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MINI INSTRUCTIONAL PROJECT




Albert P. Joseph
ID No. 20052880

A Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of
[EDID 6505 [Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials]
Trimester 2, [2014]


Email: albert.joseph@open.uwi.edu
University: University of the West Indies Open Campus
Group Facilitator: Dr. Leroy Hill
Course Coordinator Dr. Camille Dickson-Deanne








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TABLE OF CONTENTS


Introduction 3
Needs Assessment 4
Task Selection Worksheet 6
Procedural Analysis 7
Prerequisite Analysis 9
Objectives 10
Performance Rubric 11
Assessment 12
Contextual Analysis Worksheet 14
Instructional Strategies/ Lesson 16
Advanced Organizers 18
Analogy 19
Reflective Piece 21
References 24



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INTRODUCTION
Members of the Anse la Raye Vendors Association have been operating for the past
fifteen years, vending a range of seafood from fish, lobster, crab, lambi and other delicacies of
the sea. After several complaints by patrons of the Seafood Friday event concerning the poor
manner in which food is handled, the lack of sinks for the washing of hands and the exposure of
lobsters for extended periods of time, the association took a decision to hire an instructional
designer to design a two-day training workshop to have vendors adequately trained in food safety
and preparation.
The subject of food safety covers a number of components which include temperature
control, hygiene and sanitation, glove use, packing and serving prepared food and prevention of
food poisoning. If measures are taken to handle food in the right manner, serious health risks
and even death due to food poisoning can be avoided.
This assignment covers the various steps that the designer took in the instructional design
process from conducting a needs assessment right down to the planning of instruction, all in an
effort to ensure that a comprehensive training programme was in place for the participants of this
workshop.







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NEEDS ASSESSMENT PLAN

Overall Course Goal

To design instruction for a 1-2 day workshop for Seafood Vendors of the Anse la Raye Vendors
Association on the topic of Safe Food Handling and Preparation.

Target Audience

The training will target a group of approximately thirty (30) individuals who vend at the ever
popular Seafood Friday activity. The vendors range in age from 30- 60 years and are at different
levels in terms of experience as vendors and the qualifications that they hold as it relates to the
food service sector. Although many of the vendors have their daytime job, they all come
together on a Friday night to sell at the event. Vendors all cook, but have very little knowledge of
sales and pricing of their products.

What Information is Needed?

Optimals
Adequate knowledge of food handling and preparation techniques.
A set of established standards for the safe handling and preparation of food.
Use of thermometers and other devices to ensure that food remains at the right
temperature.
Ongoing training for vendors in food safety

Actuals
Vendors have little to no training or qualifications in food handling and preparation
Vendors have demonstrated poor food handling practices that have impacted their sales
There is no policy or written procedure on food handling and safety
Few food safety measures are being practiced in terms of using thermometers, warmers
and ice to keep food at the right temperature.

Causes
Insufficient funds for the purchase of equipment
Lack of training
Management hardly saw the need to conduct such training.
Vendors who got training have left the association

Feelings
Do the vendors believe that there is a need for training in food handling and preparation?
Cost of training vendors can be an issue
How would they want to be trained in the area of food handling and preparation?



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Solutions
Food service certification for all vendors
There is the need for the training of trainers
Purchase of equipment for vendor use

Why do we need to know it?

This information is useful because it is necessary to know where the vendors are in terms of
knowledge and qualifications. If some vendors have had formal training, it is likely that they
would be practicing safety standards. Optimals are important to determine the expectations of
vendors as well as that of management. Having understood the optimals and actuals the chance
of meeting vendor needs is increased. Causes will help determine whether there is a need for
training or an analysis of human performance.

Who knows what?

In terms of optimals, individuals from the Bureau of Health would best describe the standards to
be met by persons in the food service industry. Professional chefs will also be targeted to find
out about the safety standards practiced at the hotels. Vendors will also be able to shed light on
what goes on since they are fully involved in the process.

How will you get that information?

a. Interviews- with Bureau of Health experts, to give insight on the optimals
b. Survey questionnaires- Due to the large numbers of members in the organization, the
questionnaire will allow for many persons to be reached.
c. Focus Group- to validate information received from questionnaires
d. Participant Observations- All types of information can be gathered from this technique.
Using this technique will allow the designer to see persons in action in their environment.

How will you use that information?

The information gathered will give me a clear indication of who my participants are. By
interacting with the focus group it will also give a sense of how responsive learners might be
during training. It will also give me a sense of what methods would be best utilized to teach
participants.

Formats

Training will be done using several formats. These include: YouTube videos, Prezi
presentations, discussions and demonstrations.
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TASK SELECTION WORKSHEET

Criteria for Task Selection
Worksheet
Criticality


40 pts
Universality


10 pts
Frequency


10 pts
Standardization


10 pts
Difficulty


30 pts
Total


100 pts
Notes
Priority
TASKS #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8
Demonstrate how to properly
calibrate a stem thermometer
40 10 0 10 7 67

1
Understand the importance of
thoroughly heating leftovers
35 3 3 4 6 51 5
Explain good personal hygiene
purposes
30 5 5 8 5 53 4
Demonstrate proper hand washing
procedures
35 10 6 8 0 59 2
Establish proper handling methods
for ready to eat foods
25 6 6 7 2 46 6
Use disposable gloves properly 20 0 0 6 0 26 7
Demonstrate mechanical and manual
utensil washing
28 7 7 6 6 54 3
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Procedural Analysis
Utensil/Dish Washing
1. Bring plates to sink
2. Pick up scraper
3. Scrape bits of food off utensil
4. Open faucet
5. Fill sink to the desired level
6. Soak dishes in warm water with a sanitizer such as bleach
7. Pick up a single utensil in one hand
8. Pick up sponge in other hand
9. Clean utensil with sponge using a circular motion
10. Inspect utensil for stubborn food particles
11. Place utensil in rinse water
12. Rinse utensil thoroughly
13. Place utensil in sanitizing water
14. Wash front and back of plate with hand
15. Remove plate from sink
16. Place utensil on rack to air dry.
17. Repeat steps for each utensil
(Safe Food Crew (2004).
Temperature control is an important aspect of ensuring food safety. The only way to
ensure that food is at the right temperature is to use a calibrated thermometer.
Calibrating a thermometer
1. Fill the container with crushed ice
2. Top up the ice with cold water to create a slurry
3. Stir the mixture
4. Place the thermometer in the slurry with the serving area completely submerged, do not
let the stem touch the bottom or the sides of the container.
5. Hold the thermometer I the slurry for at least 30 seconds
6. Keep the stem submerged and adjust the thermometer to read 0 degrees/ 32 degrees if the
dial stops moving and is not reading this number.



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Washing Hands Thoroughly
1. Turn on Faucet
2. Wet hands and wrists
3. Use a sufficient amount of soap (one squirt)
4. Lather soap and scrub hands well, palm to palm for 15-20 seconds
5. Scrub in between and around fingers
6. Scrub back of each hand with palm of hand
7. Scrub fingertips of each hand in opposite palm
8. Scrub each thumb clasped in opposite hand
9. Scrub each wrist clasped in opposite hand
10. Rinse hands and wrists thoroughly under running water with finger tips pointed down
11. Wipe and dry hands with a single use paper towel
12. Turn off faucet with single use paper towel
(Niagara Region Public Health)











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Calibrating a
thermometer
Fill container with
crushed ice
Remove ice from
freezer
crush ice with icepick Pick up container
Top ice with cold water
to create a slurry
Open tap
Place hand on tap
rotate in an anti-
clockwise direction
Fill container to
desired level
Close Tap
Place thermometer in
slurry with serving area
submerged
Keep stem submerged
and adjust
thermometer reading
to 0C/32F
Hold with pliers or
wrench
Rotate dial of
thermometer to read
32F
PREREQUISITE ANALYSIS












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OBJECTIVES
TERMINAL OBJECTIVE
By the end of the two-day workshop, participants will be able to demonstrate the use of at
least three food safety practices and score at least 75 percent on a written test.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
By the end of this workshop, participants will be able to:
a. Identify the types of thermometers used in food preparation (knowledge)
b. List the four principles of safe food handling (knowledge)
c. Outline at least two reasons why it is important to follow proper food safety procedures.
(comprehension)
d. Identify a stem thermometer (knowledge)
e. Calibrate a stem thermometer for freezing point and boiling point with 100% accuracy.
(psychomotor domain)
f. Adjust a stem thermometer within 10-15 seconds (psychomotor domain)
g. Demonstrate the accurate use of a stem thermometer after witnessing a demonstration
(application)
h. Demonstrate with 100% accuracy the 12 step procedure for washing hands. (psychomotor)

i. Explain the importance of using the correct procedure for the washing of hands.
(comprehension)
j. Demonstrate the correct procedure for using disposable gloves (application)





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PERFORMANCE RUBRIC
TERMINAL OBJECTIVE
Given a written test and a practical exam at the end of the two-day workshop,
participants will be able to demonstrate correctly the use of at least three food
safety practices and score at least 75 percent on a written test.



Novice
1
Apprentice
2
Practitioner
3
Expert
4
Calibrate a
stem
thermometer
for freezing
and boiling
point
The participant
demonstrates
about 25% of the
knowledge to
calibrate a
thermometer
The participant
demonstrates at
least 50% of the
steps accurately
At least of the
steps to calibrate
a thermometer
are followed
accurately
Participant
followed all the
steps involved in
calibrating a
stem
thermometer
with no error.
Demonstrate
with accuracy
a 12 step hand
washing
procedure
Minimal steps
are displayed.
Multiple
reminders are
needed to ensure
that procedures
are followed
Demonstrates
50% of the task
with ease. Some
reminders are
needed.
Participants
demonstrated
very good
knowledge of the
task. Few
reminders were
given.
An excellent
demonstration of
all twelve steps
in washing
hands. No need
for reminders.
Wash and
sanitize
cooking and
eating utensils
25% of the task
were carried out
accurately.

Partial
understanding of
the steps is
demonstrated.
Half the steps
were missing or
were not
displayed
accurately.
There is a solid
understanding of
the process of
washing and
sanitizing
cooking and
eating utensils
A sophisticated
understanding of
the process is
shown. All steps
are accurately
followed.
Use gloves
accurately
Assistance had to
be given to put
on the gloves
Several
reminders were
given for gloves
to be worn
Slowly puts on
gloves but all
fingers are in the
right place
Some reminders
were given to
wear gloves
Gloves were
quickly put on
with fingers
inaccurately
placed. Few
reminders were
given
Participant
quickly places
gloves on with
each finger put in
the right place.
No reminders
had to be given
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ASSESSMENT
Question One
Below are a few thermometers used in food preparation. Label each one correctly.




Question Two
As a chef, you have just been asked to speak to a group of food and nutrition students. Write
down five pointers for your speech in which you will include four food safety practices that food
handlers must adhere to.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

Question Three
In the kitchen it is advisable that proper food safety procedures be practiced at all times. Outline
two reasons why it is necessary to do so.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________





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Question Four
The steps involved in utensil washing are listed below however, a few steps are missing.
Complete the diagram by filling in the blanks.







Scrape Air Dry

Practical Component
Thanksgiving is around the corner. You are required to prepare a main course meal for a family
of four. You are to prepare the thanksgiving menu that you will serve to the family. During the
preparation of the meal you will be assessed on how well you demonstrate the use of proper food
safety techniques.
These include :
Proper use of gloves
Washing of hands
Calibration of your thermometer
Adjustment of the thermometer
Sanitizing of kitchen utensils

Marks will be awarded based on a rubric, which will indicate that you have either mastered the
tasks or you are still novice at them.

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CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS WORKSHEET

Directions: Identify relevant factors in categories (only where and when appropriate) and
indicate the effect they will have by circling appropriate number.

-2 Greatly impedes
-1 Slightly impedes
+1 Slightly facilitates
+2 Greatly facilitates

ORIENTING CONTEXT
Learner Factors
All vendors did not have a formal education -2 -1 +1 +2
Vendors range in age as well as experience -2 -1 +1 +2
Some participants have engaged in food preparation training in the
past
-2 -1 +1 +2
Participants have expressed the need for this type of training -2 -1 +1 +2
Environmental Factors
Scheduling training will be an issue since vendors vend every day,
throughout the day
-2 -1 +1 +2
Organizational Factors
Very little to no funds are available for training -2 -1 +1 +2
Organization has established links with sponsors who may be able to
support training venture
-2 -1 +1 +2








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INSTRUCTIONAL CONTEXT
Learner Factors
Learners are not equipped with skills necessary to work well in groups? -2 -1 +1 +2
Learners are enthusiastic about the training opportunities -2 -1 +1 +2
Tasks provide opportunities for learners to be actively involved -2 -1 +1 +2
Environmental Factors
Supplies that vendors will need are not readily available -2 -1 +1 +2
A suitable venue with workstations for individuals or groups is not readily
available
-2 -1 +1 +2
Concern as to whether all participants will be able to purchase their
supplies
-2 -1 +1 +2



TRANSFER CONTEXT
Learner Factors
Ongoing support and training -2 -1 +1 +2
Skills learnt can be easily transferred to food preparation in the home -2 -1 +1 +2









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INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES AND LESSON







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ADVANCED ORGANIZERS
OBJECTIVES
1. Demonstrate with 100% accuracy the 12 step procedure for washing hands. (psychomotor)
2. Explain the importance of using the correct procedure for the washing of hands.
(comprehension)
Expository Advanced Organizer
Handling food safely is particularly important as it is one way to prevent food-borne
illnesses. Food can easily become contaminated and cause serious harm to our bodies. During
the course of this lesson we will explore why it is important to wash our hands thoroughly, we
will recognize when to wash our hands, for example after using the toilet and playing with pets.
Finally, we will get the opportunity to practice what we have learnt, by having your peers assess
you on how well you follow all the steps in washing your hands properly.




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Graphic Organizer













ANALOGIES
CONCEPT ANALOGY

Food borne illness- is the contamination of
food by microorganisms which can cause an
individual to get sick.
A food borne illness is like introducing poisons
or bugs into your body causing you to feel
extremely ill with an upset stomach and
diarrhea.

Food Safety and
Preparation
Handwashing
Why wash
hands?
When to
wash hands?
How to wash
hands
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Food Safety- Precautionary measures that are
taken to prevent food borne illnesses.
Food safety can be likened to a set of soldiers
who stand guard to protect a person or prized
possession. Each soldier would have an
important role to play, similar to each food
safety measure being important.



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Reflective Piece
Sometimes one decides to follow a particular path in life and once on that journey the
question is asked, why did I even think of doing so? For me this is exactly how I felt as week
after week I experienced the rigors of having to work on the task and offer guidance to my peers,
particularly when I was not even sure of what I was doing myself.
In the design of this course, I chose to work with a group of twenty vendors. One
misconception that I had was that the vendors would not have been able to cope with certain
aspects of the course since many had not attended secondary school and had low literacy levels.
It was not so since many had a good grasp of reading and were not afraid to demonstrate the
skills that they had.
During the first phase of this process I experienced difficulty in getting the needs
assessment plan together. I was glad to have found help by getting a report online which gave
me leads as to how to identify some of the optimals and actuals and to determine what data
collection instruments would be best utilized.
The selection of the task was also another aspect of this assignment which caused me a
little discomfort. Not that I did not understand the readings, but I was not sure what tasks were
necessary to achieve my overall goal. Again I had to rely on articles from the internet to learn
more about the topic of food handling. As I read through the content, I pictured myself in a
meeting with the Subject Matter Expert (SME) where we discussed what was most essential in
planning a programme for vendors.
For the procedural analysis, I thought that the tasks were too mundane and that vendors
would find it boring, indicating that they know how to do that already. However, I found that
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there were essential aspects of the task of washing dishes that vendors would a have missed such
as sanitizing the dishes after they had been missed. The important piece of information that I
learnt working on that aspect is that the task must be broken down just as a professional in the
field would perform the task.
Writing the objectives did not really serve as a problem for me, since this is a task that I
perform constantly at work. However, the feedback from the facilitator proved useful when I
was asked to strengthen my objectives by adding criteria and conditions to make them more
measurable.
The other aspects of assessment and instructional strategies there were generally
straightforward for me, again because of my teaching background. To execute the lesson it was
felt that there was need to use strategies such as collaborative learning, demonstrations and
technology-based strategies. Deciding on the strategies made me go back to what had been
done in the first course on instructional design and for me this served as a refresher. Also,
reading on instructional strategies was an eye opener for me. There was a particular line that
stuck with me, You cannot talk about something and expect learners to understand. You must
show them. In doing so, you are providing examples of how to do something. Being in the
classroom it shows how we do the children an injustice in simply coming to speak. Most
students are visual learners and we fail to maximise their learning because of the strategies that
we use.
Forging ahead, there are some aspects of the course that would be handled differently.
One of the things that would be done, is to enlist the help of an expert such as a chef to handle
certain aspects, which would mean utilizing some expository teaching. I think also that working
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on the assignment I would have worked on my reflection as I progressed through each stage of
the design process. There were certain steps that were not understood very well and I think that
we should have utilized our small groups even more to have discussions on those aspects
although I found that my peers provided some very useful feedback.
Now that the process is all done, I think that the practical nature of this assignment was
essential to giving us the experience of designing courses. I have already seen several
opportunities where I can utilize the knowledge and skills that I have acquired.

















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References
Cody,M.M., OLeary, V.S., Martin, J. (2008). Food safety training needs assessment survey.
Atlanta, GA: Georgia State University. Retrieved, June 11, 2014 from
http://www.nfsmi.org/documentLibraryFiles/PDF%5C20080221033700.pdf
Merrill, D. (2009). First Principles of Instruction. In Reigeluth, & A. Carr-Chellman,
Instructional Design, Theories and Models Volume III (pp 41-67). New York: Routledge
Morrison, G., Ross, S., Kemp, J.(2011). Designing Effective Instruction (6th edition) John Wiley
& Sons,
National Coalition for Food Safe Schools (2004). Food safe schools: Needs assessment and
planning guides. Retrieved, June 13, 2014 from
http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED499215.pdf
Queensland Government (2014). Know your food business: A self-assessment guide tot eh food
safety standards. Retrieved, July 20, 2014 from
http://www.health.qld.gov.au/ph/Documents/ehu/21883.pdf
Rossett A. (1987) Training Needs Assessment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology
Publications.
Safe Food Crew (2004). Food safety training modules and public recognition program. Madison:
Wisconsin. Retrieved, June 9, 2014 from
http://www.publichealthmdc.com/environmental/sfc/pdf_files/Module.pdf