. Berthing ropes hooked over bollards are used to tie ships to the quayside.
Quays may also be known as wharves.
The pilot. The entrance to a harbour is often narrow and busy. It may also have
treacherous shallow areas such as sandbanks outside it. A pilot is a person who knows the
harbour well. He or she always takes control of large ships to guide them as they enter
and leave the port.
High and dry. Repair and maintenance facilities in port may include a dry dock.
Scaffolding is erected to keep the ship upright.
Unloading in port. Dockside cranes unload ships in the port. The crane can be
moved along the dockside on railway tracks.
Facts: A marina is a small harbour area where leisure craft such as motorboats
and sailing yachts tie up. Marinas are usually separate from the normal harbour.
They are also common on coasts where there are few natural harbours for small
boats to shelter in; each bay, called a berth, in a marina has water and electricity
Port location. The location of a port is a major consideration with regard to its
economic functions. Geographers consider location in terms of site and situation. Site
refers to the characteristics of the area occupied by the port; situation refers to the
relations of the port location to the hinterland and to overseas or forelands with which the
port has connections.


What is the difference between a port and a harbour?
Nearly all ports include portions of one or more harbours; a harbour may serve a
single port, as in the case of a large harbour (San Francisco Bay), several ports, or
several harbours may serve one port (London, Chicago, Sydney).


Load = a ncrca
Unload = a descrca
Tie up = a lega
Quay = chei
Crane = macara
Warehouse = depozit
Shipyard = antier naval
Handle = a manevra, a manipula
Hook = a ndoi, a ncovoia
Bollard = bolard, baba, binta
Wharf, ves = chei, debarcader, ponton
Treacherous = inelator, nesigur
Shallow area = zona cu apa mica
Maintenance = ntreinere
Scaffolding = schelrie
Railway track = ina de cale ferat
Shelter = adpost
Berth = dana
Leisure craft = ambarcaiune de agrement
Hinterland = regiune situata in interior (dincolo de rm sau de grani)
Foreland = cap, promontoriu
Site = loc, amplasament
Definite article - the man
Indefinite article - a tree, an apple
Zero article - men, trees, apples
- that magazine
- these/those ships
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES - my/your/his/her/its
our/their uniform
book do you want?


- every day, some books,
- any officer, no rules,
- either side,
- neither sailor
PREDETERMINERS precede the determiners:
a) all the books, both my children, both of these features, half these cadets
b) multiplicative numerals: twice the amount, three times the sum
c) fractions: one-third the time, three quarters the total
a) ordinal numerals: the first three important events
b) the other name, the next duty station, the last shipment
THE ARTICLE is the part of speech which individualizes objects and
phenomena in a linguistic context; it does not have any fluxionary forms; it works
as a determiner.
The definite article: THE
Functions: it is used to express a unique reference
a) deictic function: with nouns whose preference is immediately understood by
the speakers within a context- in a room: the door, the window: Close the
window, will you?; in a forest: The ground is covered with dry leaves; in a city:
Can you tell me how to get to the harbour?
b) anaphoric function: with nouns which were previously mentioned:
I bought a book yesterday; thebook is interesting.
c) cataphoric function: when the definite determination is after the noun, expressed
by a relative clause: The man who is commanding the ship is the master of that
d) generic function: the noun is used in a general way, as representing a whole
class: Thehorse is a useful animal.
The definite article used with: proper nouns- the UK, the USA, the University of
Bucharest; plural nouns- the Browns, the Alps, the Carpathians; geographical
names: the Danube, the Olt, the Suez Canal, the Sahara; names of institutions:
the Lido (Hotel), the National Theatre, the British Museum; newspapers: the
Times, the Guardian; names of ships: the Transylvania.
The indefinite article: A, AN
Functions: a) epiphoric function: to introduce a word which was not mentioned
previously: There is a young officer waiting for you.
b) numerical function: the indefinite article has the meaning of one She bought a dress,
two blouses, and an umbrella.
A/onehundred people are on this ship.


c) generic function: to represent an entire class of objects or beings An officer is a
The zero article: She drinks tea every day; Clothes do not make the man;
In these situations the absence of the article(*) is equal to the presence of it.
Functions: 1) generic function: I like coffee/ literature/long walks.
2) for the unique reference of proper nouns and some common nouns
in different contexts: Peter and Mary will go to school in autumn.
Proper nouns used with the zero article:
a) names of people: Peter, Dr. Smith, Lord Nelson, father, uncle
b) time divisions: Monday, January, Christmas
c) geographical names: Asia, England, Paris
d) proper nouns followed by common nouns: Bran Castle, Oxford Street
Other determiners: The demonstrative adjective: this / that / these / those
It determines a noun, saying how far or close is from the speaker.
Functions: a) deictic function (space or time orientation in a context)
This is my desk./ What are thosepeople doing?
b) anaphoric function: I saw an English teacher in his new car. This
car is really something.
c) cataphoric function: Theselittle children are very pretty.
d) emotional function: (to highlight the determined noun)
This Tom Brown is always playing the piano at night.
The possessive adjective replaces the possessor and determines the name of the
possessed object: Peters stamp collection is valuable. His stamp collection is
Possessives are used to specify the ownership of an item or, if the noun refers to
something animate, to specify a relationship: Mr Smith was my teacher when I was a
student in the Academy.
The possessive phrase acts just like a possessive word but is a noun or noun phrase
ending in s or s. A possessive phrase acts as a possessive determiner but may itself
include one of the other determiners: Sallys new job; a good days work; the residents
dining room; the visitors room.
*the body parts are always preceded by the possessive adjective (my hand, his leg,
her arm) and clothes items also (his coat, her gloves, my uniform).
The demonstrative adjective
We use demonstratives to show a certain thing or person in a special situation. This
and these refer to something near the speaker. That and those refer to something further
away. This and that are singular. These and those are plural.
When we are in a place or situation or at an event, we use this, not that, to refer to
How long is this weather going to last?

We can use this or that to refer to something mentioned before:


I havent got time. This / That is the problem.
We can use that/those to replace a noun phrase with the to avoid repeating the
The temperature of cooling water is lower than that of the seawater.
In informal English, you can use that or those in front of a noun to refer to things
that are already known to the person you are speaking to:
That idiot Antonio has gone and locked our cabin door.

Grammar Practice. Article

Exercise 1. Put the following sentences into singular:
1. Nouns are words.
2. Cities are big towns.
3. Horses are animals.
4. Roses are beautiful flowers.
5. Tables are pieces of furniture.

Exercise 2. Fill the blanks with the requested articles and translate the text:

Tommy: Father, . . . teacher does not know what horse is.
Father: Why do you think so, Tommy?
Tommy: You know, I drew ... horse yesterday and showed it to ... teacher and he
asked me what it was.

Exercise 3. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate article:
1. Would you like ... cup of ... tea and ... cake?
2. It is better to tell . . . truth than tell . . . lies.
3. Where is ... hat I bought yesterday?
4. Smith, ... man I told you about, is ... very man.
5. I like to eat . . . bread and ... butter in . . . morning.
6. Little Tommy goes to ... school only in morning.
7. He went to . . . bed with . . . bad cold.
8. He crossed ... lake in ... record time.
9. He collects . butterflies, stamps, and matchboxes.
10. In ... autumn of ... 2003 we went on ... excursion to . . . Danube Delta.
Exercise 4. Fill the gaps with the appropriate articles:
1. Take... little tea; it will do you ... lot of good.
2. Out ofsight, out... mind.
3. l like lot of. . . sugar in my tea.
4 ... supper is... last meal of... day.
5. ... bad drivers are punished by law.
6. Take ... chair and make yourself at home; he will be back in ... minute.


7. This is . . . answer to ... problem ... teacher gave us.
8. There wont be another train for at least hour.
9. We had ... dinner together at ... good restaurant yesterday.
10. ... Danube, ... Rhine and ... Thames are three important European rivers.
Exercise 5. Put the articles a, an, theinto the gaps:
1. He came to see me ... last week and brought English handbook with him.
2. good dictionary is . . . great help to . . . students.
3. last night I met Tommy; he said he would come here today if . . . weather
were fine.
4. Come to see me on ... Saturday at ... latest.
5. He works hard by day and sleeps soundly at night.
6. ... help came at ... last and ... swimmer was rescued.
7. He works every ... day from . . . early morning till late at . . . night.
8. He went into ... inn and asked for ... bread and butter.
9. By ... way, he said, where is ... shop you told me about?
10. What is matter? Have you had ... accident?

Exercise 6. Put the articles into their correct places:
Our sun is enormous body with diameter about 108 times that of earth. It would take
train, moving at 60 miles hour; over five years to travel round its circumference. But
those little pinpoints of light we call stars are also suns, and some of them are very
much larger and brighter than one which warms our earth. One of them has diameter
three hundred times greater than that of our sun. Of thousands of millions of stars,
which can be seen through powerful telescope, only six thousand or so are visible to
naked eye, and their distance from earth is so tremendous that their combined light is
only about hundredth of that shed by full moon.
(The Childrens New Illustrated Encyclopedia)

Exercise 7. Fill in the blanks with the right articles:
When ... sea was not too rough we were often out in little rubber boat ...
taking photographs. I shall not forget ... first time ... sea was so calm that two men felt
like putting ... balloon-like little thing into water and ... going for ... row. They had
hardly got clear of raft when they dropped ... little oars and sat ... roaring with ...
laughter. And as ... waves lifted them away and they disappeared and reappeared among
seas, they laughed so loud ... every time they caught glimpse of us that their voices
rang out over ... desolate Pacific. We looked round us with ... mixed feelings, and saw ...
nothing comic but our own ... bearded faces; but as ... two in ... boat should be
accustomed to those by now; we began to have ... suspicion that they had suddenly gone
mad. Sunstroke, perhaps ... two fellows could hardly get back on ... board ... Kon-Tiki
for sheer laughter, and gasping, with tears in their eyes, begged us just to go and see for
Two of us jumped down into ... dancing rubber boat, and were caught by ... sea
which lifted us clear. We sat down at ... once and roared with ... laughter. We had never
before had ... outside view of ... ourselves in open sea. ... raft looked exactly like old


Norwegian hay-loft lying helpless, drifting about in ... open sea, hay-loft full of ...
sunburnt bearded ruffians. If anyone had come paddling after us at ... sea in ... bath we
should have felt ... same spontaneous urge to ... laughter.
(Thor Heyerdahl)

Exercise 8. Fill in the spaces with the definite article wherever necessary:
1. She is not ... Mrs. Smith I am looking for.
2. My parents live on ... upper floor of an old house; when ... wind blows, all ...
windows rattle.
3. ... Carpathians are not so high as ... Alps.
4. ... Danube is Romanias longest river.
5. ... clock in ... dining room is just striking.
6. ... room Helen rushes into as soon as she arrives home is ... kitchen.
7. Spring is ... first season of ... year.
8. Id like to see Mr Smith, please. Do you mean ... Mr Smith who works in our
department or ... Mr Smith ... sales manager?
9. ... British Library is one of ... largest libraries all over ... world.
10. What is... French for ... boy?
11. ... Mike you met at my place yesterday was not ... Mike I was talking about a
week before.
12. I have never feared ... death but ... death of my father was ... greatest loss of my
13. Ask them to come downstairs when ... breakfast is ready.
14. ... Eatons have also been invited to ... diner at ... Ritz.
15. She goes to school in ... morning and plays tennis in ... afternoon.
16. She has always said that ...English language is difficult.
17. On ... Sundays I like to stay in ... bed till ... noon and spend ... time reading ...
Sunday papers and magazines.
18. Up to a point, Creang is Mark Twain of ... Romanian literature.
19. I have always appreciated ... sublime of ...landscapes in ... Alps.
20. If you leave ... home at 7 you can reach ... school in ... time.
21. My mother comes to ... school sometimes to speak to ... headmaster.
Exercise 9. Put the indefinite article a or an in the blanks wherever necessary:
1. We usually have ... lunch at 1 oclock, which, as ... rule, consists of three courses
...salad, ... dish and ... sweet.
2. Go to the grocers and buy ... dozen oranges and ... pound of coffee beans.
3. The Smiths I am talking about live in ... wonderful house and drive ... new Ford.
4.... old man suffering from ... cold should be given hot tea three times ... day.
5. What ... name to give to ... cat!
6. There was once ... lonely old woman who lived in ... hut in the outskirts of ...
large town.
7. What ... hot day for November! Its such ... pity we cant go for ... hike or take ...
long walk in the wood.
8. Jack! ... Mr Thomson wants to see you at once!
9. Our friends gave us ... wonderful supper at the ambassador.


10. She needs ... moments peace after such ... bad piece of news.
11. The youngster was driving with sixty miles ... hour when all of ... sudden ...
deer crossed the motorway. He stopped ... few moments later and fled in ...
panic without taking ... back look.
12. He was puzzled that he should be in his office at ... time when the General
Manager was so busy.
13. During the installation of ... newly selected government there may appear many
... surprise.
14. Mr Sydney did not appear to be ... man who was making ... joke.
15. He was not ... addicted smoker but, now and then, late at ... night, he was
longing for ... cigarette.
Exercise 10. Fill in the spaces with the definite, indefinite or zero article wherever
1. Good ... morning ..., uncle, said ... boy with ... large smile on his face.
2. From ... photos of ... friends and ... relatives, Mr Abbot selected ... picture of ...
Nick Price, ... man who had come to visit them, sometime in ... early 50.
3. She put ... book back on ... piano and went to look out of ... window.
4. His voice was low and carefully modulated ... voice of ... man self-conscious
about ... impression he made. Have you ever been to ... Argentine? he asked
with ... undertone of ... regret in his voice.
5. Most ... critics admit that ... writer we are talking about is ... new Shaw of ...
English literature.
6. Let me offer you ... cup of ... coffee, Professor.
7. He speaks ... French and ... English quite fluently but he has never been to ...
France or ... United Kingdom.
8. ... sky was starry, ... moon was shining brightly and ... night was so warm and
lovely that all ... guests decided, all of ... sudden, to take ... bath in ... cool waves
of ... Atlantic 0cean.
9. That was not ... sort of ... remark expected of ... right sort of ... chap who
studied at ... UCLA.
10. Nick was reminded of ... joke he had heard at his club at ... lunch.
11. He had ... terrible feeling that ... operation was going to be ... Waterloo of his career.
12. You may go either to ... National Theatre to see ... play or to ... Capitol Cinema
to see ... film.
13. Prime Minister picked up ... telephone and changed his days appointments
to make ... time to see ... deputy secretary in ... Cabinet Office. 14. ... few
days later we went to ... Henrys dinner at ... Ritz where we met ... old Mr.
Snow who claimed to be ... uncle of my wife.
15. Such ... power and ... freedom of ...decision had only five times before been
given to ... American president.


Exercise 11. Here are some expressions with the noun hand, preceded by the
definite, indefinite or zero article:
a. to bite the hand that feeds one; to give smb. the glad hand; the hidden hand; by
the left hand; to have/get the upper hand; the skips hand; a picture by the same hand; on
the right hand; on the one hand; on the other hand; at the best hand; to be on the growing
b. to have a free hand; to have an open hand; not to lift a hand; with a heavy hand;
a hand for; an old hand at; a good hand at/in; a poor/bad hand at; to have a hand like a
foot; a cool hand; to have a hand in smth.; to take a hand at a game; to make a (good/
fine/fair) hand.
c. hand in hand; the matter in hand; to take in hand; light in hand; at hand; by hand;
to bind hand and foot; supplies on hand; to have a free hand; to have an open hand; to
shake hands; clean hands; off hand; hand and glove; hand over; from hand to mouth; out
of hand; at first hand; second hand; from good hands.
A. Choose some of them and make sentences of your own.
B. Find some more new set expressions and build up sentences of your own.
Exercise 12. Put the definite or the indefinite article into the blank spaces where
necessary. Translate the jokes.
A) (1. ...) landlord was sitting with his shepherd on (2. ...) hill commanding (3. ...)
fine view of (4. ...) valley. Seeing (5. ...) flock of (6. ...) sheep at (7. ...) rest in (8. ...)
shadiest nook, he observed to his companion, John, if I were (9. ... ) sheep, I would
prefer to lie in(10. ...) sun. Ah, my lord, retorted (11. ...) shepherd, were you (12. ...)
sheep, you would have more sense.

B) If (1. ...) earthquake engulfed England, (2. ...) English would manage to meet
among (3. ...) ruins and organize (4. ...) dinner just to celebrate (5. ...) painful event.
Thats what (6. ... ) people of (7. ... ) other nationalities are apt to say about (8. ...)
English. Should (9. ...) English be consulted on (10. ...) subject they would say (11. ...)
same thing about (12. ...) French and their love of (13. ...) good dinners.

C) (1. ...) outside temperature being ten degrees below (2. ...) zero, it was
unusually cold in (3. ...) school room.
What is (4. ...) Latin for cold? asked (5. ...) school-master addressing one of his
boys, who seemed to be suffering from cold more than (6. ...) others. Oh, sir, answered
(7. ...) lad, his hands thrust in his trousers pockets, I cant tell you for (8. ...) moment,
although I have it at my fingers ends.

D) Dr. Crisp was invited to (1. ...) party in (2. ...) country place. (3. ...) dinner being
late and(4. ...) company not quite to his taste, (5. ...) doctor strolled out into (6. ...) garden
and then to (7. ...) nearby churchyard. When (8. ...) dinner was served at last and (9. ...)
doctor had not yet returned, one of (10. ...) guests wondered where he could have gone.
(11. ...) master of (12. ...) house, annoyed by Dr. Crisps (13. ...) absence, explained that
(14 ) churchyard being not far from there, (15. ...) doctor had gone to visit his former


E) (1. ...) Englishman, driving in (2. ...) hackney-coach through France, was
annoyed at (3. ...) slowness of (4. ...) pace. He tried to make (5. ...) coachman drive faster
but all in vain. (6. ...) man couldnt understand either his English or his broken French.
Then it occurred to (7. ...) Englishman, both his English and his French being Greek to (8.
...) coachman, to use (9. ...) high-sounding words that might frighten (10. ...) fellow. So
he roared into his ear. Westmorland, Cumberland, Northumberland, Durham! which
had (11. ...) desired effect, (12. ...) coachman taking these words for some terrible threat.

F) In 1870 Mark Twain was walking along (1. ...) streets of Boston when he
noticed in (2. ...) shop window (3. ...) machine he had never seen before. He entered
(4. ...) shop, asked (5. ...) shop-assistant how (6. ...) ,,monster functioned and bought it
for 125 dollars. He brought home (7. ...) machine he had nicknamed (8. ...) monster and
started practicing on it at once. (9. ...) machine was (10. ...) typewriter and Mark Twain
typed (l1. ...) whole book on it. When he brought his manuscript to (12. ...) editor,
(13. ...) latter was delighted. He made Mark Twain promise him to bring everything he
would write later on typed, on this wonderful machine. (14. ...) Tom Sawyer was
(15. ...) first book Mark Twain had typewritten.

G) You certainly know that (1. ...) waterproof coat is often called (2. ...)
mackintosh. But perhaps you dont know that (3. ...) word is (4. ...) surname.
In (5. ...) year 1823 in (6. ...) Scotland there lived (7. ...) man whose (8. ...) name was
Charles Mackintosh. (9. ...) climate of his country being rainy, he would often get
drenched to (10. ...) skin and heartily disliked it. One day, having some rubber at his
disposal, he decided to rubberize his coat. Now he could walk outdoors in any weather,
his rubberized coat protecting him from (11. ...) rain. Most of his friends and (12. ...)
friends of his friends admired (13. ...) waterproof coat and wanted to have their own coats
rubberized likewise. Soon (14. ...) tradesmen took up his invention. (15. ...) Waterproof
coats became all (16. ...) fashion and (17. ...) staple product of (18. ...) town, (19. ...) name
of (2o. ...) inventor, though not (21. ...) inventor himself, getting (22. ...) worldwide
Exercise 13. Fill in the gaps with thewhere necessary.
I hate 1 ___ November! It doesnt get light till 2 ___ 8 oclock in 3 ___ morning.
Then its dark again as early as 4 ___ 4 oclock in 5 ___ afternoon. After 6 ___
Christmas, 7 ___ days start to get a bit longer, but 8 ___ weather starts to get colder. On 9
___ Friday 10 ___ last week, 11 ___ temperature was minus 10 C. 12 ___ next week 13
___ weather forecast is 14 ___ same.
Exercise 14. Put a or an before these words: 1 job, 2 union, 3 unusual name 4
enormous ice cream 5 holiday, 6 honest man.
Exercise 15. Put in a/ an where necessary:
1. She works in restaurant in street near the station.
2. For lunch she only has apple and glass of milk.
3. Anns friend works in pub. Shes barmaid. She works three evenings week. She
earns 4.50/ hour.


Exercise 16. Match the two parts of the sentences.
a. I normally go to the dentist once 1. a dozen
b. These roses cost $20 2. a litre
c. The car was doing 150 kilometres 3. a year
d. Lamb is selling at 7.50 4. a week
e. The Sunday Mail is published once 5. a metre
f. Electric cable costs 50 cents 6. a kilo
g. How much is the oil? ~ 2.50 7. a day
h. The mail is delivered twice 8. an hour
Exercise 17. Complete the sentences with a / an or the.
1. ___ taxi they phoned for arrived late at their house.
2. ___ taxi-driver didn't say he was sorry.
3. ___ traffic jam was caused by ___ accident on___ motorway. ___ car had
collided with ___ lorry.
Exercise 18. Put in the where necessary:
1. We had ___ breakfast at ___ home in London before we left.
2. ___ bus station was on 38th Street.
3. We went to ___ hotel by ___ taxi.
4. We're flying home ___ next Thursday.
Exercise 19. Complete the sentences, using the where necessary.
1. Our hotel manager went to ___ school in England, then went to ___ university in
the States.
2. The New York police arrested a man for the shooting. He was a cleaner
at ___ university.
3. He'll appear in ___ court next week. He'll definitely go to ___ prison.
Exercise 20. There are seven examples of the in this text. How do you know which
thing or person the writer is referring to, in each case?
a. because it is only one in the immediate situation;
b. because it is only one anywhere;
c. because it has been referred to before, in the text;
d. because the writer is specifying which one, by adding extra information. Neil
Armstrong was the first person to set foot on the surface of the moon. The words that he
said are famous: 'That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for the mankind.' He and
his co-pilot Buzz Aldrin then planted a flag and collected rocks. The flag is probably still
there. The rocks have helped the scientists understand the history of the solar system.
Exercise 21 Complete the sentences with a or an, the or no article.
1. 'How much are the leeks?' 'They're 80 pence a pound.'
2. I went to ___ wonderful concert by ___ London Symphony Orchestra.
3. ___ local school is soon to be closed.
4. I usually go to ___ work by ___ train.
5. Is ___ meat in ___ oven?
6. Is this ___ first time you've been to ___ Isle of Man?


7. He's ___ art teacher and she's ___ electrician.
8. A lot of people give ___ money to ___ charity at this time of the year.
9. What ___ beautiful face that child's got!
10. ___ British usually have ___ butter on their bread.
11. ___ life is very difficult for ___ unemployed these days.
12. ___ Leader of ___ Opposition is in danger of losing her seat at ___ next
13. I like to have ___ cup of ___ tea when I wake up in ___ morning.
14. I saw ___ fox this morning. I think it must have been ___ same one that I saw
last week.
15. Can I have ___ apple?
16. Have you ever seen ___ Acropolis in ___ Athens?
17. ___ police have had a lot of support from ___ general public over this issue.
18. ___ shirts on ___ washing-line should be nearly dry now.
19. ___ people don't like him because of his selfish life.
20. I bought my sister ___ book and ___ bottle of ___ perfume for her birthday but
I don't think she liked ___ perfume.

Grammar Practice Possessives

Exercise A. Put the correct possessive adjective or pronoun:
1. I cant play tennis because Ive forgotten _____ tennis shoes.
2. Jessica cant play because shes forgotten _____ too.
3. Amy cant play because hes broken _____ arm.
4. Rachel and Amanda cant play because theyve forgotten _____ rackets.
5. Jilly and Laura have lost _____ !
6. Clares at home. Shes looking after her cat. Its broken _____ leg.
7. Can you play Lee? Or have you forgotten _____ racket?

Grammar Practice Demonstratives

Exercise A Complete this dialogue with this, these, that or those:
Customer: Can I have half a kilo of 1_____ tomatoes on the shelf behind you?
Assistant: 2 _____ here, do you mean?
Customer: Yes, thats right. And have you got any of 3 ______ oranges you had
last week?
Assistant: No, we havent got any of 4 _____ but 5 _____ here are just as nice.
Customer: All right, Ill have a kilo of 6 _____ please.
Assistant: Anything else?
Customer: Yes, can I have a cabbage please?
Assistant: How about 7 _____ one?


Customer: Yes, 8 _____ looks fine.
Assistant: Anything else?
Customer: No, 9 _____ s all thanks.
Assistant: 10 _____s 3.45 altogether.



What is a ship?
People have used rafts, boats and ships to travel across water for many thousands
of years. At its simplest, a ship is any craft that travels on water, but ships have developed
from simple log rafts to vast oil tankers. This development has affected life on land, in
shipbuilding yards, and at ports where hundreds of people work loading and unloading
The difference between a ship and a boat is not very clear. Generally, ships are
larger and travel across seas and oceans. Boats are smaller and usually travel on rivers,
lakes and coastal waters.
Ships and boats come in a huge variety of shapes and sizes and have a wide range
of uses from simple rowing boats to massive cruise liners.
Different types of ships do a wide range of jobs in different fields like transport,
commerce, leisure, exploration and combat.

Parts of a ship
The fishing trawler looks similar to many other ships and boats. The body of the
boat is called the hull. The backbone of the hull is the keel. The bow (front) is sharply
pointed to cut easily through the water. A deck provides a watertight covering for the
crew to work on. An engine-driven propeller pushes the ship along. The rudder at the
stern (back) is used for steering.
Ships and other objects that float can do so because the water they are floating in
pushes upward against them. This pushing force is called upthrust. An object will float if
the upthrust of the water is great enough to overcome the downward push of the objects
weight. The simplest boats float because the material they are made of is less dense than
water. Heavy metal ships float because they are specially designed to displace a large
weight of water. Not all water has the same density. Salt water is denser than fresh water
and gives a stronger upthrust. Ships float higher in salty seawater than in fresh lake water.

Facts: One of the earliest uses of boats was fishing. Today there are fishing boats
designed to catch different fish in all sorts of conditions- from calm lakes to the
deep oceans. Fishing trawlers drag nets through the water behind them.
The largest moving machines ever built are big cargo ships. There are different types
designed to carry different types of cargoes.
Submersibles and submarines are the only types of boat designed to travel under the
water as well as on top. Submersibles are small craft used for underwater research,
exploration and repairs to pipes and cables. Submarines are usually larger and most
are for military purposes. They are used to launch missiles and sink ships.


The fastest boats are racing powerboats. They are one of many types of boats used for
having fun on the water. Their hulls are designed to rise out of the water and skim the
surface at high speed.
Trawler = trauler
Deck = punte
Bridge = punte de comand
Funnel = co de nav
Hull = coca navei, corpul navei
Keel = chila
Bow = prova
Stern = pupa
Rudder = crma
Steering = guvernare, meninere pe drum
Watertight = etan la ap
Upthrust = (mec) fora ascensional
Cargo = incarcatura(transportat pe mare)
Cargo ship = nav de mrfuri, cargou
Pipe = eava, conduct
Missile = rachet
Skim the surface = a tangent suprafaa apei
The pronoun is the part of speech that replaces a noun, a whole noun phrase or
another pronoun. It has the grammatical category of person, gender, number and case.
Different from the noun the pronoun has:
a) marked gender in the 3
person singular- he/ she/ it
b) marked number using different words- I/ we/ he/ they
c) the contrast between accusative/ dative I/ me, he/ him
The pronoun has three cases:
a) Nominative (pronoun as subject) : I, you, he, she, it, they, we, who
b) Objective ( pronoun as object): me, you, him, her, it, us, them, whom
c) Possessive (pronouns showing ownership): my/mine, your/ yours, his, her/ hers, its,
our/ ours, their/ theirs, whose
There are seven types of pronoun, classified according to their meaning and use.
The personal pronoun
This type of pronoun shows the persons that take part in a dialogue or replaces the
object we talk about; it has gender, number and case, and different syntactical functions.
Person category. In English, the pronoun and the verb are the only parts of speech
that have the grammatical category of person: I am a captain. Heis a sailor.
The pronoun is the only indicator of a person, that is why, it is mentioned in
communication in English: I speak English. (Eu) vorbesc engleza.
The personal pronoun can have a generic function: Hewho laughs last laughs best
(universal truth). Cine rde(that one who)


The pronoun you is sometimes used as an indefinite: You can never tell (nu se
They, having the meaning of people in general: They make ships in the shipyard.
Gender category. This category appears with the 3
person singular: he (male
gender), she (female gender), it (neuter gender). He/ she may also replace some animate
or inanimate nouns of neuter gender: The ship/ shehas already arrived.
Number category. The personal pronoun we has two uses: exclusive we, meaning I
+ he (Can wecome at 8 oclock?); inclusive we, meaning I + you (How are wefeeling
The form you is used both for the second person singular and second person plural.
The plural you is an inclusive plural (you=you + he).
Only the 3
person plural is a real plural: they=he + he + he.
Syntactical functions: 1. subject: Heis an officer.
2. predicate: It is hewho did it.
3. indirect object: Can you tell methe way to the harbour?
4. direct object: I like her.
The reflexive pronoun
This type of pronoun has the following particularities: it has the 1
, 2
, 3
like the personal pronoun; gender forms for the 3
person singular (himself, herself,
itself); they are spelled self in the singular (myself, yourself) and selves in the plural
(ourselves, yourselves, themselves).
The reflexive pronoun is used when the speaker is referring to an action that he or
she has caused to happen and of which he or she is the object: I cut myself badly.
It is also used when the direct object or prepositional object of a sentence has the
same reference as the subject: John dressed himself in his most formal suit.
The reflexive form oneself can be used to refer to persons in general: One should
keep oneself as warm as possible this winter.
There are verbs with obligatory reflexive pronoun: absent oneself, behave oneself,
pride oneself (I pride myself on my boats).
There are verbs after which the reflexive pronoun can be omitted, without changing
the meaning: comb, dress, shave, wash (He went into his cabin and washed himself/
Syntactical functions: direct object: She helped herself to another piece of cake.
indirect object: He allowed himself a break.
predicate: She is always herself.
The reflexive can also be used to make some clauses more emphatic. To make a
strong point, we sometimes use a normal subject or object pronoun and a reflexive
pronoun as well: The sailor himself drew the map/ The sailor drew the map himself.
Its syntactical function is that of an apposition: The captain himself helped the
The possessive pronoun
The possessive pronoun replaces both the name of the possessed object and the
possessor; it has gender, person, number and case. They are used when you want to
indicate who owns or is associated with an item.
The forms are: mine/ yours/ his/ hers/ ours/ theirs.


Attention! Do not confuse the possessive pronouns with the possessive adjectives
(which are noun determiners): It is my ship/ It is mine.
The interrogative pronoun
The interrogative pronouns who, whom and whose are used only for reference to
people. The interrogative pronouns which and what can be used for reference to people
and things. This type of pronouns allow us to build questions around the thing that the
pronoun refers to: Who is dancing with Lucy?/ Whose are these clothes?/ Which is the
best book you have aver read?
Who is used to ask questions about people in general: Who did this?
What is used to ask for things in general: What is she?/ What is the meaning of this
Which implies selection among a limited number of persons or objects: Which of
the tools do you need?/ Which is your favourite poet?
Whose is the possessive form of the pronoun: Whoseis the car over there?
Whom is the object form of who. It is the formal word, used in writing especially:
Who do you have in writing?/ Whomhave you in mind?/ Who were you speaking to?/ To
whomwere you speaking?
The relative pronoun
The relative pronouns are: who, whom, which, and that. They link a subordinate
clause to a main clause: I know people who/ that dont like the job of a sailor.
A subordinate clause introduced by a relative pronoun is called a relative clause.
Relative pronouns refer back to a noun phrase or pronoun that has just been
mentioned. This is called the antecedent of the relative pronoun. It is usually the nearest
noun phrase or pronoun. Some of these pronouns (who, whom) can introduce descriptive
relative clauses (sentences which bring supplementary, nonessential information): My
superior, to whom you were speaking just now, wants you to follow his orders.
They also introduce restrictive relative clauses (sentences which bring information
necessary to clarify the meaning): The boy who threw the anchor will be punished.
Who and whom are restricted to human antecedents: The man who just left is my
Which is not used for human subjects or objects, and introduces both descriptive
and restrictive relative clauses: Swimming, which is an enjoyable sport, makes people
strong and healthy; The bottle which you are drinking out of has just been brought.
That is used only in restrictive sentences: The chair that was broken yesterday has
been mended.
The relative pronouns can also be omitted in restrictive sentences: The magazine
(that) you lent me is very interesting.
The indefinite pronoun
The indefinite pronouns are used in a general sense when you do not know or do
not need to say precisely who or what you are referring to. They show global (all) or
partial (each, either) objects or phenomena.
The indefinite pronouns can be grouped according to meaning, as follows:
a) general amounts and quantities: most, some, none, any, all, both, half, several,
enough, many, each;


b) choice or alternatives: either, neither
c) undefined singular or multiple persons and things: someone-somebody-something,
anyone-anybody-anything, no one-nobody-nothing, everyone-everybody-everything.
Some is used in affirmative sentences: There are some on the deck./ He bought
some. It can also be used in interrogative sentences when you offer something: Will you
have some?
Any is used in interrogative and negative sentences: Have you got any? I havent
got any.
Each refers to the members of a group, one by one: Each of them wanted to try.
Either (negative form neither) is used mostly in interrogative and negative
sentences: Have you seen either of them?/ Neither of them is right.
Every is used as a determiner only: Every member of a crew must do his job
onboard ship. All its compounds are used as indefinite pronouns: Everybody is present/ I
have everything I need.
All shows the totality of objects or beings and replaces the uncountable nouns in
the plural: I have read them all; or uncountable nouns in the singular: I have read all
about this subject
One has only one form, no matter the gender, number or case: There were two men
on the deck, onewas young and onewas old.
One with impersonal value is used in a general way: Oneshould always perform
his/ her duty.
There are two common kinds of number.
Cardinal numbers are used in all forms of counting that involves a total: one chair/
two chairs; a hundred people/ ten thousand pounds.
The ordinal number is used to give the place of something in an ordered sequence.
Ordinals are mostly formed by adding th to a cardinal number (fourth, fifth, twentieth,
forty-ninth, hundredth). Exceptions are the words first, second and third, and
combinations which contain them, such as twenty-first:
The first horse home was disqualified/ It is his fifty-second birthday in August.
To show that a cardinal number is only approximate, the word some is often used:
Some two hundred people gathered in the pouring rain.
Grammar Practice. The Pronoun
Exercise I. Complete the sentences. Use I / me / you/ she / her etc.
1. I want to see her but she doesnt want to see me
2. They want to see him but doesnt want to see
3. She wants to see him but doesnt want to see ..
4. We want to see them but dont want to see
5. He wants to see us but dont want to see
6. They want to see her but doesnt want to see..
7. I want to see them but dont want to see .
8. You want to see her but doesnt want to see


Exercise II. Write sentences beginning I like .. , I dont like , or Do you like?
1. I dont eat tomatoes. I dont like them.
2. George is a very nice man. I like
3. This jacket isnt very nice. I dont ..
4. This is my new car. Do ?
5. Mrs Clark isnt very friendly. I
6. These are my new shoes..?
Exercise III. Complete the sentences.
1. I want that book. Can you give it to me?
2. He wants the key. Can you give ?
3. She wants the key. Can you ..?
4. I want that letter. Can you..?
5. They want the money. Can you.?
6. We want the photographs. Can you?
Exercise IV. Finish the sentences.
1. Im going to wash my hands.
2. Shes going to wash ..
3. Were going to wash
4. Hes going to wash ..
5. Theyre going to wash .
6. Are you going to wash?
Exercise V. Complete the sentences. Use my / his / their etc with one of these words:
coat homework house husband job key name
1. Jim doesnt enjoy his job .Its not very interesting.
2. I cant open the door. I havent got
3. Sally is married works in a bank.
4. Its very cold today. Put on when you go out.
5. What are the children doing? Theyre doing
6. Do you know that man? Yes, but I dont know
7. We live in Barton Street. is at the end on the left.
Exercise VI. Finish the sentences with mine / yours etc.
1. Its your money. Its yours.
2. Its my bag Its
3. Its our car .Its
4. Theyre her shoes. Theyre .
5. Its their house. Its .
6. Theyre your books. Theyre
7. Theyre my glasses. Theyre
8. Its his coat. Its .
Exercise VII. Complete the following sentences with they, them, their.
1. Has everybody collected their luggage?
2. Tell everyone Ill wait for .here.
3. If somebody has called,..would have left a message.


4. Nobody offered to help.probably didnt have the time.
5. If anybody wants to know, phone this number.
Exercise VIII. Complete the sentences with some or any.
1. We didnt buy any flowers.
2. This evening Im going out with friends of mine.
3. Have you seen good films recently? No, I havent been to the
cinema for ages.
4. I didnt have money, so I had to borrow..
5. Can I have milk in my coffee, please?
6. I was too tired to
7. You can cash these travellers cheques
8. Can you give meinformation about places of interest in the town?
9. With the special tourist train ticket, you can travel ontrain you like.
10. If there are words you dont understand, use a dictionary.
Exercise IX. Fill the gaps with each other, ourselves, yourselves or themselves.
1. They spent the whole evening arguing with each other.
2. Their house is very beautiful; they designed it themselves
3. Mary met John in April, but they didnt see.again until July.
4. Theyre not friends; in fact, they dont like .. at all.
5. Dont ask me to help you. You must do it ..
6. We didnt buy it . A friend bought it for us.
7. I could hear two people shouting at ..
8. Were working in the same office now, so Ron and I see ..every day.
Exercise X. Complete the sentences using both/either/neither + of + us/ them (e.g.
neither of us).
1. I went to the concert with Mary, but neither of us enjoyed it very much because
it was very boring.
2. There are two flights we can catch to New York. Both flights cost the same
amount, so we can choose.. .
3. I played two games against Harry, and I lost because he is a much
better player than me.
4. I saw Jane and Alison walking down the street and I waved at them,
but..saw me because they were talking.
5. I looked at George, and George looked at me. Thenstarted to laugh
because it was such a funny situation.
6. A man spoke to us but.could understand him, so we didnt
7. Tim and I wanted to go to the game, butcould get tickets, so we didnt go.
8. I wanted to buy a new camera. There were two cameras in the shop that I liked,
but they were very expensive. I couldnt afford ., so I didnt buy


Exercise XI. A Spanish student is in England, learning English. She is talking to a
French friend. Complete the text with reflexive pronouns or each other.
A funny thing happened to me yesterday. Juan and I were sitting in a restaurant,
speaking Spanish to 1 _____ , of course. I noticed that the English couple at the next table
were listening. After a few minutes they introduced 2 _____ and we started talking to 3
_____ . The English couple said they were trying to teach 4 _____ Spanish. They were
finding it difficult because they could only speak to 5 _____ and they knew they were
making a lot of mistakes. So we arrange to give 6 _____ language lessons. I would teach
them Spanish and they would teach me English! Its very difficult to teach 7 _____ a
language, because you dont get a chance to speak it, unless you talk to 8 _____ of
Exercise X. Complete the sentences with the correct relative pronoun.
1. Thats the man ____ helped me yesterday.
2. Please dont tell him ____I said.
3. The house ____ overlook the sea is Naylas.
4. Thats the village ____ my mother was born.
5. Did you see the people ____ money we found?
6. Anyone ____ arrives late will be punished.
7. Did he explain _____ went wrong?
8. Hes the painter _____ last exhibition was such a failure.
9. I read the magazine ____ was lying on the table.
10. It was my teacher ____ told me to do the exercise.

The Numeral

Exercise 1. Tick () the correct form in each pair.
1. (49) fourty-nine forty-nine
2. (600) six hundred six hundreds
3. (4
) fourth forth
4. (12
) twelvth twelfth
5. ($2,000) two thousand dollars two thousands dollars
6. (23
) twenty-three twenty-third
7. (78) eighty-seven seventy-eight
8. (8
) eightth eighth
9. (17) seventeen seventeenth
10. (5
) fiveth fifth
11. (7,000,000) seven million seven millions
12. (9
) ninth nineth
13. (30
) thirteenth thirtieth
14. (395) three hundred and ninety-five three hundred ninety-five
Exercise 2. Write out the following numbers.
1. (211) 10. (14).
2. (462)... 11. (2
3. (20
) 12. (5,000)


4. (1
). 13. (68).
5. (12
).. 14. (34
6. (9,000,000) 15. (150)
7. (310).. 16. (3
8. (8
) 17. (25
9. (111).. 18. (19
Exercise 3. Fill in the gaps in this interview, using the dates and years in brackets ( ).
A. When were you born?
B. I was born on the thirteenth of October, nineteen sixty-five. (13.10.65)
A. When did you go to secondary school?
B. In(1976)
A. And when did you leave secondary school?
B. Seven years later. My final exam was on..(16.6.83)
A. Did you start university in the same year?
B. Yes, on.(29 September)
A. Did you spend three or four years there?
B. Well, I left in(1987). Thats four years.
A. And your first job? When was that?
B. I started work in an office on..(10.1.88)
A. Did you enjoy it? How long did you stay?
B. It was terrible! I left two months later, on.. (9
A. What did you do then?
B. I went to America. I spent two years in New York. I returned to England
Exercise 4. Complete the following with a number. Write your answer in words.
1. We live in a .................... dimensional world.
2. There are................players in a football team.
3. Im sorry things are a bit untidy. Were all at.......... and the moment.
4. This train seems to be late................ times out of........................
5. At first I was confused, But then I put................ and ...................together.
6. ....................s company,...................s crowd.
7. Hes a great player. He gives...................... percent in every game.
8. Protests flooded in from the............................ corners of the world.
9. We split the prize money....................., and Ive already spent my half.
10. Life begins at.....................
Exercise 5. Complete the following with ordinal numbers (third, sixth etc.). Write
your answers in words.
1. I believe the Government should increase its aid to the ....................World.
2. We shouldnt treat immigrants as.....................- class citizens.
3. The Americans celebrate Independence Day on the ......................of July.
4. More progress has been made in the .............century than in the whole of history.


5. In the last sixty years the Olympic 100m record has improved by four....of a
6. Theyre good friends. Theyve been on terms for years.
7. Applications will be dealt with on a .....................come,...................served basis.
8. Most people have a special party for their.......................birthday.



It is required that the master of a ship shall report his vessel to the Customs House
within 24 hours of arrival in a foreign port. That means that the captain is to fill up the
blank form of the captains declaration or report list and to hand it over to the customs
together with certain ships papers: ship register, certificate of practice, bill of health,
manifest of cargo, list of stores, search note and others.
All the formalities connected with clearing in and clearing out are fulfilled by the
ships agent. The customs officers come aboard the ship to search and rummage the
vessel for unentered goods and to see if there are any prohibited goods or goods liable to
It is well known that each country imposes duties on certain goods brought into the
country. The Customs House is the Department of Government that collects these duties.
The customs officers see to all the formalities that must be fulfilled.
Smuggling of goods is a secret bringing of goods without paying import taxes. To
prevent smuggling such goods as spirits, wines, cigarettes, tobacco, perfumes and others,
the customs officers request the captain to give the ships store bond on dutiable goods
kept aboard for the use of the ships crew and passengers.
The customs officers sometimes leave for the crew only a quota and place under
seal the surplus stores.
According to regulations every ship must be reported to the Customs on arrival.
The ship must be entered inwards before she starts discharging the cargo. She must be
cleared in.
Before any cargo is allowed to be shipped the vessel must be entered outwards; the
master signs the Entry outward form and delivers it to the customs.
Leaving the port the ship must have: the clearance label with seal, the victualling
bill, the port clearance and the bill of health.

Notice issued by the French Customs for vessels entering the port of Dunkerque:

Most important: All cigars, cigarettes, tobacco, matches, playing cards, opium
should be collected in one place before arrival. If this is not done the vessel may be
subject to heavy customs fine. The list should be accurately filled in, and if necessary
further items added, so that the customs officer will find all the commodities specified.
To avoid a fine, captains are advised to have their manifest of cargo and stores
made out as carefully as possible, dated and signed before entering the harbour. The
different kinds of cargo should be stated according to Bills of Lading, and should the
whole or part of the cargo be in bags, bales, barrels or packages, each being numbered,
also the quantity of materials used for stowage.


Fill in a form = a completa un formular
Report list = declaraie de sosire
Ship register = certificat de registru
Manifest of cargo = manifestul ncrcturii
List of stores = lista de provizii i materiale
Search note = nota de percheziie
Rummage = a percheziiona
Unentered goods = mrfuri nedeclarate
Smuggle = a face contraband
Entry outward = declaraie la intrare
Victualling bill = lista de provizii
Port clearance = permis de plecare
Commodity = marfa, bunuri
Bill of Lading = conosament

Dutiable goods = bunuri supuse taxelor vamale
Ships store bond = bunuri scutite de vam
Clear in = a trece prin vam la sosire
Clear out = a trece prin vam la plecare
Enter the vessel inwards = a ndeplini formalitile vamale la sosire
Enter the vessel outwards = a ndeplini formalitile vamale la plecare
Impose import (export) duty on = a impune taxe vamale de import/export
Make up a list = a ntocmi o lista
As a matter of fact = de fapt
It doesnt matter = nu conteaz, nu are importan
Adjectives are words that modify and describe nouns and pronouns. They are the
colour commentators of language, the words that give your writing and speech flavour.
They answer the questions: What kind?, How much?, Which one?, How many?
What kind?.red nose/gold ring
How much?more sugar/little effort
Which one?second wife/those units
How many?several students/six cadets
There are 5 kinds of adjectives:
a) common adjectives describe nouns and pronouns (strong man, green plant)
b) proper adjectives are formed from proper nouns (Mexican food)
c) compound adjectives are formed by more than one word (far-off country,
teenage person)
d) indefinite adjectives describe general quantities; most of them were pronouns in
their first lives (another, both, each, either, all, more)


The comparison of adjectives
There are three degrees of comparison:
1) The positive degree-shows the presence of a quality, without making any
comparison: He is tall/ She is beautiful.
2) The comparative degree-compares two objects showing the presence of quality
in three ways:
Equality- He is as kind as Jane.
Superiority- He is kinder than Jane.
Inferiority- He is less kind than Jane.
3) The superlative degree shows that a member of a group possesses the
compared quality in its highest extent through a direct comparison-the
relative superlative: He is the cleverest of all, or without a direct
comparison- the absolute superlative: She is very clever.
When we compare two notions we use the comparative preceded by the article
the, instead of the superlative: She is the younger and the more beautiful of the
two sisters.
Comparative and superlative- ways of formation:
The synthetic comparison- adjectives formed by one syllable form the
comparative and superlative by adding (e)r or (e)st: small- smaller- the smallest
Spelling: double consonants before short vowels (big-bigger-the biggest);
adjectives ending in y (dry-drier-the driest); adjectives ending in e, -ee lose the final e
(nice-nicer, free-freer)
The two-syllable adjectives obey the same synthetic rules: happy-happier, able-
The analytical comparison- the adjectives formed by two or more syllables form
their comparative and superlative using more/the most (careful-more careful-the most
The comparison of equality- the adjective in the positive degree preceded by as
and followed by as: My cabin is as large as his.
The comparison of inferiority- the adjective in the positive degree preceded by
not so/as and followed by as/less.than: My assignment is not as easy as yours.
The absolute relative- is expressed by the help of: very, too, highly, extremely:
It is extremely difficult to reach the top.
The irregular comparison: good-better- the best; ill-worse- the worst;
much/ many- more- the most; little- less- the least; late- later- the latest/the
latter/the last; old- older/elder- the oldest/the eldest; near- nearer- the nearest/the
far- farther/further the farthest/the furthest.
Syntactical functions:
Attribute- Tom has a new uniform.


Predicate nominative- This uniform is new.
The place of adjectives in the sentence:
- the attributes precede the noun they determine (a high mountain)
*exceptions: Ambassador Extraordinary, Secretary General, Court Martial, poet
- indefinite pronouns ending in body/one/thing are followed by the adjective: She
bought something nice/ He said nothing interesting.
- when a noun is determined by two adjectives in the comparative, one short and
one long, the short one precede the long one: She was taller and more beautiful.
- when more adjectives determine a noun, these adjectives follow one after the
other in the following order:
Sequence of adjectives

A large old tree
A freezing English day
A black leather jacket
A blue knitted hat
Adverbs are words that describe verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. They answer
the questions: When?, Where?, How?, To what extent?
When?.left yesterday /begin now
Where?... fell below /move up
How?...happily sang /dances badly
To what extent? partly finished /eat completely
Formation: adverbs of manner- adjectives + -ly (slowly, badly)
adverbs of time- adjectives + -ly (weekly)

* Not all the words ending in ly are adverbs. Some of them are adjectives:
friendly, lovely, lonely. Adverbs of time ending in ly can be both adjectives and
adverbs: This is a daily paper / It comes out daily.
* There are adverbs that do not end in ly such as: almost, already, back, hard,
low, how, now, far, more, often, late, so, fast.
We use an adverb to describe: - a verb: Experiments using dynamite must be done
- an adjective: Charles had an unbelievably huge
appetite for chips.
- to describe another adverb: They sung so clearly.
Conjunctive adverbs are used to connect other words; they act like conjunctions,
and are very useful when you want to link ideas and paragraphs. They are also called
transitives because they link ideas. Examples: also, besides, again, indeed, therefore,
finally, then, accordingly.


* Sometimes adverbs can have two forms with different meaning:
She came close and looked at me./ I followed the instructions closely.
He works hard./ He hardly recovered.
He travels light./ He treats everything lightly.
It is pretty late./ She dresses prettily.
Classification of adverbs- adverbs divide into 3 categories:
1. Adverbs of manner: well, badly, quickly, actually, absolutely, yes, no
2. Adverbs of place: direction- aside, forward, backward, right, left
place- here, there, somewhere
3. Adverbs of time: indicate the moment of action- now, today, then
succession in time- before, soon, formerly, afterwards
duration- lately, recently, still, yet
frequency- weekly, often, usually, seldom
Comparison of adverbs- has the same characteristics as the comparison of
Comparison of superiority- by the help of prefix er (fast-faster, early-earlier) or
more (more quickly)
Comparison of equality- She speaks English as fluently as her brother.
Comparative of inferiority- not so/ He doesnt learn as fast as his
classmates; less.than: He drives less carefully than his wife.
The absolute superlative- very/quite/most + adverb: She sings very beautifully.
The relative superlative- He runs (the) fastest of all./He answers the most
* The article (the)may be omitted in spoken English.
Irregular comparison of adverbs: well-better-the best/ badly-worse-the worst/
much-more-the most/ little-less-the least
Some special adverbs: enough- after adjectives and adverbs: He is old enough to
understand this.
-before or after a noun: You have enough time/time enough far- usually in
negative and interrogative sentences: He didnt go far.
hardly- negative meaning: He can hardly speak.
barely- He is barely 18.
scarcely- (hardly +barely) He scarcely ate anything.
in here/over there-Its hot in here./He is standing over there.
just now- He came in just now(not to be confused with just)
long- Did you stay there long? I stayed there a long time.
much- is preferred in negative and interrogative sentences:
Do you like swimming much?/ I dont like it much.
presently- He is presently staying with us./Ill presently be
with you.
still- in interrogative sentences: Is she still here.
yet- in negative and interrogative sentences: He hasnt
arrived yet.
very- can modify an adjective: She is very tall.


past participle: He had a very surprised look
adverb: He spoke very loudly.
1. There are twelve adjectives in this story. Underline them.
I went for a long walk in the countryside yesterday. It was a hot day, and soon I
was tired and thirsty. There was a small house by the side of the road, and I decided to
ask for a glass of cold water. I rang the bell and an old lady opened the big, wooden door.
She looked kind and she offered me a glass of fresh juice. It tasted great!

II. Choose from the following adjectives to fill in the sentences below: hungry,
new, terrible, expensive, sad, wonderful, Italian, fresh, difficult

1. Gold rings are normally expensive.
2. This food smells.................! I love fish and chips.
3. It was a ................exam. Im sure I havent passed.
4. Ive just bought a ...............sports car.
5. I met my wife in Rome, but she isnt................
6. He looks................. I dont think he likes his job.
7. Are you....................? Shall I buy some sandwiches?
8. This orange juice tastes..................Is it....................?

III. Look at these sentences. If you think the adjectives are in the wrong order,
change the order. If you think the order is correct, put a tick ().

1. She lost a gold, small ring at the disco yesterday night.
2. I have an old, Italian painting in my living room.
3. Im looking for my cotton, green shirt and my brown, leather shoes.
4. George has a Spanish, modern villa near the sea. He goes there every summer.
5. I live in an old, white house near the river. Ive got a black, large dog!
6. I had an interesting talk with a Polish, young student last week.
7. We are having lunch in a big, Japanese, new restaurant in the centre of town.
8. I left my books in a red, plastic bag on the bus. I was so stupid!

IV. Write the comparative form of these adjectives: cold, big, careful, expensive,
good, fat, famous, new, modern, young, cheap, delicious, rich, long, hungry, nice, happy,
difficult, old, beautiful, friendly, hot, bad, small, sad.

V. Put the words in brackets ( ) in the right order to make sentences.

1. (the world Antarctica coldest is place the in)
2. (city the Manchester in England is friendliest)
3. (in New York expensive restaurant The Manhattan the is most)
4. (is river the world the The Nile longest in)


5. (town most in Spain Granada beautiful is the)
6. (painting The Mona Lisa the famous in is most the world)
7. (the Europe mountain in highest Mont Blanc is)

VI. Use the words in brackets ( ) to write sentences. Use the + superlative, and
the Present Perfect + ever.

1. (Its/cold/place/I/visit) Its the coldest place Ive ever visited.
2. (Its/big/shop/I/see)
3. (Hes/rich/man/I/meet)
4. (Its/difficult/exam/I/do)
5. (Its/sad/film/I/see)
6. (Shes/happy/person/I/meet)
7. (Its/modern/ flat/I/see)
8. (Its/hot/country/I/visit)
9. (Its/small/dog/I/see).

VII. Complete the sentences using the comparative form of the adjectives in
brackets and than.

1. I think that golf is more interesting than (interesting) tennis.
2. This question is......................(easy) the last one.
3. Im a good player, but Eric is ........................(good) me.
4. The groups first record was.........................(successful) their second record.
5. We both played well, but he was.....................(lucky) me.
6. Your car is......................(powerful) mine.
7. This computer is....................(useful) that one.
VIII. Complete the sentences using the superlative form of the adjective in
1. Anna is the youngest (young) person in her class.
2. We stayed in ......................(bad) hotel in the whole city.
3. People say that it is ...............(funny) film of the year.
4. What is........................(tall) building in the world?
5. Her teachers say that she is ....................(good) student in the school.
6. This is........................(expensive) camera in the shop.
7. Many people say that Venice is..................(beautiful) city in the world.


IX. Complete each sentence so that it means the same as the one above it. Use
as + adjective/adverb + as.
1. Sweden is bigger than Britain.
Britain isnt as big as Sweden.
2. The other students learn more quickly than me.
I dont learn....................................the other students.
3. Youre very angry and Im angry also.
4. The seats at the front are more expensive than the seats at the back.
The seats at the back arent.................................the seats at the front.
5. Central Park in New York is bigger than Hyde Park in London.
Hyde Park in London isnt........................Central Park in New York.
6. Her last film was very good and her new film is also very good.
Her new film is.......................her last film.
7. The other students work harder than him.
He doesnt work........................the other students.

X. Join each pair of sentences in brackets ( ), using as, or as
1. (Ive got 50 books. Jacks got about 100.)
I havent got as many books as Jack.
2. (Youve done a lot of work. Ive done a lot of work also.)
Ive done
3. (Alan earns a lot of money. Sheila only earns a little.)
Sheila doesnt earn...........................Alan.
4. (George has been to five countries. Ive also been to five countries.)
Ive been to...............................George.
5. (Youve had five jobs. Ive only had two.)
I havent
6. (Tom has a lot of luggage. Jane has a lot of luggage too.)
Lane has............................Tom.
7. (Mary answered most of the questions. I only answered about half.)
I didnt answer.............................Mary.
8. (Ruth spent $50.I also spent $50.)
I spent...........................Ruth.

XI. Choose the correct adjective in brackets ( ) to put in the gaps.
1. It was a terrible play and I was bored (bored/boring) from start to finish.
2. Im very..................(excited/exciting) because Im going to New York
3. Are you................(surprised/surprising) or were you expecting this news?
4. Im reading a very.................(interested/interesting) book at the moment.
5. Ive had a very..............(tired/tiring) day at work today and I want to go to bed.
6. Most people were...................(surprised/surprising) that he won the


7. Im.......................(bored/boring). Lets go out for a cup of coffee somewhere.
8. Visit our...................(excited/exciting) new shop!
9. His speech was very long and very...................(bored/boring).

XII. Complete the sentences using too or enough and the words in brackets ( ).
1. I cant eat this soup because its too hot (hot).
2. We couldnt buy the tickets because we didnt have enough money (money).
3. We didnt buy the car because it wasnt big enough (big).
4. I couldnt see her because it was...................(dark).
5. I cant decide what to do because I havent got..................(information).
6. You cant change the situation now. Its..................(late).
7. Have you had..................(food), or would you like some more?
8. He did badly in the exam because he was....................(nervous).
9. Slow down! Youre driving ...................(fast).
10. He shouldnt play in the team because he isnt.................(good).
11. I havent got ................(clothes). I must buy some more.
l2. Robert didnt go to work because he didnt feel.................(well).
13. I couldnt lift the suitcase because I wasnt...................(strong).
14. We didnt go swimming because the water was................(cold).
15. Mary couldnt post all the letters because she didnt have..............(stamps).
I. Rewrite these sentences using an adverb instead of an adjective.
1. Peter is a bad tennis player. Peter plays tennis badly.
2. Hes a dangerous driver. He drives.....................
3. Shes a fast swimmer. She swims...................
4. Martin is a good cook. ...................................
5. Im a slow writer. ...................................
6. Shes a wonderful dancer. ...................................
7. Sheila is a hard worker. ....................................
8. They arent quick learners. ....................................

II. Complete the sentences. Put in the adverb form of the adjective in brackets ( ).
1. She read the message quickly (quick).
2. Read the instructions ...............(careful).
3. He looked at her.....................(angry), but he didnt say anything.
4. She passed all her exams....................(easy).
5. I ran as ....................(fast) as I could.
6. He thinks that he did the test.................(bad) and that hell fail.
7. Ive been studying very..................(hard) recently.
8. She was working.................(busy) when I arrived.
9. She sang the song..................(beautiful).
10. He was playing................(happy) when I came into the room.
11. He was concentrating...............(hard) on his work.


12. Have I filled this form in ................(correct)?
13. I wasnt in a hurry, so I walked...................(slow) through the park.
14. I closed the door................(quiet) when left.

III. Complete the dialogues by putting a suitable adverb into the gaps. Use an
adjective from the following ones: slow, fast, hard, good (x2), easy, bad.
1. A: Were the questions difficult?
B: No, I answered them easily.
2. A: Does she speak English.....................?
B: No, she only knows a few words of English.
3. A: Hurry up! Im waiting!
B: Just a minute. Im coming as I can.
4. A: Did you lose at tennis again?
B: Yes, I played.......................and I lost.
5. A: Have you been
B: No, Ive done nothing all day!
6. A: Have you finished that book yet?
B: No, I always read very...................It takes me a long time to finish a book.
7. A: Is he a bad student?
B: No, he does all his work very......................

IV. Put in the comparative adverb form of the adjective in brackets.
1. You must do your work more carefully (careful) in future.
2. He has run the 100 metres......................(fast) than any other athlete in the world
this year.
3. Everyone else did the test....................(good) than me.
4 You can travel......................(cheap) at certain times of the year.
5. He plays.................(confident) than he did in the past.
6. Im sorry Ive made so many mistakes. Ill try...............(hard) in future.
7. You will be able to sit...................(comfortable) in this chair.

V. Complete these sentences using really or quite.
1. The film was really good. I enjoyed it a lot.
2. Its....................cold outside, but not very cold.
3. It isnt a wonderful book, but its..................good.
4. The tickets were...............expensive they cost much more than I expected.
5. The programme is................popular in my country; millions of people watch it.
6. Hes..............good at his job, but sometimes makes bad mistakes.
7. The meal was..............nice, but it wasnt very good.
8. Its.............dangerous to drive fast in such terrible weather conditions.
9. Im not a very good tennis player, but I am.................good.
10. Theyre all.......intelligent students, and they will all pass their exams easily.
11. The company that I work for is.................big, but its not enormous.


VI. Put the words in brackets ( ) in the right place in these sentences
1. I work late at the office.
(often) I often work late at the office.
2. You must lock the front door when you leave.
3. Steve and Jill play golf.
(twice a month)...................
4. I eat a sandwich for lunch.
5. I go to jazz concerts at the weekend.
6. My teacher gives me a lot of homework.
(every day)..........................
7. We see our Mexican friends.
(hardly ever).......................
8. They go to Morroco for their holidays.
9. Bill and Marie go to the theatre.
(four times a year)...............
10. They are at home in the evening.

VII. Complete the sentences by choosing an ending from the following ones:
- the road carefully,
- their homework well,
- the piano badly,
- his car fast,
- her breakfast slowly,
- Arabic perfectly,
- an hour late
1. He drives.................................
2. She plays.................................
3. Maria ate.................................
4. They speak..............................
5. You must always cross...........
6. They all did.............................
7. The plane arrived....................

I. In these dialogues underline the adjectives and circle the adverbs
1. A: I think hes a good worker. What do you think?
B: Im not sure. He works carefully, but he makes some bad mistakes.
2. A: Hes a wonderful skier. He skis quickly and beautifully.
B: In my opinion, he skis dangerously. Hes a stupid skier.


3. A: Hes a rich and powerful man. He lives expensively.
B: Yes, but he spends money carefully. He buys valuable objects.
4. A: Paul, Jane, Diana and Mark live in a big, old house in Scotland. They live
happily together.
B: I know they are happy, but the house is expensive and so they live cheaply.
5. A: This bread tastes awful. Did you cook it correctly?
B: If you think its horrible, why are you eating it so hungrily?
6. A: Shes very young, but she sings and dances beautifully.
B: Shes a wonderful singer, but she dances badly in my opinion.

II. Put in the adjective or adverb in brackets ( ).
1. The train was very slow (slow/slowly) and I arrived late.
2. The journey took a long time because the train went
3. Mrs. Green went..................(quick/quickly) back to her office.
4. Im afraid I cant give you an ................(immediate/immediately) answer;
I need to think about it first.
5. The work that the builders did for us was very.................(bad/badly).
6. The builders did the work for us very....................(bad/badly)
7. She organized the party...............(good/well), and everybody enjoyed it.
8. Everybody said that the party was very................(good/well).
9. She wrote a ..............(polite/politely) letter asking the company to give her the
money back.
10. She wrote the company and asked them ..............(polite/politely) to give her the
money back.



The cargo is taken on board the ship in accordance with the cargo plan. This plan is
drawn up beforehand and must be carefully considered by the captain. In planning the
stowage of the goods, the captain gives the first consideration to the safety of the ship.
That means he must see that the stowage of goods is planned in such a way that the ship
will retain her stability and seaworthiness after the cargo has been loaded. This entails
another problem: the ship must be duly trimmed and the extra weights must be properly
lashed or secured so that they will not shift when the ship encounters bad weather.
There are some other considerations, which should be taken into account. First of
all, different kinds of cargo should be stowed in such a manner that they would not
damage or affect one another by contact or proximity. Secondly, each consignment must
be so arranged that it might be easily discharged in the port.
After the cargo plan has been approved the first mate is first of all to get the holds
ready. Then he is to look after the loading and stowage of the cargo.
The agent sends him a shipping note or a shipping order with each separate lot of
The second mate arranges a careful tally of goods, which are taken aboard. When
the first mate has the exact quantity and condition of the goods received, he makes out the
mates receipt. The receipts are delivered to the shippers, to the stevedoring company or
direct to the agent.
On the basis of the receipts, the agent makes out bills of lading in which he is to
insert all the remarks contained in the mates receipts.
Then the agent presents the issued bills of lading to the master for signature. The
master calls for his second mate, verifies with him the accuracy of all the data, and then
signs the bills of lading.
On no account should the master sign a post-dated or ante-dated bill of lading; it
should be signed under date of shipment of the goods.
A master is sometimes pressed by a shipper to sign a false bill of lading, in return
for a letter of indemnity. He should never accept such a letter, but should insist on
qualifying the bills of lading so that they contain statements which are true in substance
and in fact.
After loading has been completed, a stowage plan and manifest of cargo are
compiled. These are rather important and useful documents. They are usually sent ahead
of the ship to the port of discharge so that preliminary arrangements may be made as to
the type of discharging gear required and as to the number of gangs to handle the cargo.
After that, the proper method of disposal is arranged. A copy of the cargo manifest is also
kept on the ship to be presented to the custom house when required.


Our tallies dont agree. There are two bags in dispute.
Yes, I know that. What shall we do?
Well, its up to you to decide. I think we should check the entries again.
All right. Ill see to that. Ill let you know the result sometime later.


Seaworthiness = navigabilitate
Stowage = stivuire
Duly = n timp util, la timp
Trim = a pune n ordine, a aranja
Entail = a avea ca rezultat, a necesita, a impune
Make out = a ntocmi, a redacta
Bill of lading = conosament
Reference = trimitere, referire
Letter of indemnity = scrisoare de garanie
Gang = echipa
Mates receipt = ordin de mbarcare
Superintend = a supraveghea, a controla
Comply (with) = a se conforma cu
Discharging gear = echipament de descrcare
Manifest of cargo = (mar) certificat de ncrctura
Stowage = mrfuri stivuite/ambalate, taxa de magazinaj
Tally = pontaj
Take into account = a lua n considerare
Tallies dont agree = pontajul nu corespunde
To the effect that = n sensul ca
Relay orders = a transmite ordine/dispoziii
Notice is served = notisul a fost prezentat
Lash one piece to another = (mar) a lega o bucat de alta


In this section we are going to talk about tenses usually referred to as present in
grammars and reference books, the present simple and the present continuous. These
tenses are discussed in their relation to present time. Another form of present tense is the
present emphatic and is important to make the distinction between this and the normal
form of the present simple.


Present simple - full form: I walk; negative form: I do not walk; question form:
Do you walk to school?/ Dont you walk to school?; tag question: You walk to school,
dont you?/ You dont walk to school, do you?
Meaning and function- this tense is a timeless tense for actions which are always,
repeatedly, or generally true, or actions encapsulated in a single instant (with no reference
to past or future).
This tense is used to denote truths:
Habitual truth: He smokes forty cigarettes a day.
Eternal truth: Jesus lives/ The Koran says
Recurrent truth: The sun rises in the east.
Permanent human truth: I likesweets.
General truth: English people drink a lot of tea.
Mathematical and scientific truth: Two and two makefour/ Water boils at 100C.
It is used for giving instructions, directions, demonstrations (often with the
impersonal you): (You) beat the eggs and then (you) add the flour/ (You) turn to the left
and walk straight ahead.
It is used as a narrative device for dramatic effect in certain situations:
In commentaries: He passes the ball to Clark, aims and scores.
In headlines and captions: Putin meets G. Bush
In describing feelings and senses (sudden ones): I feel sick (suddenly)/ I hear bells.
With a future time marker the tense gives a timetable future usually for schedules:
My bus leaves at 3.00 p.m.
It is used after when to form a time clause: When I get home, Ill make tea.
Habitual present tense with adverbs of frequency (always, sometimes, often, never,
usually): They never smokewhen they are aboard ship/ He always sings when he takes a
In formal speech it is possible to use what we call the historic present to
describe past events, especially to make the narration seem more immediate and dramatic:
so then the second man asks the first one why he has a banana in his ear and the first
one says

Present continuous- full form: Im looking; negative form: I am not looking;
question form: Are you looking?/ Arent you looking?; tag question: You are looking,
arent you?/ Arent you looking, are you?/ Im looking, arent I?
State and dynamic verbs- some verbs rarely take the present continuous form at
all: these are verbs that describe a state of affairs beyond the persons immediate active
control (If someone is a man, has a car, knows French, hears music, or likes apples-there
is little he can do to change this at the moment). These verbs are often called state verbs,
as distinct from dynamic ones, where the person is actively doing something. Even verbs
which are usually state, can take the present continuous, but they mean something
different. The most common state verbs are the following:
To be- rarely occurs in the present continuous form except with adjectives of
behaviour: You are being silly (suggests a temporary and deliberate action)
To have- Im having a bath/ a drink (it implies present enjoyment or experience)


Verbs describing involuntary sensations (smell, hear, see)- are usually in the
present simple, but they also take the present continuous for particular effect:
Im seeing him to the station (change of meaning); Imsmelling roses (pretence).
Emotion and wishing verbs (intend, hope, wish, like, dislike) can sometimes occur
with the present continuous for a polite and tentative meaning: I am hoping that
you will take the part of Hamlet.
Thinking verbs (think, expect) sometimes take the continuous form when thinking
is an activity, not a passive state of mind: Be quiet! I am thinking / The police are
expecting trouble, but I think he is at home now (think = believe)
Other state verbs (belong to, concern, contain, cost, matter, resemble, keep on) are
usually in the present simple, but again there are some exceptions where the
continuous form is used, for example to emphasize temporary meaning: \
God knows what this meal is costing me! / He is resembling his father more and
Meaning and function:
a) Temporary action- that began before the time of speaking, is continuous across it,
and is not yet complete: Im walking at this moment.
b) Temporary habit- not necessarily engaged in at the moment of speech, but
temporarily contracted for: Imwatering his plants while he is away.
c) Regrettable habit (always): Imalways losing my keys (the speaker is constantly
in a state of having lost the keys).
d) Future action- for plans and arrangements: Impicking her up at 6.00, were
leaving tomorrow.
Present emphatic- used to express contradiction, surprise or insistence and rely on
stress and intonation for their function. It is created as the ordinary tense, with the
addition of stress on the auxiliaries.
Meaning and function
a) To express reassurement of reaffirmation that action occurs: I do turn off the
lights./ He does livehere.
b) To express contradiction: You do break the speed limit./ I do likeicecream.
c) To express enthusiasm, strong feeling: I do hopeI can come./ I do loveChopin./ I
do want to see that film.
d) To express enthusiastic reinforcement: I do likeyour hat.
e) To express invitation: Do you play chess?/ I do want to see that film.

Grammar Practice. Present Continuous

Exercise I. Complete the sentences. Use am/ is/ are + one of these verbs
building coming cooking playing standing studying swimming
1. Listen! Pat is playing the piano.
2. They.a new hotel downtown
3. Look! Somebody .. in the river.
4. Youon my foot. Oh I m sorry.


5. Hurry up! The bus ..
6. Where are you Sam? In the kitchen . I .. dinner.
7. (on the phone) Hello. Can I speak to Ann please? She .for an exam right
now. Can she call you back later?
Exercise II. Whats happening right now? Write true sentences.
1. (I/ wash/ my hair). Im not washing my hair.
2. (it/ snow)
3. (I/ sit/ on a chair)
4. (I/ eat)
5. (it/ rain )
6. (I/ do/ this exercise).
7. (I/ listen/ to the radio)
8. (the sun/ shine)
9. (I/wear/ shoes )
10. (I/ read/ a newspaper)
Exercise III. Write positive or negative short answers (Yes, I am/ No, it isnt, etc.)
1. Are you watching TV? No, Im not.
2. Are you wearing shoes?
3. Are you wearing a hat?
4. Is it raining?
5. Are you eating something?
6. Are you feeling all right?
7. Is the sun shining?
8. Is your teacher watching you?

Grammar Practice. Present Simple

Exercise IV. Write the he/ she/ it form of these verb:
1. read ..reads
2. repair.
3. watch.
4. listen..
5. love.
6. have.
7. push.
8. do.
9. think.
10. kiss..
11. buy.
12. go..


Exercise V. Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of these verbs.
boil close cost drink go have like meet open speak teach wash

1. Shes very smart. She speaks four languages.
2. Steve . four cups of coffee a day.
3. We usually. dinner at 7 o clock.
4. I ..movies. I often . to the movies with friends.
5. Water at 100 degrees Celsius.
6. In my home town the banks . at 9:00 in the morning.
7. The City Museum . at 5 oclock on Saturdays.
8. Food is expensive. It .. a lot of money.
9. Shoes are expensive. They . a lot of money.
10. Sue is a teacher. She math to young children.
11. Your job is very interesting. You a lot of people.
12. Peter . his hair every day.
13. An insect . six legs.

Exercise VI. Write the opposite. (positive or negative).
1. I understand. I dont understand.
2. She doesnt drive. She drives.
3. They know. They ..
4. He loves her. ..
5. They speak English. .
6. I dont want it. .
7. She doesnt want them. ..
8. He lives in Taiwan.

Exercise VII. Complete the sentences. All of them are negative. Use dont/ doesnt +
one of these verbs.
cost drive go have know play see sell smoke wash wear

1. Have a cigarette. No, thanks. I dont smoke.
2. They newspapers in that store.
3. She has a car, but .. very often.
4. I like plays, but I the theatre very often.
5.My car is usually dirty because I .. it very often.
6. Its a cheap hotel. It .. much to stay there.
7. He likes soccer, but he very often.
8. I .. much about politics.
9. Shes married, but she .. a ring.
10. He lives next door, but we.. him very often.
11. Can you lend me five dollars? Sorry, I ..any money.


Exercise VIII. You are asking somebody questions. Write questions with Do/
Example: I work hard . How about you? Do you work hard?
1. I play tennis .How about you? . you ..?
2. I play tennis. How about Ann? .. Ann . ?
3. I know the answer. How about you? .. the answer?
4. I like hot weather. How about you? .?
5. My father drinks coffee. How about your father? ?
6. I exercise every morning. How about you? ..?
7. I speak English. How about your friends? ..?
8. I want to be famous. How about you? ..?

Exercise IX. These questions begin with Where/ What/How ?
1. I wash my hair every day. (how often/ you?) How often do you wash your hair?
2. I live in Mexico City. (where/ you?) Where .?
3. I watch TV every day. (how often/you ?) How ..?
4. I have lunch at 1 oclock (what time/ you?) .?
5. I get up at 7:30.(what time/ you?) .?
6. I go the movies a lot. (how often/ you?) ?
7. I go to work by bus. (how/ you?) ..?
8. I always have eggs for breakfast. (what/ you?) .?

Grammar Practice. Present Continuous & Present Simple

Exercise X. Put the verb in the present continuous (I am doing) or simple present (I
1. Excuse me, do you speak .. (you/ speak) English?
2. Tom (is taking) (take) a shower at the moment.
3. They dont watch . (not/ watch) television very often.
4. Listen! Somebody .. (sing).
5. Shes tired. She .. (want) to go home now.
6. How often . (you/ read) the newspaper.
7. Excuse me, but you . (sit) in my place. Oh, Im sorry.
8. Im sorry, I .. (not/ understand). Please speak more slowly.
9. Where are you Dan? Im in the living room. I . (read).
10. What time . (she/ finish) work every day?
11. You can turn off the radio. I.. (not /listen) to it.
12. He ( not/ usually/ drive) to work.. He usually (walk).

Exercise XI. Complete the sentences with the Present Simple (I do) or the Present
Continuous (I am doing)`.
1. I leave (leave) home at 7 o clock every morning.
2. She usually . (work) in the sales Department in London, but at the
moment she (do) a training course in Bristol.


3.He . (try) very hard in every game that he (play).
4. Excuse me. I think you (sit) in my seat.
5. . (you/ listen ) to the radio very often?
6. Dont talk to me now. I . (write) an important letter.
7. Why .. (they/ drive) on the left in Britain?
8. It (not/ get) dark at this tome of year until about 10 o clock.
9. It usually .. (rain) here a lot, but it . (not/ rain) now.
10. A: What are you doing?
B: . (bake) a cake. Why..(you/ smile) ?.(I/do) something wrong?



On arrival in the port of discharge necessary arrangements are made for
discharging the cargo. In the majority of cases, the agent entrusts the discharging of
goods to some stevedoring company. This company undertakes to discharge the cargo
into their own warehouse and then to deliver this cargo to the respective consignees.
In other cases, the agent arranges with the consignees a direct delivery of goods
alongside the ship.
In both cases the chief mate is under duty to make out notices of readiness and to
hand them over to the agent. Then the agent hands in these notices to the consignees.
As a rule the cargo is delivered against original bills of lading and on payment of
The receiver of the goods has to sign his name on the bill of lading. A bill of lading
is a negotiable document and it is often sold and resold before it is presented to the master
at the port of discharge.
The ships agent negotiates with the consignees or holders of the B/L and
introduces to the master the right and legitimate person who must take the delivery of
Sometimes the goods are delivered in small separate lots against the consignees
With the final lot all these receipts are exchanged for a duly signed and endorsed
bill of lading. Very often the agent places his signature and seal on the bill of lading,
which serves as a proof that the goods have been delivered to the right persons.
According to the contract the agent is bound to collect from the receivers of goods
the freight and other charges due to the ship owners.
The master may deliver the goods only after he has ascertained that the freight and
other charges have been paid. The fact that the money has been paid must be officially
confirmed by the agent; he usually does this by giving the captain a formal written notice.
In case of non-payment of freight and of other charges due to the ship, the master
may exercise a lien upon the goods and the agent renders him all assistance in this
In case of shortage of goods or any claims or disputes on the part of consignees the
agent is to arrange immediate checking of the cargo in order to protect the interests of the
vessel. If shortage is found on discharging, an appropriate statement of facts should be
drawn up. This statement is usually signed by the master, by the agent and sometimes by
the custom house officer or a surveyor.


How many bags were missing in that lot?
Five bags were short-landed.
Then everythings all right with that lot.
What do you mean?
We have five extra bags in this lot.
And what of it?
Evidently, they belong to the other lot.
Entrust = a ncredina
Endorse = a andosa (a semna pe spatele unui document)
Holder = deintor/acionar
Undertake = a prelua
Consign = a expedia
Consignee = exportator
Seal = sigiliu
Warehouse = depozit
Amount = sum, cantitate
State = a declara, a stabili
Ascertain = a constata, a preciza
Charges = taxe
Claim = reclamaie, pretenie
Statement of facts = raport oficial
Draw up = a ntocmi
Freight = navlu
Due to = datorit
Shortage = lips
Receipt = chitan
Exercise lien upon the cargo = a exercita dreptul de gaj asupra mrfii
Take delivery of the cargo = a recepiona marfa
Two bags were short = lips de doi saci
Bill of lading duly signed and endorsed = conosament semnat i andosat (girat)

! The present perfect tense is one of the most difficult English tenses to use well or
even correctly. The explanations presented here aims to provide the student with a clear
guide to when to use, and when not to use this tense, in both the simple and continuous
Present perfect simple is formed with the auxiliary verb have in the
corresponding form for the subject of the sentence, followed by the participle of the main
full form: I have walked/ drunk/run/ I havent walked; question form: Have you
walked?/ Havent you walked?; tag question: You have walked, havent you? You
havent walked, have you?


Meaning and function- shows the present situation in relation to past action, how
the past is relevant to now.
a) For uncompleted action where both action and results remain/unfinished past/
with a time marker showing past reference:
London has stood beside the Thames for hundreds of years/ My mother has
always played tennis.
b) For an action which took place in an identified period of time which is not yet
over: Iveread a book this morning./ I read a book this morning.
c) For an action which took place in the past, but whose results are still present
(present perfect of result): Ivespilt the milk (it is still on the floor).
d) For an action(single or repeated) which took place in the past, but still relates
to the present: Ivestudied French.(and remember it).
e) With the time markers just, yet, already, still, this can also indicate the attitude of
the speaker:
I havejust washed the floor. (so its still wet)
He has just left. (so you are too late to speak to him)
Haveyou painted my fence yet?(questions)
I havent painted the fence yet.(negatives)
He has already eaten it.(there is none left)
Hasnt the train gonealready? (that is surprising)
He still hasnt left.(negatives)
Haveyou still got that hat? (Amer. English prefers the present simple with
Haveyou ever lived in London? (present perfect of experience)
I havenever lived in Paris.(remembered experience)
f) Future uses- when clauses: Ill come when I have written this letter. (Ill write
this letter first and when that is complete, Ill come)

Present perfect continuous is formed with the auxiliary verb have in the
corresponding form for the subject of the sentence, followed by the participle been of the
auxiliary verb be, followed by the ing form of the main verb.
full form: I have been eating/ He has been eating; question form: Have you been
eating?/ Havent you been eating?; tag questions: You have been eating, havent you?/
You havent been eating, have you?
Meaning and function- this tense focuses on continuous or repeated activity
engaged in before the present, but relevant to it and on the continuous duration of that
action. The action is seen as temporary and may or may not have completed at the time of
a) used as an explanation for the present situation or the appearance of the speaker-
caused by the recent and ongoing nature of the activity, which may or may not be
I wont shake hands, Ivebeen baking. (my hands are covered in flour);
I have been repairing the car all morning. (Im exhausted)
b) to account for a period of time now finishing-the tense indicates that the
action filled the time:


I didnt iron your shirt, Ivebeen cooking all morning. (excuse for failure)
c) it is used to draw attention to the repeated or continuous nature of an action or
habit resulting in present expertise or knowledge:
I have been learning French for 10 years /I have been living here since 1970.
d) it is used for new, temporary habits, which have become constant or
He has been seeing a lot of her lately.
e) it is often used in talking about health to describe new and developing
I have been getting/having headaches.
f) with verbs of wishing/hoping-the tense is a polite device, suggesting that the
wish or thought was constantly in the speakers mind:
I have been looking forward to meeting you.
g) with mean/intend, the tense shows a recognition that the speaker has failed in his
I have been meaning to visit you.

I mportant it is important to remember that non-continuous verbs cannot be
used in any continuous tenses. To express the idea of present perfect continuous with
these exception verbs, you must use present perfect.
Examples: Tom has been having his car for two years. Not correct
Sam has had his car for two years. Correct

* Comparison between the present perfect simple and the present perfect
The present perfect simple: He has painted the room. (we are interested in the
result of the action, not in the action itself)
The present perfect continuous: He has been painting the room.(we are interested
in the action, it does not matter whether something has been finished or not).
We use the simple to ask or say how much, how many or how many times:
How many pages of that book haveyou read?/ Mary has written 10 letters today./
They have played tennis three times this week.
We use the continuous to ask or say how long (for an activity still happening):
How long have you been reading that book?/ Mary has been writing letters all
They have been playing tennis since two oclock.
We can use for and since with both present perfect simple and continuous: He has
talked about her for years/ Hes been talking about her for years./Ive played
volleyball since 9 oclock/ Ive been playing volleyball since 9 oclock.


Grammar Practice. Present Perfect Simple
Exercise I. You are writing a letter to a friend. In the letter you give news about
yourself and other people. Use the words to make sentences. Use the present perfect.
Dear Chris,
Lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you.
1.I/ buy/ a new car. Ive bought a new car.
2. my father/ start/ a new job .
3. I/ give up/ smoking
4. Charles and Sarah/ go/ to Brazil ..
5. Suzanne/ have/ a baby .

Exercise II. Complete the sentences. Use already + present perfect simple
1. What time is Paul arriving? Hes already arrived.
2. Do Sue and Bill want to see the film? No, they..
3. Dont forget to phone Tom. I..
4. When is Martin going away? He.
5. Do you want to read the newspaper? I
6. When does Linda start her new job? She ..

Exercise III. You are asking Helen questions beginning Have you ever? Write
1. (London?). Have you ever been to London? No, never.
2. (play/ golf?) ..Have you ever played golf? Yes, many times.
3. (Australia?).. Have No, never.
4. (lose /your passport?) .. Yes, once
5. (fly/ in a helicopter?).. No, never.
6. (eat/ Chinese food?).. Yes, a few times.
7. (New York?). Yes, twice.
8. (drive/ a bus?).. No, never.
9. (break/ your leg?). Yes, once.

Exercise IV. Write sentences about Helen. (Look at her answers in exercise III)
1. (New York) ..Helen has been to New York twice.
2. (Australia)Helen
3. (Chinese food)
4. (drive/ a bus).
Now write about yourself. How often have you done these things?
5. (New York) I.
6. (play/ tennis)
7. (fly/ in a helicopter)..
8. (be/ late for work or school)..

Exercise V. Complete the sentences.
1. Jill is in hospital. Shehas been in hospital since Monday.
2. I know Sarah. I have knownher for a long time.


3. Linda and Frank are married. They married since 1989.
4. Brian is ill. He. ill for the last few days.
5. We live in Scott Road. We there for ten years.
6. Catherine works in a bank. She. in a bank for ten years.
7. Alan has a headache. He .. a headache since he got up this morning.
8. Im learning English. I. English for six months.

Exercise VI. Which is right?
1. Mark is/ has been in Canada since April. has been is right
2. Jane is a good friend of mine. I know/ have known her very well.
3. Jane is a good friend of mine. I know/ have known her for a long time.
4. Sorry, Im late. How long are you/ have you been waiting?
5. Martin works/ has worked in a hotel now. He likes his job very much.
6. Tom is/ has been in Spain at the moment. He is/ has been there for the last three

Exercise VII. Read the situations and write sentences with just, already, or yet.
1. After lunch you go to see a friend at her house. She says Would you like
something to eat?
You say: No, thank you. ..Ive just had lunch. (have lunch)
2. Joe goes out. Five minutes later, the phone rings and the caller says Can I speak
to Joe?
You say: Im afraid .(go out)
3. You are eating in a restaurant. The waiter thinks you have finished and starts to
take your plate away. You say: Wait a minute!(not/ finish)
4. You are going to a restaurant this evening. You phone to reserve a table. Later
your friend says Shall I phone to reserve a table? You say:
5. You know that a friend of yours is looking for a job. Perhaps she has been
successful. Ask her. You say:.? (find)
6. Ann went to the bank, but a few minutes ago she returned. Somebody asks Is
Ann still at the bank? You say: No, ..(come back)

Exercise VIII. Put in been or gone .
1. Jim is on holiday. Hes gone to Italy.
2. Hello. Ive just the shops. Ive bought lots of things.
3. Alice isnt here at the moment. Shes to the shop to get a newspaper.
4. Tom has..out. Hell be back in about an hour.
5. Are you going to the bank? No, Ive already the bank.

Exercise IX. Complete these sentences using today/ this year/ this term etc
1. I saw Tom yesterday but . I havent seen him today.
2. I read a newspaper yesterday but I today.
3. Last year the company made a profit but this year. .
4. Tracy worked hard at school last term but.. .


5. It snowed a lot last winter but .
6. Our football team won a lot of games last season but we.

Exercise X. Read the situations and write sentences as shown in the examples.
1. Jack is driving a car but hes very nervous and not sure what to do.
You ask: : .Have you driven a car before?
He says :.. No, this is the first time Ive driven a car.
2. Len is playing tennis. Hes not very good and he doesnt know the rules.
You ask: Have.
He says: No, this is the first .
3. Sue is riding a horse. She doesnt look very confident and comfortable.
You ask:
She says:
4. Maria is in London. She has just arrived and its very new for her.
You ask:
She says:

Exercise XI. You are asking somebody questions about things he or she has done.
Make questions for the words in brackets.
1. (ever/ ride/ horse).. Have you ever ridden a horse?
2. (ever/ be/ California).
3. (ever/ run/ marathon)
4. (ever/ speak/ famous person?)
5. (always/ live/ in this town ?)..
6. (most beautiful place/ ever/ visit ?) What..

Grammar Practice Present Perfect Continuous

Exercise XII. Write a sentence with the present perfect continuous and for to
describe each situation. Use these verbs: camp, play, read, swim, talk, travel, work.
1. The video began two hours ago, and it hasnt finished yet. Its been playing
for two hours.
2. James went into the water ten minutes ago. He doesnt want to come out
3. Alice rang Peter half an hour ago, and theyre still on the phone
4. Robert picked up a book an hour ago. He hasnt put it down
5. Ed and Jennifer started their journey around the world three months ago.
Theyve gone about halfway now.
6. Sue got to the office early this morning. Ten hours later shes still
7. The Dobsons left on holiday four weeks ago and theyre not back yet. They
took their tent.


Exercise XIII. Add a sentence with the present perfect continuous. Use the words in
1. Mr Davis has a backache. (dig / the garden)..Hes been digging in the
2. Joe has no money left. (shop).
3. The girls are tired. (work hard )
4. The boys have got a suntan. (sunbathe)
5. Emmas shoes are dirty. (walk/ in the field)..
6. Jane and Neil look annoyed. (argue).
7. The ground is wet. (rain)
8. Tim has some washing up to do (bake/ cakes).
Exercise XIV. Read the situations and complete the sentences.
1. The rain started two hours ago. Its still raining now. It .. has been raining for
two hours.
2. We started waiting for the bus 20 minutes ago. Were still waiting now.
We. for 20 minutes.
3. I started Spanish classes in December. Im still learning Spanish now.
I. since December.
4. Ann began looking for a job six months ago. Shes still looking
now. for six months.
5. Mary started working in London on 18 January. Shes still working there now.
. since 18 January.
6. Years ago you started writing to a pen friend. You still write to each other regularly
now. We.for years.
Grammar Practice. Present Perfect Simple and Continuous
Exercise XV. Read the situations and write two sentences using the words in
1. Tom started reading a book two hours ago. He is still reading it and now he is on
page 53.
(read/ for two hours).. He has been reading for two hours.
(read/ 53 pages so far) He has read 53 pages
2. Linda is from Australia. She is travelling round Europe at the moment. She began
her tour three months ago.
(travel/ for three months) She.
(visit/ six countries so far).
3. Jimmy is a tennis player. He began playing tennis when he was ten years old. This
year he is national champion again for the fourth time.
(win/ the national championship four times)..
(play/ tennis since he was ten)
4. When they left college, Mary and Sue started making films together. They still make
(make/ ten films since they left college). They
(make/ films since they left college)


Exercise XVI. Put the verb into the more suitable form, present perfect simple (I
have done) or continuous (I have been doing).

1. Where have you been? ..Have you been playing..(you/ play) tennis?
2. Look!. Somebody{break) that window.
3. You look tired. (you/ work ) hard ?
4. ..(you/ ever/ work) in a factory? No, never
5. Jane is away on holiday. Oh, is she ? Where (she go) ?
6. My brother is an actor. He..(appear) in several films.
7. Sorry Im late. Thats all right. I.( not/ wait) long.
8. Is it still raining? No, it .(stop)
9. I.(lose) my address book. ..(you/ see) it anywhere?
10. I.(read) the book you lent me but I (not/ finish) it yet.
11. I ..(read) the book you lent me, so you can have it back now.

Exercise XVII. For each situation, ask a question using the words in brackets.
1. You have a friend who is learning Arabic. You ask: (how long/ learn/ Arabic?).
How long have you been learning Arabic?
2. You have just arrived to meet a friend. She is waiting for you. You ask: (how
long/ wait?)
3. You see somebody fishing by the river. You ask: (how many fish/ catch?)
4. Some friends of yours are having a party next week. You ask: (how many
people/ invite?)
5. A friend of yours is a teacher. You ask: (how long/ teach?)
6. You meet somebody who is a writer. You ask: (how many books/ write?),
(how long/ write books?)
7. A friend of yours is saving money to go on holiday. You ask: (how long/

Exercise XVIII. Use the words given to complete the sentences. Put the verbs in the
present perfect simple or continuous.
1. Johns terribly upset. Hes broken (he/ break) off his engagement to
Megan. Apparently shes been seeing(she/ see) someone else while ..hes
been (he/ be) in Africa.
2. Can you translate this note from Stockholm? I understood Swedish when I was
a child, but (I/ forget) it all.
3. Whats that dent in the side of the car? ..(you/ have) an accident?
4. Im sorry, Johns not here; ..(he/ go) the dentist(he/ have)
trouble with a tooth.
5. This cassette recorder is broken. (you/ play about) with it?
6. Your Italian is very good (you/ study) it long?
7. Do you mind if I clear the table? (you/ have) enough to it ?
8. Im not surprised.(he/ fail) that exam.



Ships may need dry-docking in a number of cases. It is a well known fact that in
the course of time the underwater part of a ship is covered with sea growth or shells
which is sometimes called fouling. This sea growth reduces a vessels propulsive
efficiency to a great extent. To remove this growth, vessels must be dry-docked from time
to time and their bottom must be cleaned.
In case of some damage to the ships hull, from stranding or collision, the ship
must also be placed in a dry dock or slip for examination and repairs.
If a ship requires dry-docking, the dock master must be informed beforehand about
the ships draft, her length and breadth, whether she has bilge keels and whether she has
any other special characteristics of the ships construction. These data will enable him to
make necessary preparations and to fix keel blocks to receive the ship.
If docked for the purpose of cleaning and re-coating the bottom, the captain and the
chief officer should see that the work is done effectively, especially when the work is
done after dark. Anti-corrosive paint or anti-fouling composition should not be put on a
wet or damp surface, as moisture under paint will always cause peeling later on.
While being docked, a careful examination of the ships bottom should be
undertaken and the engineers should examine the stern tube, propeller, injection valves
and sea connections. If any part of the plating is corroded or pitted, it must be cleaned and
covered with some anti-corrosive coating.
During dry-docking the following precautions should be observed on the ship:
No free- liquid surface in tanks or other spaces should be allowed.
The vessel should be trimmed to an even keel.
No weight, cargo or water should be shifted while docked.
Fire line connections between ship and yard should be made and periodically
All closets, drains, discharge pipes, etc. should be shut off.
Bottom plugs, underwater cocks and valves as well as zinc protectors should be
The rudder should be lifted and pintles and gudgeons should be examined.
Stuffing boxes, the propeller gland should be replaced.
In the course of sea trials as well as after undocking, due attention should be paid
to possible leaks in the hull especially in those portions where repairs have been made.
In foreign ports arrangements for dry-docking a ship, as well as negotiations with
the dock master, engineers, port and other authorities are usually carried out through the
ships agent. The agent is also under duty to settle accounts and to make payments to the
dock authorities and to other persons concerned.


Repairs to main and auxiliary machinery, dock machinery, cargo gear, deck
superstructure and above-water portions of the hull do not always need placing a ship in a
dry dock. These repairs in the majority of cases, are effected when the ship is afloat.
At the request of the chief engineer he is to invite on board the ship the
representative of some local repair shop or shipyard. He must explain to the
representative all the particulars of the work to be done, give scantlings and drawings, as
well as allowances and tolerances for the parts ordered.
On completion of work and trials, the chief engineer approves of the work done by
the shop, signs the respective bills and the agent pays the money to the repair shop on
behalf of the ship.

Dry-dock = a andoca
Sea-growth-fouling = depuneri pe opera vie
Grave = a cura opera vie
Stranding = punere pe uscat
Bilge keel = chila de rului
Coating = piturare
Anti-fouling = antivegetativ (pitura)
Moisture = umezeal
Stern tube = tub etambou
Injection valves = valvule/ supape de injecie
Sea valve = valvula kingston
Bottom valve = valvula/ supapa de fund
Pintle = pivot, balama
Gudgeon = balama de carma, prezon
Propeller gland = garnitura de etanare a elicei
Stuffing-box = presetupa
Drains = tubulatura, drenaj
Dock trials = probe la cheu
Leak = scurgere
Cargo gear = instalaia de manevr a mrfii
Afloat = n stare de plutire
Breakage = rupere, spargere
Scantlings = dimensiuni
Allowance/ tolerance = tolerana
In the course of time = n decursul timpului
In the course of sea trials = pe parcursul probelor de mare
To trim the vessel to an even keel = a aduce nava pe chila dreapt
To effect (make, execute) repairs = a executa reparaii
Due attention should be made = a se acorda atenie deosebit


The Past tense simple is the tense most often used to talk about the past. It can
refer to short, quickly finished actions and events, to longer actions and situations, and to
repeated happenings. The past tense has two forms: regular verbs and irregular verbs.
Regular verbs have a base form - a past tense form where ed is added to the end of the
verb. Irregular verbs have no rules for conjugation. They all have a base form, a past
tense form which must be learned. There is a table with these verbs, where the past tense
can be found in the second column.
Past tense simple- full form: I walked (regular)/ I ran (irregular); negative form: I
did not walk/ I didnt run; question form: Did you walk/run?; tag question: You walked/
ran, didnt you?/You didnt walk/ run, did you?
Meaning and function:
a) For an action in the past with time marker, it may be used for historical or
narrative truth: I saw him yesterday./ Dinosaurs lived on the earth./ I rode a
bicycle once.
b) Polite conversation markers, with verbs of thinking, wishing introducing a
request or suggestion: I wondered if you might give me a lift.
c) As a time marker in when or while clauses:
Past time for background actions taking place repeatedly: He whistled when he
Past time for background actions taking place continuously: He whistled while
he worked.
Indeterminate time, with modals in the past form: I thought he might like one
when he came.
d) As a hypothetical future marker, especially in if clauses (type 2 conditionals):
You would be glad if I sold it.

The past tense continuous is formed with the past tense of the auxiliary verb to be
(was, were) + the present participle (-ing form) of the main verb. This tense is often used
in a sentence together with past tense simple. When this happens, the past progressive
usually refers to a longer background action or situation, the past simple usually refers to
a shorter action or event that happened in the middle of the longer one, or interrupted it:
I was talking to the Prime Minister the other day, and she said
Past tense continuous - full form: I was walking/ You were walking; negative: I wasnt
walking/You werent walking; question form: Were you walking?; tag question: You were
walking, werent you?/ You werent walking, were you?
Meaning and function - the past continuous tense usually places an action in
relation to a point or period of time in the past:
a) The point in past time is specifically mentioned; the past continuous action
crosses it: I was having a bath at 10 oclock.
b) The point in time is replaced by an action in the past, which interrupted the
continuous action: I was having a shower when the phone rang.
c) A period in the past is specified; the past continuous action fills it:
They werewatching TV from 8.00 to midnight.


d) The period in the past is defined by another action also in the past continuous:
I was buttering the bread while my mother was slicing the tomatoes.
e) An action in the past continuous creates a time period within which other
actions in the past simple take place:
He stole the money when/ while she was getting on the bus./ The sun was
setting as the old man walked up the hill.
f) As a polite conversation marker with verbs of hoping and wishing:
I was wondering/ thinking if you could give me a lift.

* Compare the uses of the past continuous and the past simple:
When she arrived I was telephoning Harry. (She arrived during my telephone
When she arrived I telephoned Harry. (I telephoned after her arrival)
In narrative texts (stories etc.), the past progressive is often used for
descriptions, and the past simple for events and actions: The bride was wearing a
white dress and carrying a bouquet of lilies.
The past progressive (like other progressive tenses) is used for temporary
actions and situations; when we talk about longer, more permanent situations, we
usually use the past simple. Compare: It happened while I was living in Eastbourne
last year. / I lived in London ten years when I was a child.
The past continuous tense is used to say that somebody was in the middle of an
action at a certain time in the past when another action occurred; it is also used to express
two past actions in progress simultaneously.
Some verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses: I picked up a cake and a bit
of piece off to see how it tasted ( not: was tasting).
Grammar Practice. Past Simple
Exercise I. Put in was/ were or wasnt/ werent
1. We werent happy with the hotel. Our room was very small and it wasnt
very clean.
2. work last week because he.ill. Hes better now.
3. Yesterdaya public holiday so the shops.closed.
4. .Sue and Bill at the party? Sue.there but Bill..
5. Where are my keys? I dont know. Theyon the table but theyre not
there now.
6. home last night. Whereyou?

Exercise II. Put the words in the correct order to form questions.
1. late/ you/ this morning/ were/ why?
2. Why were you late this morning?
3. difficult/ your/ exam/ was?
4. last week/ Ann and Chris/ were/ where?
5. our new camera/ how much/ was?
6. angry/ you/ yesterday/ why/ were?
7. nice/ the weather/ last week/ was?


Exercise III. Write the past simple of these words.
1. getgot
2. see
3. play
4. pay
5. visit
6. buy
7. go
8. think
9. copy
10. know
11. put
12. speak

Exercise IV. Read about Lisas journey to Madrid. Put the verbs in the correct
Last Tuesday Lisa (1) (fly) flew from London to Madrid. She (2) (get).up at
six oclock in the morning and (3) (have) a cup of coffee. At 6.30 she (4) (leave)
home and (5) (drive) to the airport. When she (6) (arrive), she (7) (park) the car and
then (8) (go) to the airport caf where she (9) (have) breakfast. Then she (10) (go)
through passport control and (11) (wait) for her flight. The plane (12) (depart) on
time and (13) (arrive) in Madrid Finally she (14) (take) a taxi from the airport to her
hotel in the centre of Madrid.

Exercise V. Put the verb in the correct form-positive, negative or question.
1. We went to the cinema but the film wasnt very good. We didnt enjoy
it. (enjoy)
2. Tim..some new clothes yesterday-two shirts, a jacket and a pullover.
3. ..yesterday? No, it was a nice day. (rain)
4. The party wasnt very good, so welong. (stay)
5. It was very warm in the room,, so I..a window. (open)
6. Did you go to the bank this morning? No, I.time. (have)
7. I cut my hand this morning. How..that? (do)

Grammar Practice. Past Simple and Past Continuous

Exercise VI. Where were these people at 3 oclock yesterday afternoon/ And what
were they doing? Use the cues below and write two sentences.
1. Ann/ home/ watch TV..Ann was at home. She was
watching TV
2. Carol and Jack/ the cinema/ watch a film.
3. Tom/ his car/ drive.
4. Catherine/ the station/ wait for a train.
5. Mr and Mrs. Hall/ the park/ walking.


Exercise VII. Put the verb into the past continuous or past simple

1. A: What were you doing (you/ do) when the phone rang (ring)?
B: I was watching (watch) television.
2. A: Was Jane busy when you went to see her?
B: Yes, she.(study)
3. A: What time.(the post/ arrive) this morning?
B: It.(come) while I(have) breakfast.
4. A: Was Margaret at work today?
B: No, she(not/ go) to work. She was ill
5. A: How fast..(you/ drive) when the police.(stop) you?
B: I dont know exactly but I..(not/ drive) very fast.
6. A: .(your team/win) the football match yesterday?
B: No, the weather was very bad, so we..(not play)
7 A: How..(you/ break ) the window/
B: We..(play) football. I..(kick) the ball and it..(hit) the window.
8. A: (you/ see)Jenny last night?
B: Yes, she(wear) a very nice jacket.
9. A: What..(you/ do) at 2 oclock this morning?
B: I was asleep.
I0 A: I.(lose) my key last night.
B: How..(you/ get) into your room?
A: I(climb) in through a window.

Exercise VIII. Choose the correct form of the verbs.
Thomas Edison (1) started/ was starting work on the railway when he was
twelve, selling newspapers and snacks. There were long periods with nothing for him
to do so he (2) build/ was building himself a little laboratory in the luggage van where
he could carry out experiments when he (3) didnt/ wasnt selling things to
passengers. Another way that he (4) occupied/ was occupying himself was by
reading. He joined a library and (5) read was reading every single book in it. One
day, when he (6) waited/ was waiting at a station he (7) noticed/ was noticing a small
boy who (8) played/ was playing by the track, unaware that a train (9) approached/
was approaching. Edison (10) ran/ was running out and (110 grabbed/ was grabbing
the child just in time. The childs father was so grateful that he (12) offered/ was
offering to teach Edison to be a telegraph operator. Edison accepted the offer and
soon he (13) had/ was having regular lessons. After a year, he was good enough to get
a job in the telegraph office. He continued to read and experiment, whenever he (14)
had/ was having time. At twenty-one he (15) left/ was leaving the telegraph office to
devote all his time to being an inventor. He (16) went/ was going on to invent the
electric light bulb, the phonograph and the movie camera.


Exercise IX. Complete the description of the life of a musician, using the verbs
Use either the past simple or the past continuous:
Colin Boyle was born in 1973 near Dublin, Ireland. In 1983 he became
seriously ill. While he (1) was recovering (recover) his uncle (2) gave (give) him an
old violin. He enjoyed playing and practiced at school every day after lessons. One
day in 1987, John Leaf, the manager of several successful musicians, (3)..(have) a
meeting with the headmaster when he (4)(hear) Colin practicing. He
immediately (5)..(contact) Colins teacher and (6)..(invite) Colin to appear in
one of the concerts he (7)(organize) that year. Colin, however, (8)..(refuse)
Leafs invitation, because just then he(9).(prepare) for some important school
exams. Colin (10).(pass) his exams and (11).(go) to college to study
engineering. At college he (12)..(meet) Kim OMalley, who (13).(study)
chemistry. Kim was also a keen amateur musician. Being students, they rarely
(14)..(have) much money and they usually (15)..(work) as waiters at weekends.
One evening in April 1992, while Colin and Kim (16).(serve) customers, the
manager (17)(announce) that there would be no live music in the restaurant that
night as regular band could not come. Colin and Kim (180.(persuade) him to let
them play to the customers. Everyone (19)(be) amazed to hear how good they
(20)(be).Six months later they (21)..(decide) to leave college because they
(22).(earn) so much money as musicians. Their success has continued ever since.

Exercise X. Choose the correct form of the verbs.

ADAM: Hello, Mike. What (1) are you doing/ do you do in this part of
MIKE: Well, actually, (2) Im looking/ I look at flats around here.
ADAM: Flats? (3) Are you wanting/ Do you want to move?
MIKE: Yes, in fact, believe it or not, Mandy and I (4) are getting/ get married.
ADAM: Thats great! Congratulations. When (5) were you deciding/ did you
MIKE: Only last week. It was while we (6) were staying/ stayed with her
family in Scotland. Now (7) we try/ were trying to find a suitable flat.
ADAM: Itll be great to have you as neighbours. I hope you manage to buy one
MIKE; Oh we (8) arent looking/ dont look for one to buy. We (9) arent
having/ dont have enough money yet. (10) Were wanting/ We want to find
somewhere to rent.
ADAM: Yes, of course. Thats what we (11) did/ were doing at first. Actually,
in the end, my brother (12) was lending/ lent us some money. Thats how we (13)
were managing/ managed to buy ours.
MIKE: Really? Perhaps Ill talk to my family before (14) we choose/ were
choosing a flat.


ADAM: Thats not a bad idea. My family (15) gave/ were giving us quite a lot
of helpful advice. Now, what about a coffee? Theres a good place just round the
MIKE: Oh, yes, I (16) looked/ was looking for somewhere to sit down when I
bumped into you. Lets go.



The four periods that the year is divided into are: spring, summer, autumn and
On March 21
, when winter is over, spring comes in. The weather in spring is very
changeable; sometimes it is beautiful, warm and the sun shines in the sky; the snow melts
and sinks into the earth as the rain does; at other times it is windy, cloudy or even rainy,
wet and cool. Leaves are coming out on the branches of the trees and the plants grow, bud
and bloom again. The birds build or mend their old nests, lay eggs and sing sweetly.
Spring is in the air. Nature wakes up and lives. They say that: nature is at its best in
The second season is summer. It lasts from 21
of June to 21
of September.
Summer is the season with the longest days and the shortest nights. The days are lovely,
but the weather is now and then very hot, even dusty; besides, there are often storms with
lightning and thunder. In the gardens and orchards some of the fruit are ripe. The
haymakers and the harvesters welcome her coming, and so do the children and the grown-
ups, who will spend many a glorious day in the mountains, at the seaside or in summer
Autumn begins towards the end of September. The barometer points occasionally
to bad weather and the days gradually become shorter and shorter. It often rains and cold
winds blow: sometimes it drizzles and it is damp and dirty. Despite the annoyance and the
fact that there are but few, it is in autumn that the days are more beautiful and romantic
than in any other season. The weather gets colder and colder which causes the leaves of
the trees to fade and fall off, migratory birds to fly away to warmer countries.
The fourth and the last change of the year is winter. This is the season of cold
weather, snow and ice. At times, large snowflakes fall from the sky covering with a layer
of snow everything in sight. However snow is very useful as it protects the seeds of the
plants from frost and kills noxious insects. In our country winter is frequently pretty
severe. Then it freezes hard; the lakes, ponds, canals and larger rivers are taken in; they
are covered with a thick coating of ice. Icicles hang from the eaves glistening in the suns
rays like diamonds. Children have a good time in winter; they build snowmen, throw
snowballs, skate, slide or ski. And so do grown-ups.
Shipping forecast at 0640 hours
Gale warnings are in operation in sea areas Forties, Dogger, Fisher and German
The general synopsis at midnight last year: a depression of 988 millibars which
was positioned at 60 North 10 East is expected to move north-east. A depression of


1004 millibars which was positioned at 56 North 19 West is expected to move east and
to be centred over the south of Scotland by midnight tonight.

Weather abbreviations: blue sky (b), cloudy (c), drizzle (d), fog (f), gale (g), hail
(h), mist (m), overcast sky (o), sleet (s), thunder (t), thunderstorm (tlr), squally weather
Visibility abbreviations: visibility (vis), moderate (m), direction (dirn), good (g),
very good (vg), poor (p), baro (barometer).

Melt = a se topi (zapada, metalul)
Bloom = a nflori/floare
Blossom = a nflori/floare
Lay eggs = a oua, a face ou
Ripen = a se coace
Ripe = copt (despre fructe)
Haymaker = cosa, lucrtor la fn
Harvester = culegtor, maina de recoltat
Harvest = recolta
Fade = a se nglbeni (despre frunze)
Layer = strat
Be taken in = a prosti, a duce (de nas)
Icicle = urur de gheaa
Eave = streaina
Glisten = a sclipi, a luci, a strluci
Warning = avertisment

Weather expressions:
Weather: whats the weather like? = cum e timpul?; fine weather = vreme
frumoas; squally weather = vreme vijelioas; weather-bound (mar)= mpiedicat de
vreme rea; weather chart = harta meteo-sinoptic; weather forecast/ report= buletin
meteorologic; weather gauge = barometru/ avantajul vntului (mar)
Rain: pouring rain = avers de ploaie; signs of rain = semne de ploaie; pelting rain
= ploaie toreniala; fine rain = ploaie mrunt; it looks like rain = arat a ploaie; it rains
cats and dogs= plou tare; it never rains but it pours(prov) = o nenorocire nu vine
niciodat singur
Drizzle = a picura, a ploua mrunt, a burnia; ploaie mrunta, burnia; drizzly (adj)
Snow: artificial snow = zpad artificial; carbonic acid snow = zapad carbonic;
it is snowing = ninge; to be snowed in/up/over= a fi inzapezit/a fi prins, blocat de zapad;
snowball = bulgre de zpad; snow bank = troian; snowfall = cdere de zpad; snow
flurry = vifor; snow storm = viscol; snowlike = ca zapada
Frost= ger, nghe; black frost = ger uscat; glazed frost = polei; white hoar frost =
Sleet = lapovita, ploaie cu zapada; it sleets = cade lapovia


Fog = ceaa, pcla; thick fog = cea deas; praf atmosferic; fog bank = banc de
cea (mar); fog buoy = geamandur de cea; fog horn = corn de cea (mar)
Mist = cea, negura; scotch mist = cea deas/ burni; it is misting = bureaz
Hail= grindina, piatra; it is hailing = bate grindina/ ploua cu piatr/ grindina
Gale= furtuna, vnt puternic; it is blowing half a gale of wind (mar) = e o briz
destul de afurisit; zefir, boare ( poetic)
Thunder = tunet; thunder and lightning = tunete i fulgere; thunderbolt = trsnet;
thunder shower = avers de ploaie cu descrcri electrice; thunder storm =furtun/vijelie
Cloud = nor; dark clouds = cer ntunecat; clouded weather = vreme noroas;
cloudburst = rupere de nori; cloud gap = sprtura de nori (av); cloudless = senin/ fr

The Past Perfect Simple is formed with the past form auxiliary verb to have (had)
+ the past participle of the main verb. The meaning of this tense is past-in-the-past,
the point of reference is in the past and the event takes place before this point in the past.
It is primarily used to describe one event following another in the past; the earlier action
has the past perfect, the later action has the simple past. The past perfect covers an area of
meaning equivalent to both the past and perfect, being capable of referring to both
indefinite and definite time.
Sentences with a past perfect often contain words like: after, before, when, as soon
as to indicate succession:
e.g. They elected him President, after his party had nominated him.
Past perfect simple- full form: I had walked/run; negative: I hadnt walked/run;
question: Had you walked/run?; tag question: You had walked, hadnt you?/ You hadnt
walk, had you?
Meaning and function:
a) used for actions previous to and affecting a nominated time in the past:
By one oclock he had cooked lunch.(it was prepared but not eaten)
b) used to express sequence and relationship of past actions with a time marker:
It was Thursday before I had read it/ After she had donethe washing, she
had a cup of tea.
c) to show the sequence and relationship of past actions with no time marker in the
past perfect clause: He had got dressed before the post arrived.
d) to show causal relationship between past actions (because, although):
I ran home because/since/as I had missed the train.
e) used as a narrative device to give background:
It had been a good year for Martin(setting for a story in the past simple)
f) conversation marker with verbs of thinking, hoping-a request suggestion now
abandoned: I had wondered if you could give me a lift. (I realize you cant)
g) in reported speech and after if when direct speech is in present perfect:
Have you seen her?, I wondered./ I wondered if you had seen her.

! Difference between the past tense and the past perfect tense: the past tense is
usually used for one activity in the past. If there are two activities in the past (one


happened before the other), the past perfect is used for the oldest activity:e.g. I phoned
him yesterday/ I had phoned him yesterday before I left the office.

The Past Perfect Continuous Tense is formed from the past perfect of the
auxiliary verb to be (had been) + the present participle of the main verb (-ing form).
The values of this tense are the same as for the present perfect continuous, with the
difference that the time of reference is not the time of speech, but some point in the past,
as in the case of the simple past perfect.
For example, imagine that you meet Ram at 11 am. Ram says to you: Im angry. I
have been waiting for two hours. Later you tell your friends: Ram was angry. He had
been waiting for two hours.
Past perfect continuous- full form: I had been eating; negative: I hadnt been
eating; question: Had you been eating?; tag question: You had been eating, hadnt you?/
You hadnt been eating, had you?
Meaning and function:
a) Relative to another past time and used with a real or implied time marker. The
action took place in the time leading up to the identified moment, and was
temporary or expected to be temporary.
To explain the action of the main verb:
He could understand the film because he had been studying French at
To convey the ongoing, continuous nature of an action, which led up to
the past moment in time:
He had been cleaning the car for over an hour before he realized it was
the wrong one.
To convey an action which was ongoing but over when interrupted by the
main verb, but whose results were still evident at that moment: When he came I
had been baking.
In reported speech, when the direct speech uses the present perfect
continuous: He said he had been thinking about it.
b) With verbs of thinking/feeling-introduces an idea now abandoned- it suggests
that the idea was repeatedly in the mind: I had been meaning to visit her.
(I thought many times about it, but now its too late)
Important: If you do not include a duration such as for five minutes, for two
weeks or since Friday, many English speakers choose to use the Past
Continuous tense instead the Past Perfect Continuous. There is also a difference in
meaning. Compare the examples below:
I was reading when my roommate returned. (the reading will be interrupted)
I had been reading for an hour when my roommate returned. (the reading stopped
just before my roommate returned)


Past perfect or past perfect continuous?
- When we state how often something had happened we use the past perfect tense
rather than the past perfect continuous: He had rung at least five times before they
- Certain verbs are not usually used in the continuous tense (verbs referring to mental
and emotional states, verbs of the senses, verbs of reasoning etc.).
Grammar Practice. Past Perfect Simple And Continuous
Exercise I. Underline all the 3
forms of the verb in the following passage.
The old man looked at the broken tree. There was sadness in his eyes. There had
been a very bad storm during the night. The wind had almost blown the tree down.
Branches lay around, the white wood like open wounds without the blood. He thought
back to the day when he had planted it.....many years ago. The tree had grown taller year
by year until it had reached almost as high as the roof. He remembered the day his son
had climbed up and hidden in the branches and wouldnt come down. He remembered
how the war had come and taken his wife and son from him. The house had burnt down.
But the tree had survived. It had reminded him of all those other things. Until last night.
What could an old man do now?

Now write the words you have underlined.
1................................. 7..................................
2................................. 8..................................
3................................. 9..................................
4................................. 10...................................
5................................. 11...................................
6................................. 12...................................

Exercise II. Complete these situations. Number 1 is done for you.

1. I was nervous as I sat in the car waiting for my driving instructor. (drive) I had
never driven before.
2. I was terrified as we waited for the plane. (fly).............................................
3. My knees were knocking as I stood up at the wedding.
(give a speech).............................................
4. When I reached the top of the ski lift, I wanted to die.
(ski) .............................................
5. As I changed into my tennis things, I wished Id never agreed to be Martins
partner. (play tennis) .............................................
6. If only I had refused to go to the choir practice!
(sing in public) .............................................


Exercise III. Supply reasonable previous cases in the past for these consequences,
results, effects or interest. Use the Past Perfect and try to find more than one
previous cause for each sentence.
EXAMPLE: She knew how to bake a cake because
(a) her mother had taught her.
(b) she had learned at school.
(c) she had read about it in a book.
Use as and because as links where necessary.
1. He gave his horse a lump of sugar
2. She asked me to repeat my name
3. We asked her to sing the song again
4. They called the boy Moses
5. Father tipped the waiter very well
6. The man was out of breath
7. I sent my watch to the watchmakers
8. Our visitor was very tired
9. It was very cold outside in the garden
10. We gave the patient first aid
11. We didnt meet yesterday after all
12. I couldnt eat the food at lunchtime
13. Peter didnt know the answer to the question
14. John looked very smart at his sisters wedding
15. The tramp had a three days beard
16. The president arrived half an hour late
17. We called a doctor
18. Peter wasnt very happy when we met him
19. The Colonel had great experience of men
20. The children were late for school

Exercise IV. Supply the Simple Past for the effect, consequence, result or interest
and the Past Perfect for the previous cause.

1. They (spend) all their money and (not know) where to find any more.
2. We (finish) our work so we (sit) down to talk.
3. The sky (be) black for some time before the rain (begin) to fall.
4. I (give) you the work to do again because you (do) it badly.
5. When I (thank) my hostess I (leave) the house and (go) home.
6. Yesterday my wife (tell) me about a beautiful hat she (see) a few days earlier.
7. Dr. Brown (just return) so they (give) him the message.
8. One of his patients (break) his leg and (need) a doctor at once.
9. The doctor (hope) for a quiet night. He (feel) disappointed.
10. After the children (go) to bed the house (be) very quiet.
11. They always (live) in a small village and (not understand) the city people.
12. I (cant) read because I (forget) to fetch my glasses.
13. Peter (have) dinner in town that evening as his wife (go) to visit her mother.


14. We (never be) in Athens before so we (want) to see the sights.
15. The child (lose) his money so he (cannot buy) sweets.

Exercise V. Supply the Simple Past to show cause and immediate effect or the Past
Perfect to show previous cause. The Simple past expresses the later consequence.

1. He (press) the switch and the engine (start).
2. Peter (forget) to fill up with petrol so his car (stop) just outside the garage.
3. We (not eat) much for breakfast so we (feel) hungry at lunchtime.
4. John (not arrive) by seven thirty, so Mary (go) to the cinema alone.
5. Mr Smith (misunderstand) the question because he (not hear) it well.
6. Professor Smith (heat) a metal bar and it (expand).
7. His firm (give) him a better position last year because he (earn) it.
8. As we (miss) the express from London we (travel) on a slow train.
9. Our host (introduce) me to Mrs. Brown whom I (not meet) before.
10. Peter (sunbathe) too long and (get) blisters on his back.
11. Mary (not be) abroad before so everything (seem) strange to her.
12. he (refuse) to see me because I (not write) for an appointment?
13. She (not go) out in the rain because she (not have) an umbrella.
14. he (become) angry when you (accuse) him for stealing?
15. As we (not have) notice of the generals arrival, naturally we (not expect)
16. Something heavy (strike) me on the head and (knock) me out.
17. she (find out) for herself or someone (tell) her?
18. We (wake up) late because the alarm clock (not ring).
19. The policeman (put) up his hand and the traffic (stop).
20. Susans dinner (go) cold so Alan (warm) it up for her.

Exercise VI. Translate into English using one of the following tenses: Past Simple;
Past Continuous; Past Perfect Simple and Past Perfect Continuous

1. Vntul se mai domolise iar luna strlucea deasupra mrii linitite.
2. Telefonul sun, n timp ce domnioara Marple se mbrca.
3. O auzi cum ofteaz n timp ce el citea.
4. Ultima dat l-am vzut acum zece ani.
5. Ca elev era un biat timid i srguincios.
6. Deschise sertarul, scoase un plic vechi i se aez n fotoliu, examinndu-l atent.
7. n zilele acelea venea s m vad n mod regulat i de fiecare dat mi aducea un
mic dar.
8. Mereu m suna noaptea trziu.
9. Cnd predam la coala aceea, m lua n fiecare diminea cu maina.
10. Ce s-a ntmplat dup ce a plecat?
11. De trei ani locuia n satul acela mic de lng grani.
12. l ateptam de o or, cnd telefonul sun i o voce ciudat mi spuse c Richard
a avut un accident.


13. Primise florile cu o or n urm, dar era nc foarte emoionat.
14. Ce fcuse oare n tot acest timp?
15. Despre ce vorbeau cnd i-ai ntlnit?



1. Put the words in order:
a) shirt cotton a new lovely
b) film an new interesting science-fiction
c) puppy little a sweet black
d) large wooden old a house 10p
2. Complete each sentence with a word ending in ed or ing:
a) I think this film is..
b) I dont find politics..
c) This book is really..
d) Are basketball?
e) Kate is doing her exams and is.. 10p
3. Rewrite each sentence so that it means the same as the first sentence. Use the
word in bold:
a) My tea isnt hot enough. Cold
b) That film was great. What
c) You are too young to see this film. Old
d) I dont find sport interesting. Interested
e) Describe your brother. Like 15p
4. Rewrite each sentence. Use the word underlined to make an adverb:
a) Jim is a good worker.
b) Tina is a bad singer.
c) Kate is a careful driver.
d) Ruth is a fast runner.
e) Sam is a secret smoker. 15p
5. Are the underlined verbs right or wrong? Correct the wrong ones:
1. Im seeing the manager tomorrow morning.
2. Im feeling hungry. Is there anything to eat?
3. Are you believing in God?
4. This sauce is great. Its tasting really good.
5. Im thinking this is your key. Am I right? 15p
6. Translate into Romanian:
Smuggling of goods is a secret bringing of goods without paying import taxes.
To prevent smuggling such goods as spirits, wines, cigarettes, tobacco, perfumes and
others, the customs officers request the captain to give the ships store bond on
dutiable goods kept aboard for the use of the ships crew and passengers. The
customs officers sometimes leave for the crew only a quota and place under seal the
surplus stores. 20p
7. Form sentences with the following words: gang, seaworthiness,
rummage, stowage, manifest of cargo. 15p



1. a) a new lovely cotton shirt; b) an interesting new science-fiction film; c) a sweet
little black puppy; d) a large old wooden house.

2 a) interesting; b) exciting; c) boring; d) interested; e) excited

3. a) My tea is too cold; b) What a great film; c) You arent old enough to see this film;
d)Im not interested in sport; e) What is your brother like?

4. a) Jim works well ; b) Tina sings badly; c) Kate drives carefully; d) Ruth runs fast;
e) Sam smokes secretly.
5. 1. Correct; 2.Correct; 3. Do you believe inn God?; 4. It tastes really good; 5. I think

6. Contrabanda este o aducere de bunuri fr a se plti taxele de import. Pentru a
preveni contrabanda unor bunuri, precum produsele alcoolice, vin, igri, tutun, parfumuri
i altele, ofierii vamali cer comandantului navei sa nmneze lista de bunuri scutite de
vama folosite la bordul navei de ctre echipaj i pasageri. Ofierii vamali cteodat las
echipajului numai o parte din bunuri i pun sub sigiliu surplusul de produse.

7. La latitudinea studentului.



1. Translate into Romanian:

The cargo is loaded on board the ship in accordance with the cargo plan. This plan
is drawn up by the agent beforehand. On arrival of the ship the agent comes aboard and
discusses with the captain all the details of loading. There are some important points
which should be carefully considered. The first consideration is to be given to the safety
of the ship. The ship must always retain stability and seaworthiness. Therefore, the
stowage of the cargo aboard the ship should be carefully planned. The nature of the
different goods should be carefully planned also. Different kinds of cargo should not
damage one another when stowed. When all these requirements have been satisfied, the
captain is to approve the cargo plan.
30 p.

2. Complete the tennis championship commentary using the verbs in brackets in the
present simple, present perfect or the past simple.

And now Donna Scarlatti(play) Barbara Schmidt. Donna, now nineteen, (start)
playing when she(be) four. She first(train) with her father, but since his death five
years ago, she(train) with the famous M. Merlinghetti. Donna(play) in some of the
most important tennis tournaments of the last four years, but this(be) the first time she
(play) at Wimbledon. Oh look! Someone(throw) down a bunch of roses to her.
She(be) a very popular player this year, even though most of the crowd(not see) her
play before.
30 p.

3. Are the underlined parts of these sentences right or wrong? Correct the ones that
are wrong:
1. Do you know about Sue? Shes given up her jobRIGHT
2. The Chinese have invented printing. ..
3. How many plays has Shakespeare written?.
4. Have you read any Shakespeares plays?.
5. Aristotle has been a Greek philosopher
6. Ow! Ive cut my finger. Its bleeding
7. My parents have got married in London...
8. Where have you been?..
9. Mary isnt at home. Shes gone shopping.
10. Albert Einstein has been the scientist who has developed the
theory of relativity.


4. Most of the verbs have one verb in the wrong tense. Correct them or write right.
1. I was pleased to see my old college friends at the conference last week as we
didnt see each other since we finished our course.(as we hadnt seen each
2. We had to wait for hours at the airport because the bad weather had delayed all
the flights.
3. Many modern medicines were not invented by western scientists but by the tribal
people who had been using them for generations before the Europeans
4. We missed our train, so by the time we reached the theatre, the play ended and
the audience was leaving the theatre
5. At the end of their meal, they found they couldnt pay the bill because they didnt
bring any money with them..
6. The children were thrilled when they unwrapped the electronic toys, but when
they discovered that nobody bought a battery they were very disappointed
7. When I came out of the cinema I had found that a thief had taken my car
8. At first the authorities thought the athlete had been taking drugs, but they soon
realised they mixed up the results..
9. When the film star came into the restaurant I didnt recognize her because I
didnt see any of her films
10. When we reached the city centre we couldnt find a parking place, so we decided
to go by bus next time


1. Marfa este ncrcat pe vapor n conformitate cu planul de marf. Planul este schiat
de agent dinainte. La sosirea navei agentul vine la bord i discut cu comandantul
toate detaliile ncrcrii. Sunt cteva puncte care trebuie luate n considerare cu
atenie. Prima atenie s se dea siguranei navei. Nava trebuie s fie ntotdeauna
stabil i n condiii de navigabilitate. Prin urmare, stivuirea mrfii la bordul navei
trebuie atent planificat. De asemenea trebuie planificat cu atenie i natura
diferitelor tipuri de marf. Diferitele tipuri de marf nu trebuie s produc daune una
alteia cnd sunt stivuite. Cnd toate aceste cerine au fost ndeplinite, comandantul
trebuie s aprobe planul de marf.

2. Plays, has started, was. Trained, has been training. Has played, is, has played. Is
Throwing, is, hasnt seen.


3. 2. Invented; 3. Did Shakespeare write; 4 right; 5 was; 6 right; 7 got married; 8 were
you born; 9 right; 10 wasdeveloped.

4. 2 right; 3 right; 4 the play had ended; 5 they hadnt brought; 6 nobody had bought;
7 I found; 8 they had mixed up; 9 I hadnt seen; 10 we decided.



arise arose arisen a se ridica
awake awoke awoken a (se) trezi
be was/were been a fi
bear bore borne a purta
beat beat beaten a bate
become became become a deveni
begin began begun a ncepe
bend bent bent a (se) ndoi
bet bet bet a paria
bid bid bid a ruga, a adresa (o invitaie)
bade bidden a porunci
bind bound bound a lega
bite bit bitten a muca
bleed bled bled a sngera
bless blest blest a binecuvnta
blow blew blown a sufla; a bate
break broke broken a (se) sparge; a (se) defecta
breed bred bred a crete, a educa
bring brought brought a aduce
broadcast broadcast broadcast a emite (radio, TV)
build built built a construi
burn burnt burnt a arde
burst burst burst a izbucni; a nvli; a crpa
buy bought bought a cumpra
cast cast cast a arunca
catch caught caught a prinde
choose chose chosen a alege
cling clung clung a se aga
come came come a veni
cost cost cost a costa
creep crept crept a se tr; a se furia
cut cut cut a tia
deal dealt dealt a trata; a se ocupa de
dig dug dug a spa
dive dove (Am.) dived a (se) scufunda, a plonja
do did done a face
draw drew drawn a trage, a desena

dream dreamt dreamt a visa
drink drank drunk a bea
drive drove driven a conduce, a ofa
dwell dwelt dwelt a locui
eat ate eaten a mnca
fall fell fallen a cdea
feed fed fed a hrni, a alimenta
feel felt felt a (se) simi
fight fought fought a (se) lupta
find found found a gsi
flee fled fled a fugi
fling flung flung a arunca; a lansa
fly flew flown a zbura
forbid forbade forbidden a interzice
forecast forecast forecast a prevedea
foresee foresaw foreseen a prezice
forget forgot forgotten a uita
forgive forgave forgiven a ierta
freeze froze frozen a nghea
get got got (gotten Am.) a primi; a obine; a ajunge
give gave given a da
go went gone a merge
grind ground ground a mcina, a lefui
grow grew grown a crete, a cultiva
hang hung hung a atrna
have had had a avea
hear heard heard a auzi
hide hid hidden a (se) ascunde
hit hit hit a lovi
hold held held a ine
hurt hurt hurt a lovi; a rni; a durea
keep kept kept a ine; a pstra
kneel knelt knelt a ngenunchea
knit knit knit a tricota
know knew known a ti, a cunoate
lay laid laid a pune, a aeza
lead led led a conduce (oameni)
lean leant leant a (se) apleca, a (se) sprijini
leap leapt leapt a sri
learn learnt learnt a nva
leave left left a pleca, a lsa
lend lent lent a da cu mprumut
let let let a lsa, a permite


lie lay lain a sta ntins; a se afla
light lit lit a aprinde
lose lost lost a pierde
make made made a face
mean meant meant a nsemna
meet met met a (se) ntlni
mislead misled misled a induce n eroare
mistake mistook mistaken a confunda
mow mowed mown a cosi
overcome overcame overcome a depi
pay paid paid a plti
put put put a pune
read read read a citi
rend rent rent a rupe, a sfia
rid rid rid a se descotorosi de
ride rode ridden a clri; a merge cu
ring rang rung a suna
rise rose risen a rsri, a se ridica
run ran run a fugi
saw sawed sawn a tia cu ferstrul
say said said a spune
see saw seen a vedea
seek sought sought a cuta
sell sold sold a vinde
send sent sent a trimite
set set set a potrivi; a monta; a fixa
sew sewed sown a coase
shake shook shaken a scutura; a tremura
shear sheared shorn a tunde oi
shed shed shed a vrsa (lacrimi, snge)
shine shone shone a strluci
shoe shod shod a potcovi
shoot shot shot a trage, a mpuca; a filma
show showed shown a arta
shrink shrank shrunk a intra la ap, a se strnge
shut shut shut a nchide
sing sang sung a cnta
sink sank sunk a (se) scufunda
sit sat sat a sta jos
slay slew slain a ucide
sleep slept slept a dormi
slide slid slid a aluneca
sling slung slung a arunca
slit slit slit a despica

smell smelt smelt a mirosi
sow sowed sown a semna
speak spoke spoken a vorbi
speed sped sped a accelera
spell spelt spelt a ortografia
spend spent spent a cheltui, a petrece timp
spill spilt spilt a vrsa
spin span/spun spun a se nvrti n jurul axei
spit spat spat a scuipa
spit spit (Am.)
split split split a despica
spoil spoilt spoilt a strica, a rsfa
spread spread spread a (se) rspndi
spring sprang sprung a izvor; a (r)sri
stand stood stood a sta n picioare
steal stole stolen a fura
stick stuck stuck a (se) lipi; a nfige
sting stung stung a nepa
stink stank/stunk stunk a mirosi urt
stride strode stridden a merge cu pai mari
strike struck struck a lovi
string strung strung a nira
strive strove striven a se strdui; a nzui
swear swore sworn a jura; a njura
sweep swept swept a mtura
swell swelled swollen a se umfla
swim swam swum a nota
swing swung swung a (se) legna
take took taken a lua
teach taught taught a nva (pe cineva)
tear tore torn a rupe, a sfia
tell told told a spune (cuiva), a povesti
think thought thought a (se) gndi; a crede
throw threw thrown a arunca
thrust thrust thrust a nfige
tread trod trodden/trod a clca, a pi
undergo underwent undergone a suferi (schimbri)
understand understood understood a nelege
undertake undertook undertaken a ntreprinde
wake woke woken a (se) trezi
wear wore worn a purta
weave wove woven a ese
wed wed wed a se cununa


weep wept wept a plnge
wet wet wet a (se) uda
win won won a ctiga
wind wound wound a rsuci; a erpui
withdraw withdrew withdrawn a (se) retrage
wring wrung wrung a stoarce; a rsuci
write wrote written a scrie



ALEXANDER, L.G. Longman English Grammar, `Longman Group UK Limited,
1994. ISBN 0-582-55892-1
BANTAS, ANDREI. Essential English Limba engleza n liste i tabele, Editura
TEORA, Bucureti, 1992. ISBN 973-601-032-5
*** Collins Cobuild English Grammar, London, HarperCollins Publishers, 1994.
ISBN 0-00-375025-6
COE, NORMAN, Grammar Spectrum 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 English Rules and Practice,
EASTWOOD, John. Oxford Guide to English Grammar, Oxford University Press,
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*** Encyclopaedia Britannica, Oxford University Press, 2001
ENGLISH FOR NAUTICAL STUDENTS - Note de curs, Constana, Institutul de
Marin Mircea cel Btrn, 1992.
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HEATON, J.B.; TURTON, N.D. Dictionary of Common Errors, Longman Group UK
Limited, 1993. ISBN 0-582-96410-5
LEECH, GEOFFREY, An A-Z of English Grammar and Usage, Hong Kong, 1991.
ISBN 0-17-556292-X
OXLADE, C., All About Ships-Amazing Maritime Facts, London, Southwater, 2000.
ISBN 1-84215-015-4
ROZAKIS, L., E., Grammar and Style, New York, Alpha Books, 1997.
ISBN 0-02-861956-0
SWAN, MICHAEL, Practical English Language, Oxford University Press, 1994.
ISBN 0-19-431185-6
TAGGART, ROBERT, Ship Design and Construction, Oxford University Press,
THOMSON, A.J.; MARTINET, A.V., A Practical English Grammar, Oxford
University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-19-431348-4
THORNBURY, SCOTT, Natural Grammar, Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-