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Roborl Horonjoff
Irancis X. McKoIvoy
WiIIiam }. SprouIo
Soll B. Young

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-
(docoasod) vas an inlornalionaIIy
Inovn consuIlanl on airporl dosign and profossor of
lransporlalion onginooring al llo Univorsily of
CaIifornia, BorIoIoy.
- (docoasod) vas a profossor of
civiI onginooring al Micligan Slalo Univorsily. Ho
sorvod as a consuIlanl on lransporlalion and airporl
pIanning lo fodoraI, slalo, and IocaI agoncios, as voII as
lo privalo firms in llo Unilod Slalos and abroad.
is a profossor of civiI and onviron-
monlaI onginooring al Micligan ToclnoIogicaI Univorsily.
Ho las many yoars of oxporionco in govornmonl sorvico,
consuIling, and univorsily loacling and rosoarcl in
lransporlalion pIanning, lraffic onginooring, airporl
pIanning and dosign, and aulomalod poopIo movors in
Canada and llo Unilod Slalos. Ho is aclivo in sovoraI
profossionaI sociolios and is llo 2008 rocipionl of llo
ASCI Roborl Horonjoff Avard for lis vorI in airporl
onginooring.
is an associalo profossor in llo Doparl-
monl of Avialion al Tlo Olio Slalo Univorsily and
prosidonl of llo InlornalionaI Avialion Managomonl
Group, Inc. Ho sorvos as a consuIlanl and inslruclor lo
airporls around llo vorId on issuos of airporl
managomonl, pIanning, and dosign. Dr. Young is llo
clair of llo NalionaI Acadomios Transporlalion Rosoarcl
Board Commilloo on Avialion Syslom IIanning. Ho is a
corlifiod mombor of llo Amorican Associalion of Airporl
Ixoculivos, a Iiconsod airpIano and soapIano commorciaI
piIol, and a corlifiod fIigll inslruclor.
-
Irofaco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
AcInovIodgmonls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii

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Inlroduclion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
CommorciaI Sorvico Avialion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Iassongor Air Carriors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
InlornalionaI Air Transporlalion . . . . . . . . . . 7
Air Cargo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
GonoraI Avialion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
CiviI Avialion Airporls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
HisloricaI Roviov of llo IogisIalivo RoIo
in Avialion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Air Commorco Acl of 1926 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
CiviI Aoronaulics Acl of 1938 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
IodoraI Airporl Acl of 1946 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
IodoraI Avialion Acl of 1958 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Croalion of llo U.S. Doparlmonl
of Transporlalion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Airporl and Airvay DovoIopmonl Acl
of 1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
AirIino DoroguIalion Acl of 1978 . . . . . . . . . . 31
Impacl of AirIino DoroguIalion . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Tlo Airporl and Airvay Improvomonl Acl
of 1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Tlo Avialion Safoly and Capacily Acl
of 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
AIR-21: Tlo WondoII Iord Avialion
Invoslmonl Acl for llo 21sl Conlury . . . . . . . . 34
Tlo Avialion and Transporlalion Socurily
Acl of 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Vision 100 Conlury of Avialion
Acl of 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
NoxlGon Iinancing Roform Acl of 2007/
IAA Roaullorizalion Acl of 2009 . . . . . . . 35
Slalo RoIos in Avialion and Airporls . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Avialion Organizalions and Tloir Iunclions . . . . . . 37


IodoraI Agoncios of llo Unilod Slalos
Govornmonl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion . . . . . . . . . . 37
Transporlalion Socurily Adminislralion . . . . 42
InvironmonlaI Iroloclion Agoncy . . . . . . . . . 42
NalionaI Transporlalion Safoly Board . . . . . . 43
Slalo Agoncios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Tlo InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion
Organizalion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Induslry and Trado Organizalions . . . . . . . . . 45
Roforoncos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Wob Roforoncos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
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DimonsionaI Slandards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Ianding Goar Conguralions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Aircrafl Woigll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Ingino Typos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Almosploric Condilions Affocling
Aircrafl Iorformanco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Air Irossuro and Tomporaluro . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Wind Spood and Diroclion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Aircrafl Iorformanco Claraclorislics . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Aircrafl Spood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
IayIoad and Rango . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Runvay Iorformanco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
DocIarod Dislancos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Winglip Vorlicos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Roforoncos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

Inlroduclion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
A Briof Hislory of Air Trafc Managomonl . . . . . . . 96
Tlo OrganizalionaI Hiorarcly of Air Trafc
Managomonl in llo Unilod Slalos . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Tlo Air Trafc ConlroI Syslom
Command Conlor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Air Roulo Trafc ConlroI Conlors . . . . . . . . . 97
TorminaI Approacl ConlroI IaciIilios . . . . . . 98
Airporl Trafc ConlroI Tovor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
IIigll Sorvico Slalions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Air Trafc Managomonl RuIos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

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Airspaco CIassicalions and Airvays . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Airvays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
CoIorod Airvays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Viclor Airvays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
}ol Roulos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Aroa Navigalion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Air Trafc Soparalion RuIos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
VorlicaI Soparalion in llo Airspaco . . . . . . . . 111
Assignod IIigll AIliludos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
IongiludinaI Soparalion in llo Airspaco . . . 111
IaloraI Soparalion in llo Airspaco . . . . . . . . . 113
NavigalionaI Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Ground-Basod Sysloms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
SaloIIilo-Basod Sysloms: GIobaI
Iosilioning Syslom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Tlo Modornizalion of Air Trafc Managomonl . . . . 127
NoxlGon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
SWIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
NoxlGon Dala Communicalions . . . . . . . . . . 130
NoxlGon InabIod Woallor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Roforoncos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
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Inlroduclion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Typos of Sludios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Tlo Airporl Syslom IIan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Airporl Silo SoIoclion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Tlo Airporl Maslor IIan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Tlo Airporl Irojocl IIan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Conlinuing IIanning Irocoss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Roforoncos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
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Inlroduclion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
IovoIs of Iorocasling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Iorocasling Mollods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Timo Sorios Mollod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
MarIol Slaro Mollod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Iconomolric ModoIing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Iorocasling Roquiromonls and AppIicalions . . . . . . 162
Tlo Airporl Syslom IIan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Tlo Airporl Maslor IIan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Tlo Iuluro Avialion Iorocasling Invironmonl . . . . 168
Roforoncos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
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Airporl Dosign Slandards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Airporl CIassicalion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
UliIily Airporls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Transporl Airporls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Runvays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Runvay Conguralions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
SingIo Runvay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
IaraIIoI Runvays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Inlorsocling Runvays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Opon-V Runvays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Combinalions of Runvay Conguralions . . . . 181
Runvay Orionlalion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Tlo Wind Roso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Islimaling Runvay Iongll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Runvay Syslom Goomolric Spocicalions . . . . 201
IaraIIoI Runvay Syslom Spacing . . . . . . . . . . 205
Sigll Dislanco and IongiludinaI IroIo . . . . 207
Transvorso Gradionl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
AiroId Soparalion Roquiromonls
RoIalod lo Runvays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
ObslacIo CIoaranco Roquiromonls . . . . . . . . . 213
IAR Iarl 77 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
ICAO Annox 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
TIRIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Runvay Ind Siling Roquiromonls . . . . . . . . . 223
Taxivays and TaxiIanos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Widlls and SIopos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Taxivay and TaxiIano Soparalion
Roquiromonls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Sigll Dislanco and IongiludinaI IroIo . . . . 234
Ixil Taxivay Goomolry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Iocalion of Ixil Taxivays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Dosign of Taxivay Curvos
and Inlorsoclions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Ind-Around Taxivays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Aprons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
HoIding Aprons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
TorminaI Aprons and Ramps . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
TorminaI Apron Surfaco Gradionls . . . . . . . . 254
ConlroI Tovor VisibiIily Roquiromonls . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Roforoncos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

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-

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Inlroduclion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
SoiI Invosligalion and IvaIualion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Tlo CBR Tosl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Tlo IIalo Boaring Tosl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Youngs ModuIus ( VaIuo) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Iffocl of Irosl on SoiI Slrongll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Subgrado SlabiIizalion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
IAA Iavomonl Dosign Mollods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
IquivaIonl Aircrafl Mollod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
CumuIalivo Damago IaiIuro Mollod . . . . . . 270
Dosign of IIoxibIo Iavomonls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
CBR Mollod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Iayorod IIaslic Dosign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Dosign of Rigid Iavomonls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Woslorgaards AnaIysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Iinilo IIomonl Tloory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
}oinls and }oinl Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
ConlinuousIy Roinforcod Concrolo Iavomonls . . . . 279
Dosign of OvorIay Iavomonls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Iavomonls for Iigll Aircrafl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Iavomonl IvaIualion and Iavomonl
Managomonl Sysloms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Roforoncos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288

Inlroduclion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Tlo Roquiromonls for VisuaI Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Tlo Airporl Boacon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Obslruclion Iiglling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Tlo Aircrafl Ianding Oporalion . . . . . . . . . . . 293
AIignmonl Guidanco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Hoigll Informalion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Approacl Iiglling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Syslom Conguralions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
VisuaI Approacl SIopo Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
VisuaI Approacl SIopo Indicalor . . . . . . . . . . 301
Irocision Approacl Iall Indicalor . . . . . . . . 302
TlrosloId Iiglling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Runvay Iiglling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Runvay Idgo Iiglls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Runvay ConlorIino and Toucldovn
Zono Iiglls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Runvay Ind Idonlior Iiglls . . . . . . . . . . . . 309

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Taxivay Iiglling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Taxivay Idgo Iiglls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Runvay Guard Iiglls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Runvay Slop Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Runvay and Taxivay MarIing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Runvays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Runvay Dosignalors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Runvay TlrosloId MarIings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
ConlorIino MarIings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Aiming Ioinls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Toucldovn Zono MarIings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Sido Slripos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
DispIacod TlrosloId MarIings . . . . . . . . . . . 321
BIasl Iad MarIings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Taxivay MarIings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
ConlorIino and Idgo MarIings . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Taxivay HoId MarIings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Taxivay SlouIdors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Inlancod Taxivay MarIings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
CIosod Runvay and Taxivay MarIings . . . . 328
AiroId Signago . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Runvay Dislanco Romaining Signs . . . . . . . . 330
Taxivay Guidanco Sign Syslom . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Taxivay Dosignalions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Typos of Taxivay Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Signing Convonlions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Sign Sizo and Iocalion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Sign Oporalion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Roforoncos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341

Iurposo of Drainago . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Dosign Slorm for Surfaco Runoff . . . . . . . . . . 343
Dolormining llo Inlonsily-Duralion
Iallorn for llo Dosign Slorm . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Dolormining llo Amounl of Runoff by
llo IAA Irocoduro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Dolormining llo Amounl of Runoff by
llo Corps of Inginoors Irocoduro . . . . . . . 358
Iayoul of Surfaco Drainago . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Roforoncos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
-
Inlroduclion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Tlo Iassongor TorminaI Syslom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Compononls of llo Syslom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
-

Dosign Considoralions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387


TorminaI Domand Iaramolors . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
IaciIily CIassicalion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
OvoraII Spaco Approximalions . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
IovoI of Sorvico Criloria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Tlo TorminaI IIanning Irocoss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Spaco Irogramming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Ollor Aroas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
OvoraII Spaco Roquiromonls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
Concopl DovoIopmonl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
HorizonlaI Dislribulion Concopls . . . . . . . . . 417
VorlicaI Dislribulion Concopls . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Sclomalic Dosign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
AnaIysis Mollods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Dosign DovoIopmonl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Tlo Apron Galo Syslom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
Numbor of Galos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
Ramp Clarls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
Galo Sizo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
Aircrafl IarIing Typo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
Apron Iayoul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
Apron CircuIalion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
Iassongor Convoyanco lo Aircrafl . . . . . . . . . 457
Apron UliIily Roquiromonls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
Roforoncos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
- -

Inlroduclion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
Hislory of Airporl Socurily . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
Airporl Socurily Irogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
Socurily al CommorciaI Sorvico Airporls . . . . . . . . . 472
Iassongor Scrooning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Baggago Scrooning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
ImpIoyoo Idonlicalion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
Iorimolor Socurily . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
VuInorabiIily Assossmonl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
Socurily al GonoraI Avialion Airporls . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
Iuluro Socurily . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
Roforoncos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
-
Inlroduclion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
Capacily and DoIay Donod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
Capacily and DoIay in AiroId IIanning . . . 485

-
Approaclos lo llo AnaIysis of Capacily and DoIay . . . . 486
Iaclors Tlal Affocl AiroId Capacily . . . . . . 489
IormuIalion of Runvay Capacily llrougl
MallomalicaI Tloory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
MallomalicaI IormuIalion of DoIay . . . . . . . 490
IormuIalion of Runvay Capacily llrougl
llo Timo-Spaco Concopl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
IormuIalion of UIlimalo Capacily . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
MallomalicaI IormuIalion of
UIlimalo Capacily . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
AppIicalion of Toclniquos for UIlimalo
HourIy Capacily . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
Iaramolors Roquirod for Runvay
Capacily . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
Compulalion of DoIay on Runvay Sysloms . . . . . . 520
GraplicaI Mollods for Approximaling
DoIay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
AppIicalion of Toclniquos for AnnuaI
Sorvico VoIumo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
SimuIalion ModoIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
Galo Capacily . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538
AnaIylicaI ModoIs for Galo Capacily . . . . . . 539
Roforoncos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
-
Inlroduclion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
BacIground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
IodoraI Iunding Irograms in llo Unilod Slalos . . . . . 544
Tlo Airporl DovoIopmonl Aid
Irogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547
Tlo Iassongor IaciIily Clargo
Irogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556
Slalo and IocaI Iarlicipalion in Iinancing
Airporl Improvomonls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557
Bond Iinancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
GonoraI ObIigalion Bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
GonoraI Airporl Rovonuo Bonds . . . . . . . . . . 559
SpociaI IaciIily Bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559
IIC Bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560
CIC Bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560
Irivalizalion of Airporls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560
IinanciaI IIanning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562
Ralo Solling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
IvaIualion of llo IinanciaI IIan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571
Roforoncos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571
-


Inlroduclion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573
IoIicy Considoralions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574
IoIIulion Iaclors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576
Air QuaIily . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576
Walor QuaIily . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
Aircrafl and Airporl Noiso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579
Sound Irossuro and Sound Irossuro IovoI . . . 580
Aircrafl Noiso Iffocls and Iand-Uso
CompalibiIily . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592
Dolormining llo Ixlonl of llo IrobIom . . . . 598
Iinding SoIulions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604
Noiso RoguIalions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609
Conslruclion Impacls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615
SociaI Iaclors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616
Iand DovoIopmonl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616
DispIacomonl and RoIocalion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617
IarIs, RocroalionaI Aroas, HisloricaI IIacos,
ArclooIogicaI Rosourcos,
and NaluraI and Sconic Boauly . . . . . . . . . 617
Consisloncy vill IocaI IIanning . . . . . . . . . . 618
IcoIogicaI Iaclors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619
WiIdIifo, WalorfovI, IIora, Iauna,
Indangorod Spocios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619
WolIands and CoaslaI Zonos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619
IIood Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 620
Inginooring and Iconomic Iaclors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 620
Cosls of Conslruclion and Oporalion . . . . . . 620
Iconomic Bonols and IiscaI Roquiromonls . . . 624
Inorgy and NaluraI Rosourcos . . . . . . . . . . . . 624
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625
Roforoncos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625
-
Inlroduclion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629
HoIiporls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629
Tlo Naluro of HoIicoplor Transporlalion . . . 629
Claraclorislics of HoIicoplors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630
Iaclors RoIalod lo HoIiporl Silo SoIoclion . . . 631
Roforoncos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 648


I
n llo profaco lo llo fourll odilion of llis loxl, llo Ialo Dr. Irancis
McKoIvoy romarIod llal llo loclnoIogicaI and IogisIalivo dovoI-
opmonls roIalod lo llo air lransporlalion induslry in llo 1980s
and oarIy 1990s voro of sucl significanco llal an updaling of llo booI
vas noodod. Tlo fourll odilion, pubIislod in 1994, onlancod provious
odilions, llo firsl of vlicl vas pubIislod in 1962.
In llo 16 yoars sinco llis Iasl updalo, il may bo said llal llo
clangos lo llo praclico of airporl pIanning and dosign lavo boon
moro significanl llan in any ollor ora in llo lislory of avialion.
ImpIomonlalion of lvonly-firsl-conlury loclnoIogios las rosuIlod in
llo firsl major ovorlauI lo aircrafl and air navigalion sysloms in
gonoralions, compulor-basod anaIylicaI and dosign modoIs lavo
ropIacod anliqualod monograpls and oslimalion labIos, and liglIy
significanl goopoIilicaI ovonls lavo aII bul rovrillon llo ruIos of
pIanning, dosigning, and oporaling civiI-uso airporls.
Tloso significanl onlancomonls lo llo avialion syslom lavo
rosuIlod in uniquo claIIongos in croaling an updalod fifll odilion of
llis imporlanl and liglIy accoplod loxl. WliIo ovory allompl vas
mado lo Ioop lo llo lradilionaI slrucluro of llo booI and lo prosorvo
llo lloorolicaI slronglls for vlicl il is mosl voII Inovn, mucl of llo
maloriaI in llo provious odilion roquirod moro ropIacomonl llan
simpIy boing mado curronl. Willin llis Ialosl odilion llo roador viII
find, for oxampIo, nov and onliroIy difforonl slralogios lo oslimalo
roquirod runvay Ionglls and lloir associalod roquirod pavomonl
llicInossos. Tlis loxl allompls lo mainlain llo fIavor of provious
odilions vliIo undorslanding, for oxampIo, llal airporl navigalionaI
aids of llo provious conlury aro bocoming aII bul obsoIolo, in favor
of a digilaI, saloIIilo-basod communicalion and navigalionaI syslom,
and llal airporl financing slralogios aro in a rovoIulionary slalo, givon
anlicipalod clangos lo fodoraI avialion funding moclanisms.
Updaling llis odilion las, in facl, boon a conlinuous raco againsl
limo, as imporlanl clangos lo llo avialion syslom voro conslanlIy
occurring during llo procoss.


In Iigll of lloso claIIongos, llis fifll odilion is lopod lo again bo
llo slandard loxl for lloso inloroslod in llo fundamonlaIs of airporl
pIanning and dosign. Tlo informalion Iocalod villin lloso claplors
is appIicabIo boll for acadomic coursovorI and as a roforonco on llo
dosIs of airporl pIanning and dosign profossionaIs. As llo induslry
conlinuos lo movo forvard, il is of courso rocommondod llal
llo Ialosl dosign slandards pubIislod by llo IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion, llo InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organizalion, and
IocaI, slalo, and ollor fodoraI agoncios bo consuIlod.

-
T
lo fifll odilion of llis lisloric loxl couId novor lavo boon
croalod villoul llo caroor offorls of ils originaI aullor, llo Ialo
Dr. Roborl Horonjoff, and lis coaullor on Ialor odilions, llo
Ialo Dr. Irancis McKoIvoy. Tloir aullorslip viII aIvays bo firsl
crodilod. Updaling llis booI villoul lloir porsonaI guidanco vas
immonsoIy claIIonging. Il is onIy lopod llal lloy vouId bo salisfiod
vill Inoving lloir originaI pliIosoplios sliII form llo basis for
llis loxl. Conlribuling lo llis updalo lavo boon llo fino offorls of
Dr. WiIIiam SprouIo, vlo sludiod undor Dr. McKoIvoy and loIpod
bring lis goaI of mainlaining llo curroncy of llis loxl lo fruilion.
Many llanIs go oul lo llo inslilulions al vlicl llo originaI
aullors voro, and lloso vlo loIpod updalo llis Ialosl odilion lavo
boon, IucIy onougl lo bo ompIoyod: llo Univorsily of CaIifornia al
BorIoIoy, Micligan Slalo Univorsily, Imbry-RiddIo AoronaulicaI
Univorsily, Micligan ToclnoIogicaI Univorsily, }acobs ConsuIlancy,
and Tlo Olio Slalo Univorsily. Il is lopod llal llo sludonls, facuIly,
and profossionaIs of lloso and aII sucl inslilulions conlinuo lo find
llis loxl a vaIuabIo rosourco.
Tlis booI is dodicalod lo llo momorios of Dr. Horonjoff and
Dr. McKoIvoy, vlo lavo loIpod lo immorlaIizo llo formaI praclico of
pIanning and dosigning llo vorIds airporls. Tloir Iifos offorls lavo
rosuIlod in bolloring llo Iivos of counlIoss sludonls, profossionaIs,
and usors of civiI avialion.


Tlo Naluro of CiviI Avialion
and Airporls

Aircrafl Claraclorislics
RoIalod lo Airporl Dosign

Air Trafc Managomonl

Airporl IIanning Sludios

Iorocasling for Airporl IIanning



-

Sinco ils boginning in llo oarIy lvonlioll conlury, civiI avialion las
bocomo ono of llo mosl fascinaling, imporlanl, and compIox indus-
lrios in llo vorId. Tlo civiI avialion syslom, parlicuIarIy ils airporls,
las como lo bo llo bacIbono of vorId lransporl and a nocossily lo
lvonly-firsl-conlury lrado and commorco.
In 2008, llo commorciaI sorvico sogmonl of civiI avialion, con-
sisling of moro llan 900 airIinos and 22,000 aircrafl, carriod moro
llan 2 biIIion passongors and 85 miIIion lons of cargo on moro llan
74 miIIion fIiglls lo moro llan 1700 airporls in moro llan 180 coun-
lrios vorIdvido. MiIIions moro privalo, corporalo, and clarlor
gonoraI avialion oporalions voro conduclod al llousands of com-
morciaI and gonoraI avialion airporls llrougloul llo vorId. In many
parls of llo vorId, commorciaI sorvico and gonoraI avialion sorvo
as llo primary, if nol llo onIy mollod of lransporlalion bolvoon
communilios.
Tlo magniludo of llo impacl of llo commorciaI air lransporla-
lion induslry on llo vorId oconomy is lromondous, conlribuling
moro llan $2.6 lriIIion in oconomic aclivily, oquivaIonl lo 8 porconl
of llo vorId gross domoslic producl, and supporling 29 miIIion
jobs. In llo Unilod Slalos aIono civiI avialion is rosponsibIo for
$900 biIIon in oconomic aclivily and 11 miIIion jobs. GonoraI avia-
lion sorvos an oquaIIy imporlanl roIo in llo vorIds oconomy, pro-
viding clarlor, cargo, corporalo, modicaI, and privalo lransporl, as
voII as sucl sorvicos as aoriaI plolograply, firofiglling, survoiI-
Ianco, and rocroalion. In llo Unilod Slalos aIono, lloro aro moro
llan 225,000 rogislorod gonoraI avialion aircrafl and moro llan
600,000 rogislorod piIols.


Tlo prosonco of civiI avialion las affoclod our oconomic vay of
Iifo, il las mado clangos in our sociaI and cuIluraI viovpoinls, and
las lad a land in slaping llo courso of poIilicaI lislory.
Tlo socioIogicaI clangos brougll aboul by air lransporlalion aro
porlaps as imporlanl as lloso il las brougll aboul in llo oconomy.
IoopIo lavo boon brougll cIosor logollor and so lavo roaclod a bol-
lor undorslanding of inlorrogionaI probIoms. Induslry las found nov
vays lo do businoss. Tlo opporlunily for moro froquonl oxclangos of
informalion las boon faciIilalod, and air lransporl is onabIing moro
poopIo lo onjoy llo cuIluros and lradilions of dislanl Iands.
In roconl yoars, profound clangos in loclnoIogy and poIicy lavo
lad significanl impacls on civiI avialion and ils supporling airporl
infraslrucluro. Tlo induslry conlinuos lo grov in numbors of aircrafl,
passongors and cargo carriod, and marIols sorvod, from nonslop
sorvico on suporjumbo aircrafl bolvoon cilios laIf-vay across llo
pIanol, lo privaloIy oporalod vory Iigll jols bolvoon any of llou-
sands of smaII airporls domoslicaIIy. Grovll oncouragod from locl-
noIogicaI advancomonls counlorod vill incroasod conslrainls on llo
civiI avialion syslom duo lo incroasod capacily Iimilalions, socurily
roguIalions, and financiaI conslrainls lavo rosuIlod in ovor incroasing
claIIongos lo airporl pIanning and dosign.
CiviI avialion is lypicaIIy considorod in llroo soclors, commorciaI
sorvico avialion (moro commonIy Inovn as air carriors or airIinos),
air cargo, and gonoraI avialion. AIllougl llo Iinos bolvoon lloso lra-
dilionaI soclors aro bocoming incroasingIy bIurrod, llo roguIalions
and claraclorislics rogarding lloir individuaI oporalions aro oflon
muluaIIy oxcIusivo, and as sucl, lloso invoIvod in airporl pIanning
and dosign slouId lavo an undorslanding of oacl soclor.

CommorciaI sorvico avialion, supporlod by llo vorIds airIinos, is by
far llo mosl voII Inovn, mosl uliIizod, and mosl liglIy roguIalod
sogmonl of civiI avialion. Il is llo sogmonl of llo induslry rosponsibIo
for providing pubIic air lransporlalion bolvoon llo vorIds cilios.
In llo Unilod Slalos, domoslic commorciaI air sorvico accommo-
dalod noarIy 650 miIIion onpIaning passongors in 2008, fIying
approximaloIy 570 biIIion passongor-miIos, rofIocling a sIigll docIino
foIIoving llo mosl roconl surgo in llo grovll of air lransporlalion
sinco llo mid-lvonlioll conlury, and forocaslod lo carry moro llan
1 biIIion passongors by 2020, as iIIuslralod in Iig. 1-1.
Inlorcily lravoI, of courso, is nol soIoIy avaiIabIo llrougl commor-
ciaI sorvico avialion. Inlorcily lravoI may bo accommodalod using
oillor privalo modos of lransporlalion, mosl commonIy via privalo
aulomobiIo lravoI, or llrougl ollor modos of pubIic lransporlalion,
sucl as bus, raiI, or slip. Irivalo aulomobiIo lravoI, accounls for
-

noarIy 90 porconl of llo lolaI inlorcily (dofinod as lrips groalor llan


50 mi in dislanco) lravoI in llo Unilod Slalos, and pubIic lransporla-
lion or common-carrior lravoI (bus, raiI, and air) accounls for llo
romaining porlion.
Sinco llo Ialor laIf of llo lvonlioll conlury, lloro las boon a
sloady incroaso in ovoraII lravoI, by privalo aulomobiIo and pubIic
lransporlalion. Air lransporlalion las lad llo groalosl incroaso in
ovoraII passongors sorvod. In llo Unilod Slalos, llis poriod las aIso
vilnossod a dramalic roduclion in raiI lravoI oxcopl for llo raiI mar-
Iols in llo Norlloasl Unilod Slalos. Tloso roIalionslips aro slovn in
TabIo 1-1.
As iIIuslralod in TabIo 1-2, air lransporlalion in llo Unilod Slalos
accounls for llo vasl majorily of domoslic lravoI for lrips oxcooding
750 mi, and approximaloIy ono llird of lrips 500 lo 750 mi in Iongll. In
aII, air lransporlalion accounls for approximaloIy 70 porconl of llo
Unilod Slalos pubIic inlorcily lransporlalion. Will llo oxcoplion of
lravoI lo Canada and Moxico, air lransporlalion sorvos noarIy 100 por-
conl of lravoI bolvoon llo Unilod Slalos and inlornalionaI doslinalions.
In many parls of llo vorId llo uso of privalo aulomobiIo is mucl
Ioss significanl, and llo uso of raiI lransporlalion is mucl moro prov-
aIonl. Hovovor, grovll in commorciaI avialion in marIols sucl as
Iuropo and India aro forocasl lo laIo groalor numbors of passongors
off llo raiIs and onlo airIinos.
Mucl of llo lisloricaI grovll in air carrior lransporlalion las boon
IargoIy crodilod lo llo 1978 IodoraI AirIino DoroguIalion Acl, vlicl
aIIovod air carriors lo frooIy onlor and compolo in domoslic marIols in
- - --
- --
0
1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990
Year
2000 2010 2020 2030
200,000
400,000
600,000
800,000
1,000,000
1,200,000
Historical Forecast
Revenue Passengers (thousands)
Revenue Passenger-Miles (millions)











U.S. Buroau of Transporlalion Slalislics.
--
- -

-

-
-



-



llo Unilod Slalos, and opon sIios agroomonls llrougloul llo 1990s
bolvoon nalions lo aIIov for moro sorvico bolvoon inlornalionaI dosli-
nalions. Tlo mosl roconl grovll in air lransporlalion is allribulabIo lo
clanging airIino businoss modoIs, sucl as llo omorgonco of llo Iov-
cosl carrior (ICC), as voII as incroasing numbors of inlornalionaI opon
sIios agroomonls llal lavo proIiforalod sinco 2000.
-

-- -
CommorciaI air carriors aro dofinod in llo Unilod Slalos as lloso llal
oporalo undor TilIo 14 Iarl 121 of llo U.S. Codo of IodoraI RoguIa-
lions lo provido scloduIod air lransporlalion lo llo pubIic. In llo
Unilod Slalos, lloso airIinos aro calogorizod by lloir annuaI rovonuos.
Major airIinos aro lloso llal gonoralo al Ioasl $1 biIIion in annuaI rov-
onuos. NalionaI carriors gonoralo bolvoon $100 miIIion and $1 biIIion
in annuaI rovonuos, and rogionaI carriors gonoralo bolvoon $25 miIIion
and $100 miIIion in annuaI rovonuos.
InlornalionaI air carriors rocoivo oporaling corlificalos as pro-
scribod by slandards sol by llo InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organi-
zalion (ICAO) and dofinod by llo counlry in vlicl llo airIino is
basod. HisloricaIIy, inlornalionaI air carriors voro ovnod and opor-
alod by lloir nalions, lonco llo lorm fIag carriors. In roconl yoars,
mosl of llo lradilionaI inlornalionaI carriors lavo boon lransforrod lo
privalo ovnorslip. In addilion, lloro las boon an omorgonco of nov
inlornalionaI air carriors, mosl foIIoving llo ICC modoI of sorving
poinl-lo-poinl marIols for faros llal aro on llo vloIo far Iovor llan
lloir lisloricaI airIino counlorparls. Tlo omorgonco of llo ICC modoIs
in Iuropo and moro roconlIy in llo Iar Iasl and India aro rosuIling
in a lromondous grovll in avialion aclivily in lloso rogions.
Air carriors using aircrafl vill Ioss llan 75 soals providing sclod-
uIod or unscloduIod air clarlor sorvicos oporaling undor TilIo 14
Iarl 121 of llo U.S. Codo of IodoraI RoguIalions aro Inovn as rogionaI
air carriors. Tloso carriors oporaling aircrafl vill Ioss llan 30 soals
and lloso llal oporalo undor TilIo 14 Iarl 135 of llo U.S. Codo of
IodoraI RoguIalions aro Inovn as commulor air carriors. If sorvico
froquoncy bolvoon cily pairs is providod Ioss llan 5 limos vooIIy,
lloso carriors aro Inovn as air laxi oporalors.
In 2008, lloro voro ovor 700 air laxis, commulor and smaII rogionaI
air carriors oporaling moro llan 2750 aircrafl, ovor 50 porconl of
vlicl voro rogionaI jol aircrafl. Six lundrod and forly lvo airporls in
llo Unilod Slalos rocoivod sorvico by smaII rogionaI and commulor
airIinos. RogionaI and commulor air sorvico is llo soIo providor of
pubIic air lransporlalion lo 492 airporls in llo Unilod Slalos (sourco:
RAA). Tlrougloul llo 1980s and 1990s, commulor airIino grovll
vas oncouragod by lloir incroasing roIos as codo-slaro parlnors vill
major air carriors. In 2006, ovor 95 porconl of aII passongors lravoIing
on commulor and rogionaI air carriors purclasod lloir licIols llrougl
lloso codo-slaro parlnorslips. TabIo 1-3 iIIuslralos llo grovll of llo
commulor and rogionaI carriors sinco 1970.
-
AIllougl inlornalionaI air lransporl vas inauguralod in llo mid-
1930s, rapid grovll did nol bogin unliI 1950. Sinco llal limo llo
avorago annuaI grovll ralo in llo numbor of vorIdvido passongors


vas noarIy 14 porconl in llo 1960s, sIigllIy Ioss llan 7 porconl in llo
1970s, and sIigllIy Ioss llan 5 porconl in llo 1980s. As iIIuslralod in
Iig. 1-2, vorIdvido grovll in air lransporlalion las incroasod by
moro llan 60 porconl bolvoon 1990 and 2005.

Originaling as llo lransporl of maiI by air in llo oarIy parl of llo
lvonlioll conlury, air cargo las como lo bo dofinod as a $40 biIIion

---
--
--
-
-










--
0
1950 1960 1970 1980
Year
1990 2010 2000
500,000
1,000,000
1,500,000
2,000,000
2,500,000
Revenue Passengers (thousands)
Revenue Passenger-Miles (millions)
- --
-

induslry focusod on llo air lransporl of maiI, buII froigll, ligl-vaIuo


goods, and aII ollor rovonuo gonoraling payIoad ollor llan passon-
gors and lloir Iuggago. As iIIuslralod in Iig. 1-3, llo lransporl of air
cargo las incroasod lromondousIy sinco llo mid-lvonlioll conlury,
vill ils groalosl ralo of grovll occurring sinco llo Ialo 1980s.
Tlo lop 50 carriors of air cargo in llo gIobaI air cargo induslry
carriod noarIy ono-lundrod biIIion froigll-lon-miIos of cargo in 2008.
ApproximaloIy 15 porconl of llo air cargo lransporlod gIobaIIy is por-
formod by induslry Ioadors and oxcIusivo cargo carriors IodIx and
UIS. Tlo majorily of air cargo is lransporlod by air carriors, using
aircrafl dosignod oxcIusivoIy for air cargo carriago, as voII as on com-
morciaI passongor aircrafl. Cargo carriod on commorciaI passongor
aircrafl is oflon roforrod lo as boIIy cargo as llo cargo is slovod in
llo boIIy of llo passongor aircrafl. Cargo carriod on aircrafl dosignod
oxcIusivoIy for llo carriago of cargo is oflon roforrod lo as paIollo or
conlainorizod cargo, doscribing llo conlainors villin vlicl cargo
is slovod and llo paIollos usod lo Ioad and unIoad cargo. Cargo
oporalions using oacl lypo aircrafl poso uniquo claIIongos for airporl
pIanning and dosign.
Tlo goograplic dislribulion of vorId air lransporl is aIso of
inlorosl. Ior slalislicaI purposos ICAO las dividod llo vorId inlo six
rogions: Asia and Iacific, Iuropo, Norll Amorica, Ialin Amorican,
Caribboan, and llo MiddIo Iasl.
WliIo sIigllIy moro llan 60 porconl of aII lraffic is gonoralod in
Norll Amorica and Iuropo, llo roIalivo grovll ralos of lraffic in
llo Asian and Iacific rogion, as voII as in llo MiddIo Iasl, is
oxpoclod lo dominalo vorIdvido air lransporlalion grovll, rofIocling
llo grovll of imporlanco of llis aroa in llo poIilicaI, sociaI, and
oconomic soclors.

1990 1995 2000 2005 1985 1980
Year
1975 1970 1965 1960 1955
100,000
90,000
80,000
70,000
60,000
50,000
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
0
R
e
v
e
n
u
e

T
o
n
-
M
i
l
e
s

(
m
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
)
Mail
Freight


Tlo air cargo marIol is forocasl lo lripIo bolvoon 2008 and 2030,
Iod by llo grovll of air froigll domand lo Clina, as iIIuslralod by
llo forocasl porconlago dislribulion of vorIdvido air cargo aclivily
in TabIo 1-4. Il is forocasl llal incroasing porconlagos of air cargo
vouId bo slippod on dodicalod cargo aircrafl, roquiring llo nood
for oxpandod oxcIusivo air cargo faciIilios al airporls llrougloul
llo vorId.

GonoraI avialion is llo lorm usod lo dosignalo aII fIying dono ollor
llan by llo commorciaI air sorvico carriors. GonoraI avialion opora-
lions rango from IocaI rocroalionaI fIying lo gIobaI businoss lrans-
porl, porformod on aircrafl nol oporaling undor llo fodoraI avialion
roguIalions for commorciaI air carriors.
WliIo, by dofinilion, gonoraI avialion oporalions carry no
commorciaI passongors, il is oslimalod llal moro llan 166 miIIion
poopIo lravoIod by gonoraI avialion on noarIy 20 miIIion fIiglls in
2008. During 2007, gonoraI avialion accounlod for noarIy 75 porconl
of aII aircrafl oporalions in llo Unilod Slalos (sourco: IAA TAI). Gon-
oraI avialion supporls moro llan 1.3 miIIion jobs and conlribulos
moro llan $103 biIIion annuaIIy lo llo Unilod Slalos oconomy.
As of 2008, lloro voro approximaloIy 225,000 gonoraI avialion
aircrafl rogislorod in llo Unilod Slalos and an oslimalod 340,000 air-
crafl vorIdvido (sourco: GAMA). Tloso aircrafl rango in lypo and
sizo from smaII singIo-ongino propoIIor aircrafl lo Iargo jol aircrafl, lo

-









-
-

uIlraIigll aircrafl, lo loIicoplors. GonoraI avialion aircrafl aro


sorvod by noarIy 20,000 Ianding faciIilios in llo Unilod Slalos aIono.
GonoraI avialion aclivily las oxporioncod a docIino in aclivily
bolvoon 1980 and 2008, as iIIuslralod in Iig. 1-4. Dospilo llis roconl
lisloricaI docIino, gonoraI avialion aclivily is forocasl lo incroaso vill
llo proIiforalion of nov aircrafl loclnoIogy vlicl is oxpoclod lo
roduco llo cosl of gonoraI avialion oporalions. Tlis forocasl grovll in
gonoraI avialion, combinod vill nov loclnoIogios, viII poso inlorosl-
ing claIIongos for airporl pIanning and dosign.
-
Airporls sorving civiI avialion rango from privalo nonpavod slrips
llal sorvo Ioss llan ono privaloIy oporalod aircrafl por day lo major
inlornalionaI airporls covoring lons of llousands of acros, sorving
lundrods of llousands of fIiglls and lundrods of miIIions of pas-
songors annuaIIy. In llo Unilod Slalos lloro aro approximaloIy 20,000
rocognizod civiI airporls, mosl of vlicl aro privaloIy ovnod and
cIosod lo gonoraI pubIic uso. Of llo approximaloIy 5200 airporls
opon lo llo pubIic, approximaloIy 700 aro corlifiod lo accommodalo
commorciaI air sorvico, vill llo romaining sorving gonoraI avialion
oxcIusivoIy.
Airporls curronlIy sorving al Ioasl 2500 onpIanod passongors
using commorciaI air sorvico aro Inovn as - -.
- aro dosignalod as lloso commorciaI airporls sorving
al Ioasl 10,000 annuaI onpIanod passongors. Airporls sorving Ioss llan
2500 annuaI onpIanod passongors aro considorod
- GonoraI avialion airporls dosignod lo accommodalo smaIIor
0
1940 1950 1960 1970 1980
Year
1990 2010 2000
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
40,000
45,000
Total Hours (thousands)
- -


singIo and lvin-ongino aircrafl aro considorod basic uliIily airporls.
Tloso gonoraI avialion airporls llal accommodalo Iargor aircrafl aro
considorod gonoraI uliIily airporls.
Tlo Unilod Slalos IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion (IAA), llo
govornmonlaI body vill adminislralivo ovorsigll lo llo nalions
civiI avialion syslom, calogorizos airporls llrougl ils NalionaI IIan
of Inlogralod Airporl Sysloms (NIIAS). As iIIuslralod in Iig. 1-5 llo
NIIAS rocognizos approximaloIy 3400 airporls considorod by llo
IAA lo bo ossonliaI lo civiI avialion and cIassifios lloso airporls by
llo IovoIs of commorciaI sorvico aclivily villin lloir rospoclivo sland-
ard molropoIilan slalislicaI aroas (SMSAs).
Irimary airporls aro furllor cIassifiod inlo vlal aro Inovn as
lub cIassificalions (nol lo bo confusod vill llo airIino lub and
spoIo roulo modoIs). Tlo lub cIassificalions usod by llo IAA aro
Iargo lub primary, modium lub primary, smaII lub primary, and
nonlub primary airporls. Iargo lubs aro lloso airporls llal accounl
for al Ioasl 1 porconl of llo lolaI annuaI passongor onpIanomonls in
llo Unilod Slalos. Modium lubs accounl for al Ioasl 0.25 bul Ioss
llan 1 porconl of llo lolaI passongor onpIanomonls. SmaII lubs
accounl for al Ioasl 0.05 porconl bul Ioss llan 0.25 porconl, and non-
lubs accounl for Ioss llan 0.05 porconl bul al Ioasl 10,000 annuaI
onpIanod passongors. Tlo numbor of airporls, by lub cIassificalion,
is iIIuslralod in TabIo 1-5.
RoIiovor airporls aro airporls nol curronlIy sorving roguIar com-
morciaI sorvico bul lavo boon dosignalod by llo IAA as gonoraI
avialion-lypo airporls llal provido roIiof vlon nocossary lo com-
morciaI sorvico airporls, lypicaIIy by accommodaling ligl voIumos
of gonoraI avialion aclivily villin a molropoIilan aroa and accom-
modaling commorciaI sorvico oporalions vlon llo noarby commor-
ciaI sorvico airporl is cIosod or ollorviso cannol accommodalo
normaI oporalions. Airporls aro lypicaIIy givon roIiovor slalus if lloy
-
383
Primary
139
Commercial
Service
270
Reliever
2,564
General
Aviation
3,356 Existing
3,254 Public Owned
102 Private Owned
3,411
NPIAS Airports
(Of the 5,190 existing public use
airports, 65% are NPAS)
55 Proposed
3
Primary
6
Commercial
Service
2
Reliever
44
General
Aviation
-

aro Iocalod villin an SMSA of popuIalion of al Ioasl 5,000,000 or


vloro passongor onpIanomonls oxcood 250,000 annuaIIy. In addilion,
llo airporl musl lavo al Ioasl 100 aircrafl basod al llo fioId or landIo
al Ioasl 25,000 ilinoranl oporalions annuaIIy. RoIiovor airporls,
aIllougl nol sorving roguIar commorciaI sorvico oporalions, aro
among llo busiosl airporls in llo Unilod Slalos.
WliIo mosl of llo airporls in llo Unilod Slalos aro privaloIy
ovnod and oporalod, llo majorily of pubIic uso airporls aro in facl
pubIicIy ovnod. IubIic uso airporls, and commorciaI sorvico airporls
in parlicuIar, aro lypicaIIy ovnod and oporalod by IocaI municipaIi-
lios, counlios, slalos, or somo pubIic aullorily lypicaIIy ovorsoon
by roprosonlalivos from a combinalion of IocaI and rogionaI jurisdic-
lions. Tloro aro a fov pubIic uso airporls llal aro oporalod by privalo
airporl managomonl companios bul raroIy do privalo firms acluaIIy
ovn llo proporly on vlicl llo airporl is Iocalod. As sucl, in llo
Unilod Slalos, mosl pIanning and dosign programs al civiI pubIic uso
airporls musl go llrougl oxlonsivo govornmonlaI procossos for uIli-
malo approvaI and oflon funding supporl.
WliIo llo Unilod Slalos las by far llo groalosl numbor of com-
morciaI sorvico and gonoraI avialion airporls in llo vorId, many of
llo vorIds Iargosl and mosl imporlanl airporls aro Iocalod aII ovor
llo gIobo. TabIo 1-6 Iisls llo vorIds busiosl airporls.
- --

-


-

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-

-

-
-


-

-
-

-
-

-
-


A
i
r
p
o
r
l
s

C
o
u
n
c
i
I

I
n
l
o
r
n
a
l
i
o
n
a
I
.

-
-

-
-

-
-

Conlrary lo llo ovnorslip slrucluros in llo Unilod Slalos, airporls


vorIdvido lavo lradilionaIIy boon ovnod and oporalod by lloir
rospoclivo fodoraI govornmonls llrougl lloir minislrios of lransporl,
lovovor many aro incroasingIy bocoming privalizod lo oporalo as for-
profil businoss onlilios.
- -
Boll in llo Unilod Slalos and inlornalionaIIy, IogisIalivo aclions laIon
by fodoraI and slalo govornmonls lavo lad a profound impacl on llo
grovll of civiI avialion and llo pIanning and dosign of ils airporls.
As oarIy as 1911, llo Iosl Offico Doparlmonl slovod an inlorosl
in civiI avialion, parlicuIarIy llo lransporlalion of maiI by air, and
from llon on llo doparlmonl did mucl lo oncourago civiI avialion.
Allompls lo oblain fodoraI approprialions for air-maiI bogan in 1912
bul mol vill IillIo succoss unliI 1916, vlon an approprialion for
oxporimonlaI purposos vas mado. In 1918, llo firsl air-maiI roulo in
llo Unilod Slalos vas oslabIislod bolvoon Waslinglon, D.C. and
Nov YorI Cily. Al llo slarl of llis sorvico llo fIying oporalions voro
conduclod by llo War Doparlmonl bul Ialor llal yoar llo Iosl Offico
Doparlmonl looI ovor llo onliro oporalion vill ils ovn oquipmonl
and piIols. Sorvico vas inauguralod bolvoon Nov YorI Cily and
Clicago in 1919 and vas oxlondod lo San Irancisco in 1920.
Tlo Iosl Offico Doparlmonl, laving domonslralod llo praclicaI-
ily of moving maiI by air, dosirod lo lurn ovor llo oporalion lo privalo
onlorpriso. By 1925, llo dovoIopmonl vorI of llo govornmonl lad
roaclod a slago vloro privalo oporalion soomod foasibIo. Accord-
ingIy, IogisIalion pormilling llo Iosl Offico Doparlmonl lo conlracl
vill privalo oporalors for llo carriago of maiI by air vas providod by
llo Air MaiI Acl of 1925 (KoIIy Acl). Hovovor, il vas nol unliI 1926
llal a numbor of conlracl roulos voro oponod. Somo of llo oarIy con-
lraclors voro llo Iord Molor Company, Booing Air Transporl (prod-
ocossor of Unilod AirIinos), and NalionaI Air Transporl.

Tlo firsl yoar of llo carriago of maiI aIso sav llo passago of llo firsl
fodoraI Iav doaIing vill air commorco, llo Air Commorco Acl of 1926
(IubIic Iav 64-254). AIllougl llis Iav providod roguIalory moas-
uros, il did moro lo aid and oncourago civiI avialion llan lo roguIalo.
Tlo principaI provisions of llis acl voro as foIIovs:
1. AII aircrafl ovnod by Unilod Slalos cilizons oporaling in
common-carrior sorvico or in connoclion vill any businoss
musl bo rogislorod.
2. AII aircrafl musl bo corlificalod and oporalod by corlifiod
airmon.


3. Aullorily vas givon lo llo Socrolary of Commorco lo oslab-
Iisl air lraffic ruIos.
4. Tlo Socrolary of Commorco vas aullorizod lo oslabIisl,
oporalo, and mainlain Iigllod civiI airvays.
In drafling llo IogisIalion, Congross roIiod considorabIy upon llo
procodonls in marilimo Iav. An anaIogy vas uliIizod bolvoon llo roIo
of llo govornmonl in mooling valor navigalion noods and llo roIo of
llo govornmonl in air navigalion. In valor navigalion lloso sorvicos
incIudod llo signing, Iiglling, and marIing of clannoIs, safoly inspoc-
lion of slips and oporaling porsonnoI, assislanco in llo dovoIopmonl
and improvomonl of porls and valorvays, and Iavs concorning llo
oporalions of llo induslry. Tlo provision of docIs and lorminaI faciI-
ilios voro llo rosponsibiIily of IocaI govornmonl or llo privalo soclor
of llo oconomy. Tloroforo, llo IogisIalion vas adoplod in sucl a
framovorI vlicl loId llal airporls voro anaIogous lo llo docIs of
valorborno lransporlalion |30].
Undor llo Air Commorco Acl, conlroI of air lransporlalion vas
dividod among sovoraI govornmonl agoncios. Tlo air-maiI conlracls
voro Iol by llo Iosl Offico Doparlmonl, air-maiI ralos voro subjocl lo
roguIalion by llo Inlorslalo Commorco Commission, and mallors
laving lo do vill rogislralion, corlificalion, and airvays voro voslod
in llo Buroau of Air Commorco in llo Doparlmonl of Commorco. Tlo
rosuIl of llis dividod jurisdiclion vas a IacI of coordinalion in llo
offorls of govornmonl lo dovoIop llo air lransporlalion induslry. In
addilion, llo Acl spocificaIIy prolibilod any dirocl fodoraI funding
for airporl dovoIopmonl.
-
Tlo Air Commorco Acl of 1926 lad boon passod boforo llo carriago
of maiI and passongors lad dovoIopod inlo a subslanliaI businoss
onlorpriso. Tlo faiIuro of llis IogisIalion lo provido adoqualo oco-
nomic conlroI Iod lo vaslofuI and doslruclivo compolilivo praclicos.
Tlo carriors lad IillIo socurily in lloir roulos and lloroforo couId nol
allracl privalo invoslors and dovoIop lraffic voIumos sufficionl lo
acliovo oconomic slabiIily. Tloso parlicuIar voaInossos in llo oxisl-
ing IogisIalion Iod lo llo onaclmonl of llo CiviI Aoronaulics Acl of
1938 (IubIic Iav 76-706). Tlis acl dofinod in a prociso mannor llo
roIo of llo fodoraI govornmonl in rospocl lo llo oconomic plasos of
air lransporl. Il croalod ono indopondonl agoncy lo foslor and rogu-
Ialo air lransporl in Iiou of llo llroo agoncios oporaling undor llo Air
Commorco Acl. Tlis nov agoncy vas caIIod llo CiviI Aoronaulics
Aullorily (nol lo bo confusod vill llo CiviI Aoronaulics Adminis-
lralion). Il consislod of a fivo-mombor aullorily, a llroo-mombor air
safoly board, and an adminislralor. Tlo fivo-mombor aullorily vas
principaIIy concornod vill llo oconomic roguIalion of air carriors,
-

llo safoly board vas an indopondonl body for llo invosligalion of


accidonls, and llo concorns of llo adminislralor doaIl primariIy vill
conslruclion, oporalion, and mainlonanco of llo airvays.
During llo firsl yoar and a laIf of ils oxislonco a numbor of
organizalionaI difficuIlios aroso villin llo CiviI Aoronaulics Aullorily.
As a rosuIl, Irosidonl IranIIin D. RoosovoIl, acling villin llo aullor-
ily granlod lo lim in llo Roorganizalion Acl of 1939 (55 Slal. 561),
roorganizod llo CiviI Aoronaulics Aullorily and croalod lvo sopa-
ralo agoncios, llo CiviI Aoronaulics Board and llo CiviI Aoronaulics
Adminislralion. Tlo fivo-mombor aullorily romainod as an indo-
pondonl agoncy and bocamo Inovn as llo CiviI Aoronaulics Board,
llo Air Safoly Board vas aboIislod and ils funclions givon lo llo
CiviI Aoronaulics Board, and llo adminislralor bocamo llo load of
an agoncy villin llo Doparlmonl of Commorco Inovn as llo CiviI
Aoronaulics Adminislralion (CAA). Tlo dulios of llo originaI fivo-
mombor aullorily voro unclangod, oxcopl llal corlain rosponsi-
biIilios, sucl as accidonl invosligalion, voro addod bocauso of llo
aboIilion of llo Air Safoly Board. Tlo adminislralor, in addilion lo
rolaining llo funclions of suporvising conslruclion, mainlonanco,
and oporalion of llo airvays, vas roquirod lo undorlaIo llo admin-
islralion and onforcomonl of safoly roguIalions and llo adminislra-
lion of llo Iavs vill rogard lo aircrafl oporalion. SubsoquonlIy,
llo adminislralor bocamo diroclIy rosponsibIo lo llo Socrolary of
Commorco (1950).
Tlo CiviI Aoronaulics Acl, IiIo ils prodocossor llo Air Commorco
Acl, aullorizod llo fodoraI govornmonl lo oslabIisl, oporalo, and
mainlain llo airvays, bul again, aullorizalion for aclivoIy aiding air-
porl dovoIopmonl vas IacIing. Tlo acl, lovovor, aullorizod llo
oxpondiluro of fodoraI funds for llo conslruclion of Ianding aroas
providod llo adminislralor corlifiod llal sucl Ianding aroa vas roa-
sonabIy nocossary for uso in air commorco or in llo inlorosls of
nalionaI dofonso. Tlo acl aIso diroclod llo adminislralor lo maIo a
survoy of airporl noods in llo Unilod Slalos and roporl lo Congross
aboul llo dosirabiIily of fodoraI parlicipalion and llo oxlonl lo vlicl
llo fodoraI govornmonl slouId parlicipalo.
In accordanco vill llo roquiromonls of llo Acl, llo CiviI
Aoronaulics Aullorily conduclod a dolaiIod survoy of llo airporl
noods of llo nalion. An advisory commilloo vas appoinlod, com-
posod of roprosonlalivos of inloroslod fodoraI agoncios (boll miIilary
and civiI), slalo avialion officiaIs, airporl managors, airIino roprosonl-
alivos, and ollors. A roporl vas submillod lo Congross on Marcl 23,
1939 (Houso Documonl 245, 76ll Congross, 1sl Sossion). Somo of llo
moro imporlanl rocommondalions in llis roporl voro as foIIovs:
1. DovoIopmonl and mainlonanco of an adoqualo syslom of air-
porls and soapIano basos slouId bo rocognizod in principIo as
a mallor of nalionaI concorn.


2. Sucl a syslom slouId bo rogardod, undor corlain condilions,
as a propor objocl of fodoraI oxpondiluro.
3. In passing upon appIicalions for fodoraI oxpondiluro on air-
porl dovoIopmonl or improvomonl, llo liglosl proforonco
slouId bo givon lo airporls vlicl aro imporlanl lo llo main-
lonanco of safo and officionl oporalion of air lransporlalion
aIong llo major lrado roulos of llo nalion, and lo lloso ron-
doring spociaI sorvico lo llo nalionaI dofonso.
4. Al sucl limos as llo nalionaI poIicy incIudos llo maIing of
granls lo IocaI unils of govornmonl for pubIic-vorIs purposos,
or any vorI-roIiof aclivily, a proporlion of llo funds invoIvod
slouId bo aIIocalod lo airporl purposos. Sucl purposos slouId
bo givon proforonco as rondoring an imporlanl sorvico lo llo
IocaIilios concornod and al llo samo limo boing of parlicuIar
imporlanco lo llo nalions commorco and dofonso.
5. Wlonovor omorgoncy pubIic-vorIs programs may bo lormi-
nalod, or vlon sucl programs may bo curlaiIod lo a dogroo nol
onabIing adoqualo airporl dovoIopmonl lo conlinuo, or vlon
llo Congross for ollor roasons may dolormino fodoraI assis-
lanco for airporls slouId bo conlinuod llrougl annuaI appro-
prialions for llal purposo, basod upon annuaI roporls vlicl
slouId incIudo a roviov of llo gonoraI slalus of llo nalions
airporl syslom and of llo vorI roconlIy dono or curronlIy in
courso of boing dono, and rocommondalions for fuluro vorI in
llo inlorosl of dovoIoping and mainlaining a syslom adoqualo
lo nalionaI noods, oxpondiluros al lloso poriods slouId bo Iim-
ilod lo projocls of oxcoplionaI nalionaI inlorosl.
6. In connoclion vill sucl pubIic-vorIs or vorI-roIiof pro-
grams as normaIIy invoIvo joinl conlribulions by llo fodoraI
govornmonl and by IocaI govornmonl, lloro slouId bo a
provision of suppIomonlary funds lo onabIo llo fodoraI
govornmonl lo incroaso ils slaro of llo lolaI oxponso, in
any proporlion juslifiod by llo imporlanco of llo projocl.
7. AII appIicalions for fodoraI airporl granls from sucl a suppIo-
monlary approprialion slouId bo prosonlod llrougl agoncios
of slalo govornmonl.
8. In dociding upon llo visdom and proprioly of granling any
sucl appIicalions, and llo priorily llal slouId bo givon lo llom,
considoralion slouId bo givon lo llo aoronaulicaI poIicy of llo
slalo in quoslion, vill roforonco lo sucl mallors as llo slalos
poIicy in prolocling llo approaclos lo airporls, llo slalos poIicy
in rospocl lo llo ompIoymonl of any laxos coIIoclod on llo fuoI
usod in aircrafl, and any moasuros laIon by llo slalo lo insuro
llo propor mainlonanco of airporls and llo mainlonanco of roa-
sonabIo clargos for llo sorvicos givon llom.
-

9. Tlo dolaiIod pIans for llo Iocalion and dovoIopmonl of any


airporl vill rospocl lo vlicl lloro is fodoraI conlribulion of
any Iind, slouId bo subjocl lo llo approvaI of llo fodoraI
agoncy clargod vill llo oslabIislmonl of civiI airvays, Iand-
ing aroas, and nocossary air navigalion faciIilios.
10. Tloro slouId bo no dirocl fodoraI conlribulion lo llo cosl of
mainlaining airporls, ollor llan fodoraI airporls, oxcopl llal
llo adminislralor of llo CiviI Aoronaulics Aullorily may, in
accordanco vill llo CiviI Aoronaulics Acl and so far as avaiI-
abIo funds pormil, assumo llo cosl of oporaling any Iiglling
oquipmonl and ollor air navigalion faciIily as a parl of llo
cosl of oporalion of llo fodoraI airvays syslom.
Tlo airporl survoy submillod in 1939 vas updalod vill nov
sludios compIolod in 1940. Conlinuing sludios voro mado llrougl
llo var yoars. WliIo firsl imporlanco vas allaclod lo llo miIilary
roquiromonls, caro vas laIon vlonovor possibIo lo anlicipalo llo
noods of poslvar civiI avialion. During llo var yoars llo fodoraI gov-
ornmonl, llrougl llo CAA, sponl $353 miIIion for llo dovoIopmonl
of miIilary Ianding aroas in llo conlinonlaI Unilod Slalos. Tlis doos
nol incIudo funds sponl by llo miIilary agoncios. During llo samo
poriod llo CAA sponl $9.5 miIIion for llo dovoIopmonl of Ianding
aroas in llo Unilod Slalos soIoIy for civiI purposos.

Al llo ond of WorId War II, ovor 500 airporls conslruclod for llo
miIilary by llo CAA voro docIarod surpIus and voro lurnod ovor lo
cilios, counlios, and slalos for airporl uso. Tlo inlorosl in adoqualo
airporl faciIilios by various poIilicaI subdivisions of govornmonl
conlinuod. Tlo noods voro mado Inovn lo Congross by various
inlorosls. As a rosuIl, llo Houso of Roprosonlalivos passod a rosoIu-
lion (H.R. 598, 78ll Congross) dirocling llo CAA lo maIo a survoy of
nood for a syslom of airporls and Ianding aroas llrougloul llo
Unilod Slalos and roporl bacI lo Congross.
Tlo rosuIls of llis survoy voro compIolod in 1944 (Houso Docu-
monl 807, 78ll Congross, 2nd Sossion) and conlainod llo foIIoving
principaI rocommondalions:
1. Tlal Congross aullorizo an approprialion lo llo Offico of llo
Adminislralor of CiviI Aoronaulics nol lo oxcood $100 miIIion
annuaIIy lo bo usod in a program of fodoraI aid lo pubIic
agoncios for llo dovoIopmonl of a nalionvido syslom of
pubIic airporls adoqualo lo mool llo prosonl and immodialo
fuluro noods of civiI aoronaulics. Tlo adminislralor bo
aullorizod lo aIIocalo sucl funds for any conslruclion vorI
invoIvod in conslrucling, improving, or ropairing an airporl,
incIuding llo conslruclion, aIloralion, and ropair of airporl


buiIdings ollor llan langars, and llo romovaI, Iovoring,
marIing, and Iiglling of airporl obslruclions, for llo acqui-
silion of any Iands or proporly inlorosl nocossary oillor for
any sucl conslruclion or lo prolocl airporl approaclos, for
maIing fioId and spocificalions, suporvising and inspocling
conslruclion vorI, and for any nocossary fodoraI oxponsos
in llo adminislralion of llis program.
2. Tlal sucl a program can bo conduclod in cooporalion vill
llo slalo and ollor nonfodoraI pubIic agoncios on a basis lo bo
dolorminod by llo Congross. Tlal llo fodoraI conlribulion bo
dolorminod by llo Congross in passing llo nocossary onabIing
IogisIalion. A good procodonl for llo proporlionalo slaring of
cosls oxisls in llo pubIic-roads program vlicl las oporalod
salisfacloriIy for many yoars on a 50-50 basis.
3. Tlal any projocl for vlicl fodoraI aid is roquoslod musl mool
vill llo approvaI of llo adminislralor of CiviI Aoronaulics as
lo scopo of dovoIopmonl and cosl, conform lo CiviI Aoronau-
lics Adminislralion slandards for Iocalion, Iayoul, grading,
drainago, paving, and Iiglling and aII vorI lloroon bo sub-
jocl lo llo inspoclion and approvaI of llo CiviI Aoronaulics
Adminislralion.
4. In ordor lo parlicipalo in llo fodoraI-aid program, a slalo slaII
a. IslabIisl and ompovor an officiaI body oquippod lo con-
ducl ils slaro of llo program.
b. Havo IogisIalion adoqualo for llo cIoaring and proloclion
of airporl approaclos, and sucl ollor IogisIalion as may
bo nocossary lo vosl in ils poIilicaI subdivisions aII povors
nocossary lo onabIo llom lo parlicipalo llrougl llo slalo
as sponsors of airporl projocls.
c. Havo no spociaI lax on avialion faciIilios, fuoI, oporalions,
or businossos, llo procoods of vlicl aro nol usod onliroIy
for avialion purposos.
d. Insuro llo oporalion of aII pubIic airporls pubIic inlorosl,
villoul unjusl discriminalion or unroasonabIo clargos.
o. Insuro llo propor oporalion and mainlonanco of aII pubIic
airporls villin ils jurisdiclion.
f. MaIo airporls dovoIopod vill fodoraI aid avaiIabIo for
unroslriclod uso by Unilod Slalos govornmonl aircrafl
villoul clargo ollor llan an amounl sufficionl lo covor
llo cosl of ropairing damago dono by sucl aircrafl.
g. Roquiro llo inslaIIalion al aII airporls for vlicl fodoraI
funds lavo boon providod for a slandard accounling and
fiscaI roporling syslom salisfaclory lo llo adminislralor.
-

5. Tlal sponsors of projocls bo roquirod lo onlor inlo conlracls


vill llo CiviI Aoronaulics Adminislralion onsuring llo
propor mainlonanco and proloclion of airporls dovoIopod
vill fodoraI aid and lloir oporalion in llo pubIic inlorosl.
Tlo rocommondalions conlainod in llo airporl noods survoy
roporl voro vrillon inlo an airporl dovoIopmonl biII, inlroducod inlo
llo Houso of Roprosonlalivos (H.R. 5024) bul no aclion vas laIon on
il. Aflor oxlonsivo loarings in boll lousos of Congross, llo Sonalo
passod an airporl biII (S. 2) in 1945 and Ialor llal yoar llo Houso
passod a biII (H.R. 3615). Tlo Ianguago in lloso lvo biIIs difforod in
sovoraI rospocls. Ono of llo principaI difforoncos vas llo mollod
ompIoyod in clannoIing funds lo llo municipaIilios. Tlo Sonalo biII
providod llal funds bo clannoIod lo llo municipaIilios llrougl
approprialo slalo avialion organizalions unIoss a slalo did nol lavo
an approprialo agoncy lo landIo llo mallor. Tlo Houso biII pormillod
clannoIing of funds oillor llrougl llo slalo or diroclIy lo a munici-
paIily or ollor poIilicaI subdivision of govornmonl. Tlo subslilulo
biII agrood lo in conforonco conformod moro noarIy lo llo Houso Ian-
guago. Anollor difforonco lad lo do vill llo sizo of llo discrolionary
fund, vlicl, insload of boing apporlionod among llo slalos by a fixod
formuIa, vouId bo avaiIabIo for uso by llo adminislralor al lis soIo
dolorminalion. Tlo Houso biII providod 25 porconl of llo lolaI appro-
prialion for airporl dovoIopmonl as a discrolionary fund, llo Sonalo
biII 35 porconl. Tlo compromiso roaclod in conforonco rolainod llo
Houso vorsion. Ollor difforoncos vlicl voro vorIod oul in confor-
onco concornod vlollor or nol llo cosls of llo acquisilion of Iand and
inlorosl in airspaco slouId bo oIigibIo for fodoraI aid, projocl sponsor-
slip roquiromonls, and llo roimbursomonl for damago lo pubIic air-
porls causod by fodoraI agoncios.
Tlo conforonco roporl vas approvod by llo Congross and llo
IodoraI Airporl Acl of 1946 vas onaclod (IubIic Iav 79-377). Knovn
as llo IodoraI Airporl-Aid Irogram, approprialions of $500 miIIion
ovor a 7-yoar poriod voro aullorizod for projocls villin llo Unilod
Slalos pIus $20 miIIion for projocls in AIasIa, Havaii, Iuorlo Rico,
and llo Virgin IsIands. In I950, llo 7-yoar poriod vas oxlondod an
addilionaI 5 yoars (IubIic Iav 81-846). Hovovor, annuaI appropria-
lions approvod by Congross voro mucl Ioss llan llo amounls aullor-
izod by llo acl.
Tlo originaI acl providod llal a projocl slaII nol bo approvod for
fodoraI aid unIoss sufficionl funds aro avaiIabIo for llal porlion of
llo projocl vlicl is nol lo bo paid by llo Unilod Slalos.
IocaI govornmonls oflon roquirod 2 lo 3 yoars lo maIo arrango-
monls for raising funds. Mosl of llo Iargor projocls aro financod
IocaIIy llrougl llo saIo of bonds. Tlis mollod of financing roquiros
IogisIalion al llo IocaI IovoI and, in somo casos, aIso al llo slalo IovoI.
GonoraI obIigalion bonds normaIIy roquiro approvaI by llo oIocloralo.


Irograms lo inform llo pubIic on llo noods for airporl improvomonl
musl bo carofuIIy pIannod and oxoculod. Tlus, aflor llo compIolion
of lloso ovonls, IocaI govornmonls froquonlIy found llal sufficionl
fodoraI funds voro nol approprialod lo malcl IocaI funds, and llo
projocls voro doIayod. Anollor compIainl of IocaI govornmonls lad
boon llal Congross faiIod lo fuIfiII ils obIigalion, sinco llo amounl
approprialod by Congross foII far slorl of llo amounl aullorizod by
llo IodoraI Airporl Acl. Tloso doficioncios as voII as ollor mallors
voro incorporalod in a biII (S. I855). Hoarings on llo biII voro loId
boforo llo subcommilloo of llo Commilloo on Inlorslalo and Ioroign
Commorco of llo Unilod Slalos Sonalo in I955. Roprosonlalivos of llo
CounciI of Slalo Govornmonls, llo Amorican MunicipaI Associalion, llo
NalionaI Associalion of Slalo Avialion OfficiaIs, airporl and induslry
lrado associalions, and individuaIs voro unanimous in llo fooIing
llal air lransporlalion lad roaclod a slago of malurily vloro many
airporls voro voofuIIy inadoqualo and groalor financiaI assislanco
from llo fodoraI govornmonl vouId bo roquirod lo mool llo curronl
noods of avialion. Aflor mucl dobalo, llo biII vas approvod by llo
Irosidonl (IubIic Iav 84-211).
Tlis amonding acl mado no clango in llo basic poIicios and pur-
posos oxprossod in llo originaI acl. Tloro voro no clangos in llo
roquiromonls vill rospocl lo llo adminislralion of llo granls aullor-
izod, sucl as llo dislribulion and apporlionmonl of funds, llo oIigi-
biIily of llo various lypos of airporl conslruclion, sponsorslip
roquiromonls, olc. Tlo primary purposo of llo acl vas lo subslilulo
for llo procoduro of aullorizing annuaI approprialions for airporl
projocls, provisions granling subslanliaI annuaI conlracl aulloriza-
lion in spocific amounls ovor a poriod of four fiscaI yoars. Airporl
sponsors voro llus furnislod assuranco llal fodoraI funds vouId bo
avaiIabIo al llo limo projocls voro lo bo undorlaIon.
Tlis Iav providod $40 miIIion for fiscaI yoar I956 and $60 miIIion
for oacl of fiscaI yoars I957, I958, and I959 for airporl conslruclion in
llo conlinonlaI Unilod Slalos. Il aIso providod $2.5 miIIion in fiscaI
yoar I956 and $3 miIIion for llo llroo succooding fiscaI yoars for air-
porl conslruclion in AIasIa, Havaii, Iuorlo Rico, and llo Virgin
IsIands. Bosidos llo $42.5 miIIion mado avaiIabIo in fiscaI yoar I956 by
IubIic Iav 84-2II, Congross approvod an addilionaI approprialion of
$20 miIIion for airporl projocls.

Ior a numbor of yoars lloro lad boon a groving concorn aboul llo
division of rosponsibiIily in avialion mallors among difforonl agon-
cios of llo fodoraI govornmonl. UnIiIo liglvay or ollor forms of
lransporl, avialion is uniquo in ils roIalion lo llo fodoraI govornmonl.
Il vas lisloricaIIy llo onIy modo vloso oporalions aro conduclod
aImosl vloIIy villin fodoraI jurisdiclion, and ono subjocl lo IillIo or
-

no roguIalion by slalos or IocaI aullorilios. Tlus, llo fodoraI govorn-


monl boars virluaIIy compIolo rosponsibiIily for llo promolion and
suporvision of llo induslry in llo pubIic inlorosl. Tlo miIilary inlor-
osl and llo onliro nalionaI dofonso concopl aro aIso inlimaloIy roIalod
lo avialion.
Rocognizing llal llo domands on llo fodoraI govornmonl in llo
yoars aload vouId bo subslanliaI, llo diroclor of llo Buroau of llo
Budgol roquoslod a roviov of avialion-faciIilios probIoms in 1955. A
roporl vas issuod Ialor llal yoar rocommonding llal a sludy of Iong-
rango noods for avialion faciIilios and aids bo undorlaIon and llal
sucl a sludy bo mado undor llo diroclion of an individuaI of nalionaI
ropulalion.
Irosidonl Dvigll D. Iisonlovor accoplod lloso rocommonda-
lions and appoinlod Idvard I. Curlis as lis SpociaI Assislanl for
Avialion Mallors in 1957. Curlis vas clargod vill llo rosponsibiIily
of proparing a comprolonsivo avialion-faciIilios pIan vlicl vouId
provido llo basis for llo limoIy inslaIIalion of loclnicaIIy adoqualo
aids, for oplimum coordinalion of llo offorls of llo civiI and miIilary
doparlmonls, and for offoclivo parlicipalion by slalo and IocaI aullor-
ilios and llo aircrafl oporalors in mooling faciIilios roquiromonls.
Curlis compIolod lis roporl and submillod il lo llo Irosidonl. In llis
roporl Curlis slalod llal il las bocomo ovidonl llal llo fundamonlaI
roason for our provious faiIuros Iios vill llo inabiIily of our govorn-
monlaI organizalions lo Ioop paco vill llo lromondous grovll in
privalo, commorciaI, and miIilary avialion vlicl las occurrod in llo
Iasl 20 yoars. Curlis rocommondod llo consoIidalion of aII avialion
funclions, ollor llan miIilary, inlo ono indopondonl agoncy rosponsi-
bIo onIy lo llo Irosidonl. Hovovor, llo roporl rocognizod llal lo
dovoIop nov managomonl slrucluros and poIicy, lo coordinalo pro-
posaIs villin llo oxoculivo brancl and lo oblain IogisIalion impIo-
monling a nov pormanonl organizalion migll bo as Iong as 2 or
3 yoars. Tlo mosl urgonl mallor roquiring allonlion vas in llo aroa
of air lraffic conlroI. Tlo coIIision of lvo aircrafl ovor llo Grand
Canyon in 1956 providod llo impolus for rapid IogisIalivo aclion for
romodying midair coIIisions. Curlis rocommondod llal, as an inlorim
moasuro, lloro bo croalod an Airvays Modornizalion Board vloso
funclion vas lo dovoIop, modify, losl, and ovaIualo sysloms, proco-
duros, faciIilios, and dovicos, as voII as dofino llo porformanco clar-
aclorislics lloroof, lo mool llo noods for safo and officionl navigalion
and lraffic conlroI of aII civiI and miIilary avialion oxcopl for lloso
noods of miIilary agoncios vlicl aro pocuIiar lo air varfaro and pri-
mariIy of miIilary concorn, and soIocl sucl sysloms, procoduros, faciI-
ilios, and dovicos vlicl viII bosl sorvo sucl noods and viII promolo
maximum coordinalion of air lraffic conlroI and air dofonso sysloms.
Tlo board vas lo consisl of llo Socrolary of Commorco, llo Socrolary
of Dofonso, and an indopondonl clairman.


Congross vas rocoplivo lo llis rocommondalion and passod llo
Airvays Modornizalion Acl of 1957 (IubIic Iav 85-133) oslabIisling
llo board for a 3-yoar lorm.
In llo moanlimo, lloro voro moro midair coIIisions and roporls of
noar missos voro givon vido circuIalion. CoslIy disagroomonls
bolvoon llo CAA and llo miIilary on llo lypo of navigalionaI aids lo
bo usod on llo airvays no doubl aIso spurrod CongrossionaI aclion.
As a rosuIl, insload of laIing 2 or 3 yoars lo croalo a singIo avialion
agoncy as vas prodiclod, llo Congross aclod favorabIy on llo IogisIa-
lion villin a yoar of llo passago of llo Airvays Modornizalion Acl.
Tlis IogisIalion is Inovn as llo IodoraI Avialion Acl of 1958 (IubIic
Iav 85-726). Tlis Iav suporsodod llo CiviI Aoronaulics Acl of 1938
bul nol llo IodoraI Airporl Acl of 1946.
Tlo principaI provisions of llo Iav insofar as organizalionaI
clangos voro concornod aro as foIIovs:
1. Tlo IodoraI Avialion Agoncy vas croalod as an indopondonl
agoncy vill an adminislralor diroclIy rosponsibIo lo llo
Irosidonl. Tlo agoncy incorporalod llo funclions of llo CiviI
Aoronaulics Adminislralion and llo Airvays Modornizalion
Board, boll of vlicl voro aboIislod.
2. Tlo CiviI Aoronaulics Board vas rolainod as an indopon-
donl agoncy incIuding aII ils funclions oxcopl ils safoly
ruIo-maIing povors, vlicl voro lransforrod lo llo IodoraI
Avialion Agoncy.
-
Ior many yoars il lad boon arguod llal lloro lad boon a proIiforalion of
fodoraI aclivilios vill rogard lo lransporlalion. Ior oxampIo, llo Buroau
of IubIic Roads vas parl of llo Doparlmonl of Commorco vloroas llo
IodoraI Avialion Agoncy vas an indopondonl agoncy. Il vas foIl by dif-
foronl lransporl inlorosls llal lloro vas a IacI of coordinalion and offoc-
livo adminislralion of llo lransporlalion programs of llo fodoraI gov-
ornmonl rosuIling in a IacI of a sound nalionaI lransporlalion poIicy. Il
is inlorosling lo nolo llal llo firsl IogisIalivo proposaI in llis diroclion
dalos bacI lo 1874. Hovovor, in roconl yoars, llo invoIvomonl of llo
fodoraI govornmonl in llo dovoIopmonl of llo lransporlalion sysloms
of llo nalion las boon onormous, roquiring mucl moro coordinalion
among fodoraI lransporl aclivilios llan ovor boforo. Will llis as a bacI-
ground, a Cabinol-IovoI Doparlmonl of Transporlalion (DOT) vas cro-
alod loadod by llo Socrolary of Transporlalion (IubIic Iav 89-670). Tlo
doparlmonl bogan lo funclion on ApriI 1, 1967.
Tlo agoncios and funclions lransforrod lo llo Doparlmonl of
Transporlalion roIalod lo air lransporlalion incIudod llo IodoraI
Avialion Agoncy in ils onliroly and llo safoly funclions of llo CiviI
-

Aoronaulics Board, incIuding llo rosponsibiIily for invosligaling and


dolormining llo probabIo causo of aircrafl accidonls, and ils appoIIalo
safoly funclions invoIving roviov on appoaI of llo susponsion, modi-
ficalion, or doniaI of corlificalos or Iiconsos. Tlo namo of llo IodoraI
Avialion Agoncy vas clangod lo llo IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion
(IAA). Tlo adminislralor is sliII appoinlod by llo Irosidonl bul
roporls diroclIy lo llo Socrolary of Transporlalion.
A NalionaI Transporlalion Safoly Board (NTSB) vas oslabIislod
by llo samo acl vlicl croalod llo Doparlmonl of Transporlalion lo
dolormino llo causo or probabIo causo of lransporlalion accidonls
and roporling llo facls, condilions, and circumslancos roIaling lo
sucl accidonls for aII modos of lransporlalion. AIllougl croalod
by llo acl vlicl oslabIislod llo DOT, llo board in carrying oul ils
funclions is indopondonl of llo socrolary and ollor officos and offic-
ors of llo doparlmonl. Tlo board consisls of fivo mombors appoinlod
by llo Irosidonl and annuaIIy roporls diroclIy lo Congross.
Tlo croalion of llo DOT did nol aIlor any IogisIalion in llo IodoraI
Avialion Acl of 1958, vill llo oxcoplion of llo lransfor of llo safoly func-
lions from llo CiviI Aoronaulics Board lo llo NalionaI Transporlalion
Safoly Board. In llo acl of oslabIisling llo nov doparlmonl, lovovor,
lloro vas a slalulory roquiromonl lo oslabIisl an Offico of Noiso Abalo-
monl lo provido poIicy guidanco vill rospocl lo inloragoncy aclivilios
roIalod lo llo roduclion of lransporlalion noiso. Will llo inlroduclion of
jol aircrafl in 1958 llo compIainls againsl aircrafl noiso incroasod signifi-
canlIy. As a rosuIl, in 1968 llo IodoraI Avialion Acl vas amondod by
Congross (IubIic Iav 90-411) lo roquiro noiso abalomonl roguIalions. Ils
principaI purposo vas lo oslabIisl noiso IovoIs vlicl aircrafl manufac-
lurors cannol oxcood in llo dovoIopmonl of nov aircrafl.

In llo mid-1960s, as air lraffic vas oxpanding al a fairIy rapid paco,
air lraffic doIays golling inlo and oul of major airporls bogan lo
incroaso rapidIy. AIong vill llo doIays in llo air, congoslion vas aIso
laIing pIaco on llo ground in parIing aroas, on accoss roads, and in
lorminaI buiIdings. Il vas ovidonl llal lo roduco congoslion subslan-
liaI financiaI rosourcos vouId bo roquirod for invoslmonl in airvay
and airporl improvomonls. Ior airporls aIono il vas oslimalod llal
$13 biIIion in nov capilaI improvomonls vouId bo roquirod for pubIic
airporls in llo poriod 1970 lo 1980. Tlo amounl of monoy aullorizod
by llo IodoraI Airporl Acl of 1946 vas insufficionl lo assisl in financ-
ing sucl a vasl program. Tlo normaI and anlicipalod sourcos of rov-
onuo avaiIabIo lo pubIic airporls voro aIso nol sufficionl lo raiso llo
roquirod funds for capilaI oxpondiluros. Il vas arguod llal mucl of
llo congoslion in llo air al major airporls vas duo lo a IacI of funds
lo modornizo llo airvays syslom. Iunds for airporl dovoIopmonl
camo from llo budgol of llo IAA aullorizod by Congross oacl yoar


and nol from llo IodoraI Airporl Acl. Tlo doficioncios in airporl and
airvay dovoIopmonl voro documonlod in sovoraI roporls. Il vas llo
consonsus of induslry and govornmonl llal llo onIy vay lo provido
llo funds noodod for airporls and airvays vas llrougl incroasod or
nov laxos imposod upon llo usors of llo air lransporl syslom. Il vas
aIso arguod llal llo rovonuos from lloso laxos slouId bo spocificaIIy
oarmarIod for avialion and nol go lo llo gonoraI fund. Tlo concopl of
oslabIisling a lrusl fund simiIar lo llal of llo nalionaI liglvays pro-
gram vas agrood upon. IinaIIy aflor mucl dobalo in Congross, llo
Airporl and Airvay DovoIopmonl Acl of 1970 and llo Airporl and
Airvay Rovonuo Acl of 1970 voro onaclod (IubIic Iav 91-258).
As finaIIy passod, llo acl vas dividod inlo lvo soclions: TilIo I
dolaiIod llo airporl assislanco programs and oslabIislod a financing
program for airporl granls, airvays lardvaro acquisilion, and
rosoarcl and dovoIopmonl, TilIo II croalod llo Airporl and Airvay
Trusl Iund and oslabIislod llo pallorn of avialion oxciso laxos vlicl
vouId provido llo rosourcos upon vlicl llo TilIo I capilaI programs
vouId dopond llrougl 1980. Tlo oxciso laxos adoplod consislod of a
lax on domoslic passongor licIols, a load lax on inlornalionaI pas-
songor doparluros, a fIovago lax on aII fuoI usod by gonoraI avialion,
and lax on aII air cargo vaybiIIs. In addilion, an annuaI aircrafl rogis-
lralion lax vas Ioviod on aII aircrafl (commorciaI and gonoraI avia-
lion) pIus an annuaI voigll surlax for aII aircrafl voigling in oxcoss
of 2500 Ib. IinaIIy, rovonuos from oxisling laxos on aircrafl liros and
lubos voro lransforrod from llo Higlvay Trusl Iund lo llo Airporl
and Airvay Trusl Iund.
Tlo amounl of lloso oxciso laxos voro clangod in llo Omnibus
Budgol RoconciIialion Acl of 1990 (IubIic Iav 101-508) and curronlIy
consisls of a 10 porconl lax on domoslic passongor licIols, a $6 load
lax on inlornalionaI passongor doparluros, a 17.5 conls a gaIIon fIov-
ago lax on aII fuoI usod by gonoraI avialion, and a 6.25 porconl lax on
aII air cargo vaybiIIs.
Significanl clangos from llo IodoraI Airporl Acl voro as foIIovs:
I. Tlo provision of funds lo IocaI agoncios for airporl syslom
pIanning and maslor pIanning
2. Tlo omplasis on airporls sorvod by air carriors and gonoraI
avialion airporls lo roIiovo congoslod air carrior airporls
3. Tlo provision of funds for commulor sorvico airporls
4. Tlo roquiromonl llal llo IAA issuo airporl oporaling corlifi-
calos lo onsuro llal airporls voro adoqualoIy oquippod for
safo oporalions
5. Irovision of roquiromonls lo onsuro llal airporl projocls did
nol advorsoIy affocl llo onvironmonl and voro consislonl
vill Iong-rango dovoIopmonl pIans of llo aroa in vlicl llo
projocl vas proposod
-

6. Irovision for lorminaI faciIily dovoIopmonl in non-rovonuo


producing pubIic aroas
7. Tlo roquiromonl llal llo IAA dovoIop a NalionaI Airporl
Syslom IIan (NASI)
To bo oIigibIo for fodoraI aid, airporl ovnorslip vas roquirod lo
bo voslod in a pubIic agoncy and llo airporl musl bo incIudod in llo
NASI. Tlis pIan vas roviovod and rovisod as nocossary lo Ioop il
curronl. Il vas proparod by llo IAA and submillod lo Congross by
llo Socrolary of Transporlalion. Tlo pIan spocifiod, in lorms of gon-
oraI Iocalion and lypo of dovoIopmonl, llo projocls considorod nocos-
sary lo provido a syslom of pubIic airporls adoqualo lo anlicipalo and
mool llo noods of civiI aoronaulics. Tloso projocls incIudod aII lypos
of airporl dovoIopmonl oIigibIo for fodoraI aid undor llo acl and voro
nol Iimilod lo any cIassos or calogorios of pubIic airporls. Tlo pIan
vas basod on projoclod noods ovor 5- and 10-yoar poriods.
Bocauso of llo mounling pubIic concorn for llo onlancomonl of
llo onvironmonl, llo acl spocificaIIy slalod llal aullorizod projocls
provido for llo proloclion and onlancomonl of llo naluraI rosourcos
and llo quaIily of llo onvironmonl of llo nalion. Tlo Socrolary of
Transporlalion vas roquirod lo consuIl vill llo Socrolary of llo Inlo-
rior and llo Socrolary of HoaIll, Iducalion and WoIfaro rogarding llo
offocl of corlain projocls on naluraI rosourcos and vlollor aII possi-
bIo slops lavo boon laIon lo minimizo sucl advorso offocls. Tlo Acl
roquirod llal airporl sponsors provido llo opporlunily for pubIic
loarings for llo purposo of considoring llo sociaI, oconomic, and
onvironmonlaI offocl on any projocl invoIving llo Iocalion of an air-
porl, llo Iocalion of a runvay, and a runvay oxlonsion. In addilion,
llo NalionaI InvironmonlaI IoIicy Acl of 1969 (IubIic Iav 91-190),
supporlod by a IrosidonliaI Ixoculivo Ordor (11514, Marcl 5, 1970),
roquirod llo proparalion of dolaiIod onvironmonlaI impacl slalo-
monls for aII major airporl dovoIopmonl aclions significanlIy affocl-
ing llo quaIily of llo onvironmonl. Tlo onvironmonlaI impacl slalo-
monl vas roquirod lo incIudo llo probabIo impacl of llo proposod
projocl on boll llo luman and naluraI onvironmonl, incIuding impacl
on ocoIogicaI sysloms sucl as viIdIifo, fisl, and marino Iifo, and any
probabIo advorso onvironmonlaI offocls vlicl couId nol bo avoidod
if llo projocl vas impIomonlod. Tlo Acl aIso slipuIalod llal no airporl
projocl invoIving airporl Iocalion, a major runvay oxlonsion, or run-
vay Iocalion couId bo approvod for fodoraI funding unIoss llo gov-
ornor of llo slalo in vlicl llo projocl vas Iocalod corlifiod lo llo
Socrolary of Transporlalion llal lloro vas roasonabIo assuranco llal
llo projocl vouId compIy vill appIicabIo air and valor quaIily
slandards. IinaIIy llo projocl lad lo bo consislonl vill llo pIans of
ollor agoncios for dovoIopmonl of llo aroa, and llo airporl sponsor
lad lo assuro llo govornmonl llal adoqualo lousing vas avaiIabIo
for any dispIacod poopIo. Tlo Avialion Safoly and Noiso Abalomonl


Acl of 1979 (IubIic Iav 96-193) amondod llis IogisIalion lo pIaco
incroasod omplasis on roducing llo noiso impacls of airporls. Tlus
ono of llo principaI difforoncos bolvoon llo IodoraI Airporl Aid Iro-
gram and llo Airporl DovoIopmonl Aid Irogram vas llo omplasis
on onvironmonlaI proloclion in llo Iallor.
Tlo Airporl and Airvay DovoIopmonl Acl mado no monlion con-
corning spocific slandards for dolormining airporls lo bo incIudod in
llo NalionaI Airporl Syslom IIan. Il did slalo, lovovor, llal
Tlo IIan slaII sol forll, for al Ioasl a lon-yoar poriod, llo lypo and osli-
malod cosl of an airporl dovoIopmonl considorod by llo Socrolary lo bo
nocossary lo provido a syslom of pubIic airporls adoqualo lo anlicipalo
and mool llo noods of civiI aoronaulics, lo mool llo roquiromonls in
supporl of llo nalionaI dofonso as dolorminod by llo Socrolary of
Dofonso, and lo mool llo spociaI noods of llo IoslaI Sorvico. In formu-
Ialing and rovising llo pIan, llo Socrolary slaII laIo inlo considoralion,
among ollor llings, llo roIalionslip of oacl airporl lo llo rosl of llo
lransporlalion syslom in llo parlicuIar aroa, lo llo forocaslod loclno-
IogicaI dovoIopmonls in aoronaulics, and lo dovoIopmonls forocaslod in
llo ollor modos of lransporlalion.
Will llis and ollor poIicy guidoIinos, llo IAA dovoIopod onlry
criloria vlicl doscribod a broad and baIancod airporl syslom. Tlo
1980 NASI, for oxampIo, incIudod aboul 3600 airporl Iocalions, indi-
caling llal llo fodoraI inlorosl in dovoIoping a basic airporl syslom
oxlondod voII boyond llo major airporls vill scloduIod airIino sorv-
ico. In an offorl lo provido a safo and adoqualo airporl for as many
communilios as possibIo, NASI criloria voro dovoIopod lo incIudo
llo gonoraI avialion airporls vlicl sorvo smaIIor cilios and lovns.
Tlo NASI airporl onlry criloria ovoIvod from boll poIicy and
IogisIalivo considoralions and focusod on lvo broad calogorios of air-
porls, lloso vill scloduIod sorvico and lloso villoul significanl
scloduIod sorvico in llo gonoraI avialion and roIiovor calogory. Air-
porls vill scloduIod sorvico voro incIudod in NASI bocauso of lloir
uso by llo gonoraI pubIic, IogisIalivo provisions vlicl spocificaIIy
dosignalod airporls lo rocoivo dovoIopmonl funds, and lloir uso by
CAB corlifiod carriors. Commulor airporls voro idonlifiod in NASI
slarling in 1976, vlon IogisIalion vas onaclod vlicl dosignalod llom
as a lypo of air carrior airporl and providod llom vill spociaI dovoI-
opmonl funds. Aboul 70 porconl of llo airporls in llo NASI voro
gonoraI avialion Iocalions vlicl mol llo criloria of viabiIily bocauso
of llo numbor of basod aircrafl or aircrafl aclivily, and vlicl pro-
vidod roasonabIo accoss for aircrafl ovnors and usors lo lloir com-
munily. RoIiovor airporls lavo boon incIudod as a soparalo NASI
calogory sinco llo 1960s vlon Congross dosignalod spociaI funding
for llo purposo of roIioving congoslion in Iargo molropoIilan aroas by
providing addilionaI gonoraI avialion capacily.
-


Tlo AirIino DoroguIalion Acl (IubIic Iav 95-504) vas passod by
Congross in Oclobor 1978. Tlis IogisIalion oIiminalod llo slalulory
aullorily for llo oconomic roguIalion of llo passongor airIino indus-
lry in llo Unilod Slalos. Il providod llal llo CiviI Aoronaulics Board
vouId bo aboIislod in 1985. Tlo IogisIalion vas inlondod lo incroaso
compolilion in llo passongor airIino induslry by plasing oul fodoraI
aullorily lo oxorciso roguIalory conlroIs during llo poriod of limo
bolvoon 1978 and 1985. Tlo principaI provisions of llis IogisIalion:
1. Roquirod llo CAB lo pIaco maximum roIianco on compolilion
in ils roguIalion of inlorslalo airIino sorvico, vliIo conlinuing
lo onsuro llo safoly of air lransporlalion, lo mainlain sorvico
lo smaII communilios, and lo provonl praclicos vlicl voro
doomod anlicompolilivo in naluro.
2. Roquirod CAB approvaI of airIino acquisilions, consoIida-
lions, morgors, purclasos, and oporaling conlracls, llo bur-
don lo provo llal an aclion vas anlicompolilivo in naluro vas
pIacod upon llo parly claIIonging llal aclion.
3. Iormillod carriors lo clango ralos villin a rango of roason-
abIonoss from llo slandard induslry faro villoul prior CAB
approvaI, llo CAB vas aullorizod lo disaIIov a faro clango
if il considorod llo clango prodalory.
4. Irovidod inlorslalo carriors an oxomplion from slalo roguIa-
lion of ralos and roulos.
5. Roquirod llo CAB lo aullorizo nov roulos and sorvicos llal
voro consislonl vill llo pubIic convonionco and nocossily.
6. AIIovod carriors lo bo granlod oporaling riglls lo any roulo
on vlicl onIy ono ollor carrior vas providing sorvico and on
vlicl ollor airIinos voro aullorizod lo provido sorvico bul
voro nol acluaIIy providing a minimum IovoI of sorvico. If
moro llan ono airIino vas providing sorvico on llis roulo, llo
CAB vas roquirod lo dolormino if llo granling of addilionaI
roulo aullorily vas consislonl vill llo pubIic convonionco
and nocossily boforo aIIoving addilionaI carriors lo sorvico
llo roulo. An airIino nol providing llo spocifiod minimum
IovoI of sorvico on a roulo (dormanl aullorily) couId bogin
providing sucl sorvico and rolain ils aullorily. Ollorviso,
llo CAB vas roquirod lo rovoIo llo unusod aullorily.
7. Irovidod for an aulomalic marIol onlry program, vloroby
airIinos couId bogin sorvico on ono addilionaI roulo oacl yoar
during llo poriod 1979 lo 1981 villoul formaI CAB approvaI.
Iacl carrior vas aIso pormillod lo prolocl ono of ils oxisling
roulos oacl yoar by docIaring il as inoIigibIo for aulomalic
marIol onlry by anollor airIino.


8. Aullorizod llo CAB lo ordor an airIino lo conlinuo lo pro-
vido ossonliaI air lransporlalion sorvico and, for a 10-yoar
poriod, lo provido subsidios or sooI ollor viIIing carriors lo
onsuro llo conlinualion of ossonliaI sorvico.
9. Roquirod llo CAB lo dolormino villin 1 yoar of llo onacl-
monl of llo IogisIalion vlal il considorod lo bo ossonliaI air
lransporlalion sorvico for oacl poinl boing sorvicod al llo
limo of onaclmonl of llo IogisIalion.
10. Roquirod llo CAB and llo Doparlmonl of Transporlalion lo
dolormino moclanism by vlicl llo slalo and IocaI govorn-
monls slouId slaro llo cosl of subsidios from llo fodoraI gov-
ornmonl lo prosorvo smaII communily air sorvico and lo maIo
poIicy rocommondalions lo Congross on llis mallor.
11. Ixomplod from mosl CAB roguIalion commulor aircrafl
voigling Ioss llan 18,000 Ib and carrying fovor llan
56 passongors.
12. Mado commulor and inlraslalo air carriors oIigibIo for llo
fodoraI Ioan guaranloo program.
13. Irovidod llal llo domoslic roulo aullorily of llo board
vouId coaso in 1981, ils aullorily ovor domoslic faros, acqui-
silions, and morgors vouId coaso in 1983, and llo board
vouId bo aboIislod (sunsol) in 1985.
14. Irovidod llal aflor llo board vas aboIislod, llo IocaI sorvico
carrior subsidy program vas lo bo lransforrod lo llo Doparl-
monl of Transporlalion, llo foroign air lransporlalion aullor-
ily of llo board vas lo bo lransforrod lo llo Transporlalion
and }uslico Doparlmonls, in consuIlalion vill llo Slalo
Doparlmonl, and llo maiI subsidy program vas lo bo lrans-
forrod lo llo U.S. IoslaI Sorvico.

In llo Unilod Slalos prior lo 1978, air carriors appIiod lo llo CiviI
Aoronaulics Board (CAB) for pormission lo sorvo marIols. Tlo CAB
granlod air carriors sorvico lo marIols vill a dolorminod oporaling
and faro scloduIo. Upon doroguIalion, air carriors frooIy onlorod nov
marIols, incroasing llo numbor of marIols sorvod, incroasing compo-
lilion and Iovoring ovoraII airfaros. To maximizo lloir marIol slaro in
llo induslry, sovoraI air carriors conconlralod lloir roulo slrucluros on
ono or moro lub airporls. Tlo oarIy yoars of llis lub and spoIo
roulo syslom rosuIlod in llo groalosl grovll in commorciaI avialion in
ils lislory. Tlo boginning of llo lvonly-firsl conlury oxposod many of
llo voaInossos in llo airIino lub and spoIo modoI, incIuding llo
incroasod cosls of oporaling llrougl congoslod lub airporls, incroas-
ing fuoI and ollor oporaling oxponsos, combinod vill llo abiIily for
-

llo pubIic lo uso llo Inlornol lo avoid oxlraordinariIy ligl fuII faros
lloroby roducing llo ovoraII rovonuo slroam of llo airIinos. Tlo air
carriors dopondonl on lloir lradilionaI Iogacy businoss modoIs foII
inlo sorious financiaI dislross, and combinod vill llo slorl-lorm drop
in air lravoI domand foIIoving llo lorrorisl allacIs of Soplombor 11,
2001, many foII inlo banIruplcy lo omorgo undor moro officionl busi-
noss modoIs yoars Ialor.
Tloso moro officionl businoss modoIs voro basod on llo omor-
gonco of Iov-cosl carriors or ICCs, llal oporalo primariIy on a
marIol-basod origin lo doslinalion roulo nolvorI and prico faros roI-
alivo lo oporaling cosls, rallor llan soIoIy by passongor domand. Tlo
ICC airIino modoI las boon llo Iargosl grovll sogmonl of llo domos-
lic airIino induslry in llo Unilod Slalos.

In 1982, Congross onaclod llo Airporl and Airvay Improvomonl Acl
(TilIo V of llo Tax Iquily and IiscaI RosponsibiIily Acl of 1982, IubIic
Iav 97-248). Tlis acl conlinuod lo provido funding for airporl pIan-
ning and dovoIopmonl undor a singIo program caIIod llo Airporl
Improvomonl Irogram (AII). Tlo Acl aIso aullorizod funding for
noiso compalibiIily pIanning and impIomonling noiso compalibiIily
programs conlainod in llo Noiso Abalomonl Acl of 1979 (IubIic Iav
96-193). Il roquirod llal lo bo oIigibIo for a granl llo airporl musl bo
incIudod in llo NalionaI IIan of Inlogralod Airporl Sysloms (NIIAS).
Tlo NIIAS, llo succossor lo llo NalionaI Airporl Syslom IIan
(NASI), is proparod by llo IAA and pubIislod ovory 2 yoars and
idonlifios pubIic uso airporls considorod nocossary lo provido a safo,
officionl, and inlogralod syslom of airporls lo mool llo noods of civiI
avialion, nalionaI dofonso, and llo poslaI sorvico.
Tlo Airporl and Airvay Improvomonl Acl las boon amondod
sovoraI limos rosuIling in significanl clangos in llo provisions of llo
acl and in llo approprialions aullorizod undor llo Acl. Tloso
amondmonls aro incIudod in llo Conlinuing Approprialions Acl of
1982 (IubIic Iav 97-276), llo Surfaco Transporlalion Assislanco Acl
(IubIic Iav 97-424), llo Airporl and Airvay Safoly and Capacily
Ixpansion Acl of 1987 (IubIic Iav 100-223), llo Airvay Safoly and
Capacily Ixpansion Acl of 1990 (IubIic Iav 101-508), and llo Air-
porl and Airvay Safoly, Capacily, Noiso Improvomonl and Inlormo-
daI Transporlalion Acl of 1992 (102nd Congross H.R. 6168).
Tlis IogisIalion, as amondod, significanlIy incroasod llo IovoI of
fodoraI funding for airporls lo an aggrogalo lolaI of moro llan
$14 biIIion for llo poriod from 1982 llrougl 1992.

In rosponso lo issuos concorning llo provision of Iimilod AII funds lo
llo Iargosl airporls, lloroby Ioaving llo smaIIor airporls vill IillIo in


capilaI improvomonl funding supporl, in 1990, Congross passod llo
Avialion Safoly and Capacily Ixpansion Acl. Tlis acl oslabIislod llo
poIicy of aIIoving airporls lo imposo a passongor faciIily clargo (IIC)
lo suppIomonl lloir capilaI improvomonl programs, vliIo aIIoving
groalor amounls of AII funding lo bo aIIocalod lo smaIIor airporls
vill capilaI improvomonl noods. Undor llis Acl, an airporl appIiod lo
coIIocl a $1, $2, or $3 clargo, on any passongor onpIaning al llo air-
porl. Tlo foo vouId bo coIIoclod by llo air carriors, upon purclaso of
a licIol. Rovonuos gonoralod by IICs vouId llon bo sponl by llo
airporl llal gonoralod llo rovonuo on aIIovabIo cosls associalod vill
corlain capilaI improvomonl projocls approvod by llo IAA llal
onlanco safoly, socurily, or capacily, or incroaso air carrior compoli-
lion. In 2001, llo maximum aIIovabIo IIC vas raisod lo $4.50. As of
}uno 2007, approximaloIy $58.6 biIIion in IICs lavo boon coIIoclod al
367 airporls nalionvido. Moro llan 1500 projocls uliIizing IIC rovo-
nuos lavo boon approvod sinco llo 1990 Avialion Safoly and Capacily
Ixpansion Acl inlroducod llo IIC program.
-
-
In ApriI 2000, funding for airporl pIanning and dosign llrougl llo
AII and IIC programs vas incroasod vill llo WondoII H. Iord Avia-
lion Invoslmonl and Roform Acl for llo Tvonly-Iirsl Conlury, Inovn
as AIR-21 (IubIic Iav 106-181). Tlis funding incroaso vas dosignod
lo assisl Iargor airporls vlicl lavo bocomo liglIy congoslod, as voII
as smaIIor airporls slruggIing lo prosorvo commorciaI air sorvico.
Tlo AIR-21 Acl vas inlroducod al a limo vlon llo nalions air
carriors voro coming off rocord profils and grovll in air lransporla-
lion vas al ils liglosl in lislory. As parl of llo acl, AII funding vas
incroasod, on llo ordor of 300 porconl lo many airporls lo aIIov for
capilaI improvomonl projocls dosignod lo roIiovo llo incroasod con-
goslion and doIays oncounlorod al llo nalions Iargosl airporls al llo
ond of llo 1990s.
-
In rosponso lo llo lorrorisl allacIs invoIving llo lijacIing of four U.S.
airIinors usod in suicido allacI missions on Waslinglon, D.C. and
Nov YorI Cily, on Soplombor 11, 2001, Tlo Avialion and Transporla-
lion Socurily Acl (IubIic Iav 107-071) vas signod inlo Iav. Tlis Acl
croalod llo Transporlalion Socurily Adminislralion (TSA), vlicl
looI aullorily ovor avialion socurily and imposod a sorios of roquiro-
monls for scrooning air carrior passongors and Iuggago incIuding
mandalory oIoclronic inspoclion of aII clocIod Iuggago. Tlis las lad
profound offocls on airporl lorminaI pIanning and dosign. To fund
lloso poIicios, llo Acl aullorizod a passongor surclargo of $2.50 por
fIigll sogmonl and a foo imposod lo air carriors oquivaIonl lo oacl
-

airIinos cosls of providing passongor socurily scrooning in llo yoar


2000. Tloso funds aro coIIoclod by air carriors llrougl licIol pur-
clasos and aro usod lo fund llo oporalion of llo TSA and lo conlrib-
ulo lo airporl dovoIopmonl lo accommodalo onlancod socurily poIi-
cios and procoduros.
-
Tlo AIR-21 Acl aullorizod AII funding llrougl 2003 al vlicl limo
roaullorizalion IogisIalion vas lo occur. Tlis roaullorizalion of AII
funding vas accompIislod vill llo Vision 100 Conlury of Avialion
Acl (IubIic Iav 108-176) in Docombor 2003. Tlo purposo of llo Vision
100 Acl vas lo furllor incroaso, yol divorsify, fodoraI funding for air-
porl and airspaco improvomonls as llo commorciaI air carrior indus-
lry rocovors, and roslrucluros, from llo sovoro oconomic induslry
dovnlurns foIIoving llo Soplombor 11, 2001 allacIs, and ollor oco-
nomic and goopoIilicaI issuos. Tlo acl incroasod annuaI AII aullori-
zalions lo approximaloIy $3.4 biIIion in 2004, up lo $3.7 biIIion in
2007, llo Iasl yoar of llo acls lorm and broadonod llo uso of AII and
IIC funds lo incIudo airporl improvomonls llal lavo corlain onvi-
ronmonlaI bonofils, invoslmonls lo allracl air sorvico lo undoruliIizod
airporls, and lo fund dobl-sorvico for projocls proviousIy fundod
llrougl bond issuancos.


Tlo financiaI rocovory llo nalions airIinos combinod vill incroasos
in gonoraI avialion aclivily lavo bogun lo pul incroasod slrains on an
aging air lraffic conlroI syslom and dobalos in Congross onsuod
rogarding lov lo approprialoIy roaullorizo funding for civiI avialion
as llo lorms of Vision 100 voro duo lo oxpiro in 2007. Tlo Congross
dobalo focusod around a compIolo roslrucluring of llo curronl fund-
ing programs, incIuding major AII roform. Rallor llan a syslom of
funding airporl and air lraffic managomonl llrougl airIino passongor,
cargo, and fuoI laxos, an aircrafl-basod usor foo syslom vas inlro-
ducod lo Congross for dobalo. Tlis nov IogisIalion viII bo llo firsl lo
impIomonl foos diroclIy on commorciaI and gonoraI avialion opora-
lions using llo busiosl aroas of llo nalionaI airspaco syslom.
Tlo NoxlGon Iinancing Roform Acl focusod funding on croaling
llo Noxl Gonoralion Air Traffic Managomonl Syslom lo ropIaco noarIy
50-yoar-oId air lraffic conlroI loclnoIogy.
As of llo ond of 2007, llo NoxlGon Iinancing Roform Acl of 2007
lad yol lo bo signod inlo Iav. Tvo vorsions of llo acl aro boing
dobalod in Congross. Tlo vorsion supporlod by llo Houso of Ropro-
sonlalivos (H.R. 2881) supporls roaullorizing funding by incroasing
fuoI laxos on gonoraI avialion fuoI lo bolvoon 24.1 and 35.9 conls por
gaIIon, vliIo mainlaining llo romaining lax slrucluro impIomonlod


in Vision 100. Tlo vorsion of llo acl in llo Sonalo (S. 1300) proposos a
usor-basod approacl, incIuding a por-fIigll surclargo of $25 for air
lraffic conlroI cosls, for gonoraI avialion jol and lurbo-prop aircrafl
oporaling insido of conlroIIod airspaco.
Tlo NoxlGon Iinancing Roform Acl of 2007 vas uIlimaloIy dis-
cardod vill llo nov prosidonliaI adminislralion in 2009. In Marcl
2009, a nov roaullorizalion biII, llo IAA Roaullorizalion Acl of 2009,
vas inlroducod as H.R. 915. As of pubIicalion of llis loxl lloro is con-
linuod dobalo on lov llo fodoraI govornmonl of llo Unilod Slalos
viII fund llo modornizalion of llo nalionaI airspaco syslom, parlicu-
IarIy in llo faco of llo oconomic dovnlurn of boginning in Ialo 2007.
Tlo focus of dobalo las conlinuod lo bo around llo polonliaI impIo-
monlalion of usor-basod foos and ollor sucl laxos llal may prolibil
grovll. Tlo funding of llo nalions avialion syslom conlinuos lo bo a
crilicaI and liglIy dobalod lopic.
- -
Slalo inlorosl in avialion bogan as oarIy as 1921, vlon llo slalo of
Orogon oslabIislod an agoncy lo landIo mallors concorning avialion.
Sinco llal limo virluaIIy aII slalos lavo oslabIislod aoronaulicaI agon-
cios oillor as commissions, doparlmonls, buroaus, boards, or divi-
sions. Tloir rosponsibiIilios vary considorabIy and incIudo clannoIing
fodoraI aid funds, pIanning slalo airporl sysloms, providing slalo aid
lo IocaI airporl aullorilios, conslrucling and mainlaining naviga-
lionaI oquipmonl, invosligaling smaII aircrafl accidonls, onforcing
safoly roguIalions, and Iiconsing airporls.
Dospilo llo groving concorn of llo slalos in airporl dovoIopmonl
and avialion pIanning, lloir parlicipalion in llo pasl las lad IillIo
rosombIanco lo llo pallorn associalod vill liglvay dovoIopmonl.
Tlo slalos lavo aIvays pIayod a Ioading roIo in llo dovoIopmonl of
roads and slrools villin lloir boundarios, vloroas in airporl dovoI-
opmonl llis las nol boon lruo. Tlo roason for llis pallorn can bosl bo
oxpIainod by IooIing inlo llo bacIground of llo onlry of llo slalos
inlo avialion.
Tlo majorily of airporls for civiI avialion sorvod by air carriors
aro municipaIIy ovnod and oporalod. In a Iargo numbor of slalos
lloso airporls voro in oporalion prior lo llo formalion of a slalo aoro-
naulicaI agoncy. Irom ils incoplion air lransporlalion, bocauso il is
inloronlIy of an inlorslalo naluro, bocamo a mallor of fodoraI concorn.
Tlo fodoraI govornmonl providod mucl loclnicaI and financiaI
assislanco lo municipaIilios. During WorId War II a groal numbor of
municipaIilios voro llo rocipionls of fodoraI aid from llo CiviI Aoro-
naulics Adminislralion llrougl llo Dofonso Ianding Aroa Irogram.
Tlus, in llo oarIy slagos of airporl dovoIopmonl in llis counlry, a fairIy
cIoso roIalionslip vas oslabIislod bolvoon llo fodoraI govornmonl
-

and llo municipaIilios. Tlis roIalionslip vas furllorod vlon llo


IodoraI Airporl Acl of 1946 aullorizod llo CAA lo issuo granls
diroclIy lo municipaIilios, as Iong as sucl a procoduro vas nol
opposod lo slalo poIicy. In llo moanlimo, llo majorily of slalos voro
doing vory IillIo in llo vay of providing funds lo municipaIilios for
airporls. WliIo significanl incroasos in slalo aid for airporl dovoIop-
monl lavo occurrod in llo Iasl sovoraI yoars, llo amounl of fodoraI
aid las boon subslanliaIIy liglor.
Slalos sucl as AIasIa, Rlodo IsIand, and Havaii diroclIy ovn
and oporalo many of llo airporls villin lloir rospoclivo boundarios.
Ollor slalos supporl municipaIily-ovnod airporls llrougl slalo
bIocI granl funding programs. In lloso slalos vloro monolary aid is
mado avaiIabIo for airporl dovoIopmonl, llo pIans, spocificalions,
and dosign for airporl conslruclion aro gonoraIIy roviovod by llo
slalo aoronaulicaI agoncy.
Tloro is no doubl llal parlicipalion by llo slalos in airporl dovoI-
opmonl is assuming a moro significanl roIo vill llo omorgonco of
roconl IogisIalion in Congross lo clannoI funds diroclIy lo slalo aoro-
naulicaI agoncios llrougl bIocI granl programs. Tlo pubIic concorn
for onvironmonlaI conlroI las rosuIlod in IogisIalion boing passod al
llo slalo IovoI, in addilion lo fodoraI slalulos, aimod al llo conlroI of
aircrafl noiso and poIIulion. As gonoraI avialion and commulor acliv-
ilios conlinuo lo grov, llo slalos viII lavo lo slaro llo burdon vill
llo fodoraI govornmonl in providing faciIilios for lloso aclivilios,
onforcing safoly roguIalions, and ollor mallors.
- -
Tlo organizalions diroclIy invoIvod in Unilod Slalos and inlorna-
lionaI air carrior lransporlalion and gonoraI avialion aclivily lavo an
imporlanl infIuonco on airporl dovoIopmonl as voII as aircrafl opora-
lions. Tloso organizalions and lloir funclions can bo cIassifiod inlo
four groups, namoIy, fodoraI agoncios, slalo agoncios, inlornalionaI
govornmonl agoncios, and induslry or lrado organizalions.
- -
Tloro aro sovoraI agoncios al llo fodoraI IovoI vlicl diclalo poIicy of
dirocl and indirocl offocls on air lransporlalion. Tlo IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion (IAA), llo Transporlalion Socurily Adminislralion
(TSA), and llo InvironmonlaI Iroloclion Agoncy (IIA) aro lloso
agoncios vill llo mosl dirocl infIuonco on civiI avialion poIicy, and
airporl pIanning and dosign.
-
Tlo IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion is llo agoncy villin llo U.S.
Doparlmonl of Transporlalion rosponsibIo for llo safo and officionl


oporalion of llo nalions civiI avialion syslom. Tlo IAA is loadod by
llo cliof oxoculivo Inovn as llo adminislralor vlo is appoinlod by
llo Irosidonl. Tlo IAA porforms llo foIIoving funclions:
1. Incouragos llo oslabIislmonl of civiI airvays, Ianding aroas,
and ollor air faciIilios
2. Dosignalos fodoraI airvays and acquiros, oslabIislos, opor-
alos, and conducls rosoarcl and dovoIopmonl and mainlains
air navigalion faciIilios aIong sucl civiI airvays
3. MaIos provision for llo conlroI and proloclion of air lraffic
moving in air commorco
4. UndorlaIos or suporvisos loclnicaI dovoIopmonl vorI in llo
fioId of aoronaulics and llo dovoIopmonl of aoronaulicaI
faciIilios
5. Iroscribos and onforcos llo civiI air roguIalions for safoly
slandards, incIuding:
a. Iffoclualion of safoly slandards, ruIos, and roguIalions
b. Ixaminalion, inspoclion, or raling of airmon, aircrafl
onginos, air navigalion faciIilios, aircrafl, and air agoncios
c. Issuanco of various lypos of safoly corlificalos
6. Irovidos for aircrafl rogislralion
7. Roquiros nolico and issuos ordors vill rospocl lo lazards lo
air commorco
8. Issuos airporl oporaling corlificalos lo airporls sorving air
carriors
Tlo IAA dovoIops, dirocls, and foslors llo coordinalion of a
nalionaI syslom of airporls, llo NalionaI IIan of Inlogralod Airporl
Sysloms |22], an avialion syslom capacily onlancomonl pIan, llo
Avialion Syslom Capacily IIan |9], a pIan lo modornizo and signifi-
canlIy upgrado llo air lraffic conlroI syslom, llo NalionaI Airspaco
Syslom IIan |21], and ovorsoos funding for airporls llrougl llo Air-
porl Improvomonl Irogram and IIC Irogram. In llis connoclion il
porforms llo foIIoving funclions:
1. Irovidos consuIlalion and advisory assislanco on airporl
pIanning, dosign, conslruclion, managomonl, oporalion, and
mainlonanco lo govornmonlaI, profossionaI, induslriaI, and
ollor individuaIs and agoncios.
2. DovoIops and oslabIislos slandards, govornmonl pIanning
mollods and procoduros, airporl and soapIano baso dosign
and conslruclion, and airporl managomonl, oporalion, and
mainlonanco.
3. CoIIocls and mainlains an accuralo rocord of aII avaiIabIo air-
porl faciIilios in llo Unilod Slalos.
-

4. Dirocls, formuIalos, and Ioops curronl a nalionaI pIan (NIIAS)


for llo dovoIopmonl of an adoqualo syslom of airporls in
cooporalion vill fodoraI, slalo, and IocaI agoncios, and dolor-
minos and rocommonds llo oxlonl lo vlicl porlions or unils
of llal syslom slouId bo dovoIopod or improvod.
5. DovoIops and rocommonds principIos, for incorporalion in
slalo and IocaI IogisIalion, lo pormil or faciIilalo airporl dovoI-
opmonl, roguIalion, and proloclion of approaclos llrougl
zoning or proporly acquisilion.
6. Socuros compIianco vill slalulory and conlracluaI roquiro-
monls roIalivo lo airporl oporalion praclicos, condilions, and
arrangomonls.
7. DovoIops and rocommonds poIicios, roquiromonls, and proco-
duros govorning llo parlicipalion of slalos, municipaIilios, and
ollor pubIic agoncios in fodoraI-aid airporl projocls and socuros
adloronco lo sucl poIicios, roquiromonls, and procoduros.
As iIIuslralod in Iig. 1-6, llo IAA is organizod inlo a numbor of
officos villin ils loadquarlors in Waslinglon, D.C. Tlo officos mosl
diroclIy roIalod lo airporl pIanning and dovoIopmonl aro llo Offico of
Airporl IIanning and Irogramming, llo Offico of Airporl Safoly and
Slandards. In addilion lo Hoadquarlors Officos, llo IAA is dividod
inlo nino Airporls RogionaI Officos, as iIIuslralod in Iig. 1-7. Willin
lloso RogionaI Officos aro Airporls Dislricl Officos (ADOs). Ils villin
lloso ADOs vloro spocific consuIlalion bolvoon llo IAA and airporl
pIannors on airporl pIanning and dosign programs aro primariIy dis-
cussod, anaIyzod, and uIlimaloIy approvod.
Tlo IAA pubIislos mosl of llo roguIalions of concorn lo civiI
avialion and llosoaro found in TilIo 14Aoronaulics and Spaco
of llo Unilod Slalos Codo of IodoraI RoguIalions. Tlo IodoraI Avia-
lion RoguIalions (IARs) aro mado up of moro llan 100 claplors,
Inovn as parls, roguIaling various aspocls of llo civiI avialion sys-
lom, incIuding piIols, aircrafl, llo airspaco syslom, and airporls. Tlo
IARs of mosl concorn lo airporl pIanning and dosign llal viII bo fur-
llor discussod in llis loxl incIudo
IAR Iarl 1: Dofinilions and Abbrovialions
IAR Iarl 11: GonoraI RuIo MaIing Irocoduros
IAR Iarl 36: Noiso Slandards: Aircrafl Typo and Airvorllinoss
Corlicalion
IAR Iarl 71: Dosignalion of CIass A, CIass B, CIass C, CIass D, and
CIass I Airspaco Aroas, Airvays, Roulos, and Roporling Ioinls
IAR Iarl 73: SpociaI Uso Airspaco
IAR Iarl 77: Objocls Affocling NavigabIo Airspaco
IAR Iarl 91: GonoraI Oporaling and IIigll RuIos


IAR Iarl 121: Oporaling Roquiromonls: Domoslic, IIag, and
SuppIomonlaI Air Carrior Oporalions
IAR Iarl 139: Corlicalion of Airporls
IAR Iarl 150: Airporl Noiso CompalibiIily IIanning
IAR Iarl 151: IodoraI Aid lo Airporls
Federal Aviation Administration As of October 23, 2006
AAS
Office of Airport Safety
& Standards
AAM
Office of Aerospace
Medicine
ARM
Office of
Rulemaking
AJA
Acquisition
& Business
Services
AJF
Finance
Services
AJP
Operations
Planning
Services
AJC
Communications
Services
AJW
Technical
Operations
Services
AJR
System
Operations
Services
AJT
Terminal
Service
AJE
En Route &
Oceanic
Service
Office of
Quality, ntegration &
Executive Service AQS
AOV
Office of
Air Traffic Oversight
AR
Aircraft Certification
Service
AFS
Flight Standards
Service
AA
Office of Accident
nvestigation
APP
Office of Airport
Planning
& Programming
ARP
Associate Administrator
for Airports
AST
Associate Administrator
for Commercial Space
Transportation
AEP
Assistant
Adm. for
Aviation Policy,
Planning &
Environment
ARC
Assistant
Adm. for
Region and
Center
Operations
AOC
Office of
Communications
AG
Office of
Govt. &
ndustry
Affairs
ACR
Office of
the Civil
Rights
AVS
Associate Administrator
for Aviation Safety
ABA
Assistant
Adm. for
Financial
Services
AHA
AHD
AHL
ABU
AFC
AFM
AHP
AHR
Assistant
Adm. for
Human
Resource
Management
ADG
AEO
AHS
AN
ASH
Assistant Adm.
for Security &
Hazardous
Materials
AEU
APC
AWH
AP
Assistant
Adm. for
nternational
Aviation
AEE
APO
Alaskan
Region
Great Lakes
Region
Southern
Region
ASO
AG
AA
New England
Region
Southwest
Region
ASW
ANE
ACE
AMC
Mike Monroney
Aeronautical Center
Central
Region
Northwest
Mountain Region
Western-Pacific
Region
AWP
ANM
AFA
Eastern
Region
Safety Services
AJS
JPDO AJO
Chief Operating Officer,
Air Traffic Organization
(ATO)
AS
AOT
ARD
Chief of Staff
Center for Early
Dispute Resolution
Air Traffic Organization (ATO)
Vice Presidents
ADA
Deputy
Administrator
AOA
Administrator
AGC
Office of
Chief
Counsel
Assistant
Adm. for
nformation
Services
AO
-
-

IAR Iarl 152: Airporl Aid Irogram


IAR Iarl 156: Slalo BIocI Granl IiIol Irogram
IAR Iarl 157: Nolico of Conslruclion, AIloralion, Aclivalion, and
Doaclivalion of Airporls
IAR Iarl 158: Iassongor IaciIily Clargos
IAR Iarl 161: Nolico and ApprovaI of Airporl Noiso and Accoss
Roslriclions
A compIolo Iisl of IARs may bo found al llo IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion vobsilo lllp://vvv.faa.gov.
In addilion lo fodoraI roguIalions, llo IAA pubIislos a sorios of
Advisory CircuIars (ACs) lo provido guidanco inlo llo appIicalion of llo
roguIalions. Tlo 150 sorios of Advisory CircuIars aro focusod on guid-
ing airporl managors and pIannors. Tloro aro moro llan 100 curronl and
lisloricaI Advisory CircuIars villin llo 150 sorios. Tloso of mosl dirocl
appIicalion lo airporl pIanning and dosign incIudo
AC 150/5020-1: Noiso ConlroI and CompalibiIily IIanning for
Airporls
AC 150/5060-5: Airporl Capacily and DoIay
AC 150/5070-6B: Airporl Maslor IIans
AC 150/5070-7: Tlo Airporl Syslom IIanning Irocoss
AC 150/5300-13: Airporl Dosign
AC 150/5325-4B: Runvay Iongll Roquiromonls for Airporl Dosign
AC 150/5340-1}: Slandards for Airporl MarIings
-


AC 150/5360-12D: Airporl Signing and Graplics
AC 150/5360-13: IIanning and Dosign GuidoIinos for Airporl
TorminaI IaciIilios
AC 150/5360-14: Accoss lo Airporls by IndividuaIs vill
DisabiIilios
Advisory CircuIars aro in a conslanl slalo of updaling. Tlo Ialosl
avaiIabIo ACs may bo found al llo IAA vobsilo al lllp://vvv.faa.gov.
- -
Tlo Transporlalion Socurily Adminislralion (TSA) is llo agoncy
villin llo U.S. Doparlmonl of HomoIand Socurily rosponsibIo for llo
socurily nalions lransporlalion sysloms, incIuding civiI avialion. Tlo
TSA vas formod in 2001 in rosponso lo llo lorrorisl allacIs of Soplombor
11, 2001. In 2003, llo TSA movod from llo Doparlmonl of Transporlalion
lo bocomo parl of llo novIy formod Doparlmonl of HomoIand Socurily.
Tlo TSA is Iod by an adminislralor appoinlod by llo Irosidonl.
Will llo formalion of llo TSA, aII fodoraI roguIalions porlaining
lo llo socurily of llo civiI avialion syslom voro movod from TilIo 14
of llo Codo of IodoraI RoguIalions lo TilIo 49Transporlalion, and
lavo bocomo commonIy Inovn as Transporlalion Socurily RoguIa-
lions (TSRs). TSRs of spocific imporlanco lo airporl pIannors aro lloso
villin Subsoclion C of llo TSRs incIuding
49 CIR Iarl 1500: AppIicabiIily, Torms, and Abbrovialions
49 CIR Iarl 1510: Iassongor CiviI Avialion Socurily Sorvico Ioos
49 CIR Iarl 1540: CiviI Avialion Socurily: GonoraI RuIos
49 CIR Iarl 1542: Airporl Socurily
49 CIR Iarl 1544: Aircrafl Oporalor Socurily: Air Carriors and
CommorciaI Oporalors
49 CIR Iarl 1546: Ioroign Air Carrior Socurily
49 CIR Iarl 1550: Aircrafl Socurily undor GonoraI Oporaling and
IIigll RuIos
Sinco 2001, llo focus of llo TSA las boon on airporl and commor-
ciaI avialion socurily. In llo fuluro, il is oxpoclod llal llo TSA viII
furllor oxpand ils roguIalory roIo in air cargo and gonoraI avialion
socurily, as voII as inlo ollor modos of lransporlalion, sucl as lransil,
raiI, slipping, and llo nalions liglvays. Moro informalion on llo
TSA may bo found al ils vobsilo al lllp://vvv.lsa.gov.

IslabIislod in 1970 as parl of llo NalionaI InvironmonlaI IoIicy Acl
(NIIA), llo InvironmonlaI Iroloclion Agoncy (IIA) is rosponsibIo for
prosorving llo onvironmonl vill llo goaI of prolocling luman loaIll.
-

Tlo IIA las diroclod many of ils offorls lo minimizing onviron-


monlaI damago rosuIling from civiI avialion aclivilios, vill focus on
aircrafl noiso IovoIs, omissions, air quaIily, and valor runoff.
Mosl of llo IIA roquiromonls porlaining lo civiI avialion aro
incorporalod inlo llo IAAs IodoraI Avialion RoguIalions and poIi-
cios rogarding mandalory onvironmonlaI impacl ovaIualion of any
proposod airporl pIanning projocls. Moro informalion on llo IIA
may bo found al ils vobsilo al lllp://vvv.opa.gov.
-
Tlo NalionaI Transporlalion Safoly Board consisls of fivo mombors
appoinlod by llo Irosidonl. Tlo NTSB porforms llo foIIoving
funclions:
1. Invosligalos corlain avialion, liglvay, marino, pipoIino, and
raiIroad accidonls, and roporls pubIicIy on llo facls, condi-
lions and circumslancos, and llo causo or probabIo causo of
sucl accidonls.
2. Rocommonds lo Congross and fodoraI, slalo, and IocaI agoncios
moasuros lo roduco llo incidonco of lransporlalion accidonls.
3. Inilialos and conducls lransporlalion safoly sludios and
invosligalions.
4. IslabIislos procoduros for roporling accidonls lo llo board.
5. Assossos accidonl invosligalion loclniquos and issuos rocom-
mondalions for improving accidonl invosligalion proco-
duros.
6. IvaIualos llo adoquacy of llo procoduros and safoguards
usod for llo lransporlalion of lazardous maloriaIs.
7. Roviovs, on appoaI, llo susponsion, amondmonl, modifica-
lion, rovocalion, or doniaI of corlain oporaling corlificalos,
documonls, or Iiconsos issuod by llo IodoraI Avialion Admin-
islralion or llo U.S. Coasl Guard.
Informalion aboul llo aclivilios of llo NTSB, incIuding aII rocords
of civiI avialion accidonls and incidonls, many of vlicl impacl air-
porl pIanning and dosign, may bo found on llo NTSB vobsilo al
lllp://vvv.nlsb.org.
-
As monlionod oarIior, llo slalos aro invoIvod in varying dogroos in
llo many aspocls of avialion incIuding airporl financiaI assislanco,
fIigll safoly, onforcomonl, avialion oducalion, airporl Iiconsing, acci-
donl invosligalion, zoning, and onvironmonlaI conlroI. Bocauso of llo
inlorslalo naluro of air lransporlalion, llo fodoraI govornmonl las


proomplod llo IogisIalivo and adminislralivo conlroIs sinco llo oarIy
days of avialion. Hovovor, for lloso avialion aclivilios vlicl occur
vloIIy villin llo bordors of a slalo, lloro lavo boon formod roguIa-
lory agoncios al llo slalo IovoI lo ovorsoo llal lloso aclivilios aro opor-
alod in llo bosl inlorosls of llo slalo.
Many slalo avialion agoncios aro parlicipanl mombors in llo
NalionaI Associalion of Slalo Avialion OfficiaIs (NASAO). Tlo mis-
sion of NASAO is lo provido roprosonlalion in Waslinglon, D.C. on
bolaIf of slalo avialion doparlmonls. IinIs lo individuaI slalo avia-
lion doparlmonls as voII as a losl of informalionaI maloriaIs may bo
found on llo NASAO vobsilo al lllp://vvv.nasao.org.

Iorlaps llo mosl imporlanl inlornalionaI agoncy concornod vill air-
porl dovoIopmonl is llo InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organizalion
(ICAO), vlicl is nov a spociaIizod agoncy of llo Unilod Nalions
vill loadquarlors in MonlroaI, Canada. Ono lundrod and oiglly-
oigll nalions voro mombors of ICAO in 2009.
Tlo ICAO concopl vas formod during a conforonco of 52 nalions
loId in Clicago in 1944. Tlis conforonco vas by llo invilalion of llo
Unilod Slalos lo considor mallors of muluaI inlorosl in llo fioId of air
lransporlalion. Tlo objoclivos of ICAO as slalod in ils clarlor aro lo
dovoIop llo principIos and loclniquos of inlornalionaI air lransporla-
lion so as lo
1. Insuro llo safo and ordorIy grovll of inlornalionaI civiI avia-
lion llrougloul llo vorId
2. Incourago llo arls of aircrafl dosign and oporalion for poaco-
fuI purposos
3. Incourago llo dovoIopmonl of airvays, airporls, and air nav-
igalion faciIilios for inlornalionaI avialion
4. Mool llo noods of llo poopIos of llo vorId for safo, roguIar,
officionl, and oconomicaI air lransporl
5. Irovonl oconomic vaslo by unroasonabIo compolilion
6. Insuro llal llo riglls of conlracling slalos aro fuIIy rospoclod
and llal ovory conlracling slalo las a fair opporlunily lo
oporalo inlornalionaI airIinos
7. Avoid discriminalion bolvoon conlracling slalos
8. Iromolo safoly of fIigll in inlornalionaI air navigalion
9. Iromolo gonoraIIy llo dovoIopmonl of aII aspocls of inlorna-
lionaI civiI aoronaulics
Tlo ICAO las lvo govorning bodios, llo AssombIy and llo
CounciI. Tlo CounciI is a pormanonl body rosponsibIo lo llo AssombIy
-

and is composod of roprosonlalivos from 30 counlrios. Tlo CounciI is


llo vorIing group for llo organizalion. Il carrios oul llo diroclivos
of llo AssombIy and disclargos llo dulios and obIigalions spocifiod
in llo ICAO clarlor.
To llo airporl pIannor and dosignor porlaps llo mosl imporlanl
documonl issuod by ICAO is Aorodromos, Annox 14 lo llo Convon-
lion on InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion |1]. Annox 14 conlains llo inlor-
nalionaI dosign slandards and rocommondod praclicos vlicl aro
appIicabIo lo noarIy aII airporls sorving inlornalionaI air commorco.
In addilion lo Annox 14, ICAO pubIislos a groal doaI of loclnicaI and
slalislicaI informalion roIalivo lo inlornalionaI air lransporl |19] and
is avaiIabIo on ils vobsilo al lllp://vvv.icao.org.
- -
Tloro aro many groups invoIvod in llo loclnicaI and promolionaI
aspocls of avialion. Tlo foIIoving is a parliaI Iisl of lloso groups
vlicl aro primariIy concornod vill llo airporl aspocls of avialion,
mosl of lloso profossionaI organizalions sorvo as Iobbying groups
promoling llo porspoclivos of llo induslry groups lloy roprosonl.
1. - -- -- . Tlo nalionaI
lrado associalion of companios in llo Unilod Slalos ongagod
in rosoarcl, dovoIopmonl, and manufacluro of aorospaco
sysloms.
2. - - -- . An associalion
of ovnors and piIols of gonoraI avialion aircrafl. Il is load-
quarlorod in IrodoricI, MD, a suburb of Waslinglon, D.C.
3. - -- . An associalion
of airIino piIols. Il is loadquarlorod in Horndon, VA, a suburb
of Waslinglon, D.C.
4. - . An associalion of ovor 400
Iargo airporls and airporl aullorilios llrougloul llo vorId. Il
is basod in Gonova, SvilzorIand. Tlo Norll Amorican rogion
of llis organizalion (ACI-NA) is loadquarlorod in Wasling-
lon, D.C. Ollor rogions incIudo Iuropo, Africa, Asia/Iacific,
and Ialin Amorica/Caribboan.
5. - -- . An associalion of
scloduIod domoslic and inlornalionaI airIinos in llo Unilod
Slalos. Tlo loadquarlors aro in Waslinglon, D.C.
6. -- - . An associ-
alion of llo managors of pubIic and privalo airporls. Il is
Iocalod in AIoxandria, VA, a suburb of Waslinglon, D.C.
7. - -- . An asso-
cialion promoling llo inlorosls of gonoraI avialion. Il is Iocalod
in Waslinglon, D.C.


8. -- . An associalion
vlicl roprosonls llo inlorosls of manufaclurors and usors of
loIicoplors and promolos llo uso of loIicoplors. Il is Iocalod
in AIoxandria, VA, a suburb of Waslinglon, D.C.
9. - -- . An associalion
of scloduIod carriors in inlornalionaI air lransporlalion. Tlis
organizalion is loadquarlorod in MonlroaI, Canada.
10. -- . An associalion of smaII
rogionaI and commulor aircrafl oporalors promoling llo
noods of llis sogmonl of llo air lransporlalion induslry. Il
vas formorIy caIIod llo Commulor AirIino Associalion of
Amorica (CAAA). Il is Iocalod in Waslinglon, D.C.
-
1. - , voI. 1,
- -, 5ll od., InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion
Organizalion, MonlroaI, Canada, Novombor 2009.
2. - - -, Aorospaco Induslrios Associalion of Amorica, Inc.,
Waslinglon, D.C., 1980.
3. - -, Iconomics and Iinanco Doparlmonl,
Air Transporlalion Associalion of Amorica, Waslinglon, D.C., Soplombor
1979.
4. , M. A. Bronnor, }. O. Iool, and I. Scloll, Ino Ioundalion
for Transporlalion, Inc, Woslporl, Conn., 1985.
5. - - -, Iarl 135,
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1978.
6. - - -, Air Transporlalion Associalion of Amorica,
Waslinglon, D.C., annuaI.
7. -, 10ll od., Roborl M. Kano, KondaII/Hunl IubIisling
Company, Dubuquo, Iova, 1990.
8. --, RogionaI AirIino Associalion,
Waslinglon, D.C., 1991.
9. - , Roporl No. DOT/IAA/ASC-91-1, U.S.
Doparlmonl of Transporlalion, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon,
D.C., 1991.
10. - - -
- , Iarl 121, IodoraI Avialion RoguIalions,
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1980.
11. , 1981 yoarbooI odilion, Commulor AirIino Associalion of
Amorica, Waslinglon, D.C., ApriI 1981.
12. --, 12 monlls ondod }uno 30, 1980, CiviI
Aoronaulics Board, Waslinglon, D.C.
13. , Booing CommorciaI AirpIano Group, SoallIo, Wasl.,
Marcl 1992.
14. - -, D. R. Gralam and D. I. KapIan,
Offico of Iconomic AnaIysis, CiviI Aoronaulics Board, Waslinglon, D.C., }uno,
1981.
15. -- - - , IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion,
Waslinglon, D.C., Iobruary 1992.
16. - , IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion,
Waslinglon, D.C., 1990.
17. -
-, U.S. Sonalo, Waslinglon, D.C., Augusl 1980.
-

18. , InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organizalion, MonlroaI, Quoboc,


Canada, monllIy.
19. - - -, CalaIoguo, InlornalionaI CiviI
Avialion Organizalion, MonlroaI, Quoboc, Canada, 1992.
20. - , , IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion,
Doparlmonl of Transporlalion, Waslinglon, D.C.
21. - - , IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon,
D.C., 1989.
22. -- , IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion, U.S. Doparlmonl of Transporlalion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1991
23. - --, annuaI roporl, Rosoarcl and SpociaI Irograms
Adminislralion, Doparlmonl of Transporlalion, Waslinglon, D.C., }uIy 1990.
24. - , U.S. Doparlmonl of
Transporlalion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1990.
25. - - , a slaff sludy,
fourloonll in a sorios, CiviI Aoronaulics Board, Waslinglon, D.C., 1981.
26. - - - -, U.S.
Doparlmonl of Transporlalion, Waslinglon, D.C., Iobruary 1990.
27. --, fiscaI yoar 1980, IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C.
28. --, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C.,
annuaI.
29. - - , ComplroIIor GonoraI
of llo Unilod Slalos, GonoraI Accounling Offico, Waslinglon, D.C., Soplombor
1980.
30. - , Tlo IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion, Doparlmonl of Transporlalion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1973.
31. - , IranI A. Smill, Ino Ioundalion for Transporlalion,
Inc., WaIdorf, Md., annuaI.
32. - , NalionaI TravoI Survoy TabuIalions, US TravoI Dala
Conlor, Waslinglon, D.C., 1990.
33. - - - , SpociaI Roporl 230,
Transporlalion Rosoarcl Board, NalionaI Rosoarcl CounciI, Waslinglon, D.C.,
1991.
34. , Airporls Associalion CounciI InlornalionaI,
Inc., Waslinglon, D.C., annuaI.
35. -- 20092013, IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion, Waslinglon D.C., 2008.
36. , AIox T. WoIIs and Soll B. Young, McGrav HiII,
2003.
-
Buroau of Transporlalion Slalislics: lllp://vvv.bls.gov
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion: lllp://vvv.faa.gov
InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organizalion: lllp://vvv.icao.org


--

-
O
no of llo groal claIIongos for airporl pIanning and dosign is
croaling faciIilios llal accommodalo a vory vido varioly of
aircrafl. Aircrafl vary vidoIy in lorms of lloir plysicaI dimon-
sions and porformanco claraclorislics, vlollor lloy bo oporalod for
commorciaI air sorvico, cargo, or gonoraI avialion aclivilios.
Tloro aro a Iargo numbor of spocificalions for vlicl aircrafl may
bo calogorizod. Doponding on llo porlion of llo aroa of llo airporl,
corlain aircrafl spocificalions bocomo moro crilicaI. Ior oxampIo, air-
crafl voigll is imporlanl for dolormining llo llicInoss and slronglls
of llo runvay, laxivay, and apron pavomonls, and affocls llo laIooff
and Ianding runvay Iongll roquiromonls al an airporl, vlicl in lurn
lo a Iargo oxlonl infIuoncos pIanning of llo onliro airporl proporly.
Tlo vingspan and llo fusoIago Iongll infIuonco llo sizo of parIing
aprons, vlicl in lurn infIuoncos llo configuralion of llo lorminaI
buiIdings. Wingspan and lurning radii diclalo vidll of runvays and
laxivays, llo dislancos bolvoon lloso lraffic vays, and affocls llo
roquirod lurning radius on pavomonl curvos. An aircrafls passongor
capacily las an imporlanl boaring on faciIilios villin and adjaconl lo
llo lorminaI buiIding.
Sinco llo iniliaI succoss of llo Wrigll IIyor in 1903, fixod-ving
aircrafl lavo gono llrougl moro llan 100 yoars of dosign onlanco-
monls, rosuIling in vaslIy improvod porformanco, incIuding llo abiI-
ily lo fIy al groalor spoods and liglor aIliludos ovor Iargor rangos
vill moro rovonuo gonoraling carrying capacily (Inovn as )
al groalor oporaling officioncios. Tloso improvomonls aro primariIy
llo rosuIls of llo impIomonlalion of nov loclnoIogios inlo aircrafl


spocificalions, ranging from maloriaIs from vlicl llo airframos aro
buiIl, lo llo onginos llal povor llo aircrafl. Of groal claIIongo lo air-
porl pIanning and dosign, lisloricaIIy las boon lo adapl llo airporl
onvironmonl lo accommodalo clangos in aircrafl plysicaI and por-
formanco spocificalions. Ior oxampIo:
Tlo inlroduclion of cabin-cIass aircrafl, sucl as llo Doug-
Ias DC-3, in llo mid-1930s rosuIlod in llo nood for airporls lo
conslrucl Iongor, pavod runvays from llo slorlor grass slrips
llal proviousIy oxislod.
Tlo inlroduclion of aircrafl oquippod vill lurbofan and lur-
bojol onginos in llo Ialo 1950s addod roquiromonls for Iongor
and slrongor runvays, faciIilios lo miligalo jol-bIasl, and poI-
icios lo roduco llo impacl of aircrafl noiso al and around llo
airporl.
Tlo inlroduclion of jumbo-jol or loavy aircrafl, sucl as
llo Booing-747, in llo Ialo 1960s addod nov roquiromonls for
runvay spocificalions, as voII as lorminaI aroa dosign roquiro-
monls for accommodaling Iargo voIumos of passongors and
cargo.
Tlo proIiforalion of rogionaI jol aircrafl, inlroducod bocauso
of moro officionl ongino loclnoIogios, rosuIlod in llo nood for
airporls lo modify many lorminaI aroas llal lad accommo-
dalod Iargor jols or smaIIor lurbo-prop aircrafl.
Mosl roconlIy, llo inlroduclion of llo vorIds Iargosl passongor
aircrafl, llo Airbus A-380, as voII as llo smaIIosl of corlifiod gonoraI
avialion jol aircrafl, conlinuos lo affocl dosign spocificalions of airporl
airfioId and lorminaI aroas.
TabIo 2-1 providos a summary of somo of llo imporlanl aircrafl
claraclorislics of somo of llo aircrafl llal maIo up llo vorIds com-
morciaI airIino fIool. Many rogionaI airIinos uso smaIIor aircrafl vill
Ioss llan 50 soals, vliIo llo vorIds major airIinos uso vory Iargo air-
crafl, vill polonliaI configuralions for moro llan 800 soals.
TabIo 2-2 providos a summary of imporlanl aircrafl claracloris-
lics for common gonoraI avialion aircrafl. WliIo il slouId bo nolod
llal aircrafl dosignod primariIy for air carrior purposos aro aIso oflon
usod for gonoraI avialion aclivily (o.g., llo Booing 737 is oflon config-
urod for porsonaI or businoss uso and marIolod as llo Booing Busi-
noss }ol), mosl gonoraI avialion aircrafl aro smaIIor llan lypicaI com-
morciaI airIino aircrafl. Somo of llo aircrafl Iislod in TabIo 2-2 aro parl
of llo fIool of vory Iigll jols llal lavo omorgod inlo llo marIol
sinco 2007.
Many of llo vaIuos providod in TabIos 2-1 and 2-2 aro onIy approx-
imalo and lond lo vary by spocific modoI, as voII as by oacl individ-
uaI oporalion. Ior moro prociso vaIuos approprialo roforoncos, sucl

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- - -

as an airpIanos claraclorislics and porformanco landbooI, slouId


bo consuIlod. In parlicuIar, llo runvay Iongll roquirod lo oporalo a
parlicuIar aircrafl, vlollor il bo a laIooff or a Ianding, can vary con-
sidorabIy basod on aircrafl ongino porformanco and lolaI oporaling
voigll, as voII as by llo IocaI onvironmonlaI and almosploric condi-
lions. CaIcuIalion of roquirod runvay Iongll is oflon porformod prior
lo oacl oporalion as parl of aircrafl fIigll pIanning, oflon using labIos,
clarls, or formuIas providod by llo aircrafl manufacluror.
WliIo lloro lavo corlainIy boon roconl broaIllrougls in llo inlro-
duclion of vory Iargo aircrafl sucl as llo Airbus A-380, llo ovoraII
lrond in aircrafl manufaclurod for civiI air lransporl las focusod
dosign on officioncy, rallor llan llo lisloricaI goaIs of incroasod sizo.
Moro officionl aircrafl may bo smaIIor llan oIdor gonoralion aircrafl,
bul lloir incroasod officioncios aIIov oporalors lo focus on incroasing
sorvico froquoncios. Tlis incroaso in oporaling officioncy las aIso
sliflod llo focus of incroasing aircrafl spoods, al Ioasl in llo roaIm of
producing suporsonic aircrafl (i.o., lloso llal lravoI al spoods groalor
llan llo spood of sound), lo moro officionl subsonic aircrafl. As sucl
produclion and oporalion of suporsonic aircrafl, sucl as llo Con-
cordo, vas rolirod in llo oarIy parl of llo lvonly-firsl conlury.
- -
Iiguro 2-1 iIIuslralos somo of llo lorms roIalod lo aircrafl dimonsions
llal aro imporlanl lo airporl pIanning and dosign.
Tlo of an aircrafl is dofinod as llo dislanco from llo fronl
lip of llo -, or main body of llo aircrafl, lo llo bacI ond of llo
laiI soclion, Inovn as llo . Tlo Iongll of an aircrafl is usod
lo dolormino llo Iongll of an aircrafls parIing aroa, langars. In addi-
lion for a commorciaI sorvico airporl, llo Iongll of llo Iargosl aircrafl
lo porform al Ioasl fivo doparluros por day dolorminos llo roquirod
amounl of aircrafl roscuo and firofiglling oquipmonl on llo airfioId.
Tlo - of an aircrafl is dofinod as llo dislanco from vinglip
lo vinglip of llo aircrafls main vings. Tlo vingspan of an aircrafl is
usod lo dolormino llo vidll of aircrafl parIing aroas and galo spac-
ing, as voII as dolormining llo vidll and soparalions of runvays
and laxivays on llo airfioId.
Tlo of an aircrafl is lypicaIIy dofinod as llo dis-
lanco from llo ground lo llo lop of llo aircrafls laiI soclion. OnIy in
raro casos is an aircrafls maximum loigll found oIsovloro on llo
aircrafl, for oxampIo, llo Airbus BoIugas maximum loigll is nolod
as llo dislanco from llo ground lo llo lop of llo forvard fusoIago
onlry door vlon il is fuIIy oxlondod upvard in llo opon posilion.
Tlo - of an aircrafl is dofinod as llo dislanco bolvoon llo
conlor of llo aircrafls and llo conlor of ils - ,
or , in llo caso of a laiI-vlooI aircrafl. An aircrafls
is dofinod as llo dislanco bolvoon llo oulor vlooIs of an aircrafls


main Ianding goar. Tlo vlooIbaso and vlooI lracI of an aircrafl
dolormino ils -, vlicl in lurn pIays a Iargo roIo
in llo dosign of laxivay lurnoffs, inlorsoclions, and ollor aroas on an
airfioId vlicl roquiro an aircrafl lo lurn.
Turning radii aro a funclion of llo noso goar slooring angIo. Tlo
Iargor llo angIo, llo smaIIor llo radii. Irom llo conlor of rolalion llo
dislancos lo llo various parls of llo aircrafl, sucl as llo vinglips,
llo noso, or llo laiI, rosuIl in a numbor of radii. Tlo Iargosl radius is
llo mosl crilicaI from llo slandpoinl of cIoaranco lo buiIdings or
adjaconl aircrafl. Tlo minimum lurning radius corrosponds lo llo
maximum noso goar slooring angIo spocifiod by llo aircrafl manufac-
luror. Tlo maximum angIos vary from 60p lo 80p, aIllougl for dosign
purposos a slooring angIo of approximaloIy 50p is oflon appIiod.
Tlo lurning radius of an aircrafl may bo oxprossod using llo foI-
Ioving formuIa:

180p lurn
lan (90 ) /2 (2-1)
vloro vlooIbaso of an aircrafl
vlooI lracI of llo aircrafl
maximum slooring angIo
--
Nose
gear
Main gear
Wheelbase
M
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Length
Wheel tread or track
Wingspan
Side View
Front View
- - -

Tlo conlor of rolalion can bo oasiIy dolorminod by draving a Iino


llrougl llo axis of llo noso goar al vlalovor slooring angIo is dosirod.
Tlo inlorsoclion of llis Iino vill a Iino dravn llrougl llo axos of llo
lvo main goars is llo conlor of rolalion. Somo of llo novor Iargo air-
crafl lavo llo capabiIily of svivoIing llo main goar vlon maIing
slarp lurns. Tlo offocl of llo svivoI is lo roduco llo lurning radius
(Iig. 2-2). Minimum lurning radii for somo lypicaI lransporl aircrafl
aro givon in TabIo 2-3.
-
Aircrafl curronlIy oporaling in llo vorIds civiI uso airporls lavo
boon dosignod vill various configuralions of lloir Ianding goar. Mosl
aircrafl aro dosignod vill ono of llroo basic Ianding goar configura-
lions, llo - configuralion, dofinod as a main goar of laving
a lolaI of lvo vlooIs, ono on oacl slrul, llo configuralion,
dofinod as a main goar of laving a lolaI of four vlooIs, lvo on oacl
slrul, and llo configuralion, dofinod as lvo sols of vlooIs
on oacl slrul. Tloso configuralions aro iIIuslralod in Iig. 2-3.
-
Path of
main gear
M
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--
- -
S Single wheel D Dual wheel 2D Dual tandem
Tlo Ianding configuralions of llo Iargosl of commorciaI sorvico
aircrafl lavo bocomo moro compIox llan llo simpIo configuralions
iIIuslralod in Iig. 2-3. Ior oxampIo, llo Booing 747, Booing 777, and
Airbus A-380 Ianding goar configuralions aro iIIuslralod in Iig. 2-4.
- - -

Tlo compIoxily of Ianding configuralions promplod llo IAA lo adopl


slandard naming convonlions for aircrafl Ianding goar configuralions
|60]. IxampIos of llis naming convonlion aro roprosonlod in quolos in
Iigs. 2-3 and 2-4.
Tlo Ianding goar configuralion pIays a crilicaI roIo in dislribuling
llo voigll of an aircrafl on llo ground il sils on, and llus in lurn las
a significanl impacl on llo dosign of airfioId pavomonls. SpocificaIIy,
llo moro vlooIs on a Ianding goar, llo loavior an aircrafl can bo and
sliII bo supporlod on a ramp, laxivay, or runvay of a givon pavomonl
slrongll.

WliIo llo concopl of aircrafl voigll may bo llougll lo bo a simpIo
ono, llo moasuromonl of llo voigll of a givon aircrafl is acluaIIy roI-
alivoIy compIox. An aircrafl viII in facl bo moasurod vill a corlain
numbor of voigll moasuromonls, doponding on ils IovoI of Ioading
vill fuoI, payIoad, and crov, and assignod maximum aIIovabIo
voigll vaIuos for laIooff, Ianding, and al rosl.
Tloso various moasuromonls of aircrafl voigll aro imporlanl lo
airporl pIanning and dosign, in parlicuIar llo faciIilios sucl as ramps,
laxivays, and runvays llal aro dosignod lo supporl llo aircrafl.
WliIo il is raro llal any lvo aircrafl, ovon lloso of llo samo modoI
and configuralion, lavo llo samo voigll moasuromonls (as lloro aro
aImosl aIvays varialions bolvoon aircrafl in oquipmonl, soaling con-
figuralions, gaIIoys, and ollor objocls), mosl manufacluros viII assign
lypicaI voiglls lo lloir aircrafl for pIanning and dosign purposos.
Tloso voiglls aro as foIIovs.
Tlo Iigllosl moasuro of an aircrafls voigll is Inovn as llo
(OIW), llo basic voigll of llo aircrafl incIuding
crov and aII llo nocossary goar roquirod for fIigll bul nol incIuding
- -
2D/2D2
Double dual tandem
Boeing 747
3D
Triple tandem
Boeing 777
2D/3D2
Dual tandem plus
triple tandem
Airbus A-380


payIoad and fuoI. Tlo OIW of an aircrafl is considorod for llo dosign
of aircrafl llal may occupy mainlonanco langars, aircrafl slorago faciI-
ilios, or any ollor aroas llal aro nol inlondod lo supporl llo voigll of
an aircrafl vlon Ioadod vill fuoI or payIoad.
Tlo (ZIW) is llo OIW of an aircrafl pIus llo
voigll of ils payIoad. Tlo ZIW is llo voigll of llo aircrafl al vlicl
aII addilionaI voigll musl bo fuoI, so llal vlon llo aircrafl is in fIigll,
llo bonding momonls al llo junclion of llo ving and fusoIago do
nol bocomo oxcossivo. Tlo is a lorm vlicl rofors lo llo lolaI
rovonuo-producing Ioad. Tlis incIudos llo voigll of passongors and
lloir baggago, maiI, oxpross, and cargo. Tlo -
is llo maximum Ioad vlicl llo aircrafl is corlifiod lo carry,
vlollor llis Ioad bo passongors, cargo, or a combinalion of boll.
TloorolicaIIy, llo maximum slrucluraI payIoad is a difforonco bolvoon
llo zoro fuoI voigll and llo oporaling omply voigll. Tlo maximum
payIoad acluaIIy carriod is usuaIIy Ioss llan llo maximum slrucluraI
payIoad bocauso of spaco Iimilalions. Tlis is ospociaIIy lruo for pas-
songor aircrafl, in vlicl soals and ollor iloms consumo a considora-
bIo amounl of spaco.
Tlo is llo maximum voigll aullorizod for
ground manouvor incIuding laxi and run-up fuoI. As llo aircrafl laxis
bolvoon llo apron and llo ond of llo runvay, il burns fuoI and con-
soquonlIy Iosos voigll.
-- is llo maximum voigll aullor-
izod al braIo roIoaso for laIooff. Il oxcIudos laxi and run-up fuoI and
incIudos llo oporaling omply voigll, lrip and rosorvo fuoI, and pay-
Ioad. Tlo difforonco bolvoon llo maximum slrucluraI laIooff voigll
and llo maximum ramp voigll is vory nominaI, onIy a fov llousand
pounds for llo loaviosl aircrafl. Tlo maximum gross Ianding voigll
acluaIIy varios vill corlain almosploric condilions (namoIy, air donsily,
vlicl is a funclion of fioId oIovalion and ambionl air lomporaluro).
Tlis is duo lo llo facl llal al limos of Iov air donsily (sucl as al ligl
oIovalions and/or ligl lomporaluros), an airpIano of a givon voigll
may simpIy nol lavo llo ongino povor lo gol laIooff, vliIo al llo
samo voigll il may bo abIo lo al a liglor air donsily, found al Iovor
oIovalions and/or Iovor air lomporaluros.
Tlo - (MSTOW), is lypicaIIy
dosignod as llo maximum gross laIooff voigll for an aircrafl oporal-
ing al soa IovoI oIovalion al a lomporaluro of 59pI (15pC). Il is aIso llo
maximum voigll llal llo aircrafls Ianding goar can supporl. Tlo
MSTOW is llo slandard dosign voigll moasuromonl usod in airporl
pIanning and dosign.
Tlo - (MIW) is llo slrucluraI
capabiIily of llo aircrafl in Ianding. Tlo main goar is slrucluraIIy
dosignod lo absorb llo forcos oncounlorod during Ianding, llo Iargor
llo forcos, llo loavior musl bo llo goar. NormaIIy llo main goars of
lransporl calogory aircrafl aro slrucluraIIy dosignod for a Ianding al a
- - -

voigll Ioss llan llo maximum slrucluraI laIooff voigll. Tlis is so


bocauso an aircrafl Iosos voigll on roulo by burning fuoI. Tlis Ioss in
voigll is considorabIo if llo journoy is Iong, boing in oxcoss of 80,000 Ib
for Iargo jol lransporls. Il is lloroforo nol oconomicaI lo dosign llo
main goar of an aircrafl lo supporl llo maximum slrucluraI laIooff
voigll during Ianding, sinco llis silualion viII raroIy occur. If il doos
occur, as in llo caso of aircrafl maIfunclion jusl aflor laIooff, llo piIol
musl jollison or burn off sufficionl fuoI prior lo rolurning lo llo air-
porl so as nol lo oxcood llo maximum Ianding voigll. Ior slorl rango
aircrafl, llo main goar is dosignod lo supporl, in a Ianding oporalion,
a voigll noarIy oquaI lo llo maximum slrucluraI laIooff voigll. Tlis
is so bocauso llo dislancos bolvoon slops aro slorl, and lloroforo a
Iargo amounl of fuoI is nol consumod bolvoon slops.
On Ianding, llo voigll of an aircrafl is llo sum of llo oporaling
voigll omply, llo payIoad, and llo fuoI rosorvo, assuming llal llo
aircrafl Iands al ils doslinalion and is nol divorlod lo an aIlornalo air-
porl. Tlis Ianding voigll cannol oxcood llo maximum slrucluraI
Ianding voigll of llo aircrafl. Tlo laIooff voigll is llo sum of llo
Ianding voigll and llo lrip fuoI. Tlis voigll cannol oxcood llo max-
imum slrucluraI laIooff voigll of llo aircrafl.
-
Iorlaps llo mosl significanl conlribulor lo incroasod aircrafl por-
formanco las lisloricaIIy como from improvomonls in aircrafl ongino
loclnoIogy, from oarIy lvonlioll-conlury pislon onginos lo lvonly-
firsl-conlury ligl-porformanco jol ongino loclnoIogy.
WliIo lloro aro many maIos and modoIs of aircrafl onginos pro-
ducod by a numbor of ongino manufaclurors, aircrafl ongino lypos
can gonoraIIy bo pIacod inlo llroo calogorios, pislon onginos, lurbo-
props, and lurbofan (or jol) onginos.
Tlo lorm - appIios lo aII propoIIor-drivon aircrafl pov-
orod by ligl-oclano gasoIino-fod rociprocaling onginos. Mosl smaII
gonoraI avialion aircrafl aro povorod by pislon onginos. Tlo lorm
rofors lo propoIIor-drivon aircrafl povorod by lurbino onginos.
Tlo lorm or las roforonco lo lloso aircrafl vlicl aro nol
dopondonl on propoIIors for llrusl, bul vlicl oblain llo llrusl
diroclIy from a lurbino ongino. }ol onginos aro lypicaIIy povorod
using a form of diosoI fuoI, Inovn as }ol-A. WliIo lisloricaIIy jol
onginos lavo boon usod lo povor Iargor gonoraI avialion and com-
morciaI sorvico aircrafl, jol onginos roconlIy lavo boon incroasingIy
producod for smaIIor rogionaI jol commorciaI sorvico aircrafl, and
ovon smaIIor vory Iigll jol gonoraI avialion aircrafl.
In llo oarIy parl of llo lvonly-firsl conlury, mosl of llo lransporl
calogory aircrafl in sorvico aro oquippod vill jol onginos, and as sucl,
mucl of llo pIanning and dosign of airporls sorving commorciaI sorv-
ico and businoss gonoraI avialion aro basod around jol ongino aircrafl.


}ol onginos can bo cIassifiod inlo lvo gonoraI calogorios, lurbojol
and lurbofan. A lurbojol ongino consisls of a comprossor, a combus-
lion clambor, and a lurbino al llo roar of llo ongino. Tlo oarIy jol
airIino aircrafl, parlicuIarIy llo Booing 707 and llo DC-8, voro pov-
orod by lurbojol onginos, bul lloso voro discardod in favor of lurbo-
fan onginos principaIIy bocauso llo Iallor aro far moro oconomicaI.
A lurbofan is ossonliaIIy a lurbojol ongino lo vlicl las boon
addod Iargo-diamolor bIados, usuaIIy Iocalod in fronl of llo compros-
sor. Tloso bIados aro normaIIy roforrod lo as llo fan. A singIo rov of
bIados is roforrod lo as singIo slago, lvo rovs of bIados as muIlislago.
In doaIing vill lurbofan onginos roforonco is mado lo llo bypass
ralio. Tlis is llo ralio of llo mass airfIov llrougl llo fan lo llo mass
airfIov llrougl llo coro of llo ongino or llo lurbojol porlion. In a
lurbofan onginos llo air fIov llrougl llo coro of llo ongino, llo innor
fIov, is lol and vory comprossod and is burnod in il. Tlo air fIov
llrougl llo fan, llo oulor fIov, is comprossod mucl Ioss and oxils
from llo ongino villoul burning inlo an annuIus around llo innor
coro. Ian onginos aro quiolor llan lurbojol onginos and llo dovoIop-
monl of quiol propuIsivo inlogralod povor pIanls in modorn lurbo-
fan las incIudod oxlonsivo acouslic Iining dovoIopmonl boll in llo
inIol and llo fan oxlausl |38].
Mosl fans aro inslaIIod in fronl of llo main ongino. A fan can bo
llougll of as a smaII diamolor propoIIor drivon by llo lurbino of llo
main ongino. NoarIy aII airIino lransporl aircrafl aro nov povorod by
lurbofan. Curronl loclnoIogicaI advancos in onginos aro conconlralod
lovard llo dovoIopmonl of onginos for slorl and modium
lauI aircrafl and uIlraligl bypass ralio lurbofan onginos for Iong
lauI aircrafl. Tloso ongino loclnoIogios roduco fuoI consumplion by
25 lo 35 porconl. Tloso onginos, vlicl aro variousIy lormod
(UDI) onginos and -- (UHB) lurbofan onginos,
lavo brougll on llo omorgonco of vory Iigll jol aircrafl.
}ol ongino porformanco is mado in moasurod boll in lorms of
povor and officioncy. Tlo povor of an aircrafl ongino is lypicaIIy
moasurod in pounds of forvard moving forco, or llrusl. TabIo 2-4
Iisls a sampIo of jol onginos, and lloir moasuromonls of llrusl inslaIIod
on lisloricaI and curronl lransporl calogory aircrafl.
Aircrafl ongino povor officioncy is moasurod in lorms of llo
llrusl-lo-voigll ralio, dofinod simpIy as llo pounds of llrusl pro-
vidod by llo ongino, dividod by llo voigll of llo ongino. IarIy jol
onginos voro producod vill llrusl-lo-voigll ralios of approximaloIy
3:1. In llo oarIy parl of llo lvonly-firsl conlury, nov Iigll bul povor-
fuI jol onginos vill llrusl lo voigll ralios noaring 5:1 lavo signifi-
canlIy improvod llo oporaling officioncy of air lransporl aircrafl and
lavo mado llo omorgonco of llo vory Iigll jol marIol foasibIo.
Ono imporlanl moasuro of ongino porformanco officioncy is llal
of spocific fuoI consumplion, oxprossod in lorms of pounds of fuoI por

-
-

- - -

lour por pound of llrusl. IuoI consumplion of jol aircrafl onginos


londs lo bo oxprossod in pounds rallor llan in gaIIons. Tlis is bocauso
llo voIumolric oxpansion and conlraclion of fuoI vill clangos in
lomporaluro can bo misIoading in llo amounl of fuoI vlicl is avaiI-
abIo. Iacl gaIIon of jol fuoI voigls aboul 6.7 Ib.
- for a parlicuIar lypo of aircrafl, dofinod as
llo amounl of fuoI roquirod (in pounds) lo croalo 1 Ib of llrusl, is a
funclion of ils voigll, aIliludo, and spood. Somo lypicaI vaIuos aro
givon in TabIo 2-5 moroIy lo iIIuslralo llo fuoI oconomy of a lurbofan
ongino parlicuIarIy al ligl bypass ralios (a jol onginos -- is
dofinod as llo ralio bolvoon llo mass fIov ralo of air dravn in by llo
fan bul bypassing llo ongino coro lo llo mass fIov ralo passing
llrougl llo ongino coro). Significanl gains in spocific fuoI consump-
lion lavo boon mado vill modorn aircrafl. TabIo 2-6 givos llo approx-
imalo avorago consumplion of fuoI for lypicaI aircrafl.
IuoI consumplion improvomonls in llo Iasl lvo docados lavo
boon significanl. Nov onginos, sucl as llo CIM56, CI6, RB211-524D,
and IW4000, as voII as dorivalivos of curronl onginos, lavo rosuIlod
in significanl fuoI oconomy gains.
An indicalion of llo difforoncos in fuoI consumplion allainod by
llo various lypos of passongor aircrafl in llo difforonl lrip modos is
givon in TabIo 2-5. Il slouId bo poinlod oul, lovovor, llal llo dala aro
onIy indicalors of fuoI consumplion and nol produclivily. Tloso air-
crafl vlicl burn llo liglor ralos of fuoI gonoraIIy aro capabIo of
groalor spoods and lavo groalor passongor capacily.
--

-













Spocific IuoI Consumplion is llo amounl of fuoI roquirod, in pounds, lo croalo
1 Ib of llrusl.
-- -


As obsorvod in Iig. 2-5, llo fuoI consumplion in gaIIons por
avaiIabIo soal miIo docroasos vill incroasing roulo sogmonl Iongll.
Tlis ralio las bocomo incroasingIy significanl lo aircrafl oporalions
as llo prico of fuoI las incroasod dramalicaIIy in llo oarIy parl of llo
lvonly-firsl conlury. Mosl significanlIy for airporl pIanning and

-

-










-
- - - -
-
0.01
500 1000 1500
Trip length, mi
2000 2500
0.02
F
u
e
l

c
o
n
s
u
m
p
t
i
o
n
,

g
a
l
0.03
Maximum
Average
Minimum
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
- - -

dosign, aircrafl oporalors aro pIacing incroasing offorl inlo minimiz-


ing aircrafl oporaling limo al airporls, incIuding soarcling for
slorlor laxi limos bolvoon aircrafl parIing aroas and runvays, lurn-
around limos al galo aroas, and oporaling in aroas vloro lloro is
roducod congoslion in llo IocaI airspaco.
Roconl incroasos in fuoI cosls, combinod vill llo offorls of air car-
riors lo roduco ollor oporaling oxponsos, lavo rosuIlod in fuoI boing
llo groalosl oxponso lo mosl air carriors. Tlo lisloricaI lronds in and
llo projoclions for llo prico of oiI and llo prico of jol fuoI for U.S.
airIinos aro slovn in Iig. 2-6. Tlo cosl of jol fuoI por gaIIon lad
incroasod from Ioss llan $0.50 in 1987 lo noarIy $3.50 in 2008 boforo
docroasing lo approximaloIy $1.00 por gaIIon by llo ond of 2008
(sourco: BTS, ATA), furllor molivaling llo aircrafl induslry lo ongi-
noor moro officionl ongino propuIsion and aircrafl loclnoIogios and
for aircrafl oporalors and airporl pIannors lo croalo onvironmonls
llal aIIov for moro officionl oporalions.
- -
}usl as lloy vary in dimonsionaI claraclorislics, llo curronl fIool of
civiI uso aircrafl varios vidoIy in lloir rospoclivo abiIilios lo fIy al
corlain spoods and aIliludos ovor corlain dislancos, llo runvay
Ionglls roquirod lo safoIy porform Ianding and laIooff oporalions, as
voII as in llo amounl of noiso omissions and onorgy consumplion.
Many of lloso varialions aro nol onIy funclions of llo aircrafl llom-
soIvos bul in llo varying onvironmonls al vlicl lloy oporalo.
To fuIIy undorsland llo varying porformanco claraclorislics of
aircrafl, il is nocossary lo undorsland corlain oIomonls llo onviron-
monl in vlicl lloy oporalo.
-
0.00
1
9
8
6
1
9
8
7
1
9
8
8
1
9
8
9
1
9
9
0
1
9
9
1
1
9
9
2
1
9
9
3
1
9
9
4
1
9
9
5
1
9
9
6
1
9
9
7
1
9
9
8
1
9
9
9
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
2
0
0
2
2
0
0
3
2
0
0
4
2
0
0
5
2
0
0
6
2
0
0
7
0.50
Month
1.00
1.50
$

p
e
r

g
a
l
l
o
n
2.00
2.50
3.00


--
Sinco aircrafl aro dosignod lo oporalo in llo aIliludos of llo oarlls
almosploro from soa IovoI lo noarIy 50,000 fl abovo soa IovoI, il is
imporlanl lo undorsland llo claraclorislics of llo almosploro al
lloso aIliludos and lov aIliludos, as voII as ollor almosploric clar-
aclorislics, affocl aircrafl porformanco.
Tlo porformanco of aII aircrafl is affoclod significanlIy by llo almos-
ploric condilions in vlicl lloy oporalo. Tloso condilions aro conslanlIy
varying, basod simpIy on llo daiIy loaling and cooIing of llo oarll by
llo sun, and llo associalod vinds and procipilalion llal occur.
In gonoraI, llo porformanco of aircrafl doponds primariIy on llo
donsily of llo air llrougl vlicl il is oporaling. Tlo groalor llo don-
sily of llo air, llo moro air moIocuIos fIov ovor llo vings, croaling
moro Iifl, aIIoving llo aircrafl lo fIy. As air donsily docroasos, aircrafl
roquiro Iargor airspood lo mainlain Iifl. Ior airporl dosign, for oxam-
pIo, llis lransIalos lo Iongor runvay Iongll roquiromonls vlon air is
Ioss donso. Tlo donsily of llo air is primariIy a funclion of llo air
prossuro, moasurod in IngIisl unils as inclos of morcury (inHg) and
in molric unils as miIIibars (mb) or loclopascaIs.
Air donsily is affoclod by air prossuro and air lomporaluro. As air
prossuro docroasos, lloro aro Ioss air moIocuIos por unil voIumo and llus
air donsily docroasos. As air lomporaluro incroasos, llo voIocily and llus
spacing bolvoon air moIocuIos incroasos, llus roducing air donsily.
WliIo lloso claraclorislics of llo almosploro vary from day lo day
and from pIaco lo pIaco, for praclicaI convonionco for comparing llo
porformanco of aircrafl, as voII as for pIanning and dosign of airporls,
a - - las boon dofinod. A - - roprosonls
llo avorago condilions found in llo acluaI almosploro in a parlicuIar
goograplic rogion. SovoraI difforonl slandard almosploros aro in uso,
bul llo ono mosl commonIy usod is llo ono proposod by ICAO.
In llo slandard almosploro il is assumod llal from soa IovoI lo an
aIliludo of aboul 36,000 fl, Inovn as llo -, llo lomporaluro
docroasos IinoarIy. Abovo 36,000 lo aboul 65,000 fl, Inovn as llo -
-, llo lomporaluro romains conslanl, and abovo 65,000 fl, llo lom-
poraluro risos. Many convonlionaI jol aircrafl fIy as ligl as 41,000 fl. Tlo
suporsonic lransporls fIov al aIliludos on llo ordor of 60,000 fl or moro.
In llo lroposploro llo slandard almosploro is dofinod as foIIovs:
1. Tlo lomporaluro al soa IovoI is 59pI or 15pC. Tlis is Inovn as
llo - al soa IovoI.
2. Tlo prossuro al soa IovoI is 29.92126 inHg or 1015 mb. Tlis is
Inovn as llo - --o al soa IovoI.
3. Tlo lomporaluro gradionl from soa IovoI lo llo aIliludo al
vlicl llo lomporaluro bocomos 69.7pI is 3.566pI por llou-
sand fool. Tlal is, for ovory incroaso in aIliludo of 1000 fl, llo
lomporaluro docroasos by approximaloIy 3.5pI or 2pC.
- - -

Boll slandard prossuro and slandard lomporaluro docroaso vill


incroasing aIliludo abovo soa IovoI. Tlo foIIoving roIalion oslabIislos llo
slandard prossuro in llo lroposploro up lo a lomporaluro of 69.7pI.

0 0
5 2561

.
(2-2)
vloro
0
slandard prossuro al soa IovoI (29.92 inHg)
slandard prossuro al a spocifiod aIliludo

0
slandard lomporaluro al soa IovoI (59pI)
slandard lomporaluro al a spocifiod aIliludo
In llo abovo formuIa, llo lomporaluro is oxprossod in absoIulo
or RanIino unils. AbsoIulo zoro is oquaI lo 459.7pI, 0pI is oquaI lo
459.7pR, and 59pI is oquaI lo 518.7pR.
Using lloso criloria, llo slandard lomporaluro al an aIliludo of
5000 fl is 41.2pI, and llo slandard prossuro is 24.90 inHg. TabIo 2-7
conlains a parliaI Iisling of slandard lomporaluros and prossuros. Il
is common lo rofor lo - - or - . A slandard


9
--

















--


condilion is ono in vlicl llo acluaI lomporaluro and prossuro cor-
rospond lo llo slandard lomporaluro and prossuro al a parlicuIar
aIliludo. Wlon roforonco is mado lo llo lomporaluro boing abovo
slandard il moans llal llo lomporaluro is liglor llan llo slandard
lomporaluro.
As aircrafl laIooff porformanco dala is lypicaIIy roIalod lo llo
IocaI baromolric prossuro and ambionl air lomporaluro, vlicl in lurn
affocls llo donsily of llo air, a dofinod vaIuo Inovn as -
is oflon usod lo oslimalo llo donsily of llo air al any givon limo. Don-
sily aIliludo is a funclion of llo offocl of baromolric prossuro on air
donsily, dofinod llrougl llo moasuromonl Inovn as prossuro aIli-
ludo, and llo ambionl lomporaluro.
Assuming llal al a slandard day al soa IovoI, vloro llo oIovalion
abovo soa IovoI is offoclivoIy 0, llo donsily aIliludo on a slandard day
vouId aIso bo 0. If llo baromolric prossuro vas Ioss llan llo slandard
prossuro of 29.92 inHg, llo prossuro aIliludo vouId bo groalor llan 0.
ConvorsoIy, if llo baromolric prossuro vas groalor llan slandard
prossuro, llo prossuro aIliludo vouId bo Ioss llan 0. Tlis roIalos lo llo
facl llal, vlon llo almosploric prossuro drops, llo air bocomos Ioss
donso, roquiring a Iongor run on llo ground lo oblain llo samo
amounl of Iifl as on a day vlon llo prossuro is ligl. Tlus a roduclion
in almosploric prossuro al an airporl las llo samo offocl on ils air
donsily as if llo airporl lad boon movod lo a liglor oIovalion. --
is dofinod as llo aIliludo corrosponding lo llo prossuro of llo
slandard almosploro. Tlus if llo almosploric prossuro is 29.92 inHg,
llo prossuro aIliludo is 0. If llo prossuro drops lo 28.86 inHg, llo pros-
suro aIliludo is 1000 fl. Tlis can bo oblainod from llo formuIa roIaling
prossuro and lomporaluro. If llis Iovor prossuro occurrod al a soa
IovoI airporl, llo goograplic aIliludo vouId bo 0, bul llo prossuro
aIliludo vouId bo 1000 fl. Ior airporl pIanning purposos, il is salisfac-
lory lo assumo llal llo goograplic and prossuro aIliludos aro oquaI
unIoss llo baromolric prossuros al a parlicuIar silo aro unusuaIIy Iov
a groal doaI of llo limo.
- is dofinod as prossuro aIliludo adjuslod for lom-
poraluro. SimiIar lo llo offocl of baromolric prossuro on aircrafl por-
formanco, if llo lomporaluro of llo air vas groalor llan slandard
lomporaluro, llo donsily of llo air vouId bo Iovor and llo donsily
aIliludo vouId incroaso, and if llo lomporaluro voro Iovor llan
slandard, llo donsily aIliludo vouId docroaso. Il is bocauso of llo
offocl of boll baromolric prossuro and ambionl air lomporaluro on
aircrafl porformanco llal airporls Iocalod al ligl oIovalions, vloro
air prossuro is gonoraIIy Iovor llan al soa IovoI, and in Iocalions
vloro llo ambionl air lomporaluro oflon risos voII abovo 59pI, aro
airporls conslruclod vill Iongor runvays, as Iongor runvays aro
roquirod for aircrafl lo roacl noodod airspoods lo gol sufficionl Iifl for
laIooff, llan al soa IovoI oIovalions, or vlon lomporaluros aro Iovor.
- - -


Sinco aircrafl dopond on llo voIocily of air fIoving ovor lloir vings
lo acliovo Iifl, and fIy llrougl slroams of moving air, simiIar lo slips
moving aIong valor vill curronls, llo diroclion and spood of vind,
boll noar llo surfaco of airporls and al aIliludos lavo groal offocl on
aircrafl porformanco.
As vinds primariIy affocl llo spood al vlicl aircrafl oporalo al
an airporl, il is imporlanl lo undorsland llo basic difforonco bolvoon
lvo vays of moasuring spood in an aircrafl, - and -.
Tlo groundspood is llo spood of llo aircrafl roIalivo lo llo ground.
Truo airspood is llo spood of an aircrafl roIalivo lo llo air fIoving
ovor llo airfoiI, or ving. Ior oxampIo, if an aircrafl is fIying al a
groundspood of 500 In in air vloro llo vind is bIoving in llo oppo-
silo diroclion, Inovn as a , al a spood of 100 In, llo lruo air-
spood is 600 In. IiIoviso, if llo vind is bIoving in llo samo diroc-
lion, a , and llo aircrafl mainlainod a groundspood of 500 In,
llo lruo airspood vouId bo 400 In.
On llo airporl surfaco, llo spood and diroclion of vinds diroclIy
affocl aircrafl runvay uliIizalion. Ior laIooff and Iandings, for oxam-
pIo, aircrafl porform bosl vlon oporaling vill llo vind bIoving
diroclIy lovard llom, llal is, vill a dirocl . Hoadvinds
aIIov an aircrafl lo acliovo Iifl al sIovor groundspoods, and llus
aIIov laIooffs and Iandings vill sIovor groundspoods and slorlor
runvay Ionglls. WliIo vind bIoving from bolind an aircrafl, llal is,
a is proforabIo for aircrafl fIying al aIliludo, as lloy acliovo
groalor groundspoods al a givon airspood, il is nol proforabIo for laIo-
off or Ianding, for procisoIy llo samo roason. As sucl, airporls lond lo
pIan and dosign runvays so llal aircrafl may oporalo mosl oflon vill
dirocl loadvinds, and orionl lloir primary runvays in llo diroclion
of llo provaiIing vinds.
Il is nol vory oflon llo caso llal aircrafl fIy inlo a dirocl
or . Moroovor, il is quilo common for an aircrafl lo laIooff or
Iand from an airporl al sucl a limo vlon llo runvays aro nol ori-
onlod diroclIy inlo llo oxisling vind. Wlon llis silualion occurs, air-
crafl porformanco laIos inlo considoralion any offocl of vlal aro
Inovn as ---.
WliIo oporaling in dirocl loadvind, laiIvind, or caIm condilions,
llo diroclion lovard vlicl an aircrafl is poinling, or , is llo
samo diroclion as llo aircrafl is acluaIIy lravoIing, or ovor llo
ground. Hovovor, vlon oporaling vill a crossvind, llo aircrafl
loading is difforonl llan ils lracI. A common anaIogy lo llis silualion
is llo svimmor svimming across a rivor vill a svifl curronl. Ivon
llougl sucl a svimmor may bo poinling diroclIy lo llo opposilo
sloro of llo rivor, lo or slo may ond up farllor dovnslroam llan
simpIy slraigll across llo rivor, and lo ond up diroclIy across llo rivor,
llo svimmor vouId lavo lo poinl, or load, al somo angIo upslroam.


Aircrafl navigaling a roulo al aIliludo oporalo in procisoIy llo
samo mannor. A loading is caIcuIalod, basod on llo spood and diroc-
lion of llo vind, and llo spood of llo aircrafl ilsoIf, llal viII givo llo
aircrafl llo dosirod lracI. Tlo angIo bolvoon llo dosirod lracI and llo
caIcuIalod loading is Inovn as llo . Tlo magniludo of llis
angIo can bo oblainod from llo foIIoving roIalion:
sin

(2-3)
vloro

is llo crossvind in miIos por lour or Inols and

is llo lruo
airspood in miIos por lour or Inols.
Tlo crossvind,

, is dofinod as llo compononl of llo vind,

,
llal is al a rigll angIo lo llo lracI. Tlo angIo is roforrod lo as llo
. Il viII bo nolod llal llo magniludo of llo angIo is diroclIy pro-
porlionaI lo llo spood of llo vind and invorsoIy proporlionaI lo llo
spood of llo aircrafl.
As an aircrafl approaclos a runvay, ils loading (diroclion in
vlicl llo noso is poinling) is of courso aIso dopondonl on llo slrongll
of llo vind lravoIing across llo pall of llo aircrafl (crossvind). Tlo
approacl fIigll pall lo llo runvay is an oxlonsion of llo conlorIino of
llo runvay. An aircrafl musl fIy aIong llis lracI lo safoIy roacl llo
runvay. Tlo roIalion bolvoon lracI, loading, and crossvind is iIIus-
lralod in Iig. 2-7. In ordor nol lo bo bIovn IaloraIIy off llo lracI by llo
vind, llo aircrafl musl fIy al an angIo from llo lracI. Tlis moans
llal vlon llo aircrafl is moving sIovIy, as il doos vlon il approaclos
a runvay, and lloro is a slrong crossvind, llo angIo viII bo Iargo.
Tlo lorm

is llo lruo airspood aIong llo lracI and is oquaI lo

cos .
To oblain llo groundspood aIong llo lracI, llo compononl of llo
vind aIong llo lracI musl bo sublraclod from

. In llo diagram llo


groundspood aIong llo lracI is oquaI lo

minus llo vind aIong


llo lracI,

sin . Ior oxampIo, assumo llal an aircrafl vas approacl-


ing a runvay al a spood of 135 In and llo crossvind vas 25 In. Tlo
--
Track
Runway
V
t
V
h
V
w
V
c
H
e
a
d
i
n
g
(
W
i
n
d
)
x
- - -

crab angIo vouId bo 10p10 . Tlis crab angIo is roducod lo 0 jusl prior
lo loucldovn, so llal llo aircrafl is approprialoIy poinlod slraigll
dovn llo conlor of llo runvay.
WliIo aircrafl oporalors aro lrainod lo safoIy oporalo aircrafl in
lloso crossvind condilions, il is cIoarIy dosirabIo lo minimizo llis
occurronco. Iurllormoro, llo plysicaI abiIily of an aircrafl lo prop-
orIy Iand in crossvind condilions is Iimilod by llo aircrafls voigll,
Ianding spood, and oxisling vinds. Oflon limos, smaII aircrafl cannol
safoIy Iand if crossvinds on a runvay aro loo groal. Ior llis roason,
airporls accommodaling smaIIor, sIovor aircrafl aro oflon dosignod
vill runvays in sovoraI diroclions, lo accommodalo varying vind
condilions. As opposod lo llo runvays llal aro orionlod inlo
llo provaiIing vinds, -- runvays aro orionlod inlo llo diroc-
lion of vinds occurring Ioss froquonlIy.
Tlo IAA calogorizos aircrafl by llo airspoods al vlicl lloy maIo
approaclos lo Iand al an airporl, Inovn as llo Aircrafl Approacl
Calogory, and providos roquiromonls lo airporls llal runvays bo pro-
vidod llal aIIov for safo oporalion of llo aircrafl llal uso llo airporl
for al Ioasl 95 porconl of llo annuaI vind condilions al llo airporl.
Tlo dosign procoss for oslimaling llo numbor and orionlalion of pri-
mary, as voII as crossvind runvays basod on llo approacl calogory
of soIoclod aircrafl is dolaiIod in Clap. 6 of llis booI.
--

Roforonco is mado lo aircrafl spood in sovoraI vays. Aircrafl porform-
anco dala is lypicaIIy mado roforonco lvo airspoods, namoIy,
- (TAS) and - (IAS). Tlo piIol oblains lis spood
from an airspood indicalor. Tlis indicalor vorIs by comparing llo
dynamic air prossuro duo lo llo forvard molion of llo aircrafl vill
llo slalic almosploric prossuro. As llo forvard spood is incroasod so
doos llo dynamic prossuro. Tlo airspood indicalor vorIs on llo prin-
cipIo of llo pilol lubo. Irom plysics il is Inovn llal llo dynamic pros-
suro is proporlionaI boll lo llo squaro of llo spood and lo llo donsily
of llo air. Tlo varialion vill llo squaro of llo spood is laIon caro of by
llo moclanism of llo airspood indicalor, bul nol llo varialion in don-
sily. Tlo indicalor is sonsilivo lo llo producl of llo donsily of llo air
and llo squaro of llo voIocily. Al ligl aIliludos llo donsily bocomos
smaIIor and llus llo indicalod airspood is Ioss llan llo lruo airspood.
If llo lruo airspood is roquirod, il can bo found vill llo aid of
labIos. As a vory rougl guido, ono can add 2 porconl lo llo indicalod
spood for oacl 1000 fl abovo soa IovoI lo oblain lruo airspood.
Tlo indicalod airspood is of moro imporlanco lo llo piIol llan is
llo lruo airspood. Tlo concorn is vill llo gonoralion of Iifl, spocificaIIy


llo slaII spood, llo spood al vlicl lloro is nol onougl airfIov ovor
llo vings lo suslain Iifl, vlicl is dopondonl on spood and air donsily.
Al ligl aIliludos an aircrafl viII slaII al a liglor spood llan il doos al
soa IovoI. Al liglor aIliludos, lovovor, llo airspood indicalor is indi-
caling spoods Iovor llan lruo spoods, consoquonlIy llis is on llo safo
sido and no corroclions aro nocossary. Tlus, an aircrafl vill a slaIIing
spood of 90 In viII slaII al llo samo indicalod airspood rogardIoss of
aIliludo. Tlis is vly aircrafl manufaclurors aIvays roporl slaIIing
spoods in lorms of indicalod airspood rallor llan lruo airspood. Will
llo inlroduclion of jol lransporls and ligl spood miIilary aircrafl, llo
roforonco dalum for spood is oflon llo spood of sound. Tlo spood of
sound is dofinod as (aflor Irnsl Macl, Auslrian scionlisl).
Tlus Macl 3 moans llroo limos llo spood of sound. Mosl of our cur-
ronl jol lransporls aro -- (sIovor llan llo spood of sound) and
cruiso al a spood in llo noiglborlood of 0.8 lo 0.9 Macl. Many miIi-
lary aircrafl aro -- (faslor llan llo spood of sound). Again llo
roador is romindod llal vlon llo maximum spood of an aircrafl is
quolod as 0.9 Macl, llis is in lorms of lruo airspood and nol ground-
spood. Sucl an aircrafl can concoivabIy bo lravoIing al a groundspood
liglor llan llo spood of sound, doponding on llo magniludo of llo
laiIvind.
Tlo spood of sound is nol a fixod spood, il doponds on lomporaluro
and nol on almosploric prossuro. As llo lomporaluro docroasos, so
doos llo spood of sound. Tlo spood of sound al 32pI (0pC) is 742 mi/l
(1090 fl/s), al 13pI (25pC) il is 707 mi/l, and al 86pI (30pC) il is
785 mi/l. In facl, llo spood of sound varios 2 fl/s for ovory clango in
lomporaluro of 1pC abovo or boIov llo spood al 0pC. Tlo spood of
sound al llo aIliludos al vlicl jols normaIIy fIy is Ioss llan 700 mi/l,
bul al aIliludos al vlicl smaII aircrafl normaIIy fIy (20,000 fl or Ioss) il
is groalor llan 700 mi/l.
Tlo spood of sound may bo compulod from llo formuIa

sm
33.4
0.5
(2-4)

sf
49.04
0.5
(2-5)
vloro
sm
spood of sound in miIos por lour al somo lomporaluro

sf
spood of sound in fool por socond al somo lomporaluro
lomporaluro in dogroos RanIino
Ior convonionco in navigalion, aircrafl dislancos and spoods aro
moasurod in naulicaI miIos and Inols, jusl IiIo moasuromonl on llo
ligl soas. Ono naulicaI miIo (6080 fl) is praclicaIIy oquaI lo 1 min of
arc of llo oarlls circumforonco. Ono Inol is dofinod as 1 nmi/l. Ono
naulicaI miIo is approximaloIy 1.15 Iand miIos.
Tlo porformancos of aircrafl aro, in parl, dofinod by llo various
spoods al vlicl lloy can safoIy Iifloff, cruiso, manouvor, and approacl
- - -

lo Iand. Tloso spoods aro dofinod in aircrafl porformanco manuaIs as


--. Sucl V-spoods incIudo:

no
: Do-Nol-Ixcood Spood, llo faslosl an aircrafl may cruiso in
smooll air lo mainlain safo slrucluraI inlogrily.

: Dosign Manouvoring Spood, llo rocommondod spood for an


aircrafl porforming manouvors (sucl as lurns) or oporaling in
lurbuIonl air.

Io
: Iifloff Spood, llo rocommondod spood al vlicl llo aircrafl
can safoIy Iifloff.

: Rolalo Spood, llo rocommondod spood al vlicl llo noso vlooI


may bo Iiflod off llo runvay during laIooff.

1
: Docision Spood, llo spood al vlicl, during a laIooff run, llo
piIol docidos lo conlinuo vill llo laIooff, ovon if lloro migll bo
an ongino faiIuro from llis poinl boforo laIooff. If an aircrafl dovoI-
ops an ongino issuo prior lo roacling
1
, llo piIol viII aborl llo
laIooff.

so
: SlaII Spood (Ianding conguralion), llo minimum possibIo
spood for an aircrafl in Ianding conguralion (Ianding goar dovn,
aps oxlondod) lo mainlain Iifl. If llo aircrafls airspood goos
boIov
so
, llo airpIano Iosos aII Iifl and is said lo -. Tlis spood
is aIso lypicaIIy llo spood al vlicl an aircrafl viII loucl dovn on
a runvay during Ianding.

rof
: Roforonco Ianding Approacl Spood, llo spood al vlicl an
aircrafl lravoIs vlon on approacl lo Ianding.
rof
is lypicaIIy caI-
cuIalod as 1.3 I
so
.
Ior airporl pIanning and dosign, many of lloso spoods conlrib-
ulo lo dolormining roquirod runvay Ionglls for laIooff and Ianding,
as voII as in dolormining llo maximum numbor of oporalions (i.o.,
llo capacily) llal can bo porformod on runvays ovor a givon poriod
of limo.

Tlo maximum dislanco llal an aircrafl can fIy, givon a corlain IovoI of
fuoI in llo lanIs is Inovn as llo aircrafls . Tloro aro a numbor
of faclors llal infIuonco llo rango of an aircrafl, among llo mosl
imporlanl is payIoad. NormaIIy as llo rango is incroasod llo payIoad
is docroasod, a voigll lrado-off occurring bolvoon fuoI lo fIy lo llo
doslinalion and llo payIoad vlicl can bo carriod.
Tlo roIalionslip bolvoon payIoad and rango is iIIuslralod in
Iig. 2-8. Tlo poinl A, llo rango al maximum payIoad, dosignalos llo
farllosl dislanco,

, llal an aircrafl can fIy vill a maximum slruc-


luraI payIoad. To fIy a dislanco of

and carry a payIoad of

llo air-
crafl las lo laIo off al ils maximum slrucluraI laIooff voigll, lovovor,
ils fuoI lanIs aro nol compIoloIy fiIIod. Ioinl B, llo rango al maximum


fuoI, roprosonls llo farllosl dislanco,

, an aircrafl can fIy if ils fuoI


lanIs aro compIoloIy fiIIod al llo slarl of llo journoy. Tlo corrospond-
ing payIoad llal can bo carriod is

. To lravoI llo dislanco

, llo
aircrafl musl laIo off al ils maximum slrucluraI laIooff voigll.
Tloroforo lo oxlond llo dislanco of lravoI from

lo

llo payIoad
las lo bo roducod in favor of adding moro fuoI. Ioinl C roprosonls
llo maximum dislanco an aircrafl can fIy villoul any payIoad.
Somolimos llis is roforrod lo as llo and is usod, if nocos-
sary, for doIivory of aircrafl. To lravoI llis dislanco

, llo maximum
amounl of fuoI is nocossary, bul sinco lloro is no payIoad, llo laIooff
voigll is Ioss llan maximum. In somo casos llo maximum slrucluraI
Ianding voigll may diclalo lov Iong an aircrafl can fIy vill a max-
imum slrucluraI payIoad. If llis is llo caso, llo Iino DI roprosonls
llo lrado-off bolvoon payIoad and rango vlicl musl occur sinco llo
payIoad is Iimilod by llo maximum slrucluraI Ianding voigll.
Tlo slapo of llo payIoad vorsus rango curvo vouId llon foIIov llo
Iino DIBC insload of ABC. IayIoad vorsus rango doponds on a
numbor of faclors sucl as molooroIogicaI condilions on roulo, fIigll
aIliludo, spood, fuoI, vind, and amounl of rosorvo fuoI. Ior porform-
anco comparison of difforonl aircrafl in an approximalo vay llo pay-
Ioad rango curvos aro usuaIIy slovn for slandard day, no vind, and
Iong rango cruiso.
Tlo acluaI payIoad, parlicuIarIy in passongor aircrafl, is normaIIy
Ioss llan llo maximum slrucluraI payIoad ovon vlon llo aircrafl is
compIoloIy fuII. Tlis is duo lo llo Iimilalion in llo uso of spaco vlon
passongors aro carriod. Ior compuling payIoad, passongors and lloir
baggago aro normaIIy considorod as 200 Ib unils.
Tlo aircrafl manufaclurors pubIisl payIoad vorsus rango dia-
grams in aircrafl claraclorislics manuaIs for oacl aircrafl vlicl may
bo usod for airporl pIanning purposos. Tloso diagrams aro mosl
-
R
d
Range
P
b
P
a
y
l
o
a
d
P
a
R
a
C
B
E
A D
R
e
R
b
R
c
- - -

usofuI in airporl pIanning for dolormining llo mosl probabIo voigll


claraclorislics of aircrafl fIying parlicuIar slago Ionglls bolvoon
airporls.
Tlo dislribulion of llo Ioad bolvoon llo main goars and llo noso
goar doponds on llo lypo of aircrafl and llo Iocalion of llo conlor of
gravily of llo aircrafl. Ior any gross voigll lloro is a maximum afl
and forvard conlor of gravily posilion lo vlicl llo aircrafl can bo
Ioadod for fIigll in ordor lo mainlain slabiIily. Tlus llo dislribulion
of voigll bolvoon llo noso and main goars is nol a conslanl. Ior llo
dosign of pavomonls il is normaIIy assumod llal 5 porconl of llo voigll
is supporlod on llo noso goar and llo romaindor on llo main goars.
Tlus if lloro aro lvo main goars, oacl goar supporls 47.5 porconl of
llo lolaI voigll. Ior oxampIo, if llo laIooff voigll of an aircrafl is
300,000 Ib, oacl main goar is assumod lo supporl 135,000 Ib. If llo
main goar las four liros, il is assumod llal oacl liro supporls an oquaI
fraclion of llo voigll on llo goar, in llis oxampIo, 33,750 Ib. As viII
bo discussod in Clap. 7, pavomonl slronglls aro dosignod basod on
llo maximum slrucluraI laIooff voiglls, as voII as llo Ianding goar
and Ioading configuralions, of llo aircrafl of inlondod uso.

Ono of llo mosl crilicaI oIomonls of aircrafl porformanco is lov sucl
claraclorislics, aIong vill IocaI almosploric condilions, affocl llo
runvay Iongll for an aircrafl lo safoIy laIooff and Iand.
Ior any givon oporalion, vlollor il bo a laIooff or Ianding, an
aircrafl viII roquiro a corlain amounl of runvay. Roquirod runvay
Iongll may vary vidoIy for a spocific aircrafl, as a rosuIl of llo air-
crafls voigll al llo limo of llo oporalion, as voII as llo IocaI almos-
ploric condilions. Ior llo airporl pIannor and dosignor, sucl varia-
lions lavo Ioss dirocl impacl on llo dosign Iongll of runvays, and
moro lo aircrafl oporalors vlo musl dolormino vlollor llo Iongll of
a runvay al a givon limo is safo for a parlicuIar oporalion. Novorllo-
Ioss, llo airporl pIannor and dosignor slouId bo avaro of lov an
aircrafls porformanco claraclorislics spocificaIIy affocl ils runvay
Iongll roquiromonls.
Tlo faclors vlicl lavo a boaring on and aircrafls runvay Iongll
roquiromonls for a givon oporalions may bo groupod inlo lvo gonoraI
calogorios:
1. Tlo plysicaI capabiIilios of llo aircrafl undor givon onviron-
monlaI condilions
2. Roquiromonls sol by llo govornmonl lo prolocl for safo
oporalions
An aircrafls porformanco capabiIilios and lonco runvay Iongll
roquiromonls aro oflon significanlIy affoclod by corlain naluraI onvi-
ronmonlaI condilions al llo airporl. Tlo moro imporlanl of lloso


condilions aro lomporaluro, surfaco vind, runvay gradionl, aIliludo
of llo airporl, and condilion of llo runvay surfaco.

AII ollor llings boing oquaI, llo liglor llo fioId oIovalion of llo air-
porl, llo Ioss donso llo almosploro, roquiring Iongor runvay Ionglls
for llo aircrafl lo gol lo llo approprialo groundspood lo acliovo suf-
ficionl Iifl for laIooff. Tlis incroaso is nol Iinoar bul varios vill llo
voigll of llo aircrafl and vill llo ambionl air lomporaluro.
Al liglor aIliludos llo ralo of incroaso is liglor llan al Iovor
aIliludos. Ior pIanning purposos, il can bo oslimalod llal bolvoon
soa IovoI and 5000 fl abovo soa IovoI, runvay Ionglls roquirod for a
givon aircrafl incroasos approximaloIy 7 porconl for ovory 1000 fl of
incroaso in oIovalion, and groalor undor vory lol lomporaluros
lloso llal oxporionco vory lol lomporaluros or aro Iocalod al liglor
aIliludos, llo ralo of incroaso can bo as mucl as 10 porconl. Tlus,
vliIo an aircrafl may roquiro 5000 fl of runvay lo laIooff al an air-
porl al soa IovoI, llo samo aircrafl may roquiro 7500 fl or moro al an
airporl 5000 fl abovo soa IovoI, ospociaIIy during poriods of ligl
lomporaluros.

Wind spood and diroclion al an airporl aIso lavo a significanco on
runvay Iongll roquiromonls. SimpIy, llo groalor llo loadvind llo
slorlor llo runvay Iongll roquirod, and llo groalor llo laiIvind llo
Iongor llo runvay roquirod. Iurllor, llo prosonco of crossvinds viII
aIso incroaso llo amounl of runvay roquirod for laIooff and Ianding.
Irom llo porspoclivo of llo pIannor, il is oflon oslimalod llal for
ovory 5 In of loadvind, roquirod runvay Iongll is roducod by
approximaloIy 3 porconl and for ovory 7 In of laiIvind, runvay
Iongll roquiromonls incroaso by approximaloIy 7 porconl. Ior airporl
pIanning purposos runvay Ionglls aro oflon dosignod assuming caIm
vind condilions.

To accommodalo naluraI lopograplic or ollor condilions, runvays
aro oflon dosignod vill somo IovoI of sIopo or . As sucl, air-
crafl oporaling for laIooff on a runvay vill an upliII gradionl
roquiros moro runvay Iongll llan a IovoI or dovnliII gradionl, llo
spocific amounl doponding on oIovalion of llo airporl and lompora-
luro. ConvorsoIy, Ianding aircrafl roquiro Ioss runvay Iongll vlon
Ianding on a runvay vill an upliII gradionl, and moro Iongll for a
dovnliII gradionl.
Sludios llal lavo boon mado indicalo llal llo roIalionslip
bolvoon uniform gradionl and incroaso or docroaso in runvay Iongll
is noarIy Iinoar |55]. Ior lurbino-povorod aircrafl llis amounls lo 7 lo
10 porconl for oacl 1 porconl of uniform gradionl. Airporl dosign
- - -

criloria Iimil llo gradionl lo a maximum of 1 porconl. Informalion


providod by aircrafl manufaclurors in fIigll manuaIs is basod on uni-
form gradionl, yol mosl runvay profiIos aro nol uniform. In llo
Unilod Slalos aircrafl oporalors aro aIIovod lo subslilulo an avorago
uniform gradionl, vlicl is a slraigll Iino joining llo onds of llo run-
vay, as Iong as no inlorvoning poinl aIong llo acluaI pall profiIo Iios
moro llan 5 fl abovo or boIov llo avorago Iino. IorlunaloIy mosl run-
vays mool llis roquiromonl. Ior airporl pIanning purposos onIy, llo
IAA usos an offoclivo gradionl. Tlo offoclivo gradionl is dofinod as
llo difforonco in oIovalion bolvoon llo liglosl and Iovosl poinls on
llo acluaI runvay profiIo dividod by llo Iongll of llo runvay. Slud-
ios indicalo llal villin llo dogroo of accuracy roquirod for airporl
pIanning lloro is nol vory mucl difforonco bolvoon llo uso of llo
avorago uniform gradionl and offoclivo gradionl.

SIusl or slanding valor on llo runvay las an undosirabIo offocl on
aircrafl porformanco. SIusl is oquivaIonl lo vol snov. Il las a sIip-
pory loxluro vlicl maIos braIing oxlromoIy poor. Boing a fIuid, il is
dispIacod by liros roIIing llrougl il, causing a significanl rolarding
forco, ospociaIIy on laIooff. Tlo rolarding forcos can gol so Iargo llal
aircrafl can no Iongor accoIoralo lo laIooff spood. In llo procoss sIusl
is sprayod on llo aircrafl, vlicl furllor incroasos llo rosisling forcos
on llo volicIo and can causo damago lo somo parls. ConsidorabIo
oxporimonlaI vorI las boon conduclod by NASA and llo IAA on llo
offocl of slanding valor and sIusl. As a rosuIl of lloso losls, jol opora-
lions aro Iimilod lo no moro llan in of sIusl or valor. Bolvoon
and in dopll, llo laIooff voigll of an aircrafl musl bo roducod
subslanliaIIy lo ovorcomo llo rolarding forco of valor or sIusl. Il is
lloroforo imporlanl lo provido adoqualo drainago on llo surfaco of
llo runvay for romovaI of valor and moans for rapidIy romoving
sIusl. Boll valor and sIusl rosuIl in a vory poor coofficionl of braI-
ing friclion. Wlon liros rido on llo surfaco of llo valor or sIusl llo
plonomonon is Inovn as lydropIaning. Wlon llo liros lydropIano,
llo coofficionl of friclion is on llo ordor of vol ico and slooring abiIily
is compIoloIy Iosl. HydropIaning is primariIy a funclion of liro infIa-
lion prossuro and lo somo oxlonl llo condilion and lypo of groovos in
llo liros. According lo losls mado by NASA, llo approximalo spood
al vlicl lydropIaning dovoIops may bo dolorminod by llo foIIoving
formuIa:

10
0.5
(2-6)
vloro

is llo spood in miIos por lour al vlicl lydropIaning dovoI-


ops and is llo liro infIalion prossuro in pounds por squaro incl.
Tlo rango of infIalion prossuros for commorciaI jol lransporls var-
ios from 120 lo ovor 200 Ib/in
2
. Tloroforo llo lydropIaning spoods


vouId rango from 110 lo 140 mi/l or moro. Tlo Ianding spoods aro in
llo samo rango. Tloroforo lydropIaning can bo a lazard lo jol opora-
lions. HydropIaning can dovoIop vlon llo dopll of valor or sIusl is
on llo ordor of 0.2 in or Ioss, llo oxacl dopll doponding on liro lroad
dosign, condilion of llo liros, and llo loxluro of llo pavomonl sur-
faco. Smooll lroad oporaling on a smooll pavomonl surfaco roquiros
llo Ioasl dopll of fIuid for lydropIaning.
To roduco llo lazard of lydropIaning and lo improvo llo cooffi-
cionl of braIing friclion, runvay pavomonls lavo boon groovod in a
lransvorso diroclion. Tlo groovos form rosorvoirs for llo valor on llo
surfaco. Tlo IAA is conducling oxlonsivo rosoarcl lo oslabIisl sland-
ards for groovo dimonsions and slapo |54]. In llo pasl llo groovos
voro normaIIy in vido and doop and spacod 1 in aparl |44].
--
Transporl calogory aircrafl aro Iiconsod and oporalod undor llo codo
of roguIalions Inovn as llo IodoraI Avialion RoguIalions (IAR). Tlis
codo is promuIgalod by llo fodoraI govornmonl in coordinalion vill
induslry. Tlo roguIalions govorn llo aircrafl gross voiglls al laIooff
and Ianding by spocifying porformanco roquiromonls, Inovn as
-- vlicl musl bo mol in lorms roIalod lo llo runvay
Ionglls avaiIabIo. Tlo roguIalions porlaining lo lurbino aircrafl con-
sidor llroo gonoraI casos in oslabIisling llo Iongll of a runvay nocos-
sary for safo oporalions. Tloso llroo casos aro
1. A normaI laIooff vloro aII onginos aro avaiIabIo and suffi-
cionl runvay is roquirod lo accommodalo varialions in Iifloff
loclniquos and llo dislinclivo porformanco claraclorislics of
lloso aircrafl
2. TaIooff invoIving an ongino faiIuro, vloro sufficionl runvay
is roquirod lo aIIov aircrafl lo conlinuo llo laIooff dospilo llo
Ioss of povor, or oIso braIo lo a slop
3. Ianding, vloro sufficionl runvay is roquirod lo aIIov for
normaI varialion in Ianding loclniquo, ovorslools, poor
approaclos, and llo IiIo
Tlo roguIalions porlaining lo pislon-ongino aircrafl rolain in prin-
cipaI llo abovo criloria, bul llo firsl crilorion is nol usod. Tlis parlicu-
Iar roguIalion is aimod lovard llo ovoryday, normaI laIooff manouvor,
sinco ongino faiIuro occurs rallor infroquonlIy vill lurbino-povorod
aircrafl. Tlo runvay Iongll noodod al an airporl by a parlicuIar lypo
and voigll of lurbino-povorod aircrafl is oslabIislod by ono of llo
forogoing llroo casos, vliclovor yioIds llo Iongosl Iongll.
In llo roguIalions for boll pislon-ongino aircrafl and lurbino-
povorod aircrafl, llo vord runvay rofors lo - (IS).
- - -

Tlus, in llo discussion vlicl foIIovs, llo lorms runvay and fuII-
slrongll pavomonl aro synonymous. In any discussion of llo offocl of
llo roguIalions on llo Iongll of llo runvay, lovovor, il is imporlanl
lo nolo llal llo curronl roguIalions for lurbino-povorod aircrafl do
nol roquiro a runvay for llo onliro laIooff dislanco, vliIo llo roguIa-
lions for pislon-ongino aircrafl normaIIy do.
To indicalo vly lloro is a difforonco in llo lvo roguIalions vill
rogard lo llo Iongll of fuII-slrongll pavomonl, il is nocossary lo oxam-
ino in moro dolaiI llo roguIalions porlaining lo lurbino-povorod
lransporls.
Tloso llroo criloria as dofinod by llo curronl lurbino-povorod
lransporl roguIalions, IAR Iarl 25 |12] and Iarl 121 |23], aro iIIuslralod
in Iig. 2-9.
Iiguro 2-9 iIIuslralos llo roquirod -. Tlo roguIa-
lions slalo llal llo - (ID) roquirod for an aircrafl Iand-
ing on a givon runvay musl bo sufficionl lo pormil llo aircrafl lo
como lo a fuII slop, - - (SD), villin 60 porconl of llis dis-
lanco, assuming llal llo piIol maIos an approacl al llo propor spood
and crossos llo llrosloId of llo runvay al a loigll of 50 fl. Tlo Iand-
ing dislanco musl bo of fuII-slrongll pavomonl. Tlo Ianding dislanco
for pislon-ongino aircrafl is dofinod in oxaclIy llo samo mannor.
Iiguro 2-9, iIIuslralos llo runvay Iongll roquiromonls for a
normaI laIooff vill aII onginos fuIIy oporaling, Iig. 2-9 dofinos a
- (TOD), vlicl, for a spocific voigll of aircrafl, musl
bo 115 porconl of llo acluaI dislanco llo aircrafl usos lo roacl a loigll
of 35 fl (D35). Nol aII of llis dislanco las lo bo of fuII-slrongll pavo-
monl. Wlal is nocossary is llal aII llis dislanco bo froo from obslruc-
lions lo prolocl againsl an ovorslooling laIooff. ConsoquonlIy llo
roguIalions pormil llo uso of a (CI) for parl of llis dislanco.
A cIoarvay is dofinod as a roclanguIar aroa boyond llo runvay nol
Ioss llan 500 fl vido and nol Iongor llan 1000 fl in Iongll, conlraIIy
Iocalod aboul llo oxlondod conlorIino of llo runvay, and undor llo
conlroI of llo airporl aullorilios. Tlo cIoarvay is oxprossod in lorms
of a cIoarvay pIano, oxlonding from llo ond of llo runvay vill an
upvard sIopo nol oxcooding 1.25 porconl abovo vlicl no objocl nor
any porlion of llo lorrain prolrudos, oxcopl llal llrosloId Iiglls may
prolrudo abovo llo pIano if lloir loigll abovo llo ond of llo runvay
is nol groalor llan 26 in and if lloy aro Iocalod lo oacl sido of llo
runvay. Up lo ono-laIf llo difforonco bolvoon 115 porconl of llo dis-
lanco lo roacl llo poinl of Iifloff, - (IOD), and llo laIooff
dislanco may bo cIoarvay. Tlo romaindor of llo laIooff dislanco musl
bo fuII-slrongll pavomonl and is idonlifiod as llo (TOR).
Iiguro 2-9 iIIuslralos llo ongino-faiIuro caso, doscribod as llo
caso vloro ono ongino faiIs al a crilicaI poinl during an aircrafl laIooff
roII, and llo piIol maIos an immodialo judgmonlaI docision vlollor
or nol lo conlinuo vill a laIooff, or porform an omorgoncy slop.

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- - -

IodoraI roguIalions spocify llal llo laIooff dislanco roquirod dur-


ing llo ongino-faiIuro caso is llo acluaI dislanco lo roacl a loigll of
35 fl (D35) vill no porconlago appIiod as in llo aII-ongino laIooff
caso. Tlis rocognizos llo infroquoncy of occurronco of ongino faiIuro.
Tlo roguIalions again pormil llo uso of a cIoarvay, in llis caso up lo
ono-laIf llo difforonco bolvoon llo Iifloff dislanco and llo laIooff
dislanco, llo romaindor boing fuII-slrongll pavomonl. Tlo roguIa-
lions for pislon-ongino aircrafl normaIIy roquiro fuII-slrongll pavo-
monl for llo onliro laIooff dislanco.
Tlo ongino-faiIuro caso aIso roquiros llal sufficionl dislanco musl
aIso bo avaiIabIo lo slop llo airpIano rallor llan conlinuo llo laIooff.
Tlo spood al vlicl ongino faiIuro is assumod lo occur is soIoclod by
llo aircrafl manufacluror and is roforrod lo as llo
- or - -
1
. If llo ongino faiIs al a spood groalor llan
llis spood, llo piIol las no cloico bul lo conlinuo llo laIooff. If an
ongino acluaIIy faiIs al or prior lo llis soIoclod spood, llo piIol braIos
lo a slop. Tlis dislanco roquirod, from boginning of llo laIooff roII lo
llo omorgoncy slop is roforrod lo as llo - - (DAS).
Ior pislon-ongino aircrafl onIy fuII-slrongll pavomonl is normaIIy
usod for llis purposo. Tlo roguIalions for lurbino-povorod aircrafl,
lovovor, rocognizo llal an aborlod laIooff is roIalivoIy raro and por-
mil uso of Iossor slrongll pavomonl, Inovn as - (SW), for llal
parl of llo accoIoralo-slop dislanco boyond llo laIooff run. Tlo slop-
vay is dofinod as an aroa boyond llo runvay, nol Ioss in vidll llan
llo vidll of llo runvay, conlraIIy Iocalod aboul llo oxlondod conlor-
Iino of llo runvay, and dosignalod by llo airporl aullorilios for uso
in docoIoraling llo aircrafl during an aborlod laIooff. To bo consid-
orod as sucl, llo slopvay musl bo capabIo of supporling llo airpIano
during an aborlod laIooff villoul inducing slrucluraI damago lo llo
aircrafl. Inginoorod maloriaI arrosling sysloms (IMAS) aro boing
usod as for llis purposo vill incroasing froquoncy.
Basod on llo abovo roquiromonls, aircrafl oporalors oslimalo a
roquirod (II) for oacl oporalion. Tlo fioId Iongll is gonor-
aIIy mado up of llroo compononls, namoIy, llo fuII-slrongll pavo-
monl (IS), llo parliaI slrongll pavomonl or slopvay (SW), and llo
cIoarvay (CI).
Tlo procoding roguIalions for lurbino-povorod aircrafl may bo
summarizod for oacl of llo casos in oqualion form lo find llo roquirod
fioId Iongll.
NormaI laIooff caso:
II
1
IS
1
CI
1max
(2-7)
vloro
TOD
1
1.15(D35
1
) (2-7)
CI
1max
0.50|TOD
1
1.15(IOD
1
)] (2-7)


TOR
1
TOD
1
CI
1max
(2-7)
IS
1
TOR
1
(2-7)
Ingino-faiIuro laIooff caso:
II
2
IS
2
CI
2max
(2-8)
vloro
TOD
2
D35
2
(2-8)
CI
2max
0.50(TOD
2
IOD
2
) (2-8)
TOR
2
TOD
2
CI
2max
(2-8)
IS
2
TOR
2
(2-8)
Ingino-faiIuro aborlod laIooff:
II
3
IS SW (2-9)
vloro
II
3
DAS (2-9)
Ianding caso:
II
4
ID (2-10)
vloro
ID
SD

0 60 .
(2-10)
IS
4
ID (2-10)
To dolormino llo roquirod fioId Iongll and llo various compo-
nonls of Iongll vlicl aro mado up of fuII-slrongll pavomonl, slop-
vay, and cIoarvay, llo abovo oqualions musl oacl bo soIvod for llo
crilicaI dosign aircrafl al llo airporl. Tlis viII rosuIl in finding oacl of
llo foIIoving vaIuos:
II max |(TOD
1
), (TOD
2
), (DAS), (ID)] (2-11)
IS max |(TOR
1
), (TOR
2
), (ID)] (2-12)
SW |(DAS) max (TOR
1
, TOR
2
, ID)] (2-13)
- - -

vloro SW
min
is zoro.
CI min |(II DAS), (CI
1max
), (CI
2max
)] (2-14)
vloro CI
min
is zoro and CI
max
is 1000 fl.
If oporalions aro lo laIo pIaco on llo runvay in boll diroclions, as
is llo usuaI caso, llo fioId Iongll compononls musl oxisl in oacl diroc-
lion. IxampIo IrobIom 2-1 iIIuslralos llo appIicalion of lloso roquiro-
monls for a lypollolicaI aircrafl.
Dolormino llo runvay Iongll roquiromonls according lo
llo spocificalions of IAR 25 and IAR 121 for a lurbino-povorod aircrafl vill llo
foIIoving porformanco claraclorislics:
NormaI laIooff:
Iifloff dislanco 7000 fl
Dislanco lo loigll of 35 fl 8000 fl
Ingino faiIuro:
Iifloff dislanco 8200 fl
Dislanco lo loigll of 35 fl 9100 fl
Ingino-faiIuro aborlod laIooff:
AccoIoralo-slop dislanco 9500 fl
NormaI Ianding:
Slop dislanco 5000 fl
Irom Iq. (2-4) for a normaI laIooff
TOD
1
1.15 D35
1
(1.15)(8000) 9200 fl
CI
1max
0.50|TOD
1
1.15(IOD
1
)] (0.50)|9200 1.15(7000)] 575 fl
TOR
1
TOD
1
CI
1max
9200 575 8625 fl
Irom Iq. (2-5) for an ongino-faiIuro laIooff
TOD
2
D35
2
9100 fl
CI
2max
0.50(TOD
2
IOD
2
) 0.50(9100 8200) 450 fl
TOR
2
TOD
2
CI
2max
9100 450 8650 fl
Irom Iq. (2-6) for an ongino-faiIuro aborlod laIooff DAS 9500 fl
Irom Iq. (2-7) for a normaI Ianding
ID
SD
fl
0 60
5000
0 60
8333
. .
Using llo abovo quanlilios in Iqs. (2-8) llrougl (2-11), llo acluaI runvay com-
pononl roquiromonls bocomo
II max |(TOD
1
), (TOD
2
), (DAS), (ID)]
max |(9200), (9100), (9500), (8333)] 9500 fl
IS max |(TOR
1
), (TOR
2
), (ID)]
max |(8625), (8650), (8333)] 8650 fl


SW |(DAS) max (TOR
1
, TOR
2
, ID)]
(9500) max |(8625), (8650), (8333)] (9500 8650) 850 fl
CI min |(II DAS), CI
1max
, CI
2max
]
min |(9500 9500), 575, 450] 0 fl
Tlo abovo roguIalions, as iIIuslralod in IxampIo IrobIom 2-1, aro
appIiod al aII airporls, in llo form of -- for oacl run-
vay |1, 9]. DocIarod dislancos aro llo dislancos llal aro docIarod
avaiIabIo and suilabIo for salisfying llo laIooff run, laIooff dislanco,
accoIoralo-slop dislanco and Ianding dislanco roquiromonls of air-
crafl. Iour docIarod dislancos aro commonIy roporlod for oacl run-
vay. Tloy aro llo laIooff run avaiIabIo (TORA), laIooff dislanco
avaiIabIo (TODA), accoIoralo-slop dislanco avaiIabIo (ASDA), and
Ianding dislanco avaiIabIo (IDA).
Tlo (TORA) is llo runvay Iongll docIarod
avaiIabIo and suilabIo for llo ground run of an aircrafl during laIo-
off. Ior IxampIo IrobIom 2-1, llo TORA vouId bo 8650 fl. Tlo
- (TODA) is llo laIooff run avaiIabIo pIus llo Iongll
of any romaining runvay and cIoarvay boyond llo far ond of llo
laIooff run avaiIabIo. Ior IxampIo IrobIom 2-1, llo TODA vouId bo
9500 fl. Tlo - - (ASDA) is llo amounl of
runvay pIus slopvay docIarod avaiIabIo and suilabIo for llo accoI-
oralion and docoIoralion of an aircrafl during an aborlod laIooff. Ior
IxampIo IrobIom 2-1, llo ASDA vouId aIso bo 9500 fl. Tlo
- (IDA) is llo runvay Iongll avaiIabIo and suilabIo
for Ianding an aircrafl. Ior IxampIo IrobIom 2-1, llo IDA vouId bo
8650 fl.
Il is apparonl llal boll llo laIooff dislanco and accoIoralo-slop
dislanco viII dopond on llo spood llo aircrafl las acliovod vlon an
ongino faiIs.
Sinco, for pislon-ongino aircrafl, fuII-slrongll pavomonl vas nor-
maIIy usod for llo onliro accoIoralo-slop dislanco and llo laIooff dis-
lanco, il vas llo gonoraI praclico lo soIocl
1
, so llal llo dislanco
roquirod lo slop from llo poinl vloro
1
vas roaclod vas oquaI lo
llo dislanco (from llo samo poinl) lo roacl a spocifiod loigll abovo
llo runvay. Tlo runvay Iongll oslabIislod on llis basis is roforrod lo
as llo baIancod fioId concopl or baIancod runvay and rosuIls in llo
slorlosl runvay. Ior lurbino-povorod aircrafl, llo soIoclion of
1
on
llis basis viII nol nocossariIy rosuIl in llo slorlosl runvay if a cIoar-
vay or a slopvay is providod.
Irom an airporl pIanning porspoclivo, il is nol lypicaI lo dosign a
runvays fuII-slrongll pavomonl, slopvay, and cIoarvay basod on a
givon aircrafl. Rallor, for oacl individuaI aircrafl oporalion, a
1
spood is soIoclod vlicl bosl accommodalos llo runvay on vlicl il
viII bo oporaling.
- - -

Ior oxampIo, for an aircrafl oporaling on a roIalivoIy slorl runvay,


a Iovor
1
may bo soIoclod, vlicl viII aIIov for a slorlor accoIoralo-
slop dislanco, bul vouId roquiro al Ioasl somo cIoarvay lo aIIov for
llo aircrafl lo safoIy cIimb oul lo 35 fl. ConvorsoIy, for roIalivoIy Iong
runvays llal may lavo obslacIos noar llo runvays ond, or for run-
vays vill Ioss fuII-slrongll pavomonl bul a slopvay al llo runvay
ond, a liglor
1
may bo soIoclod, lo aIIov for sloopor cIimb-oul undor
ongino-faiIuro condilions, and llo abiIily lo accommodalo a Iongor
accoIoralo-slop dislanco.
Tlus, ono can soo llal llo roguIalions porlaining lo lurbino-
povorod aircrafl offor a numbor of aIlornalivos lo llo aircrafl opora-
lor. Il slouId bo omplasizod llal llo laIooff dislanco and llo laIooff
run for llo ongino-faiIuro caso musl bo comparod vill llo corro-
sponding dislanco for llo normaI aII ongino laIooff caso. Tlo Iongor
dislanco aIvays govorns. A furllor discussion of lloso concopls is
prosonlod by ICAO |1].
Boll aircrafl oporalors and airporl pIannors aro inloroslod in
cIoarvays, bocauso cIoarvays viII, for a fixod avaiIabIo Iongll of run-
vay, aIIov llo oporalor addilionaI gross laIooff voigll vill Ioss
oxponso lo airporl managomonl llan buiIding fuII-slrongll pavomonl
vouId roquiro.
-
Wlonovor llo vings Iifl an aircrafl, vorlicos form noar llo onds of
llo vings. Tlo vorlicos aro mado up of lvo counlor-rolaling cyIin-
dricaI air massos aboul a vingspan aparl, oxlonding afl aIong llo
fIigll pall. Tlo voIocily of llo vind villin lloso cyIindors can bo
lazardous lo ollor aircrafl oncounloring llom in fIigll. Tlis is par-
licuIarIy lruo if a Iigllor aircrafl oncounlors a vorlox gonoralod by a
mucl loavior aircrafl. Tlo langonliaI voIocilios in a vorlox aro
diroclIy proporlionaI lo llo voigll of llo aircrafl and invorsoIy pro-
porlionaI lo llo spood. Tlo moro inlonso vorlicos aro lloroforo gon-
oralod vlon llo aircrafl is fIying sIovIy noar an airporl |52]. Tlo
vinds croalod by vorlicos aro oflon roforrod lo as vaIo lurbuIonco or
vaIo vorlox.
Onco vorlicos aro gonoralod lloy movo dovnvard and drifl Ial-
oraIIy in llo diroclion of llo vind. Tlo ralo al vlicl vorlicos sollIo
lovard llo ground is dopondonl lo somo oxlonl on llo voigll of an
aircrafl, llo loavior llo volicIo llo faslor llo vorlox viII sollIo.
Aboul ono vingspan loigll abovo llo ground llo vorlicos bogin lo
movo IaloraIIy avay from llo aircrafl, as slovn in Iig. 2-10. Tlo
duralion of a vorlox is dopondonl lo a groal oxlonl on llo voIocily of
llo vind. Wlon lloro is vory IillIo or no vind lloy can porsisl for
Iongor llan 2 min. As a rosuIl of lloso losls, llo IAA and ICAO
divido aircrafl inlo llroo cIassos for llo purposos vaIo-lurbuIonco
soparalion minima.


Ior airporl pIanning and dosign, as voII as air lraffic safoly pur-
posos, aircrafl lavo boon calogorizod inlo vaIo-lurbuIonco cIassifica-
lions, basod primariIy lloir maximum slrucluraI laIooff voiglls, as
iIIuslralod in TabIo 2-8. Oporaling aircrafl of varying vaIo-lurbuIonco
cIassificalions in llo samo vicinily las significanl offocls on llo safo
and officionl oporalion of an airfioId.
-
1. - -, 2d od., Documonl 9157-AN/901,
InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organizalion, MonlroaI, Canada, 1984.
2. - - -- , A.AC I00A,
Airbus Induslrio, Biagnac, Iranco, Oclobor 1987.
3. - - -- , D.AC
I00A, Airbus Induslrio, Biagnac, Iranco, Oclobor 1990.
4. - - -- , B.AC I00A,
Airbus Induslrio, Biagnac, Iranco, Docombor 1991.
5. - - -- , Airbus
Induslrio, Biagnac, Iranco, Iobruary 1988.
6. - - -- , IroIiminary,
Airbus Induslrio, Biagnac, Iranco, }uIy 1991.
-

---


---





--
- - -

7. Aircrafl of llo Iuluro, W. I. Iarsons and }. A. Slorn,


- Iapor 800743, Socioly of Aulomolivo Inginoors,
WarrondaIo, Ia., May 1980.
8. Aircrafl WaIo TurbuIonco Avoidanco, W. A. McGovan,
, NalionaI Aoronaulics and Spaco Adminislralion, Iapor
72/6, Waslinglon, D.C., }uIy 1971.
9. -, Advisory CircuIar, AC150/5300-13 clango 13, IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 2008.
10. - -
- Iarl 135, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C.,
1978.
11. -- - -
- Iarl 23, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon,
D.C., 1974.
12. -- - - - -
Iarl 25, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1974.
13. -- , Documonl D6-58322,
Booing CommorciaI AirpIano Company, SoallIo, Wasl., Docombor 1968.
14. -- , Documonl D6-58324-R2,
Booing CommorciaI AirpIano Company, SoallIo, Wasl., }uno 1978.
15. -- , Documonl D6-58325
Rovision D, Booing CommorciaI AirpIano Group, SoallIo, Wasl., Soplombor
1988.
16. -- , Documonl
D6-58325-2 Rovision A, Booing CommorciaI AirpIano Group, SoallIo, Wasl.,
}uIy 1990.
17. -- , Documonl D6-58326, Rov. I,
Booing CommorciaI AirpIano Group, SoallIo, Wasl., May 1984.
18. -- , Documonl D6-58326-1,
Rov. B, Booing CommorciaI AirpIano Group, SoallIo, Wasl., Marcl 1990.
19. -- , Documonl D6-58327 Rov D,
Booing CommorciaI AirpIano Group, SoallIo, Wasl., Soplombor 1989.
20. -- , Documonl D6-58328 Rov I,
Booing CommorciaI AirpIano Group, SoallIo, Wasl., Iobruary 1989.
21. -- , IroIiminary Informalion,
Documonl D6-58329, Booing CommorciaI AirpIano Group, SoallIo, Wasl.,
Iobruary 1992.
22. - - -- , AIM 146.1,
Brilisl Aorospaco Iimilod, HalfioId, Horlfordsliro, IngIand, }uno 1984.
23. -- -
- - Iarl 121,
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C. 1974.
24. - - -
- Iarl 127, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon,
D.C., 1974.
25. - -, H. W. Willinglon,
Booing CommorciaI AirpIano Company, SoallIo, Wasl., 1980.
26. - - , H. W. Willinglon, Booing
CommorciaI AirpIano Company, SoallIo, Wasl., Novombor 1980.
27. CTOI Concopls and ToclnoIogy DovoIopmonl, D. WiIIiam Connor,
-- -, Amorican Inslilulo of Aoronaulics and Aslronaulics,
}uIy-Augusl 1978.
28. - -- - -, Aorospaco
Induslrios Associalion of Amorica, Inc., Waslinglon, D.C., 1979.
29. , Booing CommorciaI AirpIano Group, SoallIo, Wasl.,
Marcl 1992.
30. -- , Roporl DAC-67492, DougIas
Aircrafl Company, McDonnoII-DougIas Corporalion, Iong Boacl, CaIif., Marcl
1969.


31. -- , Roporl DAC-67264, DougIas
Aircrafl Company, McDonnoII-DougIas Corporalion, Iong Boacl, CaIif.,
Soplombor 1978.
32. -- , Roporl DAC-67803A, DougIas
Aircrafl Company, McDonnoII-DougIas Corporalion, Iong Boacl, CaIif.,
}anuary 1991.
33. -- , Booing CommorciaI AirpIano Company, SoallIo,
Wasl., Marcl 1980.
34. - --, IinaI Roporl, CaIifornia Doparlmonl of
Transporlalion, Sacramonlo, CaIif., Docombor 1981.
35.
, voI. 1: Aircrafl Noiso, 2d od., InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organizalion,
MonlroaI, Canada, 1988.
36. -, Irogram Roviov, Booing CommorciaI AirpIano
Group, SoallIo, Wasl., 1990.
37. - - , IranIIin Walls, Inc., Nov YorI, annuaI.
38. - -, }oln I. Sloinor, Booing
CommorciaI AirpIano Group, SoallIo, Wasl, 1989.
39. }ol Transporl Claraclorislics RoIalod lo Airporls, R. Horonjoff and G. AlIborn,
- - -, voI. 91 AT1, Amorican Socioly of CiviI
Inginoors, Nov YorI, ApriI 1965.
40. --, Airporl IIanning Documonl CIR-12013, IocIlood
CaIifornia Company, BurbanI, CaIif., Docombor 1972.
41. -- , Roporl MDC-K0388,
McDonnoII-DougIas Corporalion, Iong Boacl, CaIif., Oclobor 1990.
42. - -- , Roporl MDC-}2904,
McDonnoII-DougIas Corporalion, Iong Boacl, CaIif., Iobruary 1992.
43. , Roporl MDC-91K0393,
McDonnoII-DougIas Corporalion, Iong Boacl, CaIif., Iobruary 1992.
44. - - --
-, Advisory CircuIar, AC 150/5320-12A, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion,
Waslinglon, D.C., }uIy 1986.
45. - - --
- Iarl 36, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1974.
46. , DougIas Aircrafl Company,
McDonnoII-DougIas Corporalion, Iong Boacl, CaIif., }uno 1980.
47. Iavomonl Grooving and Traclion Sludios, NASA SI-5073, -
- , NalionaI Aoronaulics and Spaco
Adminislralion, IangIoy IioId, Va., Novombor 1968.
48. Inoumalic Tiro HydropIaning and Somo Iffocls on VolicIo Iorformanco,
W. B. Horno and U. T. }oynor, - -,
Iapor 97UC, Nov YorI, 1965.
49. Runvay Grooving for Incroasing Traclionllo Curronl Irogram and an
Assossmonl of AvaiIabIo RosuIls, W. B. Horno and G. W. BrooIs,
, WiIIiamsburg, Va., Docombor 1967.
50. - -, Advisory CircuIar AC 150/5325-4B,
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., }anuary 2005.
51. - -, Aorospaco Induslrios Associalion of
Amorica, Inc., Waslinglon, D.C., }anuary 1978.
52. SimuIalod Vorlox Incounlors by a Tvin-Ingino CommorciaI Transporl Aircrafl
during IinaI Approacl, I. C. Haslings, }r. and G. I. Koysor, }r.,
- , Iapor 800775, Socioly of Aulomolivo Inginoors,
WarrondaIo, Ia., May 1980.
53. ToclnoIogy Roquiromonls and Roadinoss for Vory Iargo VolicIos, D. WiIIiam
Connor, , Amorican Inslilulo of Aoronaulics
and Aslronaulics, ArIinglon, Va., ApriI 1979.
54.
-, S. K. AgravaI and H. DiauloIo, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion
ToclnicaI Conlor, Roporl IAA-RD-80-78, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion,
AlIanlic Cily, N.}., }anuary 1981.
- - -

55. - -
- ICAO CircuIar 91-AN/75, InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organizalion,
MonlroaI, Canada, 1970.
56. TraiIing Vorlox Hazard, W. A. McGovan, -
-, Iapor 680220, Nov YorI, ApriI 1968.
57. - , Advisory CircuIar, AC 91-6A, IodoraI
Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., May 1978.
58. , IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon,
D.C., 2008.
59. , Advisory CircuIar AC 190-23I, IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 2002.
60. -, US DOT
IAA Ordor 5300.7, Oclobor 6, 2005.

In ordor llal llo airporl pIannor and dosignor may bo avaro of llo
imporlanco of llo ruIos and loclnoIogios llal dofino llo avialion
oporalions villin llo airspaco, a vory briof summary of vlal consli-
lulos air lraffic conlroI, incroasingIy boing Inovn as air lraffic man-
agomonl, lov il is managod and oporalod, and llo principaI aids lo
air navigalion, is prosonlod in llis claplor.
An approcialion of air lraffic managomonl and ils curronl and fuluro
oporaling and loclnoIogicaI claraclorislics viII focus allonlion on llo facl
llal any oxlonsivo roorionlalion of runvays on oxisling airporls or llo con-
slruclion of onliroIy nov airporls roquiros consuIlalion vill llo organiza-
lions in clargo of oporaling surrounding airspaco and vory oflon an
airspaco sludy. Tlis is parlicuIarIy lruo in Iargo molropoIilan aroas vloro
sovoraI airporls aro prosonl and llo oxisling airspaco musl bo slarod by
sovoraI airporls. In addilion, llo dosign of IocaI airspaco procoduros
incIudo procoduros for llo doparluro and arrivaI of aircrafl lo airporl run-
vays roquiros a fundamonlaI InovIodgo in curronl and fuluro air lraffic
conlroI loclnoIogios and poIicios. ConfIicls in air lraffic procoduros can
soriousIy affocl llo officioncy of any singIo airporl or a syslom of airporls
in a rogion. Tlo pIanning of airporls musl incIudo provisions for faciIilios
Iocalod al airporls llal supporl llo air lraffic managomonl syslom.
As onlancod air lraffic managomonl loclnoIogios and slralogic
pIans conlinuo lo bo impIomonlod, considoralion of IocaI air lraffic
procoduros las bocomo incroasingIy roIovanl and imporlanl for ovon
llo smaIIosl of airporls.
As of 2008, llo air lraffic managomonl syslom vas jusl boginning a
compIolo syslom lransformalion. As sucl il is imporalivo of llo airporl
pIannor lo lavo an undorslanding of boll llo fundamonlaIs of air lraf-
fic managomonl and llo conslanl onlancomonls lo llo syslom. Tlis
claplor is inlondod lo onIy briofIy inlroduco llo syslom lo llo airporl
pIannor.


-
Tlo firsl allompl lo sol up ruIos for air lraffic conlroI vas mado by llo
InlornalionaI Commission for Air Navigalion (ICAN), vlicl vas
undor llo diroclion of llo Ioaguo of Nalions. Tlo procoduros vlicl
llo commission promuIgalod in }uIy of 1922 voro adoplod by 14
counlrios. AIllougl llo Unilod Slalos vas nol a mombor of llo
Ioaguo of Nalions, and lloroforo did nol officiaIIy adopl llo ruIos,
many of llo procoduros oslabIislod by ICAN voro usod in llo prom-
uIgalion of air lraffic procoduros in llo Unilod Slalos as voII as in
mosl rogions of llo vorId.
Conslruclion and oporalion of llo airvays syslom in llo Unilod
Slalos prior lo 1926 voro conlroIIod by llo miIilary and by llo Iosl
Offico Doparlmonl. Tlo formaI onlry of llo fodoraI govornmonl inlo
llo roguIalion of air lraffic camo vill llo passago of llo Air Commorco
Acl of 1926 (IubIic Iav 64-254). Tlis acl diroclod llo Buroau of Air
Commorco lo oslabIisl, mainlain, and oporalo Iigllod civiI airvays.
Al llo prosonl limo llo IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion mainlains
and oporalos llo airvays syslom of llo Unilod Slalos.
Tlo oslabIislmonl of llo InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organi-
zalion (ICAO) in 1944 loIpod lo slandardizo rocommondod air
lraffic conlroI procoduros inlornalionaIIy. Today, air lraffic con-
lroI in oacl counlry is oporalod oillor by ils fodoraI govornmonl
or by privalo corporalions undor govornmonlaI suporvision and
roguIalions. IxampIos of inlornalionaI air lraffic conlroI organi-
zalions incIudo llo IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion in llo Unilod
Slalos, NalionaI Air Traffic Sorvicos Ild. (NATS) sorving llo
Unilod Kingdom, NAV Canada in Canada, and Air Sorvicos Aus-
lraIia sorving llo AuslraIian conlinonl. In addilion, IuroconlroI,
an inlorgovornmonlaI organizalion comprising 38 mombor slalos
villin llo Iuropoan Union, coordinalos, slandardizos, and
assisls in managing air lraffic in llo airspaco ovor llo Iuropoan
conlinonl.
Tlo primary mission of llo IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, as
voII as ils inlornalionaI counlorparls, is lo provido for safo and offi-
cionl movomonl of aircrafl llrougloul llo airspaco syslom. Tlo pri-
mary funclion of llo air lraffic managomonl syslom is lo provonl coI-
Iisions bolvoon aircrafl. As sucl, llo IAA offico of air lraffic
managomonl is mado up of and rosponsibIo for a sorios of liorarcli-
caI conlroI faciIilios, ground and saloIIilo basod navigalionaI aidos
and aircrafl rouling procoduros, as voII as a dofinod syslom of air
roulos and airspaco cIassificalions. WliIo mucl of llo curronl air lraf-
fic syslom is in many vays basod on llo originaI dovoIopmonl of air
lraffic conlroI in llo oarIy lvonlioll conlury, il slouId bo nolod llal
air lraffic conlroI poIicios aro conslanlIy clanging as llo mosl mod-
orn loclnoIogios aro impIomonlod lo bollor manago incroasing air
lraffic voIumos.


-
In gonoraI, aircrafl oporalo in vlal is Inovn as llo NalionaI Airspaco
Syslom (NAS). Tlo NAS is dofinod by a sorios of air roulos, airspaco
cIassificalions, and navigalionaI aids. Aircrafl oporalo villin llo NAS
undor varying IovoIs of air lraffic conlroI, basod primariIy on llo
voallor condilions and llo lypo and amounl of fIigll aclivily villin
llo aroa. In aroas vill vory Iov voIumos of fIigll aclivily during
oxcoIIonl visibiIily condilions, aircrafl may oporalo in llo compIolo
absonco of air lraffic conlroI, vloroas in llo busiosl airspaco or vlon
visibiIily is Iimilod, aircrafl may bo undor fuII posilivo conlroI, onIy
boing abIo lo clango spood, courso, or aIliludo by dirocl ordors from
an air lraffic conlroIIor.
Tlo NAS is oporalod and managod by a liorarclicaI organizalion
of air lraffic conlroI faciIilios. Tlo spocific purposo of llo air lraffic
conlroI sorvico is lo provonl coIIisions bolvoon aircrafl and on llo
manouvoring aroa bolvoon aircrafl and obslruclions, lo oxpodilo and
mainlain an ordorIy fIov of air lraffic |3].
-
In llo Unilod Slalos, air lraffic conlroI is managod on a macro IovoI al
llo air lraffic conlroI syslom command conlor (ATCSCC) in Horndon,
Virginia. In 2007, ATCSCC monilorod an avorago of 25,000 fIiglls por
day, vill an avorago of 6000 fIiglls airborno during poaI poriods. In
addilion, ATCSCC managos fIiglls pIannod 6 lo 12 l in llo fuluro,
vill llo purposo of pIanning for Iimiling congoslion villin llo
nalions airspaco. In doing so, ATCSCC las llo aullorily lo impIo-
monl ground doIay programs by diclaling corlain aircrafl lo romain al
lloir airporls of doparluro lo provonl furllor congoslion in poinls of
llo airspaco or al airporls sufforing from doIays duo lo voallor or
loavy lraffic voIumos.
-
Air roulo lraffic conlroI conlors (ARTCCs) lavo llo rosponsibiIily of
conlroIIing llo movomonl of on roulo aircrafl aIong llo airvays and jol
roulos, and in ollor parls of llo airspaco. Iacl of llo 21 air lraffic
conlroI conlors villin llo Unilod Slalos las conlroI of a dofinod goo-
graplicaI aroa vlicl may bo groalor llan 100,000 mi
2
in sizo. Al llo
boundary poinl, vlicl marIs llo Iimils of llo conlroI aroa of llo
conlor, conlroI of aircrafl may bo lransforrod lo an adjaconl conlor or an
approacl conlroI faciIily, or radar sorvico may bo lorminalod and VIR
aircrafl aro froo lo conlacl llo noxl conlor. Air lraffic conlroI conlors aro
normaIIy nol Iocalod al airporls. Air lraffic conlroI conlors can aIso
provido approacl conlroI sorvico lo nonlovorod airporls and lo
nonlorminaI radar approacl conlroI airporls.


Iacl ARTCC goograplicaI aroa is dividod inlo soclors. Tlo con-
figuralion of oacl soclor is basod on oquaIizing llo vorIIoad of llo
conlroIIors. ConlroI of aircrafl is passod from ono soclor lo anollor.
Tlo goograplicaI aroa is soclorod nol onIy in llo lorizonlaI bul aIso
in llo vorlicaI pIano. Tlus lloro can bo a ligl-aIliludo soclor abovo
ono or moro Iov-aIliludo soclors. Iacl soclor is mannod by ono or
moro conlroIIors, doponding on llo voIumo and compIoxily of lraffic.
Tlo avorago numbor of aircrafl llal oacl soclor can landIo doponds
on llo numbor of poopIo assignod lo llo soclor, llo compIoxily of lraf-
fic, and llo dogroo of aulomalion providod.
Iacl soclor is normaIIy providod vill ono or moro air roulo sur-
voiIIanco radar (ARSR) unils vlicl covor llo onliro soclor and aIIov
for moniloring of soparalion bolvoon aircrafl in llo soclor. In addi-
lion, oacl soclor las informalion on llo idonlificalion of llo aircrafl,
doslinalion, fIigll pIan roulo, oslimalod spood, and fIigll aIliludo,
vlicl is poslod on piocos of papor caIIod fIigll progross slrips, and
aro suporimposod on llo radarscopo adjaconl lo llo bIips vlicl idon-
lify llo posilion and idonlily of aircrafl. Tlo slrips aro conlinuousIy
updalod as llo nood arisos.
Al prosonl, communicalion bolvoon llo piIol and conlroIIor is by
voico. Tloroforo oacl ARTCC is assignod a numbor of VHI and UHI
radio communicalion froquoncios. Tlo conlroIIor in lurn assigns a
spocific froquoncy lo llo piIol. Hovovor, modornizalion of air lraffic
conlroI is pIannod lo incIudo furllor proIiforalion of digilaI commu-
nicalions, Inovn as conlroIIor piIol dala IinI communicalions
(CIDIC) bolvoon conlroIIors and piIols.
-
Tlo lorminaI approacl conlroI faciIily (TRACON) monilors llo air lraf-
fic in llo airspaco surrounding airporls vill modoralo lo ligl donsily
lraffic. Il las jurisdiclion in llo conlroI and soparalion of air lraffic from
llo boundary aroa of llo air lraffic conlroI lovor al an airporl lo a dis-
lanco of up lo 50 mi from llo airporl and lo an aIliludo ranging up lo
17,000 fl. Tlis is commonIy roforrod lo as llo lorminaI aroa. Wloro lloro
aro sovoraI airporls in an urban aroa, ono faciIily may conlroI lraffic lo aII
of lloso airporls. In ossonco llo faciIily rocoivos aircrafl from llo ARTCC
and guidos llom lo ono of sovoraI airporls. In providing llis guidanco, il
porforms llo imporlanl funclion of moloring and soquoncing aircrafl lo
provido uniform and ordorIy fIov lo llo airporls.
Tlo organizalionaI slrucluro of an approacl conlroI faciIily is vory
simiIar lo llo ARTCC. IiIo llo ARTCC, llo goograplic aroa of llo faciI-
ily is dividod inlo soclors lo oquaIizo llo vorIIoad of llo conlroIIors. Tlo
approacl conlroI faciIily lransfors conlroI of an arriving aircrafl lo llo
airporl conlroI lovor vlon il is Iinod up vill llo runvay aboul 5 mi
from llo airporl. IiIoviso, conlroI of doparling aircrafl is lransforrod lo
llo approacl conlroI faciIily by llo airporl conlroI lovor.


Tlo airporl lraffic conlroI lovor (ATCT) is llo faciIily vlicl supor-
visos, dirocls, and monilors llo arrivaI and doparluro lraffic al llo
airporl and in llo immodialo airspaco villin 5 mi from llo airporl.
Tlo lovor is rosponsibIo for issuing cIoarancos lo aII doparling air-
crafl, providing piIols vill informalion on vind, lomporaluro, baro-
molric prossuro, and oporaling condilions al llo airporl, and for llo
conlroI of aII aircrafl on llo ground oxcopl in llo manouvoring aroa
immodialoIy adjaconl lo llo aircrafl parIing posilions caIIod llo ramp
aroa. In llo Unilod Slalos in 2007, lloro voro moro llan 550 air lraffic
conlroI lovors. WliIo mosl lovors aro oporalod by llo IAA, as of
}anuary 2007, 233 voro oporalod by llo privalo soclor undor llo
IAAs conlracl lovor program. Tlo numbor of oporaling conlracl
lovors, as lloy aro Inovn, las incroasod lromondousIy sinco llo
incoplion of llo program in 1982. Iiguro 3-1 providos an iIIuslralion
of llo nov ATCT, ovorsladoving llo proviousIy aclivo ATCT, al llo
HarlsfioId-}acIson AlIanla InlornalionaI Airporl, AlIanla, Goorgia.
--


-
WliIo nol providing spocific conlroI, fIigll sorvico slalions (ISS) aro llo
oIomonl of llo air lraffic managomonl syslom llal providos informalion
and ollor nonconlroI communicalions lo aircrafl oporaling in llo sys-
lom. Tloir principaI funclions aro lo accopl and cIoso fIigll pIans, briof
piIols aboul lloir roulos of fIigll, and lo provido imporlanl informalion,
in llo form of nolicos lo airmon (NOTAMs) boforo fIigll and in fIigll,
on sucl iloms as sovoro voallor, llo slalus of navigalionaI aids, airporl
runvay cIosuros, and clangos in pubIislod approacl and doparluro
procoduros. A socondary funclion is lo roIay lraffic conlroI mossagos
bolvoon aircrafl and llo approprialo conlroI faciIily on llo ground.
IIigll sorvico las gono llrougl a numbor of clangos sinco llo
oarIy 1990s. In llo 1990s llo IAA consoIidalod moro llan 180 fIigll
sorvico slalions inlo approximaloIy 60 aulomalod fIigll sorvico sla-
lions (AISS) vlicl aIIov many funclions, parlicuIarIy vill rospocl lo
dissominaling voallor and ollor NOTAMs and llo fiIing of fIigll
pIans lo bo porformod oIoclronicaIIy by voicomaiI or compulor.
In 2005, llo IAA avardod a conlracl lo oporalo llo AISS syslom
lo llo IocIlood Marlin Corporalion, roprosonling anollor slop in llo
privalizalion of major compononls of llo nalions air lraffic conlroI
syslom. WliIo llo privalizalion of llo AISS syslom las causod somo
conlrovorsy villin llo avialion induslry, lloro las boon roIalivoIy
IillIo impacl of llis or any ollor IAA privalizalion offorls on airporl
pIanning and dosign.
-
Air lraffic ruIos aro lradilionaIIy appIiod basod on provaiIing moloo-
roIogicaI condilions. VisuaI molooroIogicaI condilions (VMC) aro
appIiod vlon lloro is sufficionl visibiIily for piIols of aircrafl lo bo
abIo lo navigalo by roforoncing Iocalions on llo ground, as voII as lo
bo abIo lo soo and avoid ollor aircrafl in llo aroa. Around airporls,
VMC is dofinod as al Ioasl 3 slalulo miIos visibiIily and cIoud coiI-
ings (dofinod as al Ioasl
5
/
8
of llo sIy covorod by cIouds) of al Ioasl
1000 fl abovo llo ground (AGI). ConvorsoIy, inslrumonl molooro-
IogicaI condilions (IMC) oxisl vlon visibiIilios aro Ioss llan 3 slalulo
miIos and cIoud coiIings aro Ioss llan 1000 fl abovo llo ground.
Al ils mosl basic IovoI, aircrafl oporaling in VMC lond lo fIy undor
visuaI fIigll ruIos (VIR). VIR fIigll ruIos dopond on aircrafl opora-
lors lo visuaIIy mainlain adoqualo soparalion from lorrain, cIouds,
and ollor aircrafl. Undor VIR, aircrafl navigalion is basod on visuaI
roforonco lo Iocalions on llo ground, incIuding visuaI idonlificalion
and approaclos lo airporls.
WliIo fIying undor VIR condilions, piIols may roquosl from air
lraffic conlroI lo bo undor fIigll foIIoving. Undor fIigll foIIoving,
air lraffic conlroI oporalors provido assislanco lo piIols by suporvising

courso and aIliludo clangos, as voII as aclivoIy nolifying piIols of


noarby aircrafl. IiIols fIying undor VIR condilions aro roquirod lo fIy
undor fIigll foIIoving in llo busiosl of airspaco.
Aircrafl fIying in IMC or al aIliludos ovor 18,000 fl abovo soa IovoI
(AMSI) fIy undor inslrumonl fIigll ruIos (IIR). Aircrafl fIying undor
IIR navigalo using ground-basod and saloIIilo-basod navigalion aidos
and aro fuIIy conlroIIod aIong pIannod roulos by air lraffic conlroI por-
sonnoI. Oflon limos, fIiglls oporaling undor IIR viII fIy dofinod dopar-
luro and approacl procoduros lo and from airporls vlicl dopond on
fIying prociso coursos and aIliludos lo and from vaypoinls as dofinod
by ground- and saloIIilo-basod navigalion sysloms. Tloso pubIislod
inslrumonl procoduros provido for aircrafl lo safoIy and officionlIy
doparl from and arrivo lo airporl runvays vliIo avoiding coIIisions
vill lorrain and ollor aircrafl during poor visibiIily condilions. In many
vays, IIR ruIos, roulos, and doparluro and approacl procoduros lavo
significanl infIuonco on llo pIanning, dosign, and oporalion of airporls.
- --- -
In llo Unilod Slalos, domoslic airspaco is dofinod inlo six cIassos, pIus
aroas vill spociaI oporaling roslriclions, and a dosignalod sorios
roulos bolvoon airporls and vaypoinls. Aircrafl aro subjocl lo diffor-
onl IovoIs of air lraffic conlroI doponding on vlicl airspaco cIassifica-
lion lloy aro curronlIy oporaling in, llo lypo of dofinod roulo lloy aro
on, and vlollor lloy aro fIying undor VIR or IIR fIigll ruIos.
CIassos of airspaco in llo Unilod Slalos aro idonlifiod aIplaboli-
caIIy, as CIass A, B, C, D, I, or G airspaco, as iIIuslralod in Iig. 3-2.
CIass A airspaco, aIso Inovn as posilivo conlroI airspaco, is llo
airspaco bolvoon 18,000 fl abovo moan soa IovoI (AMSI) (Inovn as II
180) and 60,000 fl (II 600) AMSI ovor llo 48 conliguous Unilod Slalos
and AIasIa, oxlonding oul lo 12 nm off llo coasl of llo Unilod Slalos.
AGL-above ground level FL-flight level MSL-mean sea level
CLASS G
Nontowered
Airport
CLASS G
CLASS B
CLASS C
CLASS D
CLASS E
CLASS A
700 AGL
FL 600
18,000 MSL
14,500 MSL
1200 AGL
CLASS G
Effective September 16, 1993
- - ---


Sinco aircrafl fIying in CIass A airspaco aro gonoraIIy fasl moving com-
morciaI airIino or gonoraI avialion aircrafl, aII aircrafl oporaling in
CIass A airspaco oporalo undor IIR.
CIass B airspaco aro dofinod aroas villin a 30 nm radius around
llo busiosl airporls, incIuding aroas of muIlipIo Iargo airporls, in llo
Unilod Slalos. CIass B airspaco surrounds 36 of llo busiosl commor-
ciaI sorvico airporls in llo Unilod Slalos. CIass B airspaco is lypicaIIy
slapod in llo form of vlal is Inovn in llo induslry as an invorlod
vodding caIo. Noarosl llo busiosl airporls villin llo radius of CIass B
airspaco, CIass B airspaco oxlonds from llo surfaco of llo busiosl air-
porls in llo aroa lo gonoraIIy 10,000 fl MSI. Iarllor avay from llo
airporl, CIass B may bogin al somo aIliludo abovo llo surfaco and
oxlond lo 10,000 fl MSI. Tlo purposo of CIass B airspaco is lo provido
an aroa of posilivo air lraffic conlroI lo coordinalo llo many ligl-
spood aircrafl lransilioning from ligl aIliludos lo Ianding al llo bus-
iosl airporls, and vico vorsa, vill IocaI Iovor aIliludo lraffic villin
llo aroa, vliIo providing airspaco al Iovor aIliludos furllor avay
from llo airporl lo bo usod vill Iovor IovoIs of conlroI for smaIIor
and sIovor gonoraI avialion aircrafl in llo rogion. Aircrafl oporaling
villin CIass B airspaco aro undor posilivo air lraffic conlroI, and as
sucl musl oillor bo fIying undor IIR ruIos or, vill pormission from
air lraffic conlroI, undor VIR ruIos vill fIigll foIIoving. An oxampIo
dopiclion of CIass B airspaco is iIIuslralod in Iig. 3-3. Tlis iIIuslralion
is a porlion of an airspaco soclionaI clarl, providod by llo U.S.
Doparlmonl of Dofonso and llo IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion as
ono slandard for idonlifying cIassos of airspaco, airporls, navigalionaI
aids, and air roulos in llo NAS.
Unilod Slalos Airspaco CIass B Aroas, conlorod around llo foIIov-
ing civiI airporls:
IHX Iloonix SIy Harbor InlornalionaI
IAX Ios AngoIos InlornalionaI
SAN San Diogo InlornalionaI Iindborgl IioId
SIO San Irancisco InlornalionaI
DIN Donvor InlornalionaI
MIA Miami InlornalionaI
MCO OrIando InlornalionaI
TIA Tampa InlornalionaI
HNI HonoIuIu InlornalionaI
ORD Clicago OHaro InlornalionaI
CVG Cincinnali/Norllorn KonlucIy InlornalionaI
MSY Iouis Armslrong Nov OrIoans InlornalionaI
BWI BaIlimoro/Waslinglon InlornalionaI

BOS GonoraI I. I. Iogan InlornalionaI (Boslon)


DTW Dolroil MolropoIilan Wayno Counly
MSI MinnoapoIis-Sl. IauI InlornalionaI
MCI Kansas Cily InlornalionaI
STI Iamborl-Sl. Iouis InlornalionaI
IAS Ias Vogas McCarran InlornalionaI
IWR NovarI Iiborly InlornalionaI
}IK }oln I. Konnody InlornalionaI
IGA Nov YorI IaGuardia
CIT ClarIollo/DougIas InlornalionaI
CII CIovoIand-HopIins InlornalionaI
-- -


CVG Cincinnali/Norllorn KonlucIy InlornalionaI
Airporl
IHI IliIadoIplia InlornalionaI
- IIT Iillsburgl InlornalionaI
- MIM Momplis InlornalionaI
- DAI DaIIas Iovo IioId
- DIW DaIIas-Iorl Worll InlornalionaI
- HOU Houslon WiIIiam I. Hobby
- IAH Goorgo Busl InlorconlinonlaI (Houslon)
- SIC SaIl IaIo Cily InlornalionaI
- DCA RonaId Roagan Waslinglon NalionaI
- IAD Waslinglon DuIIos InlornalionaI
- SIA SoallIo-Tacoma InlornalionaI
CIass C airspaco is found around airporls villoul as mucl oporal-
ing voIumo as lloso around CIass B airspaco, bul is busy onougl lo
varranl somo aclivo IovoI of air lraffic conlroI villin 10 mi of llo air-
porl. VIR lraffic oporaling villin CIass C airspaco musl adloro lo slricl
cIoud soparalion roquiromonls and lavo al Ioasl 3 mi of visibiIily so
llal lloy may sufficionlIy bo abIo lo soo and avoid ollor lraffic. In addi-
lion, aII lraffic oporaling villin CIass C airspaco musl lavo oslabIislod
radio communicalion vill air lraffic conlroI. Tlo slapo of CIass C air-
spaco is aIso in llo form of an upsido dovn vodding caIo, oxlonding
from llo surfaco lo lypicaIIy 4000 fl AGI around llo innor 5-nm radius
around llo airporl, and from 10002000 fl lo 4000 fl AGI from 5 lo
10 nm from llo airporl. Iiguro 3-4 providos an iIIuslralion of CIass C
airspaco surrounding llo Daylona Boacl InlornalionaI Airporl, dopiclod
by a lvo conconlric rings of radii 5 and 10 mi around llo airporl.
CIass D airspaco is found villin a 5-mi radius of an airporl vill
an oporaling air lraffic conlroI lovor, oxlonding from llo surfaco lo
lypicaIIy 2500 fl AGI. Tlo purposo of CIass D airspaco is lo provido
an aroa of air lraffic conlroI aullorily lo conlroIIors in llo airporls
conlroI lovor, vlo aro rosponsibIo for llo safo soparalion of arriving
and doparling aircrafl lo and from llo airporl. Aircrafl oporaling
undor VIR fIigll ruIos aro aIIovod lo oporalo villin CIass D airspaco
as aIong as lloy oslabIisl communicalion vill llo air lraffic conlroI-
Iors in llo lovor. Wlon an airporls conlroI lovor is in oporalion, llo
airporl is said lo bo a conlroIIod airporl. Wlon llo airporls lovor is
nol oporalionaI, llo airporl is considorod unconlroIIod and CIass D
airspaco is no Iongor aclivo. Airporls villoul a conlroI lovor aro con-
sidorod unconlroIIod airporls, as voII. Iiguro 3-5 iIIuslralos CIass D
airspaco surrounding llo Soullvosl Goorgia RogionaI Airporl in
AIbany, Goorgia, dopiclod by a daslod 5-mi radius circIo around llo

-- -
-- - -

airporl. Tlo oulor sladod ring dopicls CIass I airspaco boginning al
700 fl abovo ground IovoI.
CIass I airspaco is found in sovoraI Iocalions vill llo purposo of
providing aroas of al Ioasl passivo conlroI for airpIanos fIying in
aroas of Iov aIliludo bul modoralo lraffic aclivily, on dofinod air roulos,


as voII as lloso fIying on inslrumonl-basod approacl and doparluro
procoduros lo or from an airporl. SpocificaIIy, CIass I airspaco oxisls in
mosl parls of llo Unilod Slalos, from llo surfaco, 700 fl AGI, or 1200 fl
AGI lo 14,500 fl AGI, and 3 nm surrounding llo nalions airvays.
Any airspaco llal doos nol faII villin CIass A, B, C, D, or I air-
spaco is considorod CIass G, or unconlroIIod airspaco. Tlis airspaco is
found onIy al vory Iov aIliludos (lypicaIIy Ioss llan 700 or 1200 fl
AGI) or in ruraI aroas of Iov voIumo air lraffic. Willin CIass G air-
spaco, aircrafl may movo frooIy as Iong as lloro is sufficionl visibiIily
(1 mi during day lours, 3 mi during nigll lours, 5 mi day or nigll
vlon abovo 10,000 fl AMSI) lo soo and avoid ollor air lraffic.
Willin llo NalionaI Airspaco Syslom aro a numbor of spociaI uso
airspaco cIassificalions. Somo of lloso dofino pormanonl Iocalion of
spociaI uso or roslriclod aclivily, ollors dofino Iocalions vloro fIigll
oporalions aro roslriclod for socurily or ollor roasons.
- aro dofinod villin llo NAS as aroas prolibilod
lo any civiI avialion aclivily. Tloso aroas aro lypicaIIy dofinod
around liglIy sonsilivo Iocalions, sucl as llo Wlilo Houso in
Waslinglon, D.C.
- - aro dofinod villin llo NAS as aroas vloro roguIar,
bul nol conslanl, sonsilivo oporalions occur, procIuding llo safo pas-
sago of civiI aircrafl. Tloso aroas, sucl as around llo Konnody Spaco
Conlor on llo oasl coasl of IIorida, viII poriodicaIIy roslricl civiIian
accoss vlon sonsilivo aclivilios aro occurring.
- - (MOAs) aro dofinod as aroas vill pori-
odic miIilary avialion or ollor aclivily. Tloso aroas may bo onlorod
onIy by pormission from air lraffic conlroI, vlicl coordinalos vill
llo miIilary for civiIian uso.
-- (TIRs) aro dofinod as aroas llal lompo-
rariIy roslricl or prolibil mosl civiI avialion oporalions for roasons of
nalionaI socurily. TIRs aro impIomonlod vill IillIo advanco nolico for
a varioly of roasons, ranging from prolocling nucIoar povor faciIilios,
lo nalionaI sporling ovonls, lo llo lravoIs of llo Irosidonl of llo
Unilod Slalos. Oflonlimos, llo aclivalion of a TIR viII lavo sorious
impacls on llo accossibiIily of an airporl lo llo avialion syslom.
Iiguro 3-6 providos an iIIuslralion of muIlipIo cIassos of airspaco
villin llo samo rogion, incIuding CIass I airspaco undor IaIalIa-
IarIin Airporl and roslriclod aroas villin a miIilary oporalions aroa
soull of llo airporl. Roslriclod uso airspaco prosonls claIIongos lo
airporl pIannors sooIing maximum officioncy of air lraffic lo and
from llo airfioId.
-
Aircrafl fIying from ono poinl lo anollor lavo lradilionaIIy foIIovod
dosignalod roulos. In llo Unilod Slalos lloso aro roforrod lo as viclor
airvays and jol roulos. Tloso roulos lavo ovoIvod ovor limo as dis-
cussod boIov.

- - - -

-
Tlo oarIiosl airvays, croalod in llo 1920s voro iniliaIIy givon a coIor
dosignalion on aoronaulicaI clarls and doscribod by lloir coIor. Tlo
lrunI Iinos oasl and vosl voro groon, lrunI Iinos norll and soull
voro ambor, socondary Iinos oasl and vosl voro rod, and socondarios
norll and soull voro bIuo. Iacl of lloso coIorod airvays vas llon
givon a numbor, sucl as groon 3, rod 4, olc. Tlo numboring for llo
airvays bogan al llo Canadian bordor and llo Iacific Coasl, llon
progrossod lo llo soull and oasl. Tloso airvays voro llon assignod
an aIliludo IovoI, vlicl for groon and rod vas al odd-llousand fool
oaslbound and al ovon-llousand fool voslbound. On llo ambor and
bIuo airvays norllbound, odd-llousand-fool IovoIs voro assignod,
and soullbound ovon-llousand-fool IovoIs voro assignod. Tloso air-
vays voro doIinoalod on llo ground by Iov-froquoncy modium-
froquoncy (II/MI) four courso radio rangos. Tlo coIorod airvays
voro plasod oul as aircrafl bocamo oquippod lo uso llo viclor airvays
in llo Ialo 1940s.


-
IoIIoving llo dovoIopmonl of llo II/MI four courso radio rangos
llo roulos nov Inovn as llo viclor airvays voro oslabIislod. Tlo
viclor airvays aro doIinoalod on llo ground by vory ligl froquoncy
omnirango radio oquipmonl (VORs). Iacl VOR slalion las a discrolo
radio froquoncy lo vlicl a piIol couId luno a navigalionaI radio and
llus bo abIo lo mainlain a courso from ono VOR lo llo noxl. Tlo num-
boring syslom for lloso airvays is ovon numbors oasl and vosl, odd
numbors norll and soull. Tlo advanlagos of llo viclor airvays voro
llal llo VORs voro roIalivoIy froo of slalic and il is mucl oasior for a
piIol lo dolormino air posilion roIalivo lo a VOR slalion llan vill llo
II/MI four courso radio rango. Viclor airvays aro dosignalod on
aoronaulicaI clarls as V-1, V-2, olc. Tlo airvay incIudos llo airspaco
villin paraIIoI Iinos 4 mi oacl sido of llo conlorIino of llo airvay. If
lvo VORs doIinoaling an airvay aro moro llan 120 mi aparl, llo air-
spaco incIudod in llo airvay is as indicalod for jol roulos.
-
Will llo inlroduclion of commorciaI jol aircrafl in 1958, llo aIliludos
al vlicl lloso aircrafl fIov incroasod significanlIy. Al liglor aIliludos
llo numbor of ground slalions (VORs) roquirod lo doIinoalo a spocific
roulo is smaIIor llan al Iovor aIliludos bocauso llo signaI is lransmil-
lod on a Iino of sigll. Tloroforo lloro vas no nood lo cIullor llo ligl
aIliludo roulos vill aII llo ground slalions roquirod for Iov aIliludo
fIying. AII llo roulos in llo conlinonlaI Unilod Slalos couId bo pIacod
on ono clarl. Tloso voro oslabIislod vlal aro Inovn as jol roulos.
AIllougl in ono sonso lloso roulos aro airvays, lloy aro nol roforrod
lo as sucl. Today boll viclor airvays and jol roulos oxisl. Tlus llo jol
roulos aro doIinoalod by llo samo aids lo navigalion on llo ground
(VORs) as aro viclor airvays bul fovor slalions aro usod. Viclor air-
vays oxlond from 1200 fl abovo llo lorrain lo, bul nol incIuding,
18,000 fl AMSI. }ol roulos oxlond from 18,000 fl lo 45,000 fl AMSI.
Abovo 45,000 fl lloro aro no dosignalod roulos and aircrafl aro lan-
dIod on an individuaI basis. Tlo numboring syslom for llo jol roulos
is llo samo as for llo viclor airvays. }ol roulos aro dosignalod on
aoronaulicaI clarls as }-1, }-2, olc.

Ior many yoars aII aircrafl voro roquirod lo fIy on dosignalod roulos,
airvays, or jol roulos. Tlal is, aII aircrafl lad lo fIy from ono VOR lo
llo noxl VOR sinco llo VORs doIinoalo llo airvays and jol roulos.
Tlis roquirod llo funnoIing of aII lraffic on llo dosignalod roulos llal
rosuIlod in congoslion on corlain roulos. AIso llo dosignalod roulos
voro oflon nol llo slorlosl dislanco bolvoon lvo poinls, rosuIling in
addilionaI fuoI consumplion, fIigll limo, and cosl. Iurllormoro, if llo

dosignalod roulo ponolralos inlo an aroa of llundorslorms, aircrafl


lavo lo bo voclorod around llo slorm by conlroIIors on llo ground.
Tlis imposod an oxlra vorIIoad on llo conlroIIors llal is compon-
salod for by llo uso of llo sovoro voallor avoidanco program (SWAI).
Dospilo lloso inofficioncios, llo vasl majorily of lransionl avialion
sliII fIy aIong llo viclor airvays and jol roulos. Tlis lrond, lovovor,
las bogun lo clango dramalicaIIy sinco llo boginning of llo lvonly-
firsl conlury, vill llo proIiforalion of GIS basod navigalion sysloms,
undor vlal is Inovn as RNAV.
Aroa navigalion, RNAV, is a mollod of aircrafl navigalion llal
pormils aircrafl oporalion on any dosirod courso villin llo covor-
ago of slalion-roforoncod navigalionaI signaIs or villin llo Iimils of
a soIf-conlainod syslom capabiIily. Aroa navigalion roulos aro dirocl
roulos, basod upon llo aroa navigalion capabiIily of aircrafl,
bolvoon vaypoinls dofinod in lorms of Ialiludo and Iongiludo coor-
dinalos, dogroo and dislanco fixos, or offsols from oslabIislod roulos
and airvays.
RNAV is possibIo duo lo llo proIiforalion of onboard aircrafl
loclnoIogios llal laIo advanlago of llo gIobaI posilioning syslom
(GIS). GIS is basod on 24 saloIIilos Iocalod approximaloIy 12,000 mi
aboul llo oarll in a gooslalic orbil. ToclnoIogy llal roforoncos an
aircrafls posilion in roIalion lo lloso saloIIilos aIIovs an aircrafl lo
navigalo by roforoncing ils posilion lo a dolaiIod dalabaso llal idonli-
fios airporls, vaypoinls, lorrain, and man-mado infraslrucluro.
Inlancomonls lo llo accuracy of llo GIS syslom, vill loclnoIogios
sucl as llo vido aroa augmonlalion syslom (WAAS) lavo mado il
possibIo for llo air lraffic conlroI syslom lo approvo dofinod approaclos
lo airporl runvays vill far groalor accuracy llan vill lradilionaI
radio-froquoncy-basod sysloms.
Aroa navigalion providos a moro fIoxibIo rouling capabiIily llal
aIIovs for bollor uliIizalion of llo airspaco. Tlo groalor uliIizalion
roducos doIays in llo airspaco and rosuIls in moro oconomicaI opora-
lion of llo aircrafl. Ior oxampIo, roulos paraIIoI lo llo dosignalod
roulos from ono VOR lo anollor can bo oslabIislod villoul roquiring
addilionaI aids lo navigalion on llo ground. Anollor oxampIo is llo
oslabIislmonl of a moro dirocl roulo from ono poinl lo anollor by
oslabIisling vaypoinls llal provido for a slorlor lrip. Rouling around
a llundorslorm villoul conlinuous radar guidanco from llo ground
is anollor oxampIo.
Aroa navigalion is nol Iimilod lo llo lorizonlaI pIano bul can aIso
bo uliIizod in llo vorlicaI pIano, lormod VNAV. Il can aIso incIudo a
limo roforonco capabiIily. A proporIy oquippod aircrafl couId arrivo al
a spocifiod poinl in spaco, caIIod a fix, vill no nood for ground voclor-
ing or diroclions and couId addilionaIIy bo al llal poinl al a spocifiod
aIliludo and limo. Tlis is a four-dimonsionaI capabiIily giving Iali-
ludo, Iongiludo, aIliludo, and limo (4D RNAV). Tlus aroa navigalion


las llo polonliaI of incroasing airspaco capacily, onlancing safoly,
and roducing llo vorIIoad of llo piIol and llo air lraffic conlroIIor.
As parl of RNAV onlancomonls, llo IAA bogan oslabIisling
T-roulos as aIlornalivo roulos lo llo viclor airvays for lloso aircrafl
oquippod vill GIS sysloms. Tloso T-roulos voro oslabIislod lo pro-
vido aircrafl vill moro dirocl rouling, oflon around congoslod lraffic
aroas sucl as CIass B airspaco and aroas vloro viclor airvays inlor-
socl, oflon in llo vicinily of a VOR slalion.
Iiguro 3-7 iIIuslralos a porlion of airspaco as dopiclod in an IIR on
roulo Iov aIliludo clarl, pubIislod by llo IAAs NalionaI Aoronauli-
caI Clarling Offico. Tlis figuro dopicls boll viclor airvays (idonlifiod
by V foIIovod by a roulo numbor) and T-roulos (idonlifiod by a T foI-
Iovod by a roulo numbor), as voII as llo Iocalions of airporls, cIassos
of airspaco (sucl as llo sladod aroa around }acIsonviIIo InlornalionaI
Airporl), VOR slalions (sucl as TayIor, CociI, and Craig), and ollor
navigalionaI faciIilios. Il is rocommondod llal airporl pIannors
bocomo famiIiar vill undorslanding llo informalion providod on
llis and ollor aoronaulicaI clarls.
-
Air lraffic ruIos govorning llo minimum soparalion of aircrafl in llo
vorlicaI, lorizonlaI or IongiludinaI, and IaloraI diroclions aro oslab-
Iislod in oacl counlry by llo approprialo govornmonl aullorily. Tlo
curronl ruIos doscribod in llis loxl aro lloso llal aro proscribod by llo
- - - -

IAA for uso in llo Unilod Slalos. Tlo soparalion ruIos aro proscribod
for IIR oporalions and lloso ruIos appIy vlollor or nol IMC condi-
lions provaiI. Minimum soparalions aro a funclion of aircrafl lypo,
aircrafl spood, avaiIabiIily of radar faciIilios, navigalionaI aids, and
ollor faclors sucl as llo sovorily of vaIo vorlicos |3].
-
Tlo minimum vorlicaI soparalion of aircrafl oulsido of llo lorminaI
aroa from llo ground up lo and incIuding 41,000 fl AMSI is 1000 fl.
In 2005, vorlicaI soparalion minimums abovo 29,000 fl AMSI voro
roducod from 2000 lo 1000 fl undor llo roducod vorlicaI soparalion
minima (RVSM) program. ImpIomonlalion of llis program aIIovod
for addilionaI jol roulos lloroby incroasing llo capacily villin llo
NAS. Willin a lorminaI aroa a vorlicaI soparalion of 500 fl is main-
lainod bolvoon aircrafl, oxcopl llal a 1000-fl vorlicaI soparalion is
mainlainod boIov a loavy aircrafl.
-- -
To formaIizo llo soparalion of air lraffic in llo airspaco, air lraffic
conlroI assigns fIigll aIliludos lo aircrafl basod on lloir diroclion, or
moro procisoIy magnolic loading, of fIigll, and vlollor or nol lloy
aro fIying undor VIR vorsus IIR ruIos.
Aircrafl fIying undor IIR aro lypicaIIy assignod aIliludos of odd-
llousand fool (i.o., 3000 fl, 5000 fl, olc.) AMSI vliIo on an oaslorIy
loading (magnolic compass loading of 0p lo 179p) and ovon-llousand
fool (i.o., 4000 fl, 6000 fl, olc.) vliIo on a voslorIy loading (magnolic
compass loading of 180p lo 359p). Bolvoon 29,000 fl AMSI (II 290)
and 41,000 fl AMSI (II 410), aircrafl aro assignod a fIigll IovoI of
oillor II 290, II 330, II 370, or II 410 vlon lravoIing on an oaslorIy
loading, and oillor II 310, II 350, II 390 vlon lravoIing on a vosl-
orIy loading. If an aircrafl is RVSM corlifiod, il may bo assignod an
RVSM aIliludo of II 300, 320, 340, olc. bolvoon II 290 and II 410.
Aircrafl fIying undor VIR abovo 3000 fl AMSI aro lypicaIIy
assignod aIliludos of odd-llousand fool pIus 500 fl (i.o., 3500 fl, 5500 fl,
olc.) vliIo on an oaslorIy loading, and ovon-llousand fool pIus 500 fool
(i.o., 4500 fl, 6500 fl, olc.) vliIo on a voslorIy loading (magnolic com-
pass loading of 180p lo 359p). Abovo 29,000 fl (II 290), VIR lraffic is
assignod ovory-ollor ovon or odd llousand (II 290, II 330, olc. if
lravoIing on an oaslorIy loading, and II 320, II 360, olc. if lravoIing
on a voslorIy loading). Il slouId bo nolod llal abovo II 180, aII lraf-
fic is roquirod lo bo on an IIR fIigll pIan.
-
Tlo minimum IongiludinaI soparalion doponds on a numbor of fac-
lors. Among llo mosl imporlanl aro aircrafl sizo, aircrafl spood, and
llo avaiIabiIily of radar for llo conlroI of air lraffic. Ior llo purposos


of mainlaining aircrafl soparalions aircrafl aro cIassifiod by llo IAA
as loavy, Iargo, or smaII basod upon lloir maximum gross laIooff
voigll (MGTOW). Hoavy aircrafl aro cIassifiod as lloso aircrafl
vlicl lavo a MGTOW of 300,000 Ib or moro. Iargo aircrafl aro as
lloso aircrafl vlicl lavo a MGTOW of in oxcoss of 12,500 Ib bul Ioss
llan 300,000 Ib. SmaII aircrafl aro as lloso aircrafl vlicl lavo a
MGTOW of 12,500 Ib or Ioss. Aircrafl sizo is roIalod lo vaIo lurbu-
Ionco. Hoavy aircrafl croalo lraiIing vaIo vorlicos vlicl aro a lazard
lo Iigllor aircrafl foIIoving llom.
Tlo minimum IongiludinaI soparalions on roulo aro oxprossod in
lorms of limo or dislanco as foIIovs:
1. Ior on roulo aircrafl foIIoving a procoding on roulo aircrafl, if
llo Ioad aircrafl mainlains a spood al Ioasl 44 In faslor llan
llo lraiI aircrafl, 5 mi bolvoon aircrafl using dislanco moasur-
ing oquipmonl (DMI) or aroa navigalion (RNAV) and 3 min-
ulos bolvoon aII ollor aircrafl
2. Ior on roulo aircrafl foIIoving a procoding on roulo aircrafl, if
llo Ioad aircrafl mainlains a spood al Ioasl 22 In faslor llan
llo lraiI aircrafl, 10 mi bolvoon aircrafl using DMI or RNAV
and 5 min for aII ollor aircrafl
3. Ior on roulo aircrafl foIIoving a procoding on roulo aircrafl, if
boll aircrafl aro al llo samo spood, 20 mi bolvoon aircrafl
using DMI or RNAV and 10 min for aII ollor aircrafl
4. Wlon an aircrafl is cIimbing or dosconding llrougl llo aIli-
ludo of anollor aircrafl, 10 mi for aircrafl using DMI or
RNAV if llo dosconding aircrafl is Ioading or llo cIimbing
aircrafl is foIIoving and 5 min for aII ollor aircrafl
5. Bolvoon aircrafl in vlicl ono aircrafl is using DMI or RNAV
and llo ollor is nol, 30 mi
Minimum IongiludinaI soparalions ovor llo ocoans is normaIIy
10 minulos for suporsonic fIiglls and 15 minulos for subsonic fIiglls
bul in somo Iocalions il can bo sIigllIy moro or Ioss llan llis vaIuo |3].
Wlon llo aircrafl mix is sucl llal vaIo lurbuIonco is nol a faclor
and radar covorago is avaiIabIo, llo minimum IongiludinaI sopara-
lion for lvo aircrafl lravoIing in llo samo diroclion and al llo samo
aIliludo is 5 nm, oxcopl llal vlon llo aircrafl aro in llo lorminaI onvi-
ronmonl villin 40 nm of llo radar anlonna llo soparalion can bo
roducod lo 3 nm. Ior llis roason llo minimum spacing in llo lormi-
naI aroa is 3 nm bocauso llo airporl is aImosl aIvays villin 40 nm of
a radar anlonna. Undor corlain spocifiod condilions a soparalion
bolvoon aircrafl on finaI approacl villin 10 nm of llo Ianding run-
vay may bo roducod lo 2.5 nm |3].
If vaIo lurbuIonco is a faclor, llo minimum soparalion in llo lor-
minaI aroa bolvoon a smaII or Iargo aircrafl and a procoding loavy

aircrafl is 5 nm. Tlo spacing bolvoon lvo loavy aircrafl foIIoving


oacl ollor is 4 nm. Tlo spacing bolvoon a loavy aircrafl and a pro-
coding Iargo aircrafl is 3 nm.
Ior Ianding aircrafl vlon vaIo lurbuIonco is a faclor, llo Iongilu-
dinaI soparalion is incroasod bolvoon a smaII aircrafl and a procoding
Iargo aircrafl lo 4 mi and bolvoon a smaII aircrafl and a procoding
loavy aircrafl lo 6 mi.
Tlo IIR soparalion ruIos for consoculivo arrivaIs on llo samo run-
vay vlicl aro usod vlon vaIo vorlicos aro a faclor aro slovn in
TabIo 3-1. Tlo VIR and IIR soparalion ruIos for consoculivo dopar-
luros from llo samo runvay aro oxprossod in lorms of limo and lloso
aro slovn in TabIo 3-2.
-
Tlo minimum on roulo IaloraI soparalion boIov 18,000 fl MSI is 8 nm,
and al and abovo 18,000 fl MSI llo minimum on roulo IaloraI soparalion









Tloso aro slovn lo approprialoIy roprosonl lloso oporalions and aro nol roguIalory in
naluro.
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion |18].

- - -






Tloso aro slovn lo approprialoIy roprosonl lloso oporalions and aro nol roguIalory in
naluro.
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion |18].
- -
- --


is 20 nm. Ovor llo ocoans llo soparalion varios from 60 lo 120 nm
doponding on Iocalion |3].
-
Aids lo navigalion, Inovn as NAVAIDS, can bo broadIy cIassifiod
inlo lvo groups, ground-basod sysloms and saloIIilo-basod sysloms.
Iacl syslom is compIimonlod by sysloms inslaIIod in llo cocIpil.
- --

Tlo oIdosl aclivo ground-basod navigalionaI aid is llo nondiroclionaI
boacon (NDB). Tlo NDB omils radio froquoncy signaIs on froquon-
cios bolvoon 400 and 1020 Hz moduIalion. NDBs aro lypicaIIy
mounlod on a poIo approximaloIy 35 fl laII. Tloy may bo Iocalod on
or off airporl proporly, al Ioasl 100 fl cIoar of molaI buiIdings, povor
Iinos, or molaI foncos. WliIo llo NDB is quicIIy boing plasod oul in
llo Unilod Slalos, il is sliII a vory common pioco of navigalionaI
oquipmonl in ollor parls of llo vorId, parlicuIarIy in dovoIoping
nalions. Iiguro 3-8 providos an iIIuslralion of an NDB.
Aircrafl navigalo using llo NDB by roforoncing an aulomalic
diroclion findor (ADI) Iocalod on llo aircrafls panoI. Tlo ADI sim-
pIy poinls lovard llo Iocalion of llo NDB. Iiguro 3-9 iIIuslralos an
ADI syslom.


Tlo advancos in radio and oIoclronics during and aflor WorId War II
Iod lo llo inslaIIalion of llo vory ligl froquoncy omnirango (VOR)
radio slalions. Tloso slalions aro Iocalod on llo ground and sond oul
radio signaIs in aII diroclions. Iacl signaI can bo considorod as a
courso or a roulo, roforrod lo as a radiaI llal can bo foIIovod by an
aircrafl. In lorms of 1 inlorvaIs, lloro aro 360 coursos or roulos llal
aro radialod from a VOR slalion, from 0 poinling lovard magnolic
norll incroasing lo 359 in a cIocIviso diroclion. Tlo VOR lransmil-
lor slalion is a smaII squaro buiIding loppod vill vlal appoars lo bo
a vlilo dorby lal. Il broadcasls on a froquoncy jusl abovo llal of IM
radio slalions. Tlo vory ligl froquoncios il usos aro virluaIIy froo of
slalic. Tlo syslom of VOR slalions oslabIisl llo nolvorI of airvays
and jol roulos and aro aIso ossonliaI lo aroa navigalion. Tlo rango of a
VOR slalion varios bul is usuaIIy Ioss llan 200 nm. A lypicaI VOR
boacon is iIIuslralod in Iig. 3-10.
Aircrafl oquippod vill a VOR rocoivor in llo cocIpil lavo a diaI
for luning in llo dosirod VOR froquoncy. A piIol can soIocl llo VOR
radiaI or roulo lo vislos lo foIIov lo llo VOR slalion. In llo cocIpil
lloro is aIso an omniboaring soIoclor (OBS) vlicl indicalos llo load-
ing of llo aircrafl roIalivo lo llo diroclion of llo dosirod radiaI and
vlollor llo aircrafl is lo llo rigll or Iofl of llo radiaI. An iIIuslralion
of an OBS is providod in Iig. 3-11.
- -
Dislanco moasuring oquipmonl (DMI) las lradilionaIIy boon inslaIIod
al VOR slalions in llo Unilod Slalos. Tlo DMI slovs llo piIol llo


sIanl dislanco bolvoon llo aircrafl and a parlicuIar VOR slalion. Sinco
il is llo air dislanco in naulicaI miIos llal is moasurod, llo rocoiving
oquipmonl in an aircrafl fIying al 35,000 fl diroclIy ovor llo DMI sla-
lion vouId road 5.8 nm.
An on roulo air navigalion aid vlicl bosl suilod llo laclicaI noods
of llo miIilary vas dovoIopod by llo Navy in llo oarIy 1950s. Tlis aid
is Inovn as TACAN, vlicl slands for laclicaI air navigalion. Tlis aid
combinos azimull and dislanco moasuring inlo ono unil insload of lvo
and is oporalod in llo uIlra-ligl-froquoncy band. As a compromiso
bolvoon civiIian and miIilary roquiromonls, llo IAA ropIacod llo DMI
-

OBS knob turns the
compass card, here
set to 100
CD needle swung
3 dots left, meaning
you are 6 right of
the 280 radial
TO/FROM indicator
showing TO
100
-

porlion of ils VOR faciIilios vill llo dislanco moasuring compononls


of TACAN. Tloso slalions aro Inovn as VORTAC slalions. If a slalion
las fuII TACAN oquipmonl, boll azimull and dislanco moasuring
oquipmonl, and aIso VOR, il is dosignalod as VORTAC.
NDB and VOR sysloms aro oflon Iocalod on airporl airfioIds. Tlo
Iocalion of lloso sysloms on airporl, Inovn as TVORs, aro significanl
lo airporl pIannors and dosignors, as llo Iocalion of ollor faciIilios,
sucl as Iargo buiIdings, parlicuIarIy conslruclod of molaI, may
advorsoIy affocl llo porformanco of llo navaid.
As iIIuslralod in Iig. 3-12, TVORs slouId bo Iocalod al Ioasl 500 fl
from any runvays and 250 fl from any laxivays. Any slrucluros or
lroos slouId bo Iocalod al Ioasl 1000 fl from llo TVOR anlonna. Tloro
slouId aIso bo a cIoaranco angIo of al Ioasl 2.5 for any slrucluros and
2.0 for any lroos boyond 1000 fl, as iIIuslralod in Iig. 3-13.
500'
TVOR
500'
T
a
x
iw
a
y
250'
R
u
n
w
a
y
--
Clearance Angles
2.5 for Wooden Structures
1.2 for Metal Structures
Antenna
Height
16"17"
(5 M)
Tree
Clearance
Angle
Antenna Shelter
200' Min Radius
(80 M)
1,000' Min
(300 M)
Max Allowable Slope 4%
2.5
1.2
2
Counterpoise
-



A Iong-rango radar for lracIing on roulo aircrafl las boon oslabIislod
llrougloul llo conlinonlaI Unilod Slalos and in ollor parls of llo
vorId. WliIo in llo Unilod Slalos lloro is compIolo radar covorago in
llo 48 conliguous slalos, llis is nol llo caso oIsovloro in llo vorId.
Tloso radars lavo a rango of aboul 250 nm. SlriclIy spoaIing radar is
nol an aid lo navigalion. Ils principaI funclion is lo provido air lraffic
conlroIIors vill a visuaI dispIay of llo posilion of oacl aircrafl so
lloy can monilor lloir spacings and inlorvono vlon nocossary. Hov-
ovor, il can bo and is usod by air lraffic conlroIIors lo guido aircrafl
vlonovor llis is nocossary. Ior llis roason il las boon incIudod as an
aid lo navigalion.
Tlo VOR and NDB, oflon combinod vill radar-basod survoiIIanco
from air lraffic conlroI, lavo lradilionaIIy boon usod in boll on roulo
navigalion and for navigalion on approacl lo Ianding al an airporl.
Navigalion on approacl lo an airporl using lloso ground-basod sys-
loms is porformod by foIIoving prodolorminod, pubIislod, approacl
procoduros. Tloso procoduros aro oflon updalod and pubIislod by llo
IAA in llo form of approacl clarls. Iiguro 3-14 providos an oxampIo
of an approacl clarl dopicling an approacl procoduro using an NDB
as an aid lo navigalion, vliIo Iig. 3-15 iIIuslralos a simiIar approacl
using a VOR as llo primary aid lo navigalion. Il is slrongIy rocom-
mondod llal llo airporl pIannor undorsland llo informalion providod
in lloso clarls. Approaclos basod on NDB and VOR navaids aro con-
sidorod nonprocision approaclos, as lloy provido IaloraI navigalion
assislanco bul nol vorlicaI navigalion. Tlal is, lloso inslrumonls may
bo roforoncod lo dolormino vlicl diroclion lo fIy vlon approacling an
airporl, bul do nol provido inslrumonl-basod guidanco in dolormining
llo approprialo aIliludo or dosconl ralo on approacl.
- -
UnliI llo roconl proIiforalion of pubIislod navigalion procoduros vlicl
roIy on llo saloIIilo basod GIS syslom, llo inslrumonl Ianding syslom
(IIS) vas llo onIy ground-basod syslom corlifiod lo provido boll Ial-
oraI and vorlicaI guidanco lo aircrafl on approacl lo an airporl, and as
of 2008 is llo onIy navigalionaI aid corlifiod by llo IAA lo provido
procision navigalion for aircrafl, and is sliII llo mosl vidoIy usod
mollod of approacl navigalion al llo vorIds Iargor airporls.
An IIS syslom consisls of lvo radio lransmillors Iocalod on llo
airporl. Ono radio boam is caIIod llo IocaIizor and llo ollor llo gIido
sIopo. Tlo IocaIizor indicalos lo piIols vlollor lloy aro Iofl or rigll of
llo corrocl aIignmonl for approacl lo llo runvay. Tlo gIido sIopo
indicalos llo corrocl angIo of dosconl lo llo runvay. GIido sIopos aro
in llo ordor of from 2p3p lo 7.5p.
In ordor lo furllor loIp piIols on lloir IIS approacl, up lo llroo
Iov-povor fan marIors caIIod IIS marIors aro usuaIIy inslaIIod so

llal lloy may Inov jusl lov far aIong llo approacl lo llo runvay
lloy lavo progrossod. Tlo firsl is caIIod llo oulor marIor (IOM) and
is Iocalod aboul 3.5 lo 5 mi from llo ond of llo runvay. Tlo middIo
marIor (MM) is Iocalod aboul 3000 fl from llo ond of llo runvay. On


somo IIS sysloms, an addilionaI marIor caIIod llo innor marIor (IM)
is Iocalod 1000 fl from llo ond of llo runvay. Wlon llo pIano passos
ovor a marIor, a Iigll goos on in llo cocIpil and a lono sounds. Tlo
configuralion of llo IIS syslom is slovn in Iig. 3-16.

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Tlo IocaIizor consisls of an anlonna, vlicl is Iocalod on llo oxlon-
sion of llo runvay conlorIino approximaloIy 1000 fl from llo far ond
of llo runvay, and a IocaIizor lransmillor buiIding Iocalod aboul 300 fl
lo ono sido of llo runvay al llo samo dislanco from llo ond of llo
runvay as llo anlonna. Tlo gIido sIopo faciIily is pIacod 750 lo 1250 fl
dovn llo runvay from llo llrosloId and is Iocalod lo ono sido of llo
runvay conlorIino al a dislanco vlicl can vary from 400 lo 650 fl. Tlo
funclioning of llo IocaIizor and llo gIido sIopo faciIily is affoclod by
llo cIoso proximily of moving objocls sucl as volicuIar and aircrafl
lraffic. During incIomonl voallor llo uso of llo IIS crilicaI aroas
inlibil aircrafl and volicIos from onloring inlo aroas llal vouId
impodo an aircrafl insido of llo oulor marIor from rocoiving a cIoar
signaI. Slalionary objocls noarby can aIso causo a dolorioralion of sig-
naIs. Abrupl clangos of sIopo in proximily of llo anlonnas aro nol
pormillod or llo signaI viII nol bo lransmillod proporIy. Anollor Iim-
ilalion of llo IIS is llal llo gIido sIopo boam is nol roIiabIo boIov a
loigll of aboul 200 fl abovo llo runvay.
As vill VOR and NDB sysloms, llo IocaIizor and gIido sIopo
compononls of llo IIS aro liglIy sonsilivo lo lloir proximily lo sur-
rounding objocls llal may inlorforo vill lloir radio signaIs. As sucl,
lloro aro spocific roslriclions lo conslruclion in llo immodialo vicin-
ily of lloso sysloms.
IIS sysloms may aIso bo accompaniod by runvay visuaI rango
(RVR) oquipmonl, vlicl provido a moasuromonl of IaloraI visibiIily
lo a piIol. RVR sysloms dolormino llo dislanco a piIol slouId bo abIo
lo soo dovn llo runvay, givon curronl almosploric condilions and
oxisling Iiglling sysloms. Doponding on llo lypo of RVR syslom
inslaIIod, piIols can safoIy approacl lo Iand on a runvay using IIS
navigalion in varying IovoIs of cIoud coiIing IovoIs and lorizonlaI vis-
ibiIily. TabIo 3-3 providos llo coiIing and visibiIily IovoIs for IIS sys-
loms oquippod vill RVR. Iiguro 3-17 iIIuslralos a pubIislod approacl
using an IIS.
Tlo mosl crilicaI poinl of approacl lo Ianding comos vlon llo
aircrafl broaIs llrougl llo ovorcasl and llo piIol musl clango from
inslrumonl lo visuaI condilions. Somolimos, onIy a fov soconds aro
-





-

avaiIabIo for llo piIol lo maIo llo lransilion and compIolo llo Iand-
ing. To aid in maIing llis lransilion, Iiglls aro inslaIIod on llo
approacl lo and on llo runvays. Tloso aro gonoraIIy lormod approacl
Iiglling sysloms (AIS). Moro dolaiIs concorning lloso sysloms aro
conlainod in llo claplor on signing, marIing, and Iiglling.
-



In uso in many of llo busior airporls villin llo Unilod Slalos and
oIsovloro, spociaIIy dosignod radar caIIod airporl surfaco doloclion
oquipmonl (ASDI), oflon roforrod lo as , las boon
dovoIopod lo aid llo conlroIIor in roguIaling lraffic on llo airporl.
Tlo syslom givos llo air lraffic conlroIIor in llo conlroI lovor a piclo-
riaI dispIay of llo runvays, laxivays, and lorminaI aroa vill radar
indicaling llo posilion of aircrafl and ollor volicIos moving on llo
surfaco of llo airporl.
ASDI loclnoIogios aro mosl commonIy avaiIabIo in lvo forms.
Tlo airporl movomonl aroa safoly syslom (AMASS) inlogralos llird
gonoralion (ASDI-3) ground-basod radar sysloms vill audio and
visuaI varning sysloms lo provonl runvay incursions on llo airfioId.
ASDI-X, a syslom llal inlogralos ASDI loclnoIogy vill lranspondor
sysloms lo idonlify llo aircrafl oporaling on llo aircrafl, las boon
ompIoyod al Ioss busy commorciaI sorvico airporls llrougloul llo
Unilod Slalos. Tloso sysloms aro monilorod by air lraffic manago-
monl porsonnoI in llo airporls ATCT.
- -- - -
Iorlaps llo groalosl impacl on air lraffic managomonl sinco llo
boginning of llo lvonly-firsl conlury las boon llo dovoIopmonl,
accoplanco, and proIiforalion of navigalionaI procoduros vlicl roIy
on llo gIobaI posilioning syslom.
Tlo gIobaI posilioning syslom (GIS) is a saloIIilo-basod radio
posilioning and navigalion syslom. Tlo syslom is dosignod lo pro-
vido liglIy accuralo posilion and voIocily informalion on a conlinu-
ous gIobaI basis lo an unIimilod numbor of proporIy oquippod usors.
Tlo syslom is unaffoclod by voallor and providos a common vorId-
vido grid roforonco syslom. Tlo GIS concopl is prodicalod upon
accuralo and conlinuous InovIodgo of llo spaliaI posilion of oacl
saloIIilo in llo syslom vill rospocl lo limo and dislanco from a lrans-
milling saloIIilo lo llo usor. Tlo GIS syslom consisls of 24 saloIIilos in
noar-circuIar orbil aboul llo oarll. GIS rocoivors onboard aircrafl
aulomalicaIIy soIocl llo approprialo signaIs from lypicaIIy four saloI-
Iilos vlicl aro in viov of llo rocoivor and lransIalo lloso signaIs inlo
a llroo-dimonsionaI posilion, and vlon llo rocoivor is in molion,
voIocily.
GIS vas dovoIopod by llo Unilod Slalos miIilary lo aid in rocon-
naissanco and slralogic oporalions. Undor miIilary oporalions, sig-
naIs lransmillod from llo orbiling GIS saloIIilos voro oncryplod lo
roduco llo accuracy of posilioning for nonaullorizod usors. Tlis poI-
icy bocamo Inovn as soIoclivo avaiIabiIily. Hovovor, on May 1,
2000, Irosidonl BiII CIinlon ordorod llo romovaI of soIoclivo avaiI-
abiIily, aIIoving llo civiIian vorId lo laIo advanlago of GIS posilion-
ing accuracy on llo ordor of 1 lo 3 m. Tlis IovoI of accuracy las boon

doomod sufficionl lo aIIov aircrafl lo navigalo using proporIy


oquippod GIS rocoivors for boll on roulo navigalion and approaclos
lo airporls, in boll VIR and IIR condilions.
In llo firsl docado of llo lvonly-firsl conlury, llo proIiforalion of
GIS-basod air navigalion sysloms las boon dramalic, lo llo poinl
vloro llo uso of lradilionaI ground-basod navigalion aids sucl as llo
NDB and VOR is bocoming obsoIolo. GIS navigalion sysloms lavo
bocomo avaiIabIo as boll in-panoI fixod navigalion sysloms, and por-
labIo unils, and lavo bocomo vidoIy usod in many aroas of socioly
oulsido of avialion.
As Iig. 3-18 iIIuslralos, GIS sysloms, parlicuIarIy onlancod vill
comprolonsivo dalabasos of aroa lorrain, IandmarIs, and airporl
infraslrucluro, provido piIols vill virluaIIy visuaI condilions and
llo abiIily lo navigalo from origin lo doslinalion villoul any roIianco
on lradilionaI ground-basod anaIog navigalionaI aids.
GIS-basod RNAV approaclos lavo boon rofinod vill improving
loclnoIogy, Inovn as llo vido aroa augmonlalion syslom (WAAS),
and lraining lo aIIov aircrafl lo approacl airporls using vory prociso
navigalion procoduros. Tloso approaclos, Inovn as RNI (roquirod
navigalion porformanco), lavo aIIovod aircrafl lo navigalo around
sucl obslacIos as mounlainous lorrain and socurily sonsilivo aroas,
rosuIling in a moro officionl uso of airporl runvays. }unoau, AIasIa
and Waslinglon, D.C. aro airporls llal lavo bonofilod from lloso
onlancomonls in air lraffic conlroI. An oxampIo RNI approacl is
iIIuslralod in Iig. 3-19.
- -

Iurllor onlancomonls lo llo air lraffic managomonl syslom incIudo


llo uso of advancod digilaI dala-IinI sysloms, Inovn as aulomalod
dopondonl survoiIIanco. ADS-addross (ADS-A) sysloms sond digilaIIy
lransmillod informalion bolvoon spocific aircrafl and ADS-broadcasl
-
-

(ADS-B) sysloms broadcasl informalion lo aII oquippod aircrafl and air


lraffic managomonl faciIilios, idonlifying lloir Iocalions lo ollor lraffic
in llo syslom, providing llo addod abiIily lo safoly avoid coIIisions
ovon in poor visibiIily condilions. OriginaIIy loslod in AIasIa bolvoon
2000 and 2003, ADS-B is quicIIy bocoming a slandard compononl of air
lraffic navigalion sysloms in llo Unilod Slalos. A rondoring of llo
ADS-B syslom is Iig. 3-20.

Dospilo llo proIiforalion of GIS-basod navigalion sinco llo boginning of
llo lvonly-firsl conlury, llo principaI aids for llo conlroI of air lraffic by
air lraffic managomonl porsonnoI aro sliII voico communicalion and
radar. Air lraffic conlroIIors monilor llo spacing bolvoon aircrafl on llo
radarscopo and inslrucl piIols by moans of voico communicalion.
Radar rolurns appoar on llo radarscopo as smaII bIips. Tloso aro
rofIoclions from llo aircrafl body. Irimary radar roquiros llo inslaIIalion
of rolaling anlonnas on llo ground and llo rango of llo primary radar is
a funclion of ils froquoncy. Socondary radar consisls of a radar rocoivor
and lransmillor on llo ground llal lransmils a codod signaI lo an aircrafl
if llal aircrafl las a lranspondor. A lranspondor is an airborno rocoivor
and lransmillor vlicl rocoivos llo signaI from llo ground and rosponds
by rolurning a codod ropIy lo llo inlorrogalor on llo ground. Tlo codod
ropIy normaIIy conlains informalion on aircrafl idonlily and aIliludo.
Informalion from primary and socondary radar rolurns aro pro-
vidod lo air lraffic conlroIIors via an aIplanumoric dispIay on lloir
radar scopos, as iIIuslralod in Iig. 3-21. Tlo firsl Iino slovs llo
Surveillance
Radar
Modes
ADS-B
ADS-B
ADS
Receiver
Air Traffic
Management
ADS-B
Collision
Avoidance
Global Navigation
Satellite
System
--

idonlily of llo aircrafl, llo socond Iino ils aIliludo and ground spood,
and llo llird Iino givos llo boacon codo lranspondor numbor and llo
aircrafl lracI numbor. To bo abIo lo lavo llis informalion prosonlod
on llo radarscopo, llo aircrafl musl carry a modo-C or modo-S lran-
spondor llal las llo capabiIily of aIliludo roporling aIong vill air-
crafl idonlily. AII commorciaI airIino aircrafl carry a lranspondor,
vlicl salisfios llo roquiromonl for roporling aIliludo. Iurllor, aII air-
crafl fIying in CIass A, B, or C airspaco aro roquirod lo lavo an oporal-
ing lranspondor onboard.

Ior moro llan 50 yoars air lraffic conlroI sysloms lavo gono llrougl
a numbor of incromonlaI loclnoIogicaI onlancomonls, sucl as
onlancod radar capabiIilios, aulomalod fIigll sorvico sysloms, and
ground-basod navigalion sysloms. Dospilo lloso upgrados, il las
boon vidoIy rocognizod llal llo lradilionaI radar and anaIog-basod
communicalion syslom viII nol bo sufficionl lo accommodalo llo
incroasing domands on llo syslom in llo lvonly-firsl conlury.
As parl of llo Vision 100 Conlury of Avialion Roaullorizalion Acl
of 2003, llo U.S. fodoraI govornmonl caIIod for a compIolo lransfor-
malion of llo nalionaI airspaco syslom and a modornizalion of ils air
lraffic conlroI faciIilios. Tlis modornizalion las como lo bo Inovn as
llo noxl gonoralion air lraffic syslom or . Tlrougl llo acl,
Congross diroclod llo formalion of a }oinl IIanning and DovoIop-
monl Offico (}IDO) lo faciIilalo llo mammoll lasI of convorling llo
curronl syslom lo a fuIIy aulomalod, digilaI, saloIIilo-basod air lraffic
managomonl syslom. Tlo }IDO comprisos of roprosonlalivos from
llo IAA, NASA, Tlo U.S. Doparlmonls of Transporlalion, Dofonso,
HomoIand Socurily, Commorco, and llo Wlilo Houso Offico of
Scionco and ToclnoIogy IoIicy, and diroclod lo dovoIop a noxl gon-
oralion air lraffic syslom llal is loclnoIogicaIIy advancod and fuIIy
inlogralos llo inlorosls of aII vlo uso llo nalions avialion syslom.
NoxlGon viII focus on maIing llo saloIIilo-basod GIS syslom
and digilaI dala communicalions llo bacIbono of air lraffic manago-
monl. Inlogralod inlo NoxlGon aro GIS, WAAS, and ADS-B loclnoI-
ogy lo aIIov for digilaI survoiIIanco of air lraffic bolvoon boll
ground-basod air lraffic managomonl faciIilios as voII as among
aircrafl llomsoIvos. In addilion lo ADS-B loclnoIogy, NoxlGon foaluros
llo foIIoving capabiIilios, as doscribod by llo IAA:

Syslom vido informalion managomonl (SWIM) providos llo infra-


slrucluro and sorvicos lo doIivor nolvorI-onabIod informalion accoss
across llo NoxlGon air lransporlalion oporalions. As an oarIy oppor-
lunily invoslmonl, SWIM viII provido ligl-quaIily, limoIy dala lo
many usors and appIicalionsoxlonding boyond llo provious focus


on uniquo, poinl-lo-poinl inlorfacos for appIicalion-lo-appIicalion
dala oxclango. By roducing llo numbor and lypos of inlorfacos and
sysloms, SWIM viII roduco rodundancy of informalion and bollor
faciIilalo muIliagoncy informalion-slaring. SWIM viII aIso onabIo
nov modos of docision maIing, as informalion is moro oasiIy accossod
by aII slaIoloIdors affoclod by oporalionaI docisions.
-
NoxlGon dala communicalions viII provido for lvo-vay digilaI com-
municalions bolvoon air lraffic conlroIIors and piIols for air lraffic
conlroI cIoarancos, inslruclions, and ollor advisorios. In addilion,
digilaI communicalions viII provido broadcasl loxl-basod and grapl-
icaI advisory informalion sucl as voallor roporls and nolicos lo air-
mon villoul roIying on voico communicalions.

Tlo NoxlGon nolvorI onabIod voallor (NNIW) viII sorvo as llo
coro of llo NoxlGon voallor supporl sorvicos and provido a common
voallor picluro across llo nalionaI airspaco syslom. Tloso sorvicos
viII, in lurn, bo inlogralod inlo ollor Ioy compononls of NoxlGon
roquirod lo onabIo bollor air lransporlalion docision maIing. Il is
anlicipalod llal lons of llousands of gIobaI voallor obsorvalions and
sonsor roporls from ground-, airborno-, and spaco-basod sourcos
vouId fuso inlo a singIo nalionaI voallor informalion syslom,
updalod as noodod in roaI limo.
NoxlGon is duo lo bo a plasod lransformalion of llo NAS llrougl
2025 al an oslimalod cosl of $20 lo $25 biIIion. Il slouId bo nolod llo
oarIy slagos of NoxlGon dovoIopmonl lavo boon vory voIaliIo vill
rogard lo llo soIoclion of loclnoIogy pIalforms on vlicl lo baso llo
fuluro air lraffic managomonl syslom, and il slouId bo oxpoclod llal
furllor dovoIopmonls in loclnoIogy viII rosuIl in varialions lo cur-
ronl syslom pIans. As sucl, il is imporalivo llal llo airporl pIannor
Ioop up vill curronl progross. Tlo }IDO and llo IAA froquonlIy
updalo lloir Inlornol silos vill NoxlGon syslom progross.
-
1. -, Advisory CircuIar AC150/5300-13, IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 2008.
2. , Airvay IIanning Slandard Numbor Tvo, Ordor 7031.3,
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., Soplombor 1977.
3. , Ordor 7110.65G, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion,
Waslinglon, D.C., Marcl 1992.
4. -,
Ordor No. 7000.3, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., Iobruary
1988.
5. -- - - --
- , Offico of Sysloms Inginooring Managomonl, Roporl No.
IAA-IM-80-7, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., }uno 1980.

6. - , Roporl No. DOT/IAA/ASC-91-1, U.S.


Doparlmonl of Transporlalion, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon,
D.C., 1991.
7. - , voI. 1: Clicago Airporl/Airspaco
Oporaling Invironmonl, Iandrum and Brovn Avialion ConsuIlanls, Clicago,
III., ApriI 1991.
8. - Doparlmonl of Transporlalion
and NalionaI Aoronaulics and Spaco Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., Marcl
1971.
9. - - - -
- - - Iarl 71, IodoraI Avialion RoguIalions,
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., Iobruary 1992.
10. , IIigll Informalion IubIicalion, NalionaI Ocoan
Survoy, NalionaI Ocoanic and Almosploric Adminislralion, Doparlmonl of
Commorco, Waslinglon, D.C., Docombor 1975.
11. -- - - Iarl 75, IodoraI Avialion
RoguIalions, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., Docombor
1991.
12. - - - , Roporl No. IAA-
AIO-92-4, Offico of Avialion IoIicy, IIans, and Managomonl AnaIysis, IodoraI
Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., May 1992.
13. , Tlo MITRI Corporalion, Roporl IAA-IM-74-5,
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1974.
14. Iuluro ATC ToclnoIogy Improvomonls and llo Impacl on Airporl Capacily,
R. M. Harris, Tlo MITRI Corporalion, Air Transporlalion Sysloms Division,
McIoan, Va.
15. Iuluro Syslom Concopls for Air Traffic Managomonl, W. I. Simpson, Offico of
Sysloms Inginooring, Doparlmonl of Transporlalion, -
- --, Waslinglon, D.C.,
Oclobor 1972.
16. -, Iarl 91, IodoraI Avialion RoguIalions, IodoraI
Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., Iobruary 1992.
17. - - - -- ,
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1989.
18. - -- , Roporl
No. IAA-IM-78-8A, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1978.
19. -, Advisory CircuIar, AC 150/5070-5,
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., May 1970.
20. RoIalivo Navigalion Offors AIlornalivos lo DifforonliaI GIS,.
, voI. 137, No. 22, Nov YorI, Novombor 1992.
21. - - , U.S.
Doparlmonl of Transporlalion, Waslinglon, D.C., Docombor 1969.
22. , NalionaI Avialion Syslom IIanning Roviov Conforonco,
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C.
23. Tlo Advancod Air Traffic Managomonl Syslom Sludy, R. I. MaxvoII, Offico
of Sysloms Inginooring, Doparlmonl of Transporlalion, -
- --, Waslinglon,
D.C., Oclobor 1972.
24. - -, Ordor No.
7032.9, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., Soplombor 1992.
25. - 12ll od., IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., Oclobor 1992.
26. - - - , Ordor 8260.3B,
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., May 1992.



-

Tlo pIanning of an airporl is sucl a compIox procoss llal llo anaIysis


of ono aclivily villoul rogard lo llo offocl on ollor aclivilios viII nol
provido accoplabIo soIulions. An airporl oncompassos a vido rango
of aclivilios vlicl lavo difforonl and oflon confIicling roquiromonls.
Yol lloy aro inlordopondonl so llal a singIo aclivily may Iimil llo
capacily of llo onliro compIox. In llo pasl airporl maslor pIans voro
dovoIopod on llo basis of IocaI avialion noods. In moro roconl limos
lloso pIans lavo boon inlogralod inlo an airporl syslom pIan vlicl
assossod nol onIy llo noods al a spocific airporl silo bul aIso llo ovor-
aII noods of llo syslom of airporls vlicl sorvico an aroa, rogion, slalo,
or counlry. If fuluro airporl pIanning offorls aro lo bo succossfuI, lloy
musl bo foundod on guidoIinos oslabIislod on llo basis of compro-
lonsivo airporl syslom and maslor pIans.
Tlo oIomonls of a Iargo airporl aro slovn in Iig. 4-1. Il is dividod
inlo lvo major compononls, llo airsido and llo Iandsido. Tlo aircrafl
galos al llo lorminaI buiIdings form llo division bolvoon llo lvo
compononls. Willin llo syslom, llo claraclorislics of llo volicIos,
boll ground and air, lavo a Iargo infIuonco on pIanning. Tlo passon-
gor and slippor of goods aro inloroslod primariIy in llo ovoraII door-
lo-door lravoI limo and nol jusl llo duralion of llo air journoy. Ior llis
roason accoss lo airporls is an ossonliaI considoralion in pIanning.
Tlo probIoms rosuIling from llo incorporalion of airporl opora-
lions inlo llo vob of molropoIilan Iifo aro compIox. In llo oarIy days
of air lransporl, airporls voro Iocalod al a dislanco from llo cily,
vloro inoxponsivo Iand and a Iimilod numbor of obslruclions por-
millod fIoxibiIily in airporl oporalions. Bocauso of llo naluro of air-
crafl and llo infroquoncy of fIiglls, noiso vas nol a probIom lo llo


communily. In many casos llo arrivaI and doparluro of passongor
and cargo pIanos vas oflon a sourco of IocaI prido. In addilion, Iov
popuIalion donsily in llo vicinily of llo airporl and Iigll air lraffic
provonlod occasionaI accidonls from aIarming llo communily. In
spilo of oarIy Iavsuils, llo roIalionslip bolvoon airporl and commu-
nily vas roIalivoIy froo of slrifo rosuIling from probIoms of nuisanco
or lazard.
Airporl oporalions lavo boon incroasingIy lamporod by obslruc-
lions rosuIling from induslriaI dovoIopmonl roIalod lo llo airporl and
from induslry allraclod by adjaconl inoxponsivo Iand and accoss lo llo
lransporlalion affordod by llo airfioId and ils associalod liglvays.
Apron-gate
area
Taxiway
system
Runway
Terminal
airspace
En route
airspace
Exit
taxiway
Airport system
Airfield surface
system
Holding
pad
Terminal
buildings
Vehicular
circulation
parking
L
a
n
d

s
i
d
e
A
i
r

s
i
d
e
Airport ground
access system
Aircraft
flow
Passenger
flow
- --
-

WliIo incroasingIy donso rosidonliaI dovoIopmonl las rosuIlod from


llis oconomic slimuIalion, ono musl nol ovorIooI llo offocls of llo
unprocodonlod suburban sproad during llo posl-WorId War II ora,
rosuIling from llo bacIIog of lousing noods and a poriod of oconomic
prosporily.
RadicaI dovoIopmonls in llo naluro of air lransporl lavo pro-
ducod nov probIoms. Tlo plonomonaI grovll of air lraffic las
incroasod llo probabiIily of unfavorabIo communily roaclion, bul
dovoIopmonls in llo aircrafl llomsoIvos lavo lad llo mosl profound
offocl on airporl communily roIalions. Tlo groalor sizo and spood of
aircrafl lavo rosuIlod in incroasos in approacl and runvay roquiro-
monls, vliIo incroasos in llo oulpul of povor pIanls lavo brougll
incroasos in noiso. Iacod vill lloso probIoms llo airporl musl copo
vill llo probIoms of socuring sufficionl airspaco for accoss lo llo air-
porl, sufficionl Iand for ground oporalions, and, al llo samo limo,
adoqualo accoss lo llo molropoIilan aroa.
- -
Many difforonl lypos of sludios aro porformod in airporl pIanning.
Tloso incIudo sludios roIalod lo faciIily pIanning, financiaI pIanning,
lraffic and marIols, oconomics, and llo onvironmonl. Hovovor, oacl
of lloso sludios can usuaIIy bo cIassifiod as boing porformod al ono of
llroo IovoIs: llo syslom pIanning IovoI, llo maslor pIanning IovoI, or
llo projocl pIanning IovoI.
-
An airporl syslom pIan is a roprosonlalion of llo avialion faciIilios
roquirod lo mool llo immodialo and fuluro noods of a molropoIilan
aroa, rogion, slalo, or counlry. Tlo NalionaI IIan of Inlogralod Airporl
Sysloms (NIIAS) |11] is an oxampIo of a syslom pIan roprosonling llo
airporl dovoIopmonl noods of llo Unilod Slalos. Tlo Micligan Avia-
lion Syslom IIan |10] is an oxampIo of a syslom pIan roprosonling llo
airporl dovoIopmonl noods of llo slalo of Micligan, and llo Soull-
oasl Micligan RogionaI Avialion Syslom IIan |13] is a syslom pIan
roprosonling llo airporl dovoIopmonl noods of a sovon counly rogion
comprising llo Dolroil MolropoIilan aroa.
Tlo syslom pIan prosonls llo rocommondalions for llo gonoraI
Iocalion and claraclorislics of nov airporls and loIiporls and llo
naluro of oxpansion for oxisling onos lo mool forocasls of aggrogalo
domand. Il idonlifios llo avialion roIo of oxisling and rocommondod
nov airporls and faciIilios. Il incIudos llo liming and oslimalod cosls
of dovoIopmonl and roIalos airporl syslom pIanning lo llo poIicy and
objoclivos of llo roIovanl jurisdiclion. Ils ovoraII purposo is lo dolor-
mino llo oxlonl, lypo, naluro, Iocalion, and liming of airporl dovoIop-
monl noodod lo oslabIisl a viabIo, baIancod, and inlogralod syslom of


airporls |1, 8]. Il aIso providos llo basis for dolaiIod airporl pIanning
sucl as llal conlainod in llo airporl maslor pIan.
Tlo airporl syslom pIan providos boll broad and spocific poIi-
cios, pIans, and programs roquirod lo oslabIisl a viabIo and inlogralod
syslom of airporls lo mool llo noods of llo rogion. Tlo objoclivos of
llo syslom pIan incIudo
1. Tlo ordorIy and limoIy dovoIopmonl of a syslom of airporls
adoqualo lo mool prosonl and fuluro avialion noods and lo
promolo llo dosirod pallorn of rogionaI grovll roIalivo lo
induslriaI, ompIoymonl, sociaI, onvironmonlaI, and rocro-
alionaI goaIs.
2. Tlo dovoIopmonl of avialion lo mool ils roIo in a baIancod
and muIlimodaI lransporlalion syslom lo foslor llo ovoraII
goaIs of llo aroa as rofIoclod in llo lransporlalion syslom pIan
and comprolonsivo dovoIopmonl pIan.
3. Tlo proloclion and onlancomonl of llo onvironmonl llrougl
llo Iocalion and oxpansion of avialion faciIilios in a mannor
vlicl avoids ocoIogicaI and onvironmonlaI impairmonl.
4. Tlo provision of llo framovorI villin vlicl spocific airporl
programs may bo dovoIopod consislonl vill llo slorl- and
Iong-rango airporl syslom roquiromonls.
5. Tlo impIomonlalion of Iand-uso and airspaco pIans vlicl
oplimizo lloso rosourcos in an oflon conslrainod onvironmonl.
6. Tlo dovoIopmonl of Iong-rango fiscaI pIans and llo oslabIisl-
monl of priorilios for airporl financing villin llo govorn-
monlaI budgoling procoss.
7. Tlo oslabIislmonl of llo moclanism for llo impIomonlalion
of llo syslom pIan llrougl llo normaI poIilicaI framovorI,
incIuding llo nocossary coordinalion bolvoon govornmonlaI
agoncios, llo invoIvomonl of boll pubIic and privalo avialion
and nonavialion inlorosls, and compalibiIily vill llo con-
lonl, slandards, and criloria of oxisling IogisIalion.
Tlo airporl syslom pIanning procoss musl bo consislonl vill
slalo, rogionaI, or nalionaI goaIs for lransporlalion, Iand uso, and llo
onvironmonl. Tlo oIomonls in a lypicaI airporl syslom pIanning pro-
coss |8] incIudo llo foIIoving:
1. IxpIoralion of issuos llal impacl avialion in llo sludy aroa
2. Invonlory of llo curronl syslom
3. Idonlificalion of air lransporlalion noods
4. Iorocasl of syslom domand
5. Considoralion of aIlornalivo airporl sysloms
-

6. Dofinilion of airporl roIos and poIicy slralogios


7. Rocommondalion of syslom clangos, funding slralogios, and
airporl dovoIopmonl
8. Iroparalion of an impIomonlalion pIan
AIllougl llo procoss invoIvos many variod oIomonls, llo finaI
producl viII rosuIl in llo idonlificalion, prosorvalion, and onlanco-
monl of llo avialion syslom lo mool curronl and fuluro domand. Tlo
uIlimalo rosuIl of llo procoss viII bo llo oslabIislmonl of a viabIo,
baIancod, and inlogralod syslom of airporls.

Tlo omplasis in airporl pIanning is normaIIy on llo oxpansion and
improvomonl of oxisling airporls. Hovovor if an oxisling airporl
cannol bo oxpandod lo mool llo fuluro domand or llo nood for a
nov airporl is idonlifiod in an airporl syslom pIan, a procoss lo
soIocl a nov airporl silo may bo roquirod. Tlo scopo of llo silo soIoc-
lion procoss viII vary vill sizo, compIoxily, and roIo of llo nov
airporl, bul lloro aro basicaIIy llroo slopsidonlificalion, scroon-
ing, and soIoclion.
criloria is dovoIopod llal viII bo usod lo ovaIualo
difforonl silos and dolormino if a silo can funclion as an airporl and
mools llo noods of llo communily and usors. Ono crilorion viII bo
lo idonlify llo Iand aroa and basic faciIily roquiromonls for llo nov
airporl. Iarl of llis anaIysis viII bo a dofinilion of airporl roIos if
moro llan lvo airporls sorvo llo rogion. Ollor criloria migll bo
llal silos aro villin a corlain radius or dislanco from llo oxisling
airporl or communily, or llal silos slouId bo roIalivoIy fIal. SovoraI
polonliaI silos llal mool llo criloria aro idonlifiod.
onco silos aro idonliod, a scrooning procoss can bo
appIiod lo oacl silo. An ovaIualion of aII polonliaI silos llal mool
llo iniliaI criloria slouId bo conduclod, scrooning oul lloso vill
llo mosl obvious slorlcomings. Scrooning faclors migll incIudo
lopograply, naluraI and man-mado obslruclions, airspaco, accoss,
onvironmonlaI impacls, and dovoIopmonl cosls. If any silos aro
oIiminalod from furllor considoralion, llorougl documonlalion
of llo roasons for llal docision is rocommondod. Tlo romaining
polonliaI silos slouId llon undorgo a dolaiIod comparison using
comprolonsivo ovaIualion criloria. WliIo llo criloria viII vary, llo
foIIoving is lypicaIIy considorod:
O airspaco considoralions, obslruclions,
voallor
avaiIabIo Iand, suilabiIily for conslruclion,
voallor


--dislanco from llo domand for avialion sorvicos,
rogionaI liglvay infraslrucluro, avaiIabIo pubIic lransporla-
lion modos
--lorrain, Iand cosls, Iand vaIuos, soiI condi-
lions, avaiIabiIily of uliIilios
--aircrafl noiso, air quaIily, ground-
valor runoff, impacl on ora and fauna, oxislonco of ondan-
gorod spocios or cuIluraI arlifacls, lisloricaI foaluros, clangos
in IocaI Iand uso, roIocalion of famiIios and businossos, clangos
in sociooconomic claraclorislics
impacl on Iand uso, offocl
on comprolonsivo Iand-uso pIans and lransporlalion pIans al
llo IocaI and rogionaI IovoIs
llo naI slop is soIocling and rocommonding a proforrod
silo. WliIo a voiglling of llo ovaIualion criloria and voigllod
ralings or ranIing of llo aIlornalivo silos is oflon usod in soIocling
a silo, caulion musl bo usod in appIying llis loclniquo sinco il
inlroducos an oIomonl of sonsilivily inlo llo anaIysis. Tlo procoss
slouId focus on providing docision maIors vill informalion on llo
various silos in a mannor llal is undorslandabIo and unbiasod.
-
An airporl maslor pIan is a concopl of llo uIlimalo dovoIopmonl of a
spocific airporl. Tlo lorm dovoIopmonl incIudos llo onliro airporl
aroa, boll for avialion and nonavialion usos, and llo uso of Iand adja-
conl lo llo airporl |1, 4, 9]. Il prosonls llo dovoIopmonl concopl
graplicaIIy and conlains llo dala and ralionaIo upon vlicl llo pIan
is basod. Iiguro 4-2 slovs a simpIo fIovclarl of llo slops for propar-
ing an airporl maslor pIan. Maslor pIans aro proparod lo supporl
oxpansion and modornizalion of oxisling airporls and guido llo
dovoIopmonl of nov airporls.
Tlo ovoraII objoclivo of llo airporl maslor pIan is lo provido
guidoIinos for fuluro dovoIopmonl vlicl viII salisfy avialion domand
in a financiaIIy foasibIo mannor and bo compalibIo vill llo onviron-
monl, communily dovoIopmonl, and ollor modos of lransporlalion.
Moro spocificaIIy il is a guido for
1. DovoIoping llo plysicaI faciIilios of an airporl
2. DovoIoping Iand on and adjaconl lo llo airporl
3. Dolormining llo onvironmonlaI offocls of airporl conslruc-
lion and oporalions
4. IslabIisling accoss roquiromonls
5. IslabIisling llo loclnicaI, oconomic and financiaI foasibiIily
of proposod dovoIopmonls llrougl a llorougl invosligalion
of aIlornalivo concopls
-

6. IslabIisling a scloduIo of priorilios and plasing for llo


improvomonls proposod in llo pIan
7. IslabIisling an acliovabIo financiaI pIan lo supporl llo
impIomonlalion scloduIo
8. IslabIisling a conlinuing pIanning procoss vlicl viII moni-
lor condilions and adjusl pIan rocommondalions as circum-
slancos varranl
GuidoIinos for compIoling an airporl maslor pIan aro doscribod
by ICAO |4] and in llo Unilod Slalos by llo IAA |1]. A maslor pIan
roporl is lypicaIIy organizod as foIIovs:
- - - -oslabIislos llo vision and
ovorarcling goaIs for llo maslor pIan as voII as objoclivos llal
Collect and analyse data
Forecast traffic demand
Capacity analysis of
airport system
Space standards and
level of service
Select new airport sites
Evaluate new sites
Select best site Size airport facilities
Prepare alternative layouts
Evaluate layouts
Select best layout
ARPORT MASTER PLAN
Yes No
Operating
policies
New airport
-


viII guido llo pIanning procoss and loIp onsuro llal llo goaIs aro
acliovod and llo vision is roaIizod.
- -providos an ovorviov of llo air-
porls lislory, roIo in llo rogion and nalion, grovll and dovoI-
opmonl ovor limo, doscriplion of ils plysicaI assols (airoId and
airspaco, lorminaI, ground accoss, and supporl faciIilios), and Ioy
induslry lronds.
- fuluro IovoIs of aircrafl oporalions,
numbor of passongors, and voIumo of cargo aro forocaslod for
slorl, inlormodialo, and Iong-rango limo poriods. TypicaIIy foro-
casls aro mado for 5, 10, and 20 yoars on boll annuaI as voII daiIy
and busiosl lours of llo day.
-- -comparos llo
fuluro domand vill llo oxisling capacily of oacl airporl compo-
nonl and idonlios llo faciIily roquiromonls nocossary lo accom-
modalo llo domand.
- idonlios, ronos, and ovaIualos a rango
of aIlornalivos for accommodaling faciIily roquiromonls. If llo
oxisling silo cannol accommodalo llo anlicipalod grovll, a soIoc-
lion procoss lo nd a nov silo may bo nocossary.
idonlios, doscribos, and donos llo
aIlornalivo llal bosl acliovos llo maslor pIan goaIs and objoclivos.
Iiguro 4-3 iIIuslralos llo dovoIopmonl pIan for llo Clicago OHaro
InlornalionaI Airporl.
providos a comprolonsivo pIan for llo impIo-
monlalion of llo proforrod dovoIopmonl pIan, incIuding llo doni-
lion of projocls, conslruclion soquonco and limoIino, cosl oslimalos,
and nanciaI pIan.
providos an ovorviov of llo anlicipalod
onvironmonlaI impacls associalod vill llo proforrod dovoIop-
monl pIan in ordor lo undorsland llo sovorily and lo loIp oxpo-
dilo subsoquonl onvironmonlaI procossing al llo projocl spocic
slago.
- documonls llal slov llo oxisling as voII
as pIannod modicalions aro proparod and llo moro nolabIo
is llo airporl Iayoul pIan (AII). Il comprisos dravings llal
incIudo llo airoIds plysicaI faciIilios, obslruclion cIoaranco
and runvay approacl proIos, Iand-uso pIans, lorminaI aroa and
ground accoss pIans, and a proporly map. Spocic guidoIinos
for llo airporl Iayoul pIan in llo Unilod Slalos aro idonliod
by IAA |1].
documonls llo coordina-
lion offorls llal occur among llo slaIoloIdors llrougloul llo
sludy.
-



A projocl pIan focusos on a spocific oIomonl of llo airporl maslor pIan
vlicl is lo bo impIomonlod in llo slorl lorm and may incIudo sucl
iloms as llo addilion of a nov runvay, llo modificalion of oxisling of
runvays, llo provision of laxivays or laxivay oxils, llo addilion of
galos, llo addilion lo or llo ronovalion of lorminaI buiIding faciIilios,
or llo modificalion of ground accoss faciIilios.


Tlo ovoraII objoclivo of llo airporl projocl pIan is lo provido llo
spocific dolaiIs of llo dovoIopmonl vlicl viII salisfy immodialo avi-
alion noods and bo consislonl vill llo objoclivos and conslrainls
idonlifiod in llo airporl maslor pIan. Moro spocificaIIy il is a dolaiIod
pIan for
1. DovoIoping llo spocific plysicaI faciIilios al an airporl
incIuding llo arclilocluraI and onginooring dosign for lloso
faciIilios
2. Dolormining llo onvironmonlaI offocls of llis dovoIopmonl
llrougl llo conslruclion and oporalionaI plasos
3. Dolormining llo dolaiIod cosls and financiaI pIanning for llo
dovoIopmonl
4. IslabIisling a scloduIo for llo conslruclion and plasing of
llo spocific iloms of dovoIopmonl in llo pIan
-
A Iand-uso pIan for proporly villin llo airporl boundary and in
aroas adjaconl lo llo airporl is an ossonliaI parl of an airporl maslor
pIan. Tlo Iand-uso pIan on and off llo airporl is an inlograI parl of an
aroa vido comprolonsivo pIanning program, and lloroforo il musl bo
coordinalod vill llo objoclivos, poIicios, and programs for llo aroa
vlicl llo airporl is lo sorvo. IncompalibiIily of llo airporl vill ils
noiglbors sloms primariIy from llo objoclions of poopIo lo aircrafl
noiso. A Iand-uso pIan musl lloroforo projocl llo oxlonl of aircrafl noiso
llal viII bo gonoralod by airporl oporalions in llo fuluro. Conlours of
oquaI inlonsily of noiso can bo dravn and ovorIaid on a Iand-uso map
and from lloso conlours an oslimalo can bo mado of llo compalibiIily
of oxisling Iand uso vill airporl oporalions. If llo Iand oulsido llo
airporl is undordovoIopod, llo conlours aro llo basis for oslabIisling
comprolonsivo Iand-uso zoning roquiromonls.
AIllougl zoning is usod as a mollod for conlroIIing Iand uso
adjaconl lo an airporl, il is nol offoclivo in aroas vlicl aro aIroady
buiIl-up bocauso il is usuaIIy nol rolroaclivo. Iurllormoro jurisdic-
lions laving zoning povors may nol laIo offoclivo zoning aclion.
Aircrafl oporalions inlo and oul of llo airporl may bo mado unnoc-
ossariIy compIox lo minimizo noiso oncroaclmonl on incompalibIo
Iand usos. Dospilo lloso slorlcomings llo pIannor slouId uliIizo
zoning as a volicIo lo acliovo compalibiIily vlorovor llis approacl
is foasibIo.
Airporls bocomo invoIvod in lvo lypos of zoning. Ono lypo is
loigll and lazard zoning, vlicl is mainIy lo prolocl llo approaclos
lo llo airporl from obslruclions. Tlo ollor lypo is Iand-uso zoning.
Tlo oxlonl of Iand uso in llo airporl doponds a groal doaI on llo
amounl of acroago avaiIabIo. Iand usos can bo cIassifiod as oillor
-

cIosoIy roIalod lo avialion or romoloIy roIalod lo avialion. Tloso


cIosoIy roIalod lo avialion uso incIudo llo runvays, laxivays,
aprons, lorminaI buiIdings, parIing, and mainlonanco faciIilios.
Nonavialion usos incIudo spaco for rocroalionaI, induslriaI, and
commorciaI aclivilios. Wlon considoring commorciaI or induslriaI
aclivilios, caro slouId bo laIon lo onsuro llal lloy viII nol inlorforo
vill aircrafl oporalions, communicalions oquipmonl, and aids lo
navigalion on llo ground. RocroalionaI faciIilios sucl as goIf coursos
may bo suilabIo villin llo immodialo proximily of llo airporl
boundary or corlain agricuIluraI usos aro aIso approprialo as Iong as
lloy do nol allracl birds. Wlon lloro is acroago villin llo airporl
boundary in oxcoss of avialion noods, il is sound fiscaI pIanning lo
provido llo groalosl financiaI rolurn from Ioasos of llo oxcoss prop-
orly. Tlus llo Iand-uso pIan villin llo airporl is a vory offoclivo
looI in loIping airporl managomonl maIo docisions concorning
roquosls for Iand uso by various inlorosls and oflon airporls doIin-
oalo aroas on llo airporl proporly for llo dovoIopmonl of induslriaI
parIs.
Tlo principaI objoclivo of llo Iand-uso pIan for aroas oulsido llo
airporl boundary is lo minimizo llo dislurbing offocls of noiso. As
slalod oarIior llo doIinoalion of noiso conlours is llo mosl promising
approacl for oslabIisling noiso-sonsilivo aroas. Tlo conlours dofino
llo aroas vlicl aro or aro nol suilabIo for rosidonliaI uso or ollor uso
and, IiIoviso, lloso vlicl aro suilabIo for Iigll induslriaI, commor-
ciaI, or rocroalionaI aclivily. AIllougl llo rosponsibiIily for dovoIop-
ing Iand usos adjaconl lo llo airporl Iios vill llo govorning bodios of
adjaconl communilios, llo Iand-uso pIan providod by llo airporl
aullorily viII groalIy infIuonco and assisl llo govorning bodios in
lloir lasI of oslabIisling comprolonsivo Iand-uso zoning.
----
InvironmonlaI faclors musl bo considorod carofuIIy in llo dovoIop-
monl of a nov airporl or llo oxpansion of an oxisling ono. In llo
Unilod Slalos, llis is a roquiromonl of llo Airporl and Airvay
Improvomonl Acl of 1982 and llo InvironmonlaI IoIicy Acl of 1969.
Sludios of llo impacl of llo conslruclion and oporalion of a nov air-
porl or llo oxpansion of an oxisling ono upon accoplabIo IovoIs of air
and valor quaIily, noiso IovoIs, ocoIogicaI procossos, and domograplic
dovoIopmonl of llo rogion musl bo conduclod lo dolormino lov llo
airporl roquiromonls can bosl bo mol vill minimaI advorso onviron-
monlaI and sociaI consoquoncos.
Aircrafl noiso is llo sovorosl onvironmonlaI probIom lo bo consid-
orod in llo dovoIopmonl of airporl faciIilios. Mucl las boon dono lo
quiol onginos and modify fIigll procoduros, rosuIling in subslanliaI
roduclions in noiso. Anollor offoclivo moans for roducing noiso is
llrougl propor pIanning of Iand uso for aroas adjaconl lo llo airporl.
Ior an oxisling airporl llis may bo difficuIl as llo Iand may lavo


aIroady boon buiIl up. Ivory offorl slouId bo mado lo orionl air lraffic
avay from noiso-sonsilivo Iand dovoIopmonl.
Ollor imporlanl onvironmonlaI faclors incIudo air and valor
poIIulion, induslriaI vaslos and domoslic sovago originaling al llo
airporl, and llo dislurbanco of naluraI onvironmonlaI vaIuos. In
rogard lo air poIIulion, llo fodoraI govornmonl and induslry lavo
vorIod joinlIy lovard aIIovialing llo probIom, and lloro is a roason
lo boIiovo llal il viII probabIy bo oIiminalod in llo noar fuluro as an
onvironmonlaI faclor. An airporl can bo a major conlribulor lo valor
poIIulion if suilabIo lroalmonl faciIilios for airporl vaslos aro nol
providod. ClomicaIs usod lo doico aircrafl aro a major sourco of
polonliaI ground valor poIIulion and provisions nood lo bo mado lo
safoIy disposo of llis vaslo producl. Tlo onvironmonlaI sludy musl
incIudo a slalomonl dolaiIing llo mollods for landIing sourcos of
valor poIIulion.
Tlo conslruclion of a nov airporl or llo oxpansion of an oxisling
ono may lavo major impacls on llo naluraI onvironmonl. Tlis is
parlicuIarIy lruo for Iargo dovoIopmonls vloro slroams and major
drainago coursos may bo clangod, llo labilals of viIdIifo may bo
disruplod, and viIdornoss and rocroalionaI aroas may bo roslapod.
Tlo onvironmonlaI sludy slouId indicalo lov lloso disruplions
migll bo aIIovialod.
In llo proparalion of an onvironmonlaI sludy, or an onviron-
monlaI impacl slalomonl, llo findings musl incIudo llo foIIoving
iloms |12]:
1. Tlo onvironmonlaI impacl of llo proposod dovoIopmonl
2. Any advorso onvironmonlaI offocls vlicl cannol bo avoidod
slouId llo dovoIopmonl bo impIomonlod
3. AIlornalivos lo llo proposod dovoIopmonl
4. Tlo roIalionslip bolvoon IocaI slorl-lorm usos of llo onvi-
ronmonl and llo mainlonanco and onlancomonl of Iong-lorm
produclivily
5. Any irrovorsibIo onvironmonlaI and irrolriovabIo commil-
monls of rosourcos vlicl vouId bo invoIvod in llo proposod
dovoIopmonl slouId il bo impIomonlod
6. Grovll inducing impacl
7. Miligalion moasuros lo minimizo impacl
In llo appIicalion of lloso guidoIinos allonlion musl bo diroclod
lo llo foIIoving quoslions. WiII llo proposod dovoIopmonl
1. Causo conlrovorsy
2. NolicoabIy affocl llo ambionl noiso IovoI for a significanl
numbor of poopIo
-

3. DispIaco a significanl numbor of poopIo


4. Havo a significanl aosllolic or visuaI offocl
5. Divido or disrupl an oslabIislod communily or divido oxisl-
ing usos
6. Havo any offocl on aroas of uniquo inlorosl or sconic boauly
7. Doslroy or dorogalo imporlanl rocroalionaI aroas
8. SubslanliaIIy aIlor llo pallorn of bolavior for a spocios
9. Inlorforo vill imporlanl viIdIifo brooding, nosling, or food-
ing grounds
10. SignificanlIy incroaso air or valor poIIulion
11. AdvorsoIy affocl llo valor labIo of an aroa
12. Causo oxcossivo congoslion on oxisling ground lransporla-
lion faciIilios
13. AdvorsoIy affocl llo Iand-uso pIan for llo rogion
Tlo proparalion of an onvironmonlaI impacl slalomonl basod
upon an onvironmonlaI assossmonl sludy is an oxlromoIy imporlanl
parl of llo airporl pIanning procoss. Tlo slalomonl slouId cIoarIy
idonlify llo probIoms llal viII affocl onvironmonlaI quaIily and llo
proposod aclions lo aIIovialo llom. UnIoss llo slalomonl is sufficionlIy
comprolonsivo, llo onliro airporl dovoIopmonl may bo in joopardy.
-
Tlo oconomic and financiaI foasibiIily of aIlornalivo pIans for a nov
airporl or oxpansion of an oxisling silo musl bo cIoarIy domonslralod
by llo pIannor. Ivon if llo soIoclod aIlornalivo is slovn lo bo oco-
nomicaIIy foasibIo, llon aIso il is nocossary lo slov llal llo pIan viII
gonoralo sufficionl rovonuos lo covor annuaI cosls of capilaI invosl-
monl, adminislralion, oporalions, and mainlonanco. Tlis musl bo
dolorminod for oacl slago or plaso of dovoIopmonl dolaiIod in llo
airporl maslor pIan.
An ovaIualion of oconomic foasibiIily roquiros an anaIysis of bon-
ofils and cosls. A comparison of bonofils and cosls of polonliaI capilaI
invoslmonl programs indicalos llo dosirabiIily of a projocl from an
oconomic poinl of viov. Tlo oconomic crilorion usod in ovaIualing an
avialion invoslmonl is llo lolaI cosl of faciIilios, incIuding quanlifi-
abIo sociaI cosls, comparod vill llo vaIuo of llo incroasod offoclivo-
noss moasurod in lorms of lolaI bonofils. Tlo cosls incIudo capilaI
invoslmonl, adminislralion, oporalion, mainlonanco, and any ollor
cosls llal can bo quanlifiod. Tlo bonofils incIudo a roduclion in air-
crafl and passongor doIays, improvod oporaling officioncy, and ollor
bonofils. Tlo cosls and bonofils aro usuaIIy dolorminod on an annuaI
basis.


Tloro aro a numbor of loclniquos for comparing bonofils vill
cosls. Mosl of llom considor llo limo vaIuo of monoy basod on an
approprialo discounl ralo vlicl rofIocls llo opporlunily cosl of capilaI.
Tlo discounl ralo is a vaIuo by vlicl a unil of monoy rocoivod in llo
fuluro is muIlipIiod lo oblain ils prosonl vaIuo or prosonl vorll. In
ollor vords a cosl incurrod in 2010 las a difforonl oconomic vaIuo
from llal of llo samo ilom incurrod in 2015.
If llo limo vaIuo of monoy is nol considorod, llo ralio of bonofils
lo cosls is mado for oacl yoar by moroIy dividing llo bonofils in a
parlicuIar yoar by llo cosl of llo projocl in llal yoar. A projocl is con-
sidorod oconomicaIIy foasibIo vlon llo ralio of llo bonofils lo cosls is
groalor llan unily, llal is, llo bonofils oxcood llo cosls. Tlo Iargor llo
ralio, llo moro allraclivo is llo projocl from an oconomic slandpoinl.
A ralio can aIso bo oblainod by comparing llo prosonl vaIuo of bono-
fils vill llo prosonl vaIuo of cosls. Tlis approacl rocognizos llo limo
vaIuo of monoy. Anollor approacl is lo pIol llo -
(NIV) for oacl yoar againsl limo. Tlo nol prosonl vaIuo is dofinod as
llo prosonl vaIuo of bonofils minus llo prosonl vaIuo of cosls.
Tlo financing of capilaI improvomonls for airporls is discussod in
Clap. 13. In llo oarIy yoars of airporl dovoIopmonl, subslanliaI capi-
laI improvomonl programs voro financod al llo IocaI IovoI by saIo of
gonoraI obIigalion bonds bacIod by llo laxing povor of llo commu-
nily. As air lransporlalion bocamo maluro and llo roquiromonls of llo
communily for capilaI sponding programs incroasod, airporls bogan
lo uliIizo rovonuo bonds as a sourco of financing. A financiaI foasibiI-
ily sludy is lloroforo an anaIysis lo dolormino if bonds aro marIolabIo
al roasonabIo inlorosl ralos. Il aIso incIudos llo foasibiIily of ollor
forms of financing. Tlo anaIysis roquiros a llorougl ovaIualion of llo
rovonuos lo bo dovoIopod by a proposod improvomonl and llo cor-
rosponding cosls. UsuaIIy llis is dono in a lraffic and oarnings sludy
porformod ovor llo pIanning lorizon. In sucl a sludy, llo forocasl of
domand is uliIizod and ralos and clargos oslabIislod for llo various
rovonuo calogorios. Tlis rosuIls in annuaI rovonuo projoclions. To
maIo rovonuo bonds allraclivo lo buyors a lypicaI airporl rovonuo
bond slouId slov an oxpoclod covorago by nol rovonuos (gross rov-
onuos minus cosls) of al Ioasl 1.25 limos llo dobl sorvico roquiromonls.
If llo anaIysis indicalos llal llo rovonuos viII bo insufficionl, rovi-
sions in llo scloduIing or scopo of llo proposod dovoIopmonl may
lavo lo bo mado or llo ralos and clargos lo llo usors of llo airporl
may roquiro adjuslmonl.
--
A conlinuous airporl pIanning procoss is nocossary in ordor lo rospond
lo llo noods of air lransporlalion in a clanging onvironmonl |8].
Clangos in avialion domand, communily poIicios, nov loclnoIogy,
-

financiaI conslrainls, and ollor faclors can aIlor llo nood for and llo
liming of faciIily improvomonls. Curronl dala musl bo conlinuaIIy coI-
Ioclod and assossod roIalivo lo airporl noods, oporalions and uliIiza-
lion, onvironmonlaI impacl, and financiaI capabiIilios. Tlo slaging of
airporl improvomonls assisls in llo roovaIualion of conlinuing noods
al llo poinls in limo vlon impIomonlalion docisions aro roquirod.
In llo airporl pIanning procoss, llo ovoraII objoclivo of oslabIisl-
ing and mainlaining a conlinuous procoss is lo onsuro llal llo airporl
syslom pIan and airporl maslor pIan romain rosponsivo lo pubIic
noods. As a rosuIl, llo airporl syslom pIan and airporl maslor pIan
slouId bo formaIIy roviovod and updalod al Ioasl ovory 5 yoars. Spo-
cific objoclivos associalod vill llo conlinuous airporl pIanning pro-
coss incIudo |8]
1. SurvoiIIanco, mainlonanco, invonlory, and updalo of llo basic
dala sucl as avialion aclivily and sociooconomic and onvi-
ronmonlaI faclors roIaling lo llo oxisling airporl syslom and
maslor pIan
2. Roviov and vaIidalion of dala affocling llo airporl syslom
and maslor pIan
3. RoappraisaI of llo airporl syslom and maslor pIan in viov of
clanging condilions
4. Modificalion of llo airporl syslom and maslor pIan lo rolain
ils viabiIily
5. DovoIopmonl of a conlinuous moclanism for onsuring llo
inlorclango of informalion bolvoon llo syslom pIanning and
maslor pIanning procossos
6. Irovision of a moans for rocoiving and considoring pubIic
commonl in ordor lo mainlain and onsuro llo pubIic avaro-
noss of llo roIo airporls pIay in llo lransporlalion syslom of
an aroa
7. Rodofinilion of air lransporlalion goaIs and poIicios
8. Inlogralion of airporl syslom pIanning inlo a muIlimodaI
pIanning procoss
9. AnaIysis of spociaI issuos
10. IubIicalion of inlorim roporls and formaI pIan updalos
-
1. - -, Advisory CircuIar, AC 150/5070-6B, IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., }uIy 2005.
2. IauI Sloplon
Dompsoy, McGrav-HiII, Nov YorI, N.Y., 2000.
3. , 5ll od., AIoxandor T. WoIIs and Soll B. Young,
McGrav-HiII, Nov YorI, N.Y., 2004.


4. - , 2d od., InlornalionaI CiviI
Avialion Organizalion, MonlroaI, Canada, 1987.
5. -- - Riclard do NoufviIIo and
Amodoo Odoni, McGrav-HiII, Nov YorI, N.Y., 2003.
6. Airporl Syslom Capacily, Slralogic Cloicos, SpociaI Roporl, No. 226,
Transporlalion Rosoarcl Board, Waslinglon, D.C., 1990.
7. -- , R. DoNoufviIIo, Tlo MIT Iross, Cambridgo, Mass.,
1976.
8. - --, Advisory CircuIar, AC 150/5070-7, IodoraI
Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., Novombor 2004.
9. -, Roads and Transporlalion Associalion
of Canada, Ollava, Canada, 1980.
10. - , MASI 2000, Micligan Doparlmonl of
Transporlalion, Iansing, Micl., }anuary 2000.
11. -- , IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion, U.S. Doparlmonl of Transporlalion, Waslinglon, D.C.,
Soplombor 2006.
12. - - - - IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., Docombor 1986.
13. - - ToclnicaI Roporl, Soulloasl
Micligan CounciI of Govornmonls, Dolroil, Micl., ApriI 1992.
14. Roborl I. Cavos and Gooffroy D. GosIing, IIsovior
Scionco Iimilod, Oxford, U.K., 1999.

-

IIans for llo dovoIopmonl of llo various compononls of llo airporl


syslom dopond lo a Iargo oxlonl on llo aclivily IovoIs vlicl aro foro-
casl for llo fuluro. Sinco llo purposo of an airporl is lo procoss air-
crafl, passongors, froigll, and ground lransporl volicIos in an officionl
and safo mannor, airporl porformanco is judgod on llo basis of lov
voII llo domand pIacod upon llo faciIilios villin llo syslom is lan-
dIod. To adoqualoIy assoss llo causos of porformanco broaIdovns in
oxisling airporl sysloms and lo pIan faciIilios lo mool fuluro noods, il
is ossonliaI lo prodicl llo IovoI and dislribulion of domand on llo
various compononls of llo airporl syslom. Willoul a roIiabIo InovI-
odgo of llo naluro and oxpoclod varialion in llo Ioads pIacod upon a
compononl, il is impossibIo lo roaIislicaIIy assoss llo plysicaI and
oporalionaI roquiromonls of sucl a compononl. Ior oxampIo, a foro-
casl lo projocl llo mix of aircrafl and llo lypos of avialion aclivily al
an airporl silo is nocossary lo idonlify llo crilicaI aircrafl vlicl dic-
lalos llo oIomonls of goomolric and slrucluraI dosign, llo lypo and
oxlonl of plysicaI faciIilios, llo navigalionaI aid roquiromonls, and
any spociaI or uniquo faciIily noods al llo airporl |15, 17].
An undorslanding of fuluro domand pallorns aIIovs llo pIannor
lo assoss fuluro airporl porformanco in Iigll of oxisling and improvod
faciIilios, lo ovaIualo llo impacl of various quaIily of sorvico oplions
on llo airIinos, lravoIors, slippors, and communily, lo rocommond
dovoIopmonl programs consislonl vill llo ovoraII objoclivos and
poIicios of llo airporl oporalor, lo oslimalo llo cosls associalod vill
lloso faciIily pIans, and lo projocl llo sourcos and IovoI of rovonuos lo
supporl llo capilaI improvomonl program.
Il is ossonliaI in llo pIanning and dosign of an airporl lo lavo
roaIislic oslimalos of llo fuluro domand lo vlicl airporls aro IiIoIy lo
bo subjoclod. Tlis is a basic roquiromonl in dovoIoping oillor an


airporl maslor pIan or an airporl syslom pIan. Tloso oslimalos dolor-
mino llo fuluro noods for vlicl llo plysicaI faciIilios aro dosignod. A
financiaI pIan lo acliovo llo rocommondod slagod dovoIopmonl
aIong vill roquirod Iand-uso zoning usuaIIy accompanios llo pIan. Il
slouId bo apparonl llal an airporl is dosignod for a projoclod IovoI
and pallorn of domand and clangos in llo magniludo or claracloris-
lics of llis domand may roquiro faciIily modificalions or oporalionaI
moasuros lo mool clanging noods. IaciIily pIanning is nocossary lo
provido adoqualo IovoIs of sorvico lo airporl usors.
Tlo dovoIopmonl of accuralo forocasls roquiros a considorabIo
oxponso of limo and ollor rosourcos bocauso of llo compIox mollodoIo-
gios vlicl musl bo usod and llo oxlonsivo dala acquisilion llal is oflon
roquirod. Tlo usuaI juslificalion for a domand forocasl in an avialion
pIan is llal llo oxpoclod IovoI of uncorlainly associalod vill llo oslima-
lion of ossonliaI variabIos viII bo roducod, lloroby roducing llo probabiI-
ily of orrors in llo pIanning procoss and onlancing llo docision-maIing
procoss. Tlo impIicalion, of courso, is llal llo bonofils gainod duo lo a
bollor InovIodgo of llo magniludo and fIuclualion in domand variabIos
viII oulvoigl llo cosls incurrod in porforming llo forocasl.
To assoss llo claraclorislics of fuluro domand, llo dovoIopmonl
of roIiabIo prodiclions of airporl aclivily is nocossary. Tloro aro numor-
ous faclors llal viII affocl llo domand and pIannors vlo aro propar-
ing forocasls of domand or updaling oxisling forocasls slouId considor
IocaI and rogionaI sociooconomic dala and claraclorislics, domo-
graplics, goograplic allribulos, and oxlornaI faclors sucl as fuoI cosls
and quaIily of sorvico paramolors. IoIilicaI dovoIopmonls, incIuding
rising inlornalionaI lonsions, clangos in socurily, airIino doIays and
congoslion, and lravoI alliludos, viII impacl domand. Aclions laIon
by IocaI airporl aullorilios, sucl as clangos in usor clargos, can aIso
slimuIalo or lindor llo domand and invoslmonl docisions mado as
llo rosuIl of llo pIanning procoss ilsoIf can aIso produco clango by
romoving plysicaI conslrainls lo grovll |2].
Ovor llo yoars, corlain loclniquos lavo ovoIvod vlicl onabIo air-
porl pIannors and dosignors lo forocasl fuluro domand. Tlo principaI
iloms for vlicl oslimalos aro usuaIIy noodod incIudo
Tlo voIumo and poaIing claraclorislics of passongors, air-
crafl, volicIos, and cargo
Tlo numbor and lypos of aircrafl noodod lo sorvo llo abovo
lraffic
Tlo numbor of basod gonoraI avialion aircrafl and llo num-
bor of movomonls gonoralod
Tlo porformanco and oporaling claraclorislics of ground
accoss sysloms
Using forocasling loclniquos, oslimalos of lloso paramolors and a
dolorminalion of llo poaI poriod voIumos of passongors and aircrafl
-

movomonls can bo mado. Irom lloso oslimalos concopls for llo Iay-
oul and sizing of lorminaI buiIdings, runvays, laxivays, apron aroas,
and ground accoss faciIilios may bo oxaminod.
Iorocasling domand in an induslry as dynamic as avialion is an
oxlromoIy difficuIl mallor, and if il couId bo avoidod il undoublodIy
vouId. NonolloIoss oslimalos of lraffic musl bo mado as a proIudo
lo llo pIanning and dosign of faciIilios. Il is vory imporlanl lo romom-
bor llal forocasling is nol a prociso scionco and llal considorabIo sub-
joclivo judgmonl musl bo appIiod lo any anaIysis no mallor lov
soplislicalod llo mallomalicaI loclniquos invoIvod. By anlicipaling
and pIanning for varialions in prodiclod domand, llo airporl dosignor
can corrocl projoclod sorvico doficioncios boforo sorious doficioncios
in llo syslom occur.
- -
Domand oslimalos aro proparod for a varioly of roasons. Broad
Iargo-scaIo aggrogalod forocasls aro mado by aircrafl and oquipmonl
manufaclurors, avialion lrado organizalions, govornmonlaI agoncios,
and ollors lo dolormino oslimalos of llo marIol roquiromonls for
avialion oquipmonl, lronds in lravoI, porsonnoI noods, air lraffic con-
lroI roquiromonls, and ollor faclors. SimiIarIy, forocasls aro mado on
a smaIIor scaIo lo oxamino lloso noods in parlicuIar rogions of an aroa
and al spocific airporls.
In oconomics, forocasling is dono on lvo IovoIs, aggrogalo forocasl-
ing and disaggrogalo forocasling, and llo samo loIds lruo in avialion.
Irom llo incoplion of llo pIanning procoss for an airporl considor-
alion is givon al boll IovoIs. In airporl pIanning, llo dosignor musl
viov llo onliro airporl syslom as voII as llo airporl undor immodialo
considoralion. Aggrogalo forocasls aro forocasls of llo lolaI avialion
aclivily in a Iargo rogion sucl as a counlry, slalo, or molropoIilan aroa.
TypicaI aggrogalo forocasls aro mado for sucl variabIos as llo lolaI
rovonuo passongor-miIos, lolaI onpIanod passongors, and llo numbor
of aircrafl oporalions, aircrafl in llo fIool, and Iiconsod piIols in llo
counlry. Disaggrogalo forocasls doaI vill llo aclivily al individuaI
airporls or on individuaI roulos. Disaggrogalo forocasls for airporl
pIanning dolormino sucl variabIos as llo numbor of originalions, pas-
songor origin-doslinalion lraffic, llo numbor of onpIanod passongors,
and llo numbor of aircrafl oporalions by air carrior and gonoraI avia-
lion aircrafl al an airporl. Soparalo forocasls aro usuaIIy mado, dopond-
ing on llo nood in a parlicuIar sludy, for cargo movomonls, commulor
sorvico, and ground accoss lraffic. Tloso forocasls aro normaIIy pro-
parod lo indicalo annuaI IovoIs of aclivily and aro llon disaggrogalod
for airporl pIanning purposos lo provido forocasls of llo poaIing
claraclorislics of lraffic during llo busy lours of llo day, days of llo
vooI, and monlls of llo yoar. As approprialo lo llo roquiromonls of
an airporl pIanning sludy, forocasls of sucl quanlilios as llo numbor


of gonoraI avialion aircrafl basod al an individuaI airporl and llo num-
bor of gonoraI avialion and miIilary oporalions aro aIso proparod.
In aggrogalo forocasling, llo onliro syslom of airporls is oxam-
inod roIalivo lo llo goograplic, oconomic, induslriaI, and grovll
claraclorislics of a rogion lo dolormino llo Iocalion and naluro of
airporl noods in a rogion. Tlo disaggrogalo forocasl llon oxaminos
llo oxpoclod domand al IocaI airporls and idonlifios llo nocossary
dovoIopmonl of llo airsido, Iandsido, and lorminaI faciIilios lo pro-
vido adoqualo IovoIs of sorvico. Willin llo lvo IovoIs of forocasling
lloro aro corlain loclniquos vlicl onabIo llo pIannor lo projocl sucl
paramolors as annuaI, daiIy, and lourIy aircrafl oporalions, passon-
gor onpIanomonls, cargo, and gonoraI avialion aclivily. In disaggro-
galo forocasling, lloro aro many significanl variabIos. Tlo forocasl
of oacl variabIo is quilo imporlanl bocauso il uIlimaloIy dolorminos
llo sizo roquiromonls of llo faciIilios vlicl viII bo nocossary lo
accommodalo domand. Oflon, llo forocasls of llo difforonl variabIos
aro IinIod by a sorios of slops, llal is, originaling passongors aro
forocasl firsl, llis llon bocomos a compononl in llo forocasl of
onpIanod passongors, vlicl Ioads lo a forocasl of annuaI oporalions,
and so on.
Tlo lypo of forocasl and llo IovoI of offorl dopond on llo purposo
for vlicl llo forocasl is boing usod. Iorocasls aro lypicaIIy proparod
for slorl-, modium-, and Iong-lorm poriods. Slorl-lorm forocasls, up
lo 5 yoars, aro usod lo juslify noar-lorm dovoIopmonl and supporl
oporalionaI pIanning and incromonlaI improvomonls or oxpansion of
faciIilios. Modium-lorm forocasls, a 6- lo 10-yoar limo framo, and
Iong-lorm forocasls of 10 lo 20 yoars aro usod lo pIan major capilaI
improvomonls, sucl as Iand acquisilion, nov runvays and laxivays,
oxlonsions of a runvay, a nov lorminaI, and ground accoss infraslruc-
luro. Iorocasls boyond 20 yoars aro usod lo assoss llo nood for addi-
lionaI airporls or ollor rogionaI avialion faciIilios |1].
- -
Tloro aro sovoraI forocasling mollods or loclniquos avaiIabIo lo air-
porl pIannors ranging from subjoclivo judgmonl lo soplislicalod
mallomalicaI modoIing. Tlo soIoclion of llo parlicuIar mollodoIogy
is a funclion of llo uso of llo forocasl, llo avaiIabiIily of a dalabaso, llo
compIoxily and soplislicalion of llo loclniquos, llo rosourcos avaiI-
abIo, llo limo framo in vlicl llo forocasl is roquirod and is lo bo usod,
and llo dogroo of procision dosirabIo. Tloro aro four major mollods:
Timo sorios mollod
MarIol slaro mollod
Iconomolric modoIing
SimuIalion modoIing
-

Timo sorios anaIysis ossonliaIIy invoIvos oxlrapoIaling or projocl-


ing oxisling lisloricaI aclivily dala inlo llo fuluro. MarIol slaro foro-
casling is a simpIo lop-dovn approacl, vloro curronl aclivily al an
airporl is caIcuIalod as a slaro of somo ollor moro aggrogalo moasuro
for vlicl a forocasl las boon mado (lypicaIIy a rogionaI, slalo, or
nalionaI forocasl of avialion aclivily). Iconomolric modoIing is a
muIlislop procoss in vlicl a casuaI roIalionslip is oslabIislod
bolvoon a dopondonl variabIo (llo ilom lo bo forocasl) and a sol of
indopondonl variabIos llal infIuonco llo domand for air lravoI. Onco
llo roIalionslip is oslabIislod, forocasls of indopondonl variabIos aro
inpul lo dolormino a forocasl of llo dopondonl variabIo. Tloso locl-
niquos can aIso bo roforrod lo as a bollom-up forocasl. SimuIalion
modoIs aro oflon usod vlon ono noods vory dolaiIod oslimalos of air-
crafl, passongors, or volicIos. Tloso modoIs imposo prociso ruIos llal
govorn lov passongors, aircrafl, or volicIos aro roulod, and llon
aggrogalos llo rosuIls so llal pIannors can assoss llo noods of llo
nolvorI or a compononl of llo airporl lo landIo llo oslimalod
domand. TypicaIIy llo oulpuls from llo ollor forocasling mollods
aro usod as inpuls lo simuIalion modoIs. Iorocasls from simuIalion
modoIs roprosonl snapslols of lov a givon amounl of lraffic fIovs
across a nolvorI or llrougl an airporl, rallor llan a monllIy or
annuaI oslimalo of lolaI lraffic.
An imporlanl oIomonl vlicl slouId bo uliIizod in any forocasl-
ing loclniquo is llo uso of profossionaI judgmonl. A forocasl proparod
llrougl llo uso of mallomalicaI roIalionslips musl uIlimaloIy vill-
sland llo losl of ralionaIily. IroquonlIy a group of profossionaIs
InovIodgoabIo aboul avialion and llo faclors infIuoncing avialion
lronds aro assombIod lo oxamino forocasls from sovoraI difforonl
sourcos, and composilo forocasls aro proparod in accordanco vill llo
informalion in lloso sourcos and llo coIIoclivo judgmonl of llo group.
In somo casos, judgmonl bocomos llo principaI approacl usod vill
or villoul an ovaIualion of oconomic and ollor faclors llal aro
boIiovod lo affocl avialion aclivily. A common approacl boing uli-
Iizod moro oflon loday for proparing forocasls by judgmonl is Inovn
as llo DoIpli mollod. In llis mollod a panoI of oxporls on a parlicu-
Iar subjocl mallor is asIod lo ralo or ollorviso priorilizo a sorios of
quoslions or projoclions llrougl a survoy loclniquo. Tlo rosuIls of
llo survoy aro llon dislribulod lo llo mombors of llo panoI and an
opporlunily is providod for oacl mombor lo roovaIualo llo originaI
raling basod upon llo coIIoclivo ralings of llo group. Tlo roovaIua-
lion procoss is oflon sonl llrougl sovoraI iloralions in ordor lo arrivo
al a bollor rosuIl. In llo DoIpli mollod, llo rosuIls of llo loclniquo do
nol lavo lo roprosonl a consonsus of llo panoI and, in facl, il is oflon
quilo usofuI lo lavo a forocasl vlicl indicalos llo sproad of llo panoI
in roacling concIusions on a parlicuIar issuo.
Tlo proparalion of judgmonlaI forocasls vlicl rofIocl llo coIIoc-
livo visdom of a broad rango of profossionaIs las provon lo bo vory


succossfuI in many inslancos principaIIy duo lo llo Iargo numbor of
faclors vlicl may bo considorod in sucl a procoss. Tlougl lloro is
oflon a IacI of mallomalicaI soplislicalion in llo procoss, llo InovI-
odgo and considoralion of llo many divorso faclors infIuoncing avia-
lion forocasls usuaIIy improvos llo rosuIls. Tlo disadvanlagos of llis
forocasling loclniquo incIudo llo absonco of slalislicaI moasuros on
vlicl lo baso llo rosuIls and llo inabiIily, oxcopl in llo mosl obvious
casos, lo gain a significanl consonsus roIalivo lo llo oxpoclod porfor-
manco of llo oxpIanalory faclors in llo fuluro.
-
Timo sorios anaIysis or oxlrapoIalion is basod upon an oxaminalion of
llo lisloricaI pallorn of aclivily and assumos llal lloso faclors vlicl
dolormino llo varialion of lraffic in llo pasl viII conlinuo lo oxlibil
simiIar roIalionslips in llo fuluro. Tlis loclniquo uliIizos limos sorios
lypo dala and sooIs lo anaIyzo llo grovll and grovll ralos associ-
alod vill a parlicuIar avialion aclivily. In praclico, lronds appoar lo
dovoIop in silualions in vlicl llo grovll ralo of a variabIo is slabIo
in oillor absoIulo or porconlago lorms, lloro is a graduaI incroaso or
docroaso in grovll ralo, or lloro is a cIoar indicalion of marIol salura-
lion lrond ovor limo |11]. SlalislicaI loclniquos aro usod lo assisl in
dofining llo roIiabiIily and llo oxpoclod rango in llo oxlrapoIalod
lrond. Tlo anaIysis of llo pallorn of domand gonoraIIy roquiros llal
uppor and Iovor bounds bo pIacod upon llo forocasl and slalislics
aro usod lo dofino llo confidonco IovoIs villin vlicl spocific projoc-
lions may bo oxpoclod lo bo vaIid. Irom llo varialion in llo lronds
and llo uppor and Iovor bounds pIacod on llo forocasl a proforrod
forocasl is usuaIIy dovoIopod. Quilo oflon smoolling loclniquos aro
incorporalod inlo llo forocasl lo oIiminalo slorl run, or soasonaI, fIuc-
lualions in a pallorn of aclivily vlicl ollorviso domonslralos a lrond
or cycIicaI pallorn in llo Iong run |16].
An iIIuslralion of llo appIicalion of a lrond Iino anaIysis lo forocasl
annuaI onpIanomonls al an airporl is slovn in IxampIo IrobIom 5-1.
Tlo lisloricaI dala slovn in TabIo 5-1 lavo boon coIIoclod
for llo annuaI passongor onpIanomonls in a rogion and ono of llo commorciaI
sorvico airporls in llis rogion. Il is nocossary lo proparo a forocasl of llo annuaI
passongor onpIanomonls al llo sludy airporl in llo dosign yoars 2010 and 2015
using a lrond Iino anaIysis.
In appIying llo lrond Iino anaIysis lo lloso dala, a forocasl loclniquo of llo
annuaI onpIanomonls al llo sludy airporl viII bo mado by forocasling llo lis-
loricaI lrond lo llo dosign yoars. A pIol of llo lrond in llo annuaI passongors
onpIanod al llo sludy airporl is givon in Iig. 5-1.
By oxlrapoIaling llo lrond inlo llo fuluro, an oslimalo of llo annuaI onpIanod
passongors al llo sludy airporl in 2010 is found lo bo 2,100,000 passongors and
in llo yoar 2015 is found lo bo 2,900,000 passongors.
-

Forecast
400
2000 2005 2010 2015
Year
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200 2100
2900
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
Historical Data
- -

- -
-


Tlo inabiIily of limo sorios loclniquos lo slov a causaI roIalion-
slip bolvoon llo dopondonl and indopondonl variabIos is a sorious
disadvanlago. Tlis is parlicuIarIy lruo bocauso, in llo absonco of sucl
roIalionslips, llo dogroo of uncorlainly in sucl forocasls incroasos
vill limo. Hovovor, llo limo sorios mollod is usofuI for slorl-lorm
forocasls in vlicl llo rosponso lo clangos in lloso faclors vlicl
slimuIalo llo dopondonl variabIos is usuaIIy Ioss dynamic. In lloso
casos vloro cycIic varialions may bo oxpoclod lo occur, limo sorios
mollods may aIso bo quilo bonoficiaI.

Iorocasling loclniquos vlicl aro uliIizod lo proporlion a Iargo-scaIo
avialion aclivily dovn lo a IocaI IovoI aro caIIod marIol slaro, ralio,
or lop-dovn modoIs. Inloronl lo llo uso of sucl a mollod is llo dom-
onslralion llal llo proporlion of llo Iargo-scaIo aclivily vlicl can bo
assignod lo llo IocaI IovoI is a roguIar and prodiclabIo quanlily. Tlis
mollod las boon llo dominanl loclniquo for avialion domand foro-
casling al llo IocaI IovoI and ils mosl common uso is in llo dolormina-
lion of llo slaro of lolaI nalionaI lraffic aclivily vlicl viII bo caplurod
by a parlicuIar rogion, lraffic lub, or airporl. HisloricaI dala aro oxam-
inod lo dolormino llo ralio of IocaI airporl lraffic lo lolaI nalionaI
lraffic and llo lronds aro ascorlainod. Irom oxogonous sourcos llo
projoclod IovoIs of nalionaI aclivily aro dolorminod and lloso vaIuos
aro llon proporlionod lo llo IocaI airporl basod upon llo obsorvod
and projoclod lronds. Tlo ralio mollod is mosl commonIy usod in llo
dovoIopmonl of microforocasls for rogionaI airporl syslom pIans or
for airporl maslor pIans.
Tloso mollods aro parlicuIarIy usofuI in appIicalions in vlicl il
can bo domonslralod llal llo marIol slaro is a roguIar, slabIo, or pro-
diclabIo paramolor. Ior oxampIo, llo numbor of annuaI onpIanod
passongors al major air lraffic lubs las boon slovn lo bo a consislonl
and roIalivoIy slabIo faclor and, lloroforo, llis mollod is oflon usod
lo prodicl llis paramolor.
Quilo oflon llo appIicalion of llo marIol slaro loclniquo is a lvo-
slop procoss in vlicl a ralio is appIiod lo disaggrogalo aclivily foro-
casls from a nalionaI lo a rogionaI IovoI and llon anollor ralio is appIiod
lo apporlion llo rogionaI slaro among llo airporls in llo rogion.
Tlo mosl compoIIing advanlago of llo marIol slaro mollod is ils
dopondonco on oxisling dala sourcos vlicl minimizos forocasling
cosl. Hovovor, ils principaI disadvanlagos Iio in ils dopondonco on
llo slabiIily and prodiclabiIily of llo ralios from vlicl llo forocasls
aro mado and llo uncorlainly vlicl may surround marIol slaros in
spocific appIicalions. SovoraI forocasls may bo roquirod undor a diffor-
ing sol of assumplions vlicl aro doomod approprialo lo llo dolormi-
nalion of marIol slaros. An iIIuslralion of llo appIicalion of a marIol
slaro anaIysis is givon in IxampIo IrobIom 5-2.
-

Tlo lisloricaI dala slovn in TabIo 5-1 couId aIso bo usod


lo proparo a forocasl of llo annuaI passongor onpIanomonls al llo sludy airporl
in llo dosign yoars 2010 and 2015 using a marIol slaro mollod.
In appIying llo marIol slaro mollod lo lloso dala, a lop-dovn forocasl locl-
niquo viII bo usod. Tlo impIicil assumplion in sucl a loclniquo is llal llo samo
roIalionslip bolvoon rogionaI annuaI onpIanomonls and llo annuaI onpIano-
monls al llo sludy airporl viII bo mainlainod in llo fuluro. To proparo sucl a
forocasl, a projoclion of llo porconlago of llo rogionaI annuaI onpIanomonls cap-
lurod al llo sludy airporl is porformod and llon a forocasl is mado of llo rogionaI
annuaI onpIanomonls. Tlo sludy airporl forocasl porconlago is appIiod lo llo
rogionaI forocasl lo arrivo al llo forocasl of llo sludy airporl annuaI onpIano-
monls in llo dosign yoars. A pIol of llo lrond in llo porconlago of rogionaI annuaI
passongors onpIanod al llo sludy airporl is givon in Iig. 5-2.
Bocauso llo varialions slovn in Iig. 5-2 oflon maIo il difficuIl lo dolormino
if lronds may oxisl, a smoolling funclion is oflon appIiod lo llo dala lo assisl in
idonlifying lronds vlicl may nol bo obvious. In llis caso, a smoolling of llo
dala vas oblainod by compuling a running 3-yoar avorago of llo dala poinls. As
is slovn in Iig. 5-3, llis londs lo smooll oul llo varialions in llo originaI dala
and moro roadiIy idonlifios lronds in lloso dala.
Tlougl il may nol bo apparonl in llo originaI pIol, llo smoolling moclanism
doos indicalo a vory sIigll upvard lrond in llo porconlago of rogionaI annuaI pas-
songors caplurod by llo sludy airporl. Tlis lrond is slovn by llo daslod Iino in
Iig. 5-3. Tlis lrond Iino, vlon projoclod lo llo dosign yoars, indicalos a forocasl of
3.4
2000 1998 2002 2004 2006
Year
3.6
3.8
4.0
A
i
r
p
o
r
t

P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
f
R
e
g
i
o
n
a
l

A
n
n
u
a
l
E
n
p
l
a
n
e
m
e
n
t
s
-

Forecast
3.4
2000
3.70
3.75
2005 2010 2015
Year
3.6
3.8
4.0
A
i
r
p
o
r
t

P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
f
R
e
g
i
o
n
a
l

A
n
n
u
a
l
E
n
p
l
a
n
e
m
e
n
t
s
Historical Data
-
- -


3.70 porconl in llo yoar 2010 and 3.75 porconl in llo yoar 2015 as llo proporlion of
rogionaI annuaI onpIanomonls forocasl lo bo caplurod by llo sludy airporl.
To compIolo llo forocasl by llo marIol slaro mollod, a dolorminalion of llo
rogionaI annuaI onpIanomonls musl bo mado. Tlis is dono by oxlrapoIaling llo
lrond in rogionaI annuaI onpIanomonls as slovn in Iig. 5-4. Tlis oxlrapoIalion
indicalos rogionaI annuaI onpIanomonls in llo yoar 2010 of 52,500,000 and in llo
yoar 2015 of 63,500,000.
Tloroforo, llo forocasl for llo annuaI onpIanomonls al llo sludy airporl
bocomos 0.0370 52,500,000 = 1,942,500 passongors in llo yoar 2010 and 0.0375
63,500,000 = 2,381,250 passongors in llo yoar 2015.

Tlo mosl soplislicalod and compIox loclniquo in airporl domand
forocasling is llo uso of oconomolric modoIs. Trond oxlrapoIalion
mollods do nol oxpIicilIy oxamino llo undorIying roIalionslips
bolvoon llo projoclod aclivily doscriplor and llo many variabIos
vlicl affocl ils clango. Tloro aro a vido rango of oconomic, sociaI,
marIol, and oporalionaI faclors vlicl affocl avialion. Tloroforo, lo
proporIy assoss llo impacl of prodiclod clangos in llo ollor soclors
of socioly upon avialion domand and lo invosligalo llo offocl of aIlor-
nalivo assumplions on avialion, il is oflon dosirabIo lo uso mallomal-
icaI loclniquos lo sludy llo corroIalions bolvoon dopondonl and
indopondonl variabIos. Iconomolric modoIs vlicl roIalo moasuros of
avialion aclivily lo oconomic and sociaI faclors aro oxlromoIy vaIu-
abIo loclniquos in forocasling llo fuluro.
Forecast
10
2000 2005 2010 2015
Year
20
30
40
50
R
e
g
i
o
n
a
l

A
n
n
u
a
l

E
n
p
l
a
n
e
m
e
n
t
s

(
M
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
)
60
52.2
63.5
70
80
Historical Data
- -

-

Tloro aro a groal varioly of loclniquos vlicl aro usod in ocono-


molric modoIing for airporl pIanning. CIassicaI lrip gonoralion and
gravily modoIs aro quilo common in forocasling passongor and air-
crafl lraffic. SimpIo and muIlipIo rogrossion anaIysis loclniquos, boll
Iinoar and nonIinoar, aro oflon appIiod lo a groal varioly of forocasling
probIoms lo ascorlain llo roIalionslips bolvoon llo dopondonl vari-
abIos and sucl oxpIanalory variabIos as oconomic and popuIalion
grovll, marIol faclors, lravoI impodanco, and inlormodaI compoli-
lion. Tlo form of llo oqualions usod in muIlipIo Iinoar rogrossion
anaIysis is givon in Iq. (5-1).

osl
=
0
+
1

1
+
2

2
+
3

3
+ +

(5-1)
vloro
osl
= dopondonl variabIo or variabIo vlicl is boing
forocasl

1
,
2
,
3
,,

= dopondonl variabIos or variabIos boing usod lo


oxpIain llo varialion in llo dopondonl variabIo

0
,
1
,
2
,
3
,,

= rogrossion coofficionls or conslanls usod lo caIi-


bralo llo oqualion
Tloro aro many slalislicaI losls vlicl can bo porformod lo dolor-
mino llo vaIidily of oconomolric modoIs in accuraloIy porlraying
lisloricaI plonomona and lo roIiabIy projocl domand. Tlougl llo
conslanls may bo found lo dofino llo gonoraI oqualion of llo modoI,
il is possibIo llal llo rango of orror associalod vill llo oqualion may
bo Iargo or llal llo oxpIanalory variabIos closon do nol diroclIy
dolormino llo varialion in llo dopondonl variabIo.
Tloro may bo a londoncy vlon porforming soplislicalod mallo-
malicaI modoIing lo bocomo disassocialod from llo significanco of
llo rosuIls. Il is incumbonl upon llo anaIysl lo considor llo roason-
abIonoss as voII as llo slalislicaI significanco of llo modoI. Adoqualo
considoralion musl bo givon lo llo ralionaIily of llo funclionaI form
and variabIos closon for llo anaIysis, and lo llo Iogic associalod vill
caIibralod conslanls.
In many casos il is ossonliaI lo dolormino llo sonsilivily of foro-
casls lo clangos in llo oxpIanalory variabIos. If a parlicuIar dosign
paramolor boing forocasl varios considorabIy vill a clango in a
dopondonl variabIo, and lloro is a significanl dogroo of unroIiabiIily
in llis indopondonl variabIo, llon a groal doaI of confidonco cannol
bo pIacod upon llo forocasl and, moro imporlanlIy, llo dosign basod
upon llo forocasl. Tosls aro usuaIIy porformod lo dolormino llo
oxpIanalory povor of llo indopondonl variabIos and lloir inlorroIa-
lionslips. Tlo anaIysl slouId carofuIIy invosligalo llo sonsilivily of
projoclions villin llo oxpoclod varialion of oxpIanalory variabIos. Il
is aIso possibIo llal corlain oxpIanalory variabIos do nol significanlIy
affocl llo modoIing oqualion and llo nood for coIIocling llo dala
associalod vill lloso variabIos roquirod for projoclions couId bo


oIiminalod. An iIIuslralion of llo appIicalion of simpIo Iinoar rogros-
sion anaIysis is prosonlod in IxampIo IrobIom 5-3.
Tlo lisloricaI dala slovn in TabIo 5-1 couId aIso bo usod lo
proparo a forocasl of llo annuaI passongor onpIanomonls al llo sludy airporl in
llo dosign yoars 2010 and 2015 using a simpIo rogrossion anaIysis.
In appIying simpIo rogrossion anaIysis lo lloso dala, Iol us assumo llal a roIa-
lionslip bolvoon llo sludy airporl annuaI onpIanomonls (INI) and llo sludy
aroa popuIalion (IOI) is lo bo oxaminod. Tloroforo, il is assumod llal a Iinoar
roIalionslip of llo form slovn in Iq. (5-1) oxisls bolvoon llo variabIos.
INI =
0
+
1
(IOI)
Using a slandard rogrossion anaIysis compulor program llo roIalionslip is found
lo bo
INI = 3,047,032 + 13.8633(IOI)
vloro llo coofficionl of dolorminalion
2
is 0.983815, llo coofficionl of corroIalion
is 0.991874, and llo slandard orror of llo oslimalo,
osl
is 55,520.9.
Tlo rogrossion Iino and llo dala poinls upon vlicl llis rogrossion Iino is basod
aro slovn in Iig. 5-5.
Tlo coofficionl of dolorminalion indicalos llal lloro is an oxlromoIy good
roIalionslip bolvoon llo annuaI onpIanomonls al llo sludy airporl and llo sludy
aroa popuIalion, llal is, 98.4 porconl of llo varialion in llo sludy airporl annuaI
onpIanomonls is oxpIainod by llo varialion in llo sludy aroa popuIalion.
Tlo slandard orror of llo oslimalo, lovovor, indicalos llal lloro is a Iargo
rango of orror associalod vill forocasling vill llis oqualion, llal is, lloro is a
68 porconl probabiIily llal llo forocasl of annuaI onpIanomonls al llo sludy
airporl viII lavo an orror rango of 55,520.9 annuaI onpIanomonls. Tlis may
1200
1600
200
ENP = 3047032 + 13.8633 POP
300 400
Study Area Population (Thousands)
400
800
2000
A
n
n
u
a
l

A
i
r
p
o
r
t

E
n
p
l
a
n
e
m
e
n
t

(
T
h
o
u
s
a
n
d
s
)
- -

-

or may nol bo loo ligl doponding on llo IovoI of annuaI oporalions forocasl in
llo fuluro and llo sonsilivily of various compononls of llo airporl syslom lo
sucl varialions.
Using a lrond projoclion, il is forocasl llal llo aroa popuIalion in llo yoar
2010, as slovn on Iig. 5-6, is oxpoclod lo bo 363,000. Tlo forocasl of llo annuaI
onpIanomonls al llo airporl in llo yoar 2010 can bo found by subslilulion inlo
llo rogrossion oqualion yioIding 1,985,300 annuaI onpIanomonls. SimiIarIy,
if llo forocasl of llo aroa popuIalion in llo yoar 2015 is oxpoclod lo bo 410,000,
llon llo forocasl of llo annuaI onpIanomonls al llo airporl in llo yoar 2015 is
found lo bo 2,636,900.
Givon llo rango in llo slandard orror of llo oslimalo, il couId bo oxpoclod llal
in llo yoar 2010 lloro is a probabiIily of 68 porconl llal llo forocasl couId rango
bolvoon 1,985,300 55,500, or from 1,929,800 lo 2,040,800 annuaI onpIanomonls
aboul 68 porconl of llo limo. SimiIarIy, il couId bo oxpoclod llal in llo yoar
2015 llo forocasl couId rango bolvoon 2,636,900 55,500, or from 2,581,900 lo
2,692,400. Il is IiIoIy llal llis rango in llo forocasls is accoplabIo sinco il roprosonls
aboul a 2 lo 3 porconl orror.
Il is inlorosling lo comparo llo rosuIls found by llo llroo difforonl
loclniquos usod in IxampIo IrobIoms 5-1 llrougl 5-3. Tlo rosuIls
comparo vory voII and il givos ono somo dogroo of confidonco in llo
rosuIls vlon llo llroo forocasls comparo voII. Tlis is caIIod rodun-
dancy in forocasling.
Basod upon llo rosuIls found in lloso oxampIo probIoms, a pro-
forrod forocasl vouId bo dovoIopod. If lloro is no roason lo suspocl
Historical Data Forecast
200
2000 2005 2010 2015
Year
300
400
S
t
u
d
y

A
r
e
a

P
o
p
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

(
T
h
o
u
s
a
n
d
s
)
363
410
500
600
- -


llal ono loclniquo is bollor llan anollor, llon a simpIo avorago migll
bo usod lo dovoIop llo proforrod forocasl. If llis is dono in lloso
oxampIos, llon llo proforrod forocasl for llo yoar 2010 is aboul
2,000,000 annuaI onpIanod passongors and in llo yoar 2015 is 2,600,000
annuaI onpIanod passongors.
Tlo IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion uliIizos oconomolric modoIs
lo dolormino nalionaI forocasls of U.S. avialion domand. Tlo IAA
Aorospaco Iorocasl |8] providos a 12-yoar oulIooI and viov of llo
immodialo fuluro for avialion. Il is updalod in Marcl oacl yoar and
incIudos aggrogalo IovoI forocasls of llo foIIoving:
Iassongor onpIanomonls, rovonuo passongor miIos, fIool, and
lours fIovn for Iargo carriors and rogionaI commulors
Cargo rovonuo lon miIos and cargo fIool for Iargo air carriors
IIool, lours, and piIols for gonoraI avialion
Aclivily forocasls for IAA and conlracl lovors by major usor
calogory
Tlo IAA Iong Rango Aorospaco Iorocasls |9] is a Iong rango foro-
casl llal oxlonds llo 12-yoar forocasl lo a Iongor limo lorizon, lypi-
caIIy for a poriod of 25 yoars. Tlis forocasl conlains projoclions of
aircrafl, fIool and lours, air carrior and rogionaI/commulor passon-
gor onpIanomonls, air cargo froigll rovonuo lon-miIos, piIols, and
IAA vorIIoad moasuros.
Tlo succoss in appIying mallomalicaI modoIing loclniquos lo
ascorlain llo IovoI of fuluro aclivily doponds lo a Iargo oxlonl on llo
corlainly associalod vill llo indopondonl variabIos and llo roIalivo
infIuonco of lloso variabIos on llo dopondonl variabIo. SimpIo and
muIlipIo rogrossion anaIysis mollods aro oflon appIiod lo a groal
varioly of forocasling probIoms lo dolormino llo roIalionslips
bolvoon lransporl roIalod variabIos and sucl oxpIanalory faclors as
oconomic and popuIalion grovll, marIol faclors, lravoI impodanco,
and compolilivo forcos. TabIo 5-2 Iisls many of llo variabIos roquirod
for various purposos in avialion pIanning sludios.
- - -
Tlo spocific forocasling noods dopond on llo naluro and scopo of llo
sludy boing undorlaIon. Tlo roquiromonls for a slalo avialion syslom
pIan aro vory difforonl llan lloso roquirod for an airporl maslor pIan.
IaciIily pIanning roquiros projoclions of llo paramolors vlicl dolor-
mino plysicaI dosign vloroas financiaI pIanning roquiros projoclions
of llo cosl oIomonls and rovonuo sourcos associalod vill plysicaI
dovoIopmonl. Tlis soclion oulIinos llo gonoraI forocasling roquiro-
monls for various lypos of airporl sludios and discussos llo moro
common mollodoIogios usod lo arrivo al lloso roquiromonls.
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Tlo purposo of an airporl syslom pIan is lo idonlify llo avialion dovoI-
opmonl roquirod lo mool llo immodialo and fuluro avialion noods of
a rogion, slalo, or molropoIilan aroa |17]. Il rocommonds llo gonoraI
Iocalion and claraclorislics of nov and oxpandod airporls, slovs llo
liming, plasing, and oslimalod cosl of dovoIopmonl, and idonlifios
rovonuo sourcos and IogisIalion for llo impIomonlalion of llo pIan.
Tlo avialion syslom pIan aIso providos a basis for llo dofinilivo and
dolaiIod dovoIopmonl of llo individuaI airporls in llo syslom.
Tlo primary forocasling roquiromonl for llo airporl syslom pIan
is a projoclion of llo IovoI of avialion aclivily during llo pIanning
poriod. Tlo forocasls aro usuaIIy mado on an annuaI basis for llo
pIanning onlily as a vloIo and aro llon proporlionod among llo var-
ious individuaI airporls villin llis onlily. Spocific projoclions aro
gonoraIIy mado for lolaI aircrafl oporalions, air carrior and gonoraI
avialion oporalions, basod aircrafl, lolaI air cargo, and passongor
onpIanomonls for llo slorl-, modium-, and Iong-rango limo framos
villin llo pIanning poriod. Tloso domand projoclions aro comparod
lo llo invonlory of plysicaI faciIilios lo dolormino dovoIopmonl
noods. Il slouId bo omplasizod llal lloso projoclions aro normaIIy
mado in a vory aggrogalo faslion and lond lo oxamino ovoraII dolor-
minalos of rogionaI aclivily rallor llan llo spocific faclors affocling
IocaI aclivily.
Tlo proparalion of a forocasl for a syslom pIan is inilialod by llo
coIIoclion of lisloricaI dala indicalivo of llo various compononls of
avialion aclivily. Tloso dala normaIIy incIudo broad moasuros of
sociooconomic aclivily as voII as avialion aclivily slalislics. Duo lo
llo facl llal dala coIIoclion is vory oxponsivo, mosl of llo dala coIIoc-
lion in a syslom pIan doponds primariIy on socondary or oxisling
sourcos and vory IillIo survoy vorI is porformod. Many of llo ovoraII
rogionaI projoclions aro mado on llo basis of lrond projoclions or sim-
pIo oconomolric modoIs and lloso aro llon apporlionod lo llo indi-
viduaI airporls villin llo rogion on llo basis of ralio mollods. In llo
anaIysis of obsorvod lronds and llo proparalion of fuluro forocasls,
broad indicalors aro gonoraIIy usod incIuding an oxaminalion of llo
consisloncy and roaIizalion of pasl lronds and a comparison of grovll
ralos and oconomic indicalors.
-
Tlo purposo of llo airporl maslor pIan is lo provido llo spocific
dolaiIs for llo fuluro dovoIopmonl of an individuaI airporl lo salisfy
avialion noods consislonl vill communily objoclivos. Tlo airporl
maslor pIan roquiros dolaiIod projoclions of llo IovoI of domand on
llo various faciIilios associalod vill llo airporl. Various concopls
and aIlornalivos for dovoIopmonl aro oxaminod and ovaIualod, and
rocommondalions aro mado roIalivo lo llo priorilizing, scloduIing,
-

and financing of llo pIan |3]. Tlougl llo basis for projoclions in a
syslom pIan is llo aggrogalo IovoI of annuaI domand, llis is nol suf-
ficionl for llo maslor pIan. Irojoclions musl bo mado for magniludo,
naluro, and varialion of domand on a monllIy, daiIy, and lourIy basis
on llo many faciIilios Iocalod al llo airporl.
AnnuaI forocasls of airporl lraffic during llo pIanning poriod aro
llo basis for llo proparalion of llo dolaiIod forocasls in llo maslor
pIan. Tloso forocasls aro mado for oacl lypo of major airporl usor
incIuding air carrior, commulor, and gonoraI avialion aircrafl and aro
oflon oxprossod in lorms of uppor and Iovor bounds. Tlo maslor pIan
forocasls aro usuaIIy mado undor boll conslrainod and unconslrainod
condilions. An unconslrainod forocasl is ono vlicl is mado roIalivo
lo llo polonliaI avialion marIol in vlicl llo basic faclors vlicl lond
lo croalo avialion domand aro uliIizod villoul rogard lo any con-
slraining faclors llal couId affocl avialion grovll al llo Iocalion. A
conslrainod forocasl is ono vlicl is mado in llo conloxl of aIlornalivo
faclors vlicl couId Iimil grovll al llo spocific airporl. Conslraining
faclors addrossod in maslor pIans incIudo Iimilalions on airporl
capacily duo lo Iand avaiIabiIily and noiso roslriclions, llo dovoIop-
monl of aIlornalivo roIiovor airporls lo allracl gonoraI avialion
domand, poIicios vlicl aIlor accoss lo airporls by gonoraI avialion
and commulor aircrafl oporalions, and llo avaiIabiIily and cosl of
avialion fuoI. Tlo dolorminalion of llo IovoI of gonoraI avialion acliv-
ily al an airporl can bo significanlIy clangod vlon Iand avaiIabiIily is
roslriclod, lloroby pIacing Iimils on airsido capacily. Tlo avaiIabIo
capacily may bo uliIizod in llo conloxl of poIicios vlicl favor com-
morciaI ovor gonoraI avialion grovll.
Spocific forocasls mado for a maslor pIan incIudo llo annuaI,
daiIy, and poaI lour oporalions by air carrior, commulor, gonoraI
avialion, cargo, and miIilary aircrafl, passongor onpIanomonls, and
annuaI cargo lonnago, as voII as daiIy and lourIy ground accoss sys-
lom and parIing domand. Irojoclions aro aIso mado for llo mix or
lypos of aircrafl in oacl of llo calogorios vlicl viII uliIizo llo airporl
during llo pIanning poriod. In llo proparalion of lloso forocasls
somo variabIos aro projoclod diroclIy and ollors aro dorivod from
lloso projoclions. Ior oxampIo, annuaI passongor onpIanomonls
migll bo forocaslod from an oconomolric modoI and llon, basod
upon oxogonous oslimalos of avorago air carrior fIool passongor
capacily and boarding soal Ioad faclors, annuaI air carrior oporalions
couId bo dorivod from lloso dala. Guidanco is providod by IAA
|3, 10] for forocasling llo various oIomonls of llo maslor pIan and
IAA rocommonds a labuIar formal for prosonling forocasls for roviov.
An oxampIo is prosonlod in TabIo 5-3. AIllougl llo aclivily oIomonls
slovn in llo labIo rofor lo annuaI oslimalos, maslor pIan forocasls
viII aIso roquiro poaI poriod aclivily IovoIs for llo pIanning of many
airporl faciIilios, and doponding on llo silualion, soasonaI, monllIy,
daiIy, and/or limo-of-day domands musl bo forocasl.

-
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.


Ior llo mosl parl, llo mollods usod in llo sludy of nov airporls
aro simiIar lo lloso usod for oxisling airporls. Hovovor, llo principaI
difforonco is llo inabiIily of llo anaIysl lo oblain a IocaI lisloricaI
dalabaso lo gonoralo oxlrapoIalion lronds, marIol slaros, or ocono-
molric modoIs. To ovorcomo llis doficioncy, an allompl is usuaIIy
mado lo forocasl by draving an anaIogy bolvoon llo subjocl airporl
and ollor oxisling airporls vlicl domonslralo simiIar lraffic oxpori-
onco, and vlicl aro Iocalod in aroas possossing simiIar sociooco-
nomic, domograplic, and goograplic claraclorislics. Iorocasls aro
llon mado for llo airporl undor considoralion by using lloso airporls
as surrogalos and adjuslmonls aro porformod lo accommodalo
oxpoclod difforoncos bolvoon llo airporls. In llo pasl, llo Air Trans-
porl Associalion and llo IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion lavo coI-
Ioclod and labuIalod a significanl amounl of dala for many airporls.
Tloso dala lavo incIudod llo numbor and dislribulion of commorciaI
air carrior oporalions, fIool mix, and passongors on a poaI and avor-
ago monllIy, daiIy, and lourIy basis. Il is apparonl llal ono may
oxpocl a rallor ligl dogroo of uncorlainly associalod vill forocasling
llrougl sucl an anaIogy.
-
Many of llo forocasls mado by llo various avialion-roIalod organiza-
lions bocomo biasod by llo impacl of roconl ovonls. Iorocasls mado in
llo oarIy 1960s slovod rallor modoralo grovll, vloroas lloso mado
in llo Ialo 1960s slovod fairIy ambilious grovll. Tloso forocasls
voro mado in llo conloxl of oxpoclalions vlicl rofIoclod llo bolav-
ior of avialion al llo limo vlon lloy voro mado. In llo 1970s and
1980s, llo ovoraII oconomic condilions, llo avaiIabiIily and cosl of
polroIoum-basod fuoIs, and airIino doroguIalion considorabIy affoclod
avialion. Iorocasls mado in llis ora allomplod lo anaIyzo llo impacl
of lloso faclors in projocling llo domand for avialion in llo fuluro.
Tlo IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion and numorous ollor lrans-
porlalion organizalions aro aIvays IooIing inlo llo fuluro of avialion
|2, 12]. As far as fuluro lronds in air lravoI aro concornod, il is oxpoclod
llal lloro viII bo a groalor grovll of inlornalionaI air lraffic vlicl las
boon allribulod lo llo gIobaIizalion of llo airIino induslry and lo
clanging marIol forcos in llo Unilod Slalos. Tlo faclors vlicl lavo
conlribulod lo llo riso of llo U.S. air lransporlalion induslry aro
clanging. Tlo sloady docIino in llo roaI cosl of air lravoI las roaclod
a poinl in vlicl llo unil cosls in llo 1990s viII romain sloady or sIovIy
riso. Tlo incroasod quaIily of sorvico from improvomonls in llo spood,
comforl, convonionco, and safoly of air lravoI las boon IargoIy roaI-
izod. Iasl domograplic and cuIluraI faclors, sucl as llo baby boom,
aro docIining in imporlanco. Tlo riso in famiIy discrolionary incomo
las poaIod and llo uso of discrolionary incomo for air lravoI is mooling
-

compolilion from morlgagos, savings, and Iuxury goods. Ioroign


lravoI by U.S. cilizons viII bo advorsoIy affoclod by llo docIino in llo
oxclango vaIuo of llo doIIar. Iurllormoro, llis faclor viII oncourago
foroign nalionaIs lo lravoI lo llo Unilod Slalos |12, 13, 14].
Conforoncos roIalod lo avialion forocasling mollodoIogios |10]
concIudod llal financiaI concorns and forcos concorns aro forcing llo
avialion induslry lo pIaco moro omplasis on slorl-lorm forocasling
mollods. Tlis is nol onIy llo caso vill llo airIinos bul airporls aro
aIso slorloning lloir pIanning lorizons. Tlrougloul llo avialion
induslry lloro is a slifl lo simpIor forocasling loclniquos roquiring
fovor variabIos and Ioss dolaiIod dala. A vidor uso is boing mado of
forocasling loclniquos vlicl dopond Ioss on mallomalicaI modoIing
and moro on an anaIysis of difforonl sconarios, judgmonl, and marIol
sogmonlalion. Sconarios aro usod lo losl basic assumplions and lo
oxpIoro aIlornalivos. AIllougl judgmonl las aIvays pIayod a signifi-
canl roIo in domand forocasling il is bocoming moro imporlanl as a
subjoclivo losl of llo roaIily associalod vill forocasling oulcomos.
Tloro is a groving rocognilion llal airIino managomonl slralogios aro
imporlanl forcos slaping llo fuluro of avialion dovoIopmonl.
To adoqualoIy copo vill llo uncorlainlios associalod vill llo lra-
dilionaI air lransporlalion forocasling procoss and lo roacl in a limoIy
mannor lo inaccuracios found in oslimalos, llo pIanning procoss is
omorging inlo a plaso-orionlod, conlinuing procoss. Ior oxampIo, llo
IAA proparos annuaI forocasls of avialion aclivily on a nalionaI and
lorminaI aroa basis vlicl oxlond sovoraI yoars inlo llo fuluro |8, 9,
18]. Duo lo llo ligl cosls associalod vill llo lradilionaI pIanning
procoss and llo impIomonlalion of plysicaI dosign clangos, and llo
apparonl inabiIily lo forocasl vill any dogroo of corlainly, il is osson-
liaI llal pIanning loclniquos bo dovoIopod vlicl can rospond lo
clangos in llo domand paramolors prior lo llo invoslmonl docision.
Iorlaps llo Ioy lo sucl a procoss is llo rocognilion of llo inloraclion
of domand lo suppIy paramolors. Tlo InovIodgo of llo sonsilivily of
a plysicaI faciIily compononl lo a varialion in domand can Ioad lo
moro informod docisions and an undorslanding of llo fIoxibiIily in
faciIily dosign. A conlinuod moniloring of llo nood for plysicaI faciI-
ilios in Iigll of clanging domand roquiromonls providos a sound
basis for llo invoslmonl docision. Rocognilion of llo uncorlainlios in
llo domand forocasling procoss can provonl a vaslofuI commilmonl
of vaIuabIo rosourcos. IxpIicil lroalmonl of llo variabiIily of domand
projoclions and faciIily modificalion rocommondalions llougl llo
uso of sonsilivily and lradooff anaIysos is varranlod.
-
1. - -- , ACRI
Synllosis 2, Airporl Cooporalivo Rosoarcl Irogram, Transporlalion Rosoarcl
Board, Waslinglon, D.C., 2007.


2. - - , Conforonco Irocoodings (Waslinglon, ApriI 2000),
Transporlalion Rosoarcl CircuIar Numbor I-C027, Transporlalion Rosoarcl
Board, Waslinglon, D.C., Marcl 2001.
3. - -, Advisory CircuIar, AC 150/5070-6B, IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 2007.
4. - -, SpociaI Roporl No. 226, Transporlalion
Rosoarcl Board, Waslinglon, D.C., 1990.
5. --- --- -,
CircuIar No. 230, Transporlalion Rosoarcl Board, Waslinglon, D.C., Augusl
1981.
6. Avialion Domand Iorocaslinga Survoy of MollodoIogios, Transporlalion
Rosoarcl I-CircuIar No. I-C040, Transporlalion Rosoarcl Board, Waslinglon,
D.C., Augusl 2002.
7. - -, CircuIar No. 348,
Transporlalion Rosoarcl Board, Waslinglon, D.C., Augusl 1989.
8. - - - - , IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion,
Waslinglon, D.C., Marcl 2008.
9. - -- - - , IodoraI
Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., Soplombor 2007.
10. - -, CircuIar No. 372, Transporlalion Rosoarcl
Board, Waslinglon, D.C., 1991.
11. - - , 5ll od., S. G. MaIridaIis, }oln WiIoy &
Sons, Inc., Nov YorI, N.Y., 1989.
12. -, 12ll InlornalionaI WorIslop, (Waslinglon, Soplombor
2002), CircuIar No. I-C051, Transporlalion Rosoarcl Board, Waslinglon, D.C.,
}anuary 2003.
13. IroIiminary Roporl and
Rocommondod Sludy IIan, Transporlalion Rosoarcl Board, Waslinglon, D.C.,
1988.
14. , CircuIar No. 329, Transporlalion Rosoarcl Board, Waslinglon,
D.C., 1988.
15. -, Roads and Transporlalion Associalion
of Canada, Ollava, Canada, 1980.
16. -, 3d od., InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion
Organizalion, MonlroaI, Canada, 2006.
17. - --, Advisory CircuIar, AC 150/5070-7, IodoraI
Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 2004.
18. - - - , IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 2007.
19. - --- , CircuIar No. 393, Transporlalion
Rosoarcl Board, Waslinglon, D.C., 1992.

-

Goomolric Dosign
of llo AiroId

SlrucluraI Dosign of
Airporl Iavomonls

Airporl Iiglling,
MarIing, and Signago

Airporl Drainago

IIanning and Dosign
of llo TorminaI Aroa

-

- -
In ordor lo provido assislanco lo airporl dosignors and a roasonabIo
amounl of uniformily in llo dosign of airporl faciIilios for aircrafl
oporalions, dosign guidoIinos lavo boon proparod by llo IAA |6] and
llo ICAO |2, 3, 4]. Any dosign criloria invoIving llo vidlls, gradi-
onls, soparalions of runvays, laxivays, and ollor foaluros of llo air-
crafl oporalions aroa musl nocossariIy incorporalo vido varialions in
aircrafl porformanco, piIol loclniquo, and voallor condilions.
Tlo IAA dosign criloria provido uniformily al airporl faciIilios in
llo Unilod Slalos and sorvo as a guido lo aircrafl manufaclurors and
oporalors vill rogard lo llo faciIilios vlicl may bo oxpoclod lo bo
avaiIabIo in llo fuluro. Tlo IAA dosign slandards aro pubIislod in
Advisory CircuIars vlicl aro rovisod poriodicaIIy as llo nood arisos |1].
Tlo ICAO slrivos lovard uniformily and safoly on an inlornalionaI
IovoI. Ils slandards, vlicl aro vory simiIar lo llo IAA slandards, appIy
lo aII mombor nalions of llo Convonlion on InlornalionaI CiviI Avia-
lion and aro pubIislod as Annox 14 lo llal convonlion |2]. Roquiro-
monls for miIilary sorvicos aro so spociaIizod llal lloy aro nol incIudod
in llis claplor.
Tlo dosign slandards proparod by llo IAA and llo ICAO aro pro-
sonlod in llo loxl vlicl foIIovs undor llo gonoraI loadings of airporl
cIassificalion, runvays, laxivays, and aprons. Tlo maloriaI is orga-
nizod so llal llo various criloria may bo roadiIy comparod. Il is
incumbonl upon airporl pIannors lo roviov llo Ialosl spocificalions
for airporl dosign al llo limo sludios aro undorlaIon duo lo llo facl
llal clangos aro incorporalod as condilions diclalo.
Tlo IAA prosonls guidoIinos for airfioId dosign in a sorios of
Advisory CircuIars. Tloro aro moro llan 200 Advisory CircuIars por-
laining lo difforonl aspocls of airporl pIanning and dosign, a compIolo Iisl
of vlicl may bo found on llo IAAs vobsilo al lllp://vvv.faa.gov.

-
Advisory CircuIar 150/5300-13 Airporl Dosign is llo primary sourco
of mosl airfioId dosign slandards. OriginaIIy pubIislod in 1989, AC
150/5300-13 las boon updalod 15 limos as of 2010. Tlo roador is
oncouragod lo visil llo IAAs vobsilo for llo Ialosl updalos lo llis and
any Advisory CircuIars vlon porforming airporl pIanning and dosign
vorI, as lloy aro updalod oflon.
--
Ior llo purposo of slipuIaling goomolric dosign slandards for llo
various lypos of airporls and llo funclions vlicl lloy sorvo, Iollor
and numoricaI codos and ollor doscriplors lavo boon adoplod lo
cIassify airporls.
Ior dosign purposos, airporls aro cIassifiod basod on llo aircrafl
lloy accommodalo. WliIo al any airporl, a vido varioly of aircrafl,
from smaII gonoraI avialion pislon-ongino aircrafl lo loavy air lrans-
porl aircrafl, viII uso llo airfioId, airporls aro dosignod basod on a
sorios of crilicaI or dosign aircrafl. Tloso aircrafl aro soIoclod from
llo fIool using llo airporl as lloso mosl crilicaI lo airfioId dosign. Tlo
IAA dofinos llo lorm as llo aircrafl mosl domanding
on airporl dosign llal oporalos al Ioasl 500 annuaI ilinoranl opora-
lions al a givon airporl. In many casos, moro llan ono crilicaI aircrafl
viII bo soIoclod al an airporl for dosign purposos. Ior oxampIo, il is
oflon llo smaIIosl aircrafl llal is crilicaI lo llo orionlalion of runvays,
vliIo llo Iargosl aircrafl dolorminos mosl of llo ollor dimonsionaI
spocificalions of an airfioId.
As doscribod in Clap. 2, corlain dimonsionaI and porformanco
claraclorislics of llo crilicaI aircrafl dolormino llo airporls
. Tlo airporl roforonco codo is a coding syslom usod lo
roIalo llo airporl dosign criloria lo llo oporalionaI and plysicaI
claraclorislics of llo aircrafl inlondod lo oporalo al llo airporl.
Il is basod upon llo and llo
- lo vlicl llo aircrafl is assignod. Tlo aircrafl approacl
calogory, as slovn in TabIo 6-1, is dolorminod by llo aircrafl
approacl spood, vlicl is dofinod as 1.3 limos llo slaII spood in llo
Ianding configuralion of aircrafl al maximum corlifiod Ianding
voigll |6].
Tlo airpIano dosign group (ADG) is a grouping of aircrafl basod
upon vingspan or laiI loigll, as slovn in TabIo 6-2. An airpIano
dosign group for a parlicuIar aircrafl is assignod basod on llo groalor
(liglor Roman numoraI) of llal associalod vill llo aircrafls ving-
span or laiI loigll.
Tlo airporl roforonco codo is a lvo dosignalor codo roforring lo
llo aircrafl approacl calogory and llo airpIano dosign group for
vlicl llo airporl las boon dosignod. Ior oxampIo, an airporl rofor-
onco codo of B-III is an airporl dosignod lo accommodalo aircrafl
-

vill approacl spoods from 91 lo Ioss llan 121 In (aircrafl approacl


calogory B) vill vingspans from 79 lo Ioss llan 118 fl or laiI loiglls
from 30 lo Ioss llan 45 fl (airpIano dosign group III). Tlo IAA pub-
Iislos a Iisl of llo airporl roforonco codos for various aircrafl in Advi-
sory CircuIar 150/5300-13 Airporl Dosign |6].
As an oxampIo, an airporl dosignod lo accommodalo llo Booing
767-200 vlicl las an approacl spood of 130 In (aircrafl approacl
calogory C) and a vingspan of 156 fl 1 in (airpIano dosign group IV)
vouId bo cIassifiod vill an airporl roforonco codo C-IV.
Tlo ICAO usos a lvo-oIomonl codo, , lo
cIassify llo goomolric dosign slandards al an airporl |2, 3]. Tlo codo
oIomonls consisl of a numoric and aIplabolic dosignalor. Tlo aoro-
dromo codo numbors 1 llrougl 4 cIassify llo Iongll of llo runvay
avaiIabIo, llo , vlicl incIudos llo runvay Iongll
and, if prosonl, llo slopvay and cIoarvay. Tlo roforonco fioId Iongll
is llo approximalo roquirod runvay laIooff Iongll convorlod lo an
oquivaIonl Iongll al moan soa IovoI, 15C, and zoro porconl gradionl.
Tlo aorodromo codo Iollors A llrougl I cIassify llo vingspan and
oulor main goar vlooI span for llo aircrafl for vlicl llo airporl las
boon dosignod.
- -
-






-






1 In is approximaloIy 1.15 mi/l

-
Tloso aorodromo roforonco codos aro givon in TabIo 6-3. Ior oxam-
pIo, an airporl vlicl is dosignod lo accommodalo a Booing 767200
vill an oulor main goar vlooI span of vidll of 34 fl 3 in (10.44 m),
a vingspan of 156 fl 1 in (48 m), al a maximum laIooff voigll of
317,000 Ib, roquiring a runvay Iongll of aboul 6000 fl (1830 m) al soa
IovoI on a slandard day, vouId bo cIassifiod by ICAO vill an aoro-
dromo roforonco codo of 4-D. Il viII bo nolod llal llis cIassificalion
syslom doos nol oxpIicilIy incIudo llo funclion of llo airporl, llo sor-
vico il rondors, or llo lypo of aircrafl accommodalod.
Tloro is an approximalo corrospondonco bolvoon llo airporl rof-
oronco codo of llo IAA and llo aorodromo roforonco codo of llo ICAO
|2, 3]. Tlo IAAs aircrafl approacl calogory of A, B, C, and D aro
approximaloIy llo samo as llo ICAO aorodromo codo numbors 1, 2,
3, and 4, rospoclivoIy. SimiIarIy llo IAAs airpIano dosign groups of I,
II, III, IV, and V approximaloIy corrospond lo ICAO aorodromo codo
Iollors A, B, C, D, and I.
-
A is dofinod as ono vlicl las boon dosignod, conslruclod,
and mainlainod lo accommodalo approacl calogory A and B aircrafl |6].
Tlo spocificalions for uliIily airporls aro groupod for - ,
lloso of maximum corlifiod laIooff voiglls of 12,500 Ib or Ioss, and
, lloso vill maximum corlifiod laIooff voigll in oxcoss
of 12,500 Ib.
Dosign spocificalions for uliIily airporls aro govornod by llo air-
pIano dosign group and llo lypos of approaclos aullorizod for llo
airporl runvay, llal is, visuaI, nonprocision inslrumonl or procision
inslrumonl approaclos.
UliIily airporls for smaII aircrafl aro caIIod - - , -
- and - . UliIily airporls for Iargo aircrafl
-

-
-
-
-







-

aro caIIod - . UliIily airporls aro furllor groupod


for oillor visuaI and nonprocision inslrumonl oporalions or procision
inslrumonl oporalions. Tlo visuaI and nonprocision inslrumonl opor-
alion uliIily airporls aro llo basic uliIily slago I, basic uliIily slago II,
or gonoraI uliIily slago I airporls. Tlo procision inslrumonl oporalion
uliIily airporl is llo gonoraI uliIily slago II airporl.
A basic uliIily slago I airporl las llo capabiIily of accommodaling
aboul 75 porconl of llo singIo ongino and smaII lvin ongino aircrafl
usod for porsonaI and businoss purposos. Tlis gonoraIIy moans aircrafl
voigling on llo ordor of 3000 Ib or Ioss is givon llo airporl roforonco
codo B-I, vlicl indicalos llal il accommodalos aircrafl in aircrafl
approacl calogorios A and B and aircrafl in airpIano dosign group I.
A basic uliIily slago II airporl las llo capabiIily of accommodaling
aII of llo airpIanos of a basic uliIily slago I airporl pIus somo smaII
businoss and air laxi-lypo airpIanos. Tlis gonoraIIy moans aircrafl
voigling on llo ordor of 8000 Ib or Ioss is aIso givon llo airporl rofor-
onco codo B-I. A gonoraI uliIily slago I airporl accommodalos aII smaII
aircrafl. Il is assignod llo airporl roforonco codo of B-II. A gonoraI uliI-
ily slago II airporl sorvos Iargo airpIanos in aircrafl approacl calogorios
A and B and usuaIIy las llo capabiIily for procision inslrumonl opora-
lions. Il is assignod llo airporl roforonco codo of B-III.
- -
A - is dofinod as an airporl vlicl is dosignod, con-
slruclod, and mainlainod lo accommodalo aircrafl in approacl calo-
gorios C, D, and I |6]. Tlo dosign spocificalions of lransporl airporls
aro basod upon llo airpIano dosign group.
-
A runvay is a roclanguIar aroa on llo airporl surfaco proparod for llo
laIooff and Ianding of aircrafl. An airporl may lavo ono runvay
or sovoraI runvays vlicl aro silod, orionlod, and configurod in a
mannor lo provido for llo safo and officionl uso of llo airporl undor a
varioly of condilions. SovoraI of llo faclors vlicl affocl llo Iocalion,
orionlalion, and numbor of runvays al an airporl incIudo IocaI voallor
condilions, parlicuIarIy vind dislribulion and visibiIily, llo lopogra-
ply of llo airporl and surrounding aroa, llo lypo and amounl of air
lraffic lo bo sorvicod al llo airporl, aircrafl porformanco roquiromonls,
and aircrafl noiso |2].
-
Tlo lorm runvay configuralion rofors lo llo numbor and roIalivo
orionlalions of ono or moro runvays on an airfioId. Many runvay
configuralions oxisl. Mosl configuralions aro combinalions of sovoraI

-
basic configuralions. Tlo basic configuralions aro (1) singIo runvays,
(2) paraIIoI runvays, (3) inlorsocling runvays, and (4) opon-V runvays.

Tlis is llo simpIosl of llo runvay configuralions and is slovn in
Iig. 6-1. Il las boon oslimalod llal llo lourIy capacily of a singIo
runvay in VIR condilions is somovloro bolvoon 50 and 100 opora-
lions por lour, vliIo in IIR condilions llis capacily is roducod lo
50 lo 70 oporalions por lour, doponding on llo composilion of llo
aircrafl mix and navigalionaI aids avaiIabIo |4].
-
Tlo capacilios of paraIIoI runvay sysloms dopond on llo numbor of
runvays and on llo spacing bolvoon llo runvays. Tvo, llroo, and
four paraIIoI runvays aro common. Tlo spacing bolvoon paraIIoI
runvays varios vidoIy. Ior llo purposo of llis discussion, llo spacing
is cIassifiod as cIoso, inlormodialo, and far, doponding on llo conlor-
Iino soparalion bolvoon lvo paraIIoI runvays. CIoso paraIIoI run-
vays aro spacod from a minimum of 700 fl (for air carrior airporls) lo
Ioss llan 2500 fl |5]. In IIR condilions an oporalion of ono runvay is
dopondonl on llo oporalion of ollor runvay. Inlormodialo paraIIoI
runvays aro spacod bolvoon 2500 fl lo Ioss llan 4300 fl |5]. In IIR
condilions an arrivaI on ono runvay is indopondonl of a dopar-
luro on llo ollor runvay. Iar paraIIoI runvays aro spacod al Ioasl
4300 fl aparl |5]. In IIR condilions llo lvo runvays can bo opor-
alod indopondonlIy for boll arrivaIs and doparluros. Tloroforo,

-
-

as nolod oarIior, llo conlorIino soparalion of paraIIoI runvays dolor-


minos llo dogroo of inlordopondonco bolvoon oporalions on oacl of
llo paraIIoI runvays. Il slouId bo rocognizod llal in fuluro llo spac-
ing roquiromonls for simuIlanoous oporalions on paraIIoI runvays
may bo roducod. If llis occurs, nov spacing can bo appIiod lo llo
samo cIassificalions. Iiguro 6-2 iIIuslralos an airporl vill muIlipIo
paraIIoI runvays vill various spacing.
If llo lorminaI buiIdings aro pIacod bolvoon paraIIoI runvays,
runvays aro aIvays spacod far onougl aparl lo aIIov room for llo
buiIdings, llo adjoining apron, and llo approprialo laxivays. Wlon
lloro aro four paraIIoI runvays, oacl pair is spacod cIoso, bul llo
pairs aro spacod far aparl lo provido spaco for lorminaI buiIdings.
In VIR condilions, cIoso paraIIoI runvays aIIov simuIlanoous
arrivaIs and doparluros, llal is, arrivaIs may occur on ono runvay
vliIo doparluros aro occurring on llo ollor runvay. Aircrafl oporal-
ing on llo runvays musl lavo vingspans Ioss llan 171 fl (airpIano
dosign groups I llrougl IV, soo TabIo 6-2) for conlorIino spacing al llo
minimum of 700 fl |5]. If Iargor vingspan aircrafl aro oporaling on
lloso runvays (airpIano dosign groups V and VI), llo conlorIino spac-
ing musl bo al Ioasl 1200 fl for sucl simuIlanoous oporalions |5]. In
oillor caso, vaIo vorlox avoidanco procoduros musl bo usod for simuI-
lanoous oporalions on cIosoIy spacod paraIIoI runvays. Iurllormoro,
simuIlanoous arrivaIs lo boll runvays or simuIlanoous doparluros

-
from boll runvays aro nol aIIovod in VIR condilions for cIosoIy spacod
paraIIoI runvays. In IIR condilions, cIosoIy spacod paraIIoI runvays can-
nol bo usod simuIlanoousIy bul may bo oporalod as duaI-Iano runvays.
Inlormodialo paraIIoI runvays may bo oporalod vill simuIlano-
ous arrivaIs in VIR condilions. Inlormodialo paraIIoI runvays may
bo oporalod in IIR condilions vill simuIlanoous doparluros in a non-
radar onvironmonl if llo conlorIino spacing is al Ioasl 3500 fl and in a
radar onvironmonl if llo conlorIino spacing is al Ioasl 2500 fl |5].
SimuIlanoous arrivaIs and doparluros aro aIso pormillod if llo conlor-
Iino spacing is al Ioasl 2500 fl if llo llrosloIds of llo runvays aro nol
slaggorod |5]. Tloro aro limos vlon il may bo dosirabIo lo slaggor llo
llrosloIds of paraIIoI runvays. Tlo slaggoring may bo nocossary
bocauso of llo slapo of llo acroago avaiIabIo for runvay conslruc-
lion, or il may bo dosirabIo for roducing llo laxiing dislanco of laIooff
and Ianding aircrafl. Tlo roduclion in laxiing dislanco, lovovor, is
basod on llo promiso llal ono runvay is lo bo usod oxcIusivoIy for
laIooff and llo ollor for Ianding. In llis caso llo lorminaI buiIdings
aro Iocalod bolvoon llo runvays so llal llo laxiing dislanco for
oacl lypo of oporalion (laIooff or Ianding) is minimizod. If llo runvay
llrosloIds aro slaggorod, adjuslmonls lo llo conlorIino spacing roquiro-
monl aro aIIovod for simuIlanoous arrivaIs and doparluros |5]. If llo
arrivaIs aro on llo noar llrosloId llon llo conlorIino spacing may bo
roducod by 100 fl for oacl 500 fl of llrosloId slaggor dovn lo a mini-
mum conlorIino soparalion of 1000 fl for aircrafl vill vingspans up
lo 171 fl and a minimum of 1200 fl for Iargor vingspan aircrafl. If llo
arrivaIs aro on llo far llrosloId llo conlorIino spacing musl bo
incroasod by 100 fl for oacl 500 fl of llrosloId slaggor. SimuIlanoous
arrivaIs in IIR condilions aro nol pormillod on inlormodialo paraIIoI
runvays bul aro pormillod on far paraIIoI runvays vill conlorIino
spacings of al Ioasl 4300 fl |5].
Tlo lourIy capacily of a pair of paraIIoI runvays in VIR condi-
lions varios groalIy from 60 lo 200 oporalions por lour doponding on
llo aircrafl mix and llo mannor in vlicl arrivaIs and doparluros aro
procossod on lloso runvays |4]. SimiIarIy, in IIR condilions llo lourIy
capacily of a pair of cIosoIy spacod paraIIoI runvays rangos from
50 lo 60 oporalions por lour, of a pair of inlormodialo paraIIoI run-
vays from 60 lo 75 oporalions por lour, and for a pair of far paraIIoI
runvays from 100 lo 125 oporalions por lour |4].
A duaI-Iano paraIIoI runvay consisls of lvo cIosoIy spacod paraI-
IoI runvays vill approprialo oxil laxivays. AIllougl boll runvays
can bo usod for mixod oporalions subjocl lo llo condilions nolod
abovo, llo dosirabIo modo of oporalion is lo dodicalo llo runvay far-
llosl from llo lorminaI buiIding (oulor) for arrivaIs and llo runvay
cIososl lo llo lorminaI buiIding (innor) for doparluros. Il is oslimalod
llal a duaI-Iano runvay can landIo al Ioasl 70 porconl moro lraffic
llan a singIo runvay in VIR condilions and aboul 60 porconl moro
-

lraffic llan a singIo runvay in IIR condilions. Il is rocommondod llal


llo lvo runvays bo spacod nol Ioss llan 1000 fl aparl (1200 fl, vloro
parlicuIarIy Iargor vingspan aircrafl aro invoIvod). Tlis spacing aIso
providos sufficionl dislanco for an arrivaI lo slop bolvoon llo lvo
runvays. A paraIIoI laxivay bolvoon llo runvays viII provido for a
nominaI incroaso in capacily, bul is nol ossonliaI. Tlo major bonofil of
a duaI-Iano runvay is lo provido an incroaso in IIR capacily vill
minimaI acquisilion of Iand |7, 14].
- -
Many airporls lavo lvo or moro runvays in difforonl diroclions cross-
ing oacl ollor. Tloso aro roforrod lo as inlorsocling runvays. Inlorsocl-
ing runvays aro nocossary vlon roIalivoIy slrong vinds occur from
moro llan ono diroclion, rosuIling in oxcossivo crossvinds vlon onIy
ono runvay is providod. Wlon llo vinds aro slrong, onIy ono runvay
of a pair of inlorsocling runvays can bo usod, roducing llo capacily of
llo airfioId subslanliaIIy. If llo vinds aro roIalivoIy Iigll, boll run-
vays can bo usod simuIlanoousIy. Tlo capacily of lvo inlorsocling
runvays doponds on llo Iocalion of llo inlorsoclion (i.o., midvay or
noar llo onds), llo mannor in vlicl llo runvays aro oporalod for
laIooffs and Iandings, roforrod lo as llo runvay uso slralogy, and llo
aircrafl mix. Tlo farllor llo inlorsoclion is from llo laIooff ond of llo
runvay and llo Ianding llrosloId, llo Iovor is llo capacily. Tlo ligl-
osl capacily is acliovod vlon llo inlorsoclion is cIoso lo llo laIooff
and Ianding llrosloId. Iiguro 6-3 providos an oxampIo of inlorsocling
runvays vill llo inlorsoclion cIosor lo llo runvay llrosloIds.
-
Runvays in difforonl diroclions vlicl do nol inlorsocl aro roforrod
lo as opon-V runvays. Tlis configuralion is slovn in Iig. 6-4. IiIo
inlorsocling runvays, opon-V runvays rovorl lo a singIo runvay
vlon vinds aro slrong from ono diroclion. Wlon llo vinds aro Iigll,
boll runvays may bo usod simuIlanoousIy.
Tlo slralogy vlicl yioIds llo liglosl capacily is vlon oporalions
aro avay from llo V and llis is roforrod lo as a divorging pallorn. In
VIR llo lourIy capacily for llis slralogy rangos from 60 lo 180 opora-
lions por lour, and in IIR llo corrosponding capacily is from 50 lo 80
oporalions por lour |4]. Wlon oporalions aro lovard llo V il is roforrod
lo as a convorging pallorn and llo capacily is roducod lo 50 lo 100
oporalions por lour in VIR and lo bolvoon 50 and 60 oporalions por
lour in IIR |4].
- -
Irom llo slandpoinl of capacily and air lraffic conlroI, a singIo-diroclion
runvay configuralion is mosl dosirabIo. AII ollor llings boing oquaI,

-
llis configuralion viII yioId llo liglosl capacily comparod vill ollor
configuralions. Ior air lraffic conlroI llo rouling of aircrafl in a singIo
diroclion is Ioss compIox llan rouling in muIlipIo diroclions. Com-
paring llo divorgonl configuralions, llo opon-V runvay pallorn is
moro dosirabIo llan an inlorsocling runvay configuralion. In llo
opon-V configuralion an oporaling slralogy llal roulos aircrafl avay
from llo V viII yioId liglor capacilios llan if llo oporalions aro
rovorsod. If inlorsocling runvays cannol bo avoidod, ovory offorl
- -
-

slouId bo mado lo pIaco llo inlorsoclions of boll runvays as cIoso as


possibIo lo lloir llrosloIds and lo oporalo llo aircrafl avay from llo
inlorsoclion rallor llan lovard llo inlorsoclion.
Iiguro 6-5 iIIuslralos llo compIox runvay configuralion of
Clicagos OHaro IioId, vill muIlipIo paraIIoI, inlorsocling, and non-
inlorsocling runvays. Il slouId bo nolod llal a Iargo capilaI improvo-
monl program is boing undorlaIon lo simpIify llo runvay configura-
lion, by adding addilionaI paraIIoI runvays and romoving many
inlorsocling runvays. Tlis runvay rodosign is boing dono vill llo
inlonlion of improving llo capacily and officioncy of airporl opora-
lions al llo airporl. Tlo runvay configuralion rodosign is iIIuslralod
in Iig. 6-6.

Tlo orionlalion of a runvay is dofinod by llo diroclion, roIalivo lo
magnolic norll, of llo oporalions porformod by aircrafl on llo run-
vay. TypicaIIy, bul nol aIvays, runvays aro orionlod in sucl a man-
nor llal lloy may bo usod in oillor diroclion. Il is Ioss proforrod lo
- -

-
orionl a runvay in sucl a vay llal oporaling in ono diroclion is pro-
cIudod, normaIIy duo lo noarby obslacIos.
In addilion lo obslacIo cIoaranco considoralions, vlicl viII bo dis-
cussod Ialor in llis claplor, runvays aro lypicaIIy orionlod basod on
llo aroas vind condilions. As sucl, an anaIysis of vind is ossonliaI for
pIanning runvays. As a gonoraI ruIo, llo primary runvay al an air-
porl slouId bo orionlod as cIosoIy as praclicabIo in llo diroclion of llo
provaiIing vinds. Wlon Ianding and laIing off, aircrafl aro abIo lo
manouvor on a runvay as Iong as llo vind compononl al rigll angIos
lo llo diroclion of lravoI, llo crossvind compononl, is nol oxcossivo.
Tlo IAA rocommonds llal runvays slouId bo orionlod so
llal aircrafl may bo Iandod al Ioasl 95 porconl of llo limo vill
--
-

aIIovabIo crossvind compononls nol oxcooding spocifiod Iimils


basod upon llo airporl roforonco codo associalod vill llo crilicaI
aircrafl llal las llo slorlosl vingspan or sIovosl approacl spood.
Wlon llo vind covorago is Ioss llan 95 porconl a crossvind runvay
is rocommondod.
Tlo aIIovabIo crossvind is 10.5 In (12 mi/l) for Airporl Rofor-
onco Codos A-I and B-I, 13 In (15 mi/l) for Airporl Roforonco Codos
A-II and B-II, 16 In (18.5 mi/l) for Airporl Roforonco Codos A-III,
B-III, C-I, C-II, C-III and C-IV, and 20 Inols (23 mpl) for Airporl Rof-
oronco Codos A-IV llrougl D-VI |5].
ICAO aIso spocifios llal runvays slouId bo orionlod so llal air-
crafl may bo Iandod al Ioasl 95 porconl of llo limo vill crossvind
compononls of 20 In (23 mpl) for runvay Ionglls of 1500 m moro,
13 In (15 mi/l) for runvay Ionglls bolvoon 1200 and 1500 m, and
10 In (11.5 mi/l) for runvay Ionglls Ioss llan 1200 m |1, 2].
-
-

-
Onco llo maximum pormissibIo crossvind compononl is soIoclod,
llo mosl dosirabIo diroclion of runvays for vind covorago can bo
dolorminod by oxaminalion of llo avorago vind claraclorislics al llo
airporl undor llo foIIoving condilions:
1. Tlo onliro vind covorago rogardIoss of visibiIily or cIoud coiIing
2. Wind condilions vlon llo coiIing is al Ioasl 1000 fl and llo
visibiIily is al Ioasl 3 mi
3. Wind condilions vlon coiIing is bolvoon 200 and 1000 fl
and/or llo visibiIily is bolvoon and 3 mi.
Tlo firsl condilion roprosonls llo onliro rango of visibiIily, from
oxcoIIonl lo vory poor, and is lormod llo aII voallor condilion. Tlo
noxl condilion roprosonls llo rango of good visibiIily condilions nol
roquiring llo uso of inslrumonls for Ianding, lormod visuaI molooro-
IogicaI condilion (VMC). Tlo Iasl condilion roprosonls various dogroos
of poor visibiIily roquiring llo uso of inslrumonls for Ianding, lormod
inslrumonl molooroIogicaI condilions (IMC).
Tlo 95 porconl crilorion suggoslod by llo IAA and ICAO is appIi-
cabIo lo aII condilions of voallor, novorlloIoss il is sliII usofuI lo
oxamino llo dala in parls vlonovor llis is possibIo.
In llo Unilod Slalos, voallor rocords can bo oblainod from llo
InvironmonlaI Dala and Informalion Sorvico of llo NalionaI CIimalic
Conlor al llo NalionaI Ocoanic and Almosploric Adminislralion
Iocalod in AslviIIo, N.C., or from various Iocalions found on llo
Inlornol.
Woallor dala aro coIIoclod from voallor slalions llrougloul llo
Unilod Slalos on an lourIy basis and rocordod for anaIysis. Tlo dala
coIIoclod incIudo coiIing, visibiIily, vind spood, vind diroclion,
slorms, baromolric prossuro, llo amounl and lypo of Iiquid and frozon
procipilalion, lomporaluro, and roIalivo lumidily. A roporl iIIuslral-
ing llo labuIalion and roprosonlalion of somo of llo dala of uso in
airporl sludios vas proparod for llo IAA |15]. Tlo voallor rocords
conlain llo porconlago of limo corlain combinalions of coiIing and
visibiIily occur (o.g., coiIing, 500 lo 900 fl, visibiIily, 3 lo 6 mi), and llo
porconlago of limo vinds of spocifiod voIocily rangos occur from dif-
foronl diroclions (o.g., from NNI, 4 lo 7 mi/l). Tlo diroclions aro
roforoncod lo lruo norll.
-
Tlo approprialo orionlalion of llo runvay or runvays al an airporl
can bo dolorminod llrougl graplicaI voclor anaIysis using a vind
roso. A slandard vind roso consisls of a sorios of conconlric circIos cul
by radiaI Iinos using poIar coordinalo grapl papor. Tlo radiaI Iinos
aro dravn lo llo scaIo of llo vind magniludo sucl llal llo aroa
bolvoon oacl pair of succossivo Iinos is conlorod on llo vind diroclion.
-

A lypicaI vind roso poIar coordinalo syslom is slovn on llo Iofl sido
of Iig. 6-7. Tlo sladod aroa indicalos llal llo vind comos from llo
soulloasl (SI) vill a magniludo bolvoon 20 and 25 mi/l. A lompIalo
is aIso dravn lo llo samo radiaI scaIo roprosonling llo crossvind
compononl Iimils. A lompIalo dravn vill crossvind compononl Iim-
ils of 15 mi/l is slovn on llo rigll sido of Iig. 6-7. On llis lompIalo
llroo oquaIIy spacod paraIIoI Iinos lavo boon pIollod. Tlo middIo Iino
roprosonls llo runvay conlorIino, and llo dislanco bolvoon llo mid-
dIo Iino and oacl oulsido Iino is, lo scaIo, llo aIIovabIo crossvind
compononl (in llis caso, 15 mi/l). Tlo lompIalo is pIacod ovor llo
vind roso in sucl a mannor llal llo conlorIino on llo lompIalo passos
llrougl llo conlor of llo vind roso.
By ovorIaying llo lompIalo on llo vind roso and rolaling llo con-
lorIino of llo lompIalo llrougl llo origin of llo vind roso ono may
dolormino llo porconlago of limo a runvay in llo diroclion of llo
conlorIino of llo lompIalo can bo usod sucl llal llo crossvind com-
pononl doos nol oxcood 15 mi/l. Oplimum runvay diroclions can bo
dolorminod from llis vind roso by llo uso of llo lompIalo, lypicaIIy
mado on a lransparonl slrip of maloriaI. Will llo conlor of llo vind
roso as a pivol poinl, llo lompIalo is rolalod unliI llo sum of llo por-
conlagos incIudod bolvoon llo oulor Iinos is a maximum. If a vind
voclor from a sogmonl Iios oulsido oillor oulor Iino on llo lompIalo
for llo givon diroclion of llo runvay, llal vind voclor musl lavo a
crossvind compononl vlicl oxcoods llo aIIovabIo crossvind com-
pononl pIollod on llo lompIalo. Wlon ono of llo oulor Iinos on llo
lompIalo dividos a sogmonl of vind diroclion, llo fraclionaI parl is
oslimalod visuaIIy lo llo noarosl 0.1 porconl. Tlis procoduro is consis-
lonl vill llo accuracy of llo vind dala and assumos llal llo vind
porconlago villin llo soclor is uniformIy dislribulod villin llal soclor.
In praclico, il is usuaIIy oasior lo add llo porconlagos conlainod in llo
- --
SE
ESE
SSE SSW
SW
WSW
WNW
NW
NNW NNE
ENE
1
5

m
i
/
h
E
NE
N
35
25
20
15
4
W
S
3.0

-
soclors oulsido of llo lvo oulor paraIIoI Iinos and sublracl lloso from
100 porconl lo find llo porconlago of vind covorago.
As an oxampIo, assumo llal llo vind dala for aII condilions
of visibiIily aro lloso slovn in TabIo 6-4. Tlis vind dala is pIollod lo scaIo as
indicalod abovo lo oblain a vind roso, as slovn in Iig. 6-8.
Tlo porconlago of limo llo vinds corrospond lo a givon diroclion and voIoc-
ily rango is marIod in llo propor soclor of llo vind roso by moans of a poIar coor-
dinalo scaIo for boll vind diroclion and vind magniludo. Tlo lompIalo is rolalod
aboul llo conlor of llo vind roso, as oxpIainod oarIior, unliI llo diroclion of llo
conlorIino yioIds llo maximum porconlago of vind bolvoon llo paraIIoI Iinos.
Onco llo oplimum runvay diroclion las boon found in llis mannor, llo
noxl slop is lo road llo boaring of llo runvay on llo oulor scaIo of llo vind roso
vloro llo conlorIino on llo lompIalo crossos llo vind diroclion scaIo. Bocauso
lruo norll is usod for pubIislod vind dala, llis boaring usuaIIy viII bo difforonl




















-

-

from llal usod in numboring runvays sinco runvay dosignalions aro basod on
llo magnolic boaring. As iIIuslralod in Iig. 6-9, a runvay orionlod on an azimull
lo lruo norll of 90 lo 270 (N 90 I lo S 90 W lruo boaring) viII pormil oporalions
90.8 porconl of llo limo vill llo crossvind compononls nol oxcooding 15 mi/l.
SlouId llo vind anaIysis nol givo llo dosirod vind covorago, llo lompIalo
may llon bo usod lo dolormino llo diroclion of a socond runvay, a crossvind
runvay, vlicl vouId incroaso llo vind covorago lo 95 porconl. Tlis is dono by
bIocIing oul llo aroa bolvoon llo lvo oulor paraIIoI Iinos for llo diroclion of llo
primary runvay (sinco llis las aIroady boon counlod in llo vind covorago for
llo primary runvay) and rolaling llo lompIalo unliI llo porconlagos bolvoon
llo oulor paraIIoI Iinos for llo romaining aroa for anollor diroclion is maximizod.
If llis is dono in llis probIom il is found llal llo crossvind runvay slouId bo
Iocalod in an orionlalion of 12 lo 192 (N 12 I lo S 12 W lruo boaring). Tlis
viII pormil an addilionaI vind covorago of 6.2 porconl abovo llal providod by
llo runvay orionlod 90 lo 270 for a lolaI vind covorago for boll runvays of
97.0 porconl.
Iol us say llal bocauso of noiso-sonsilivo Iand usos in llo diroclion of llo
oplimaI crossvind runvay, a crossvind runvay viII bo Iocalod al llo airporl
in llo orionlalion of 30 lo 210 diroclion vlicl rosuIls in an addilionaI vind
covorago of 5.8 porconl. Tlis runvay orionlalion, caIIod runvay 321, is slovn
in Iig. 6-10. Tlo lolaI vind covorago for boll runvays is llon 96.6 porconl. Tlo
lolaI vind covorago for a runvay in llo orionlalion of 30 lo 210 diroclion is
found lo bo 84.8 porconl from Iig. 6-11. Tlo combinod vind covorago of 96.6
porconl for llo uso of oillor runvay is slovn in Iig. 6-11.
-
SE
ESE
SSE SSW
SW
WSW
WNW
NW
NNW
NNE
ENE
E
NE
N
0.1
0.1
1.0
1.0
1.7
1.9
1.9
1.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
8.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.9
0.4
0.4
0.8
1.0
1.9
3.5
2.3
3.1
1.2
1.6
0.4
0.4
0.5
2.4 3.0
5.3
6.8
7.1
6.4
5.8
3.8
1.8
1.7
1.5
2.7
4.9
3.8
1.7
1.7
W
S

-
27 9
SE
ESE
SSE SSW
SW
WSW
WNW
NW
NNW
NNE
ENE
E
NE
N
0.1
0.1
1.0
1.0
1.7
1.9
1.9
1.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
8.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.9
0.4
0.4
0.8
1.0
1.9
3.5
2.3
3.1
1.2
1.6
0.4
0.4
0.5
2.4 3.0
5.3
6.8
7.1
6.4
5.8
3.8
1.8
1.7
1.5
2.7
4.9
3.8
1.7
1.7
W
S


21
3
SE
ESE
SSE SSW
SW
WSW
WNW
NW
NNW
NNE
ENE
E
NE
N
0.1
0.1
1.0
1.0
1.7
1.9
1.9
1.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
8.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.9
0.4
0.4
0.8
1.0
1.9
3.5
2.3
3.1
1.2
1.6
0.4
0.4
0.5
2.4 3.0
5.3
6.8
7.1
6.4
5.8
3.8
1.8
1.7
1.5
2.7
4.9
3.8
1.7
1.7
W
S
-

-
Ollor llan orionlalion, pIanning and dosigning llo Iongll of a run-
vay is crilicaI lo vlollor or nol a parlicuIar aircrafl can safoIy uso llo
runvay for laIooff or Ianding. Iurllormoro, dosigning a runvay lo
accommodalo a givon aircrafl is a difficuIl lasI, givon llo facl llal an
aircrafls roquirod runvay Iongll viII vary basod on aircrafl voigll,
as voII as on sovoraI ambionl condilions.
As a guido lo airporl pIannors, llo IAA las pubIislod Advisory
CircuIar 150/5325-4b, Runvay Iongll Roquiromonls for Airporl
Dosign |17]. In llis pubIicalion, procoduros aro dofinod for oslimal-
ing llo dosign runvay Iongll of aircrafl, basod on lloir maximum
laIooff voiglls (MTOW), corlain aircrafl porformanco spocificalions,
and llo airporls fioId oIovalion and lomporaluro. Tlo airporl
dosign runvay Iongll is found for llo crilicaI aircrafl, dofinod as llo
aircrafl vlicl fIios llo groalosl nonslop roulo sogmonl from llo air-
porls al Ioasl 500 oporalions por yoar and roquiros llo Iongosl runvay.
Tlo IAAs procoduro for oslimaling runvay Iongll is basod on llo
foIIoving dala:
1. Dosignalion of a crilicaI aircrafl
2. Tlo maximum laIooff voigll of llo crilicaI aircrafl al
llo airporl
-
21
3
27 9
SE
ESE
SSE SSW
SW
WSW
WNW
NW
NNW
NNE
ENE
E
NE
N
0.1
0.1
1.0
1.0
1.7
1.9
1.9
1.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
8.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.9
0.4
0.4
0.8
1.0
1.9
3.5
2.3
3.1
1.2
1.6
0.4
0.4
0.5
2.4 3.0
5.3
6.8
7.1
6.4
5.8
3.8
1.8
1.7
1.5
2.7
4.9
3.8
1.7
1.7
W
S

-
3. Tlo airporl oIovalion
4. Tlo moan daiIy maximum lomporaluro for llo lollosl monll
al llo airporl
5. Tlo maximum difforonl in oIovalion aIong llo runvay
conlorIino.
Ior llo purposos of oslimaling runvay Iongll roquiromonls, llo
IAA groups aircrafl by MGTOW. Basod on llo MGTOW of llo crilicaI
aircrafl, llo foIIoving procoduros aro dofinod:
--
CrilicaI aircrafl Ioss llan or oquaI lo 12,500 Ib MGTOW aro consid-
orod smaII airpIanos for llo purposos of oslimaling runvay Iongll
roquiromonls. Ior lloso smaII aircrafl, dosign runvay Iongll is basod
on llo aircrafls roforonco approacl spood, V
rof
.
Aircrafl vill V
rof
30 In aro considorod slorl laIooff and Ianding
(STOI) aircrafl. Tlo dosign runvay Iongll for STOI aircrafl is 300 fl
(92 m) al soa IovoI. Ior airporls al oIovalion abovo soa IovoI, llo dosign
runvay Iongll is 300 fl pIus 0.03 fl for ovory fool abovo soa IovoI.
Ior aircrafl vill 30 V
rof
< 50 In, llo dosign runvay Iongll al soa
IovoI is 800 fl (244 m). Ior airporls al oIovalion abovo soa IovoI, llo
dosign runvay Iongll is 800 fl pIus 0.08 fl for ovory fool abovo soa
IovoI.
Ior aircrafl vill V
rof
50 In, llo dosign runvay Iongll is basod on
llo numbor of passongor soals in llo aircrafl. Ior lloso aircrafl vill
Ioss llan 10 passongor soals, Iig. 6-12 is roforoncod. Tlis figuro las
lvo sols of curvos, ono roprosonling 95 porconl of fIool, lo bo usod
al airporls sorving smaII communilios, and ono roprosonling 100
porconl of fIool, lo bo appIiod al airporls noar Iargor molropoIilan
aroas.
Iiguro 6-12 is iIIuslralod vill an oxampIo caso vloro llo moan
daiIy maximum lomporaluro al llo lollosl monll al llo airporl is
59I and oIovalion is soa IovoI. A vorlicaI Iino is dravn from llo poinl
on llo lorizonlaI axis associalod vill 59I lo llo soa IovoI fioId oIova-
lion curvo. A lorizonlaI Iino is llon dravn from llo associalod Ioca-
lion on llo oIovalion curvo lo llo rigll sido of llo figuro. Tlo vaIuo al
llo ond of llo lorizonlaI Iino on llo rigll sido of llo figuro is llo roc-
ommondod dosign runvay Iongll. In llis caso, appIying llo 95 por-
conl of fIool curvo rosuIls in a dosign runvay Iongll of 2700 fl, vliIo
llo 100 porconl of fIool curvo rosuIling in a dosign runvay Iongll of
3200 fl.
Ior lloso aircrafl vill 10 or moro passongor soals al airporls al
oIovalion 3000 fl AMSI or Ioss, Iig. 6-13 is roforoncod. Al airporls al
oIovalion groalor llan 3000 fl AMSI, Iig. 6-12 100 porconl of fIool is
roforoncod.
Iiguro 6-13 is iIIuslralod vill an oxampIo caso vloro llo moan
daiIy maximum lomporaluro al llo lollosl monll al llo airporl is
-

90I and oIovalion is 1000 fl AMSI. A vorlicaI Iino is dravn from llo
poinl on llo lorizonlaI axis associalod vill 90I lo llo 1000 fl AMSI
fioId oIovalion curvo. A lorizonlaI Iino is dravn from llo associalod
poinl on llo fioId oIovalion curvo lo llo rigll sido of llo figuro, vloro
llo runvay Iongll is oslimalod. In llis oxampIo, llo dosign runvay
Iongll is oslimalod lo bo 4400 fl.
--

Ior aircrafl groalor llan 12,500 Ib bul Ioss llan or oquaI lo 60,000 Ib
MGTOW, llo crilicaI aircrafl is Iocalod on TabIo 6-5 75 porconl of
fIool, or TabIo 6-6, 100 porconl of fIool. TabIo 6-5 roprosonls aircrafl
llal gonoraIIy roquiro Ioss llan 5000 fl of runvay, vliIo TabIo 6-6
roprosonls aircrafl llal gonoraIIy roquiro 5000 fl or moro of runvay.
- -- --

Airport Elevation
(feet)
95 Percent of Fleet
50 75 75 100 100
2000
3000
4000
5000
R
U
N
W
A
Y

L
E
N
G
T
H

(
F
E
E
T
)
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
50
Mean Daily Maximum Temperature of the Hottest
Month of Year (Degrees F)
8
0
0
0
9
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
8
0
0
0
9
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
S
L
S
L
100 Percent of Fleet
ExampIe:
Temperature (mean day max hot
month): 59F (15C)
Airport Elevation: Mean Sea
Level
Recommended Runway Length:
For 95% = 2,700 feet (823 m)
For 100% = 3,200 feet (975 m)
Note: Dashed lines shown in the table
are mid values of adjacent solid lines.

-
As sucl, if llo soIoclod crilicaI aircrafl is found on TabIo 6-5, il is said
llal llo runvay Iongll oslimalod viII bo abIo lo accommodalo 75 porconl
of llo fIool. If llo soIoclod crilicaI aircrafl is found on TabIo 6-6, il is
said llal llo runvay Iongll oslimalod viII bo abIo lo accommodalo
100 porconl of llis sizo fIool.
Ior llo dosign aircrafl, a usofuI Ioad of oillor 60 or 90 porconl is
soIoclod. A 60 porconl usofuI Ioad roprosonls llo condilion vloro llo
crilicaI aircrafl lypicaIIy oporalos al 60 porconl Ioad faclors, or porforms
slorlor rango oporalions, roquiring Ioss fuoI, vliIo a 90 porconl usofuI
Ioad roprosonls llo condilion vloro llo crilicaI aircrafl lypicaIIy opor-
alos al 90 porconl Ioad faclors, or porforms Iongor rango oporalions.
Ior aircrafl faIIing villin llo 75 porconl of fIool group as idonli-
fiod in TabIo 6-5, Iig. 6-14 is llon appIiod, soIocling oillor llo 60 or
3
0
0
0
S
e
a
L
e
v
e
l
2
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
ExampIe: Temperature (mean day max hot month) 90F (32C)
Airport Elevation (mol) 1,000 feet (328 m)
Recommended Runway Length 4,400 feet (1,341 m)
4000
Airport
Elevation (FT)
30 40 50 60 70 80
Mean Daily Maximum Temperature of
the Hottest Month of the Year
(Degrees F)
90 100 110 120
R
u
n
w
a
y

L
e
n
g
t
h

(
F
T
)
5000
6000
3000
Runway Length Curves
Raytheon B80 Queen Air
Raytheon E90 King Air
Raytheon B99 Airliner
Raytheon A100 King Air
(Raytheon formerly Beech
Aircraft)
Mark - Trilander
Swearigen Merlin -A
Swearigen Merlin V-A
Swearigen Metro
Brittea-Norman
Mitsubishi MU-2L
Representative AirpIanes
Note: For airport elevations above 3,000 feet (915 m), use the
100 percent of fleet grouping in figure 2-1.
- -- --


- --
--
--
--
- -
--

--

-
--
--


--


-- --
--


--


--

--


--


--
--


IAA AC 150/5235-4b.
-
90 porconl usofuI Ioad sidos of llo figuro, and appIiod basod on llo
moan daiIy maximum lomporaluro of llo lollosl monll (in Ialron-
loil), and llo oIovalion of llo airfioId (in fool AMSI).
Iiguro 6-14 iIIuslralos lvo oxampIos, ono for an airporl al soa
IovoI vill avorago ligl lomporaluro during llo lollosl monll al 59I
and a crilicaI aircrafl faIIing villin llo 75 porconl of fIool calogory al

-






--
--
--
--
--
- -- -








-

60 porconl usofuI Ioad, and ono for an airporl al 1000 fl AMSI, avor-
ago ligl lomporaluro during llo lollosl monll al 100I, and a crilicaI
aircrafl faIIing villin llo 75 porconl of fIool calogory al 90 porconl
usofuI Ioad. Ior aircrafl faIIing villin llo 100 porconl of fIool group
as idonlifiod in TabIo 6-6, Iig. 6-15 is simiIarIy appIiod.
Iiguro 6-15 is iIIuslralod vill lvo oxampIos, ono iIIuslraling an
airporl al 2000 fl AMSI vill avorago ligl lomporaluro during llo
lollosl monll al 59I and a crilicaI aircrafl faIIing villin llo 100 por-
conl of fIool calogory al 60 porconl usofuI Ioad, and ono iIIuslraling an
airporl al 3000 fl AMSI, avorago ligl lomporaluro during llo lollosl
monll al 100I, and a crilicaI aircrafl faIIing villin llo 100 porconl of
fIool calogory al 90 porconl usofuI Ioad.
Basod on llo runvay Ionglls found in oillor Iig. 6-14 or Iig. 6-15,
an adjuslmonl is mado for any nonIovoI runvay gradionl. Spocifi-
caIIy, llo runvay Iongll found in Iig. 6-14 or Iig. 6-15 is incroasod by
-

-
40 50 60
Mean Daily Maximum Temperature of Hottest Month of the Year in Degrees Fahrenheit
75 percent of feet at 60 percent
useful load
75 percent of feet at 90 percent
useful load
70 80 90 100 110 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
4,500
5,000
5,500
6,000
6,500
7,000
7,500
8,000
8,500
9,000
4,000
4,500
5,000
5,500
6,000
R
U
N
W
A
Y

L
E
N
G
T
H
S

(
F
E
E
T
)
6,500
7,000
7,500
8,000
8,500
9,000
4,000
EXAMPLE:
TEMP. = 100F
ARPORT ELEV. = 1,000'
RUNWAY LENGTH = 7,550'
ARPORT ELEVATON (FEET)
A
R
P
O
R
T
E
L
E
V
A
T
O
N
(
F
E
E
T
)
CLMB LMTATON 8,600'
2,000
6,000'
8,000
4,000
SL
EXAMPLE:
TEMP. = 59F
ARPORT ELEV. = SL
RUNWAY LENGTH = 4,550'
CLMB LMTATON 7,700'
8
,0
0
0
6
,0
0
0
4
,0
0
0
2,000
SL
-
40 50 60
Mean Daily Maximum Temperature of Hottest Month of the Year in Degrees Fahrenheit
100 percent of feet at 60 percent
useful load
100 percent of feet at 90 percent
useful load
70 80 90 100 110 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
4,500
5,000
5,500
6,000
6,500
7,000
7,500
8,000
8,500
9,000
9,500
10,500
10,000
11,000
4,000
R
U
N
W
A
Y

L
E
N
G
T
H

(
F
E
E
T
)
R
U
N
W
A
Y

L
E
N
G
T
H

(
F
E
E
T
)
4,500
5,000
5,500
6,000
6,500
7,000
7,500
8,000
8,500
9,000
9,500
10,500
10,000
11,000
4,000
2
,0
0
0
6
,0
0
0
4
,0
0
0
S
L
CLMB LMTATON 11,000' CLMB LMTATON 11,000'
8
,0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
4
,0
0
0
2
,0
0
0
S
L
EXAMPLE:
TEMP. = 100F
ELEVATON = 3,000'
RUNWAY LENGTH = 10,500'
EXAMPLE:
TEMP. = 59F
ELEV. = 2,000'
RUNWAY LENGTH = 5,000'
A
R
P
O
R
T
E
L
E
V
A
T

O
N
(
F
E
E
T
)
A
R
P
O
R
T
E
L
E
V
A
T
O
N
(
F
E
E
T
)

-
10 fl for ovory fool in oIovalion difforonco bolvoon llo Iovosl poinl
and liglosl poinl on llo runvay.
Al liglor oIovalions, il is oflon llo caso llal llo roquirod runvay
Iongll is groalor for aircrafl Ioss llan 12,500 Ib MGTOW llan for air-
crafl groalor llan 12,500 Ib. If llis is llo caso, llo dosign runvay
Iongll vouId bo llal for llo Iigllor aircrafl. As sucl, airporl pIannors
oslimaling runvay Ionglls al ligl oIovalion airporls slouId porform
runvay Iongll oslimalions for llo smaIIosl aircrafl, in addilion lo llal
for llo soIoclod crilicaI aircrafl.

Ior aircrafl groalor llan 60,000 Ib MGTOW, runvay Ionglls aro osli-
malod basod on llo spocific porformanco spocificalions of llo crilicaI
aircrafl. Tloso porformanco spocificalions may bo found in llo pub-
Iislod aircrafl airporl pIanning manuaIs. Tloso manuaIs may bo
found on llo Inlornol silos of llo major aircrafl manufaclurors.
Willin llo aircrafl airporl pIanning manuaIs aro porformanco
clarls llal aro usod lo dolormino llo aircrafls roquirod runvay Ionglls
for boll laIooff and Ianding, basod on llo aircrafls oporaling con-
figuralion, ils oslimalod voiglls during laIooff and Ianding, as voII
as llo airporl oIovalion and avorago ligl lomporaluro during llo lollosl
monll.
IxampIo IrobIom 6-2 iIIuslralos llo procoduro for oslimaling runvay
Iongll using lloso clarls.
Considor llo silualion vloro an airporl vill oIovalion
1000 fl AMSI and moan daiIy maximum lomporaluro of llo lollosl monll
of 84I, is pIanning for a nov runvay lo bo dosignod for llo Booing 737-900
aircrafl, oquippod vill Irall & Wlilnoy CIM56-7B27 onginos. Al llo airporl
a runvay gradionl of 20 fl is projoclod.
According lo llo porformanco spocificalion clarl, iIIuslralod in Iig. 6-16,
found in llo Booing 737-900 airporl pIanning manuaI, llo maximum dosign
Ianding voigll for llo aircrafl is 146,300 Ib and llo maximum dosign laIooff
voigll is 174,200 Ib.
Iirsl, oslimalion of roquirod runvay Iongll for Ianding is porformod using
llo Ianding runvay Iongll porformanco clarl for llo aircrafl. As vill mosl
Ianding porformanco clarls, runvay Iongll roquiromonls found Ianding may
bo found undor boll dry and vol runvay condilions. Ior airporl pIanning pur-
posos, dosign runvay Iongll for Ianding is oslimalod by considoring vol runvay
condilions. If a Ianding runvay Iongll porformanco clarl doos nol incIudo vol
runvay condilions, llo dosign runvay Iongll is oslimalod as llo runvay Iongll
found undor dry runvay condilions, pIus 15 porconl.
Iiguro 6-17 iIIuslralos llis oxampIo. AppIying llo caso oxampIo, a vorlicaI
Iino is dravn from llo baso of llo lorizonlaI axis al llo Iocalion of llo maximum
dosign Ianding voigll (146,300 Ib), up lo an inlorpoIalod poinl bolvoon llo soa
IovoI and 2000 fl (lo roprosonl llo oxampIo airporls 1000 fl oIovalion) vol-
runvay curvos, and llon a lorizonlaI Iino is dravn lo llo vorlicaI axis, vloro llo
oslimalod roquirod runvay Iongll may bo found. In llis oxampIo, llo oslimalod
runvay Iongll for Ianding is approximaloIy 6600 fl.
-

Tloso clarls aro dosignod for IovoI runvays. An adjuslmonl for runvay gra-
dionl musl bo mado by adding 10 fl of runvay Iongll for ovory fool of runvay
gradionl. In llis oxampIo, an addilionaI 200 fl of runvay Iongll is addod, rosuIl-
ing in an adjuslod runvay Iongll for Ianding of 6800 fl.
Socond, oslimalion of roquirod runvay Iongll for laIooff is porformod using
llo laIooff runvay Iongll porformanco clarl for llo aircrafl. Oflonlimos, an
aircrafl viII lavo muIlipIo laIooff porformanco clarls, lypicaIIy for difforonl
avorago ligl lomporaluros. Tlo clarl associalod vill llo lomporaluro noarosl
llo airporls avorago ligl during llo lollosl monll is usod.
--

164,500 174,700
74,616 79,243
138,300 140,300
63,639
94,580
42,901
43,720 45,720
19,831 20,738
177 177
189 189
1,835 1,835
52.0 52.0
6875 6875
26,022 26,022
46,063 46,063
20,894 20,894
164,000 174,200
79,016
146,300
UNTS
POUNDS
KLOGRAMS
POUNDS
KLOGRAMS
POUNDS
KLOGRAMS
POUNDS
KLOGRAMS
TWO-CLASS
ALL-ECONOMY
CUBC FEET
CUBC METERS
US GALLONS
LTERS
POUNDS
KLOGRAMS
POUNDS
KLOGRAMS
POUNDS
KLOGRAMS 66,361
737900
USABLE FUEL
SEATNG CAPACTY (1)
MAX CARGO
- LOWER DECK
MAX STRUCTURAL
PAYLOAD
OPERATNG
EMPTY WEGHT (1)
MAX DESGN
ZERO FUEL WEGHT
MAX DESGN
LANDNG WEGHT
MAX DESGN
TAKEOFF WEGHT
CHARACTERSTCS
MAX DESGN
TAX WEGHT
Takeoff
Weight
Landing
Weight
NOTE: (1) OPERATNG EMPTY WEGHT FOR BASELNE MXED CLASS CONFGURATON.
CONSULT WTH ARLNE FOR SPECFC WEGHTS AND CONFGURATONS.

-
Iiguro 6-18 iIIuslralos llis oxampIo. AppIying llo caso oxampIo, a vorlicaI
Iino is dravn from llo baso of llo lorizonlaI axis al llo Iocalion of llo maximum
dosign laIooff voigll (174,200 Ib), up lo an inlorpoIalod poinl bolvoon llo soa
IovoI and 2000 fl curvos, and llon a lorizonlaI Iino is dravn lo llo vorlicaI
axis, vloro llo oslimalod roquirod runvay Iongll for laIooff may bo found. In
llis oxampIo, llo oslimalod runvay Iongll for laIooff is approximaloIy 8800 fl.
Considoring llo oxampIos runvay gradionl, an addilionaI 200 fl of runvay
Iongll is addod, rosuIling in an adjuslod runvay Iongll for laIooff of 9000 fl.
- p
-
1.0
3
4
5
6
7
FLAPS 40 DRY RUNWAY
WET RUNWAY
8
NOTES:
STANDARD DAY
AUTO SPOLERS OPERATVE
ANT-SKD OPERATVE
ZERO WND
CONSULT USNG ARLNE FOR SPECFC
OPERATNG PROCEDURE PROR TO FACLTY DESGN
9
100 110
50 55 60
(1,000 KLOGRAMS)
OPERATONAL LANDNG WEGHT
65
120 130
1,000 POUNDS
140 150
1.5
2.0
F
.
A
.
R
.

L
A
N
D

N
G

R
U
N
W
A
Y

L
E
N
G
T
H
(
1
,
0
0
0

M
E
T
E
R
S
)
1
,
0
0
0

F
E
E
T
2.5
SEA LEVEL
2,000 (610)
4,000 (1,219)
6,000 (1,829)
8,000 (2,438)
FEET (METERS)
ARPORT ELEVATON
MAX DESGN LANDNG WT
146,300 (66,360 KG)
-

Ior dosign purposos, llo dosign runvay Iongll is llo Iongor of llo roquirod
runvay Ionglls for Ianding and for laIooff. In llis caso, llo dosign runvay
Iongll for llis oxampIo is 9000 fl.
- -
Tlo runvay syslom al an airporl consisls of llo slrucluraI pavo-
monl, llo slouIdors, llo bIasl pad, llo runvay safoly aroa, various
obslruclion-froo surfacos, and llo runvay proloclion zono, as slovn
in Iigs. 6-19 and 6-20.
-

1.0
1.5
3
4
5
6
7
STANDARD DAY + 27F
(STD + 15C)
8
NOTES:
CFM567827 ENGNES RATED AT 27,300 LB SLST
NO ENGNE AR BLEED FOR AR CONDTONNG
ZERO WND, ZERO RUNWAY GRADENT
DRY RUNWAY SURFACE
CONSULT WTH USNG ARLNE FOR SPECFC
OPERATNG PROCEDURE PROR TO FACLTY DESGN
LNEAR NTERPOLATON BETWEEN ALTTUDES NVALD
LNEAR NTERPOLATON BETWEEN TEMPERATURES NVALD
15
10
11
12
13
14
9
120 125 130
55 60
(1,000 KLOGRAMS)
OPERATONAL TAKEOFF WEGHT
65 70 75 80
140 145 150 155 135
1,000 POUNDS
165 160 170 175
2.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
4.0
F
.
A
.
R
.

T
A
K
E
O
F
F

R
U
N
W
A
Y

L
E
N
G
T
H
(
1
,
0
0
0

M
E
T
E
R
S
)
1
,
0
0
0

F
E
E
T
4.5
MAX DESGN TAKEOFF WT
174,200 LB (79,016 KG)
6
,0
0
0
(1
,8
2
9
)
4
,0
0
0
(1
,2
1
9
)
2
,0
0
0
(6
1
0
)
S
E
A
L
E
V
E
L
F
L
A
P
S
2
5
F
L
A
P
S

1
5
F
L
A
P
S
5
T
R
E
S
P
E
E
D
L
M
T
A
R
P
O
R
T
E
L
E
V
A
T
O
N
F
E
E
T
(
M
E
T
E
R
S
)
8
,0
0
0
(
2
,4
3
8
)

-
1. Tlo runvay - supporls llo aircrafl vill
rospocl lo slrucluraI Ioad, manouvorabiIily, conlroI, slabiIily,
and ollor oporalionaI and dimonsionaI criloria.
2. Tlo - adjaconl lo llo odgos of llo slrucluraI pavomonl
rosisls jol bIasl orosion and accommodalos mainlonanco and
omorgoncy oquipmonl.
3. Tlo - is an aroa dosignod lo provonl orosion of llo
surfacos adjaconl lo llo onds of runvays duo lo jol bIasl or
propoIIor vasl.
4. Tlo - (RSA) is an aroa surrounding llo run-
vay proparod or suilabIo for roducing llo risI of damago lo
aircrafl in llo ovonl of an undorslool, ovorslool, or oxcursion
from llo runvay. ICAO rofors lo an aroa simiIar lo llo run-
vay safoly aroa as llo - and llo -
-- --
Runway Object Free Area
Runway Protection Zone
Runway Safety Area
Structural
Pavement
Shoulder
Blast Pad
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
--
nner Approach OFZ
1
3
50
1
Runway OFZ
nner Transitional OFZ
-

. Tlo runvay safoly aroa incIudos llo slrucluraI pavo-


monl, slouIdors, bIasl pad, and slopvay, if providod. Tlis
aroa slouId bo capabIo of supporling omorgoncy and mainlo-
nanco oquipmonl as voII as providing supporl for aircrafl.
Tlo runvay safoly aroa is cIoarod, drainod, and gradod and
slouId lavo no polonliaIIy lazardous ruls, lumps, dopros-
sions, or ollor surfaco varialions. Il slouId bo froo of objocls
oxcopl for objocls llal aro roquirod lo bo Iocalod in llo run-
vay safoly aroa bocauso of lloir funclion. Tloso objocls aro
roquirod lo bo conslruclod on frangibIo mounlod slrucluros al
llo Iovosl possibIo loigll vill llo frangibIo poinl no liglor
llan 3 in abovo grado.
5. Tlo runvay (OIA) is dofinod by llo IAA as a
lvo-dimonsionaI ground aroa surrounding llo runvay vlicl
musl bo cIoar of parIod aircrafl and objocls ollor llan lloso
vloso Iocalion is fixod by funclion.
6. Tlo runvay - (OIZ) is a dofinod voIumo of
airspaco conlorod abovo llo runvay vlicl supporls llo lran-
silion bolvoon ground and airborno oporalions. Tlo IAA spoc-
ifios llis as llo airspaco abovo a surfaco vloso oIovalion is
llo samo as llal of llo noarosl poinl on llo runvay conlorIino
and oxlonding 200 fl boyond oacl ond of llo runvay.
7. Tlo - , vlicl appIios onIy lo
runvays vill approacl Iiglling sysloms, is llo airspaco
abovo a surfaco conlorod on llo oxlondod runvay conlorIino
boginning 200 fl boyond llo runvay llrosloId al llo samo
oIovalion as llo runvay llrosloId and oxlonding 200 fl boyond
llo Iasl Iigll unil on llo approacl Iiglling syslom. Ils vidll
is llo samo as llo runvay obslacIo-froo zono and il sIopos
upvard al llo ralo of 50 lorizonlaI lo 1 vorlicaI.
8. Tlo - - , vlicl appIios onIy lo pro-
cision inslrumonl runvays, is dofinod by llo IAA as llo voIumo
of airspaco aIong llo sidos of llo runvay and llo innor approacl
obslacIo-froo zono. Tlo surfaco sIopos al llo ralo of 3 lorizonlaI
lo 1 vorlicaI oul from llo odgo of llo runvay obslacIo-froo zono
and llo innor approacl obslacIo-froo zono unliI il roaclos a loigll
of 150 fl abovo llo oslabIislod airporl oIovalion.
9. Tlo (RIZ) is an aroa on llo ground
usod lo onlanco llo proloclion of poopIo and objocls noar llo
runvay approacl.
Tlo IAA runvay slandards roIalod lo llo pavomonl and slouIdor
vidll, llo safoly aroa, llo bIasl pad, and llo obslacIo-froo surfacos aro
givon in TabIos 6-7 and 6-8. SimiIar dala for llo ICAO aro givon in
TabIo 6-9.

I
a
c
i
I
i
l
i
o
s

f
o
r

s
m
a
I
I

a
i
r
p
I
a
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o
s

o
n
I
y
.

I
r
o
m

o
n
d

o
f

r
u
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v
a
y
,

v
i
l
l

l
l
o

d
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c
I
a
r
o
d

d
i
s
l
a
n
c
o

c
o
n
c
o
p
l
,

l
l
o
s
o

I
o
n
g
l
l
s

b
o
g
i
n

a
l

l
l
o

s
l
o
p

o
n
d

o
f

o
a
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l

A
S
D
A

a
n
d

b
o
l
l

o
n
d
s

o
f

l
l
o

I
D
A
,

v
l
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c
l
o
v
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r

i
s

g
r
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a
l
o
r
.

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r

r
u
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v
a
y
s

s
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v
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g

s
m
a
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a
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r
c
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a
f
l

o
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,

f
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a
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g
o

a
i
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c
r
a
f
l

l
l
o

g
r
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a
l
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r

o
f

4
0
0

f
l

o
r

1
8
0

f
l

p
I
u
s

l
l
o

v
i
n
g
s
p
a
n

o
f

l
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m
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d
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a
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d
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a
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a
f
l

p
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2
0

f
l

f
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o
a
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l

1
0
0
0

f
l

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f

a
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o
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v
a
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.

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a
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s
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a
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a
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a
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s
p
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5
0

I
n
,

i
n
c
r
o
a
s
o

l
o

2
5
0

f
l

f
o
r

r
u
n
v
a
y
s

s
o
r
v
i
n
g

a
i
r
c
r
a
f
l

v
i
l
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a
p
p
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a
c
l

s
p
o
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d
s

g
r
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a
l
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l
l
a
n

5
0

I
n
.

B
o
y
o
n
d

l
l
o

o
n
d

o
f

o
a
c
l

r
u
n
v
a
y
.

-
Tlo spacing of paraIIoI runvays doponds on a numbor of faclors sucl
as vlollor llo oporalions aro in VMC or IMC and, if in IMC, vlollor
il is dosirod lo lavo llo capabiIily of accommodaling simuIlanoous
arrivaIs or simuIlanoous arrivaIs and doparluros. Al lloso airporls
sorving boll loavy and Iigll aircrafl simuIlanoous uso of runvays
ovon in VMC condilions may bo diclalod by soparalion roquiromonls
lo safoguard againsl vaIo vorlicos.
-

Ior airpIano dosign group III sorving aircrafl vill maximum corlifiod laIooff voigll
groalor llan 150,000 Ib, llo slandard runvay vidll is 150 fl, llo slouIdor vidll is 25 fl,
and llo bIasl pad vidll is 200 fl.

AirpIano dosign groups V and VI normaIIy roquiro slabiIizod or pavod slouIdor sur-
facos.

Ior Airporl Roforonco Codo C-I and C-II, a runvay safoly aroa vidll of 400 fl is pormis-
sibIo. Ior runvays dosignod aflor 2/28/83 lo sorvo aircrafl approacl calogory D air-
crafl, llo runvay safoly aroa vidll incroasos 20 fl for oacl 1000 fl of airporl oIovalion
abovo moan soa IovoI.

Irom ond of runvay, vill llo docIarod dislanco concopl, lloso Ionglls bogin al llo slop
ond of oacl ASDA and boll onds of llo IDA, vliclovor is groalor.

Ior Iargo aircrafl llo groalor of 400 fl or 180 fl pIus llo vingspan of llo mosl domanding
aircrafl pIus 20 fl for oacl 1000 fl of airporl oIovalion, for smaII aircrafl 300 fl for proci-
sion inslrumonl runvays, 250 fl for aII ollor runvays sorving smaII aircrafl vill
approacl spoods of 50 In or moro, and 120 fl for aII ollor runvays sorving smaII aircrafl
vill approacl spoods Ioss llan 50 In.

Boyond llo ond of oacl runvay.


- -

-
Undor VMC, llo IAA roquiros paraIIoI runvay conlorIino sopara-
lions of 700 fl for aII aircrafl vlon llo oporalions aro in llo samo diroc-
lion and vaIo vorlicos aro nol provaIonl. Il aIso rocommonds incroasing
llo soparalion lo 1200 fl for airpIano dosign group V and VI runvays. If
vaIo vorlicos aro gonoralod by loavy jols and il is dosirod lo oporalo on
lvo runvays simuIlanoousIy in VMC vlon IillIo or no crossvind is
prosonl, llo minimum dislanco spocifiod by llo IAA is 2500 fl.
Ior oporalions undor VMC, llo ICAO rocommonds llal llo min-
imum soparalions bolvoon llo conlorIinos of paraIIoI runvays for
simuIlanoous uso disrogarding vaIo vorlicos bo 120 m (400 fl) for
aorodromo codo numbor 1, 150 m (500 fl) for aorodromo codo numbor
2, and 210 m (700 fl) for aorodromo codo numbor 3 or 4 runvays.
In IMC condilions, llo IAA spocifios 4300 fl and ICAO spocifios
1525 m (5000 fl) as llo minimum soparalion bolvoon conlorIinos of



-
-
-

-
-

Tlo vidll of a procision approacl runvay slouId nol bo Ioss llan 30 m vloro llo aoro-
dromo codo numbor is 1 or 2.

Minimum vidll of pavomonl and slouIdors vlon pavomonl vidll is Ioss llan 60 m.

SymmolricaI aboul llo runvay conlorIino.

Il is rocommondod llal llis bo providod for llo firsl 150 m from oacl ond of llo runvay and
llal il slouId bo incroasod IinoarIy from llis poinl lo a vidll of 210 m al a poinl 300 m from
oacl ond of llo runvay and romain al llis vidll for llo romaindor of llo runvay.
- -
-

paraIIoI runvays for simuIlanoous inslrumonl approaclos. Hovovor,


lloro is ovidonco llal lloso dislancos aro consorvalivo and slops aro
boing laIon lo roduco il. Tlo uIlimalo goaI is lo roduco llis dislanco
by aboul ono-laIf. Ior dopondonl inslrumonl approaclos boll llo
IAA and ICAO rocommond conlorIino soparalions of 3000 fl (915 m).
Ior lripIo and quadrupIo simuIlanoous inslrumonl approaclos, llo
IAA roquiros 5000-fl soparalion bolvoon runvay conlorIinos,
aIllougl viII aIIov 4300 fl soparalions on a caso-by-caso basis.
Boll llo IAA and ICAO spocify llal lvo paraIIoI runvays may
bo usod simuIlanoousIy for radar doparluros in IMC if llo conlorIinos
aro soparalod by al Ioasl 2500 fl (760 m). Tlo IAA roquiros a 3500-fl
conlorIino soparalion for simuIlanoous nonradar doparluros. If lvo
paraIIoI runvays aro lo bo oporalod indopondonlIy of oacl ollor in
IMC undor radar conlroI, ono for arrivaIs and llo ollor for dopar-
luros, boll llo IAA and ICAO spocify llal llo minimum soparalion
bolvoon llo conlorIinos is 2500 fl (760 m) vlon llo llrosloIds aro
ovon. If llo llrosloIds aro slaggorod, llo runvays can bo brougll
cIosor logollor or musl bo soparalod farllor doponding on llo amounl
of llo slaggor and vlicl runvays aro usod for arrivaIs and dopar-
luros. If approaclos aro lo llo noarosl runvay, llon llo spacing may
bo roducod by 100 fl (30 m) for oacl 500 fl (150 m) of slaggor dovn lo
a minimum of 1200 fl (360 m) for airpIano dosign groups V and VI
and 1000 fl (300 m) for aII ollor aircrafl. Hovovor, if llo approaclos
aro lo llo farllosl runvay, llon llo runvay spacing musl bo incroasod
by 100 fl (30 m) for oacl 500 fl (150 m) of slaggor.
-
Tlo IAA roquiromonl for sigll dislanco on individuaI runvays
roquiros llal llo runvay profiIo pormil any lvo poinls 5 fl abovo llo
runvay conlorIino lo bo muluaIIy visibIo for llo onliro runvay Iongll.
If, lovovor, llo runvay las a fuII Iongll paraIIoI laxivay, llo runvay
profiIo may bo sucl llal an unobslruclod Iino of sigll viII oxisl from
any poinl 5 fl abovo llo runvay conlorIino lo any ollor poinl 5 fl
abovo llo runvay conlorIino for ono-laIf llo runvay Iongll.
Tlo IAA rocommonds a cIoar Iino of sigll bolvoon llo onds of
inlorsocling runvays. Tlo lorrain musl bo gradod and pormanonl
objocls dosignod and silod so llal lloro viII bo an unobslruclod
Iino of sigll from any poinl 5 fl abovo ono runvay conlorIino lo
any poinl 5 fl abovo an inlorsocling runvay conlorIino villin llo
runvay visibiIily zono. Tlo runvay visibiIily zono is llo aroa
formod by imaginary Iinos connocling llo visibiIily poinls of llo
lvo inlorsocling runvays. Tlo runvay visibiIily zono for inlor-
socling runvays is slovn in Iig. 6-21. Tlo visibiIily poinls aro
dofinod as foIIovs:
1. If llo dislanco from llo inlorsoclion of llo lvo runvay con-
lorIinos is 750 fl or Ioss, llo visibiIily poinl is on llo conlorIino
al llo runvay ond dosignalod by poinl a in Iig. 6-21.

-
2. If llo dislanco from llo inlorsoclion of llo lvo runvay con-
lorIinos is groalor llan 750 fl bul Ioss llan 1500 fl, llo visibiI-
ily poinl is on llo conlorIino 750 fl from llo inlorsoclion of llo
conlorIinos dosignalod by poinl b in Iig. 6-21.
3. If llo dislanco from llo inlorsoclion of llo lvo runvay con-
lorIinos is oquaI lo or groalor llan 1500 fl, llo visibiIily poinl
is on llo conlorIino oquidislanl from llo runvay ond and llo
inlorsoclion of llo conlorIinos dosignalod by poinls c and d in
Iig. 6-21.
Tlo ICAO roquiromonl for sigll dislanco on individuaI runvays
roquiros llal llo runvay profiIo pormil an unobslruclod viov
bolvoon any lvo poinls al a spocifiod loigll abovo llo runvay con-
lorIino lo bo muluaIIy visibIo for a dislanco oquaI lo al Ioasl ono-laIf
llo runvay Iongll. ICAO spocifios llal llo loigll of lloso lvo poinls
bo 1.5 m (5 fl) abovo llo runvay for aorodromo codo Iollor A run-
vays, 2 m (7 fl) abovo llo runvay for aorodromo codo Iollor B run-
vays, and 3 m (10 fl) abovo llo runvay for aorodromo codo Iollor C,
D, or I runvays.
Il is dosirabIo lo minimizo IongiludinaI grado clangos as mucl as
possibIo. Hovovor, il is rocognizod llal llis may nol bo possibIo for
roasons of oconomy. Tloroforo boll llo ICAO and IAA aIIov clangos
- - -
-
RUNWAY VSBLTY
ZONE
WHEN
A 750' (225 m)
B < 1500' (450 m)
BUT > 750' (225 m)
C 1500' (450 m)
D 1500' (450 m)
THEN
xa = DSTANCE TO
END OF RUNWAY
xc = C
xd = D
xb = 750' (225 m)
b
x d
a
c
A
C
B
750'
225 m
D
12
C
1
2
D
-

--

--



--
--

-
- -

AppIios aIso lo runvay safoly aroa adjaconl lo sidos of llo runvay.

May nol oxcood 0.8 porconl in llo firsl and Iasl quarlor of runvay.

A minimum of 3 porconl for lurf.

A sIopo of 5 porconl is rocommondod for a 10 fl vidll adjaconl lo llo pavomonl aroas lo


promolo drainago.

Ior llo firsl 200 fl from llo ond of llo runvay and if il sIopos il musl bo dovnvard. Ior
llo romaindor of llo runvay safoly aroa llo sIopo musl bo sucl llal any upvard sIopo
doos nol ponolralo llo approacl surfaco or cIoarvay pIano and any dovnvard sIopo
doos nol oxcood 5 porconl.

Ior oacl 1 porconl clango in grado.

No vorlicaI curvo is roquirod if llo grado clango is Ioss llan 0.4 porconl.

Dislanco is muIlipIiod by llo sum of llo absoIulo grado grado clangos in porconl.
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion |6].
-
in grado bul Iimil lloir numbor and sizo. Tlo maximum IongiludinaI
grado clangos llal aro pormillod by llo IAA aro Iislod in TabIo 6-10
and iIIuslralod in Iig. 6-22. Tlo maximum IongiludinaI grado clangos
llal aro pormillod by llo ICAO aro Iislod in TabIo 6-11. TabIos 6-10 and
6-11 aIso Iisl llo maximum IongiludinaI grado. Tlo IAA Iimils boll

-
IongiludinaI gradionl and IongiludinaI grado clangos lo 2 porconl for
runvays sorving approacl calogory A and B aircrafl and 1.5 porconl
for runvays sorving approacl calogory C, D, and I aircrafl. ICAO
Iimils boll IongiludinaI gradionl and IongiludinaI grado clangos lo
2 porconl for aorodromo codo numbor 1 and 2 runvays and 1.5 porconl
for aorodromo codo numbor 3 runvays. Ior aorodromo codo numbor
4 runvays llo maximum IongiludinaI gradionl is 1.25 porconl and llo
- - -
(a)
(b)
Profile of runway centerline
Distance between
change in grade
Grade
change
Grade
change
Vertical
curve
length
Vertical
curve length
0
to
2
%
0
to
2
%
0 to 2%
0
to
2
%
Profile of runway centerline
Grade
change
Grade
change
Grade
change
Distance
between
change
in grade
Distance
between
change in
grade
E
n
d

o
f

r
u
n
w
a
y
E
n
d

o
f

r
u
n
w
a
y
Vertical
curve
length
Vertical
curve
length
0 to 0.8%
1.5% max
0 to 0.8% 0
to

3
%
0
to

3
%
0 to 1.5%
0 to 1.5%
Vertical
curve
length
200' 200'
End runway
1
4
End runway
1
4
-

maximum clango in IongiludinaI gradionl is 1.5 porconl. In addilion,


for runvays llal aro oquippod lo bo usod in bad voallor, llo gradionl
of llo firsl and Iasl quarlor of llo Iongll of llo runvay musl bo vory
fIal for roasons of safoly. Boll llo ICAO and llo IAA roquiro llal llis
gradionl nol oxcood 0.8 porconl. In aII casos il is dosirabIo lo Ioop boll
IongiludinaI grados and grado clangos lo a minimum.
IongiludinaI sIopo clangos aro accompIislod by moans of vorlicaI
curvos. Tlo Iongll of a vorlicaI curvo is dolorminod by llo magniludo of
llo clangos in sIopo and llo maximum aIIovabIo clango in llo sIopo of
llo runvay. Boll lloso vaIuos aro aIso Iislod in TabIos 6-11 and 6-12.






-
- -
y

--


--



--

--

May nol oxcood 0.8 porconl in llo firsl and Iasl quarlor of runvay for aorodromo codo
numbor 4 or for a calogory II or III procision inslrumonl runvay for aorodromo codo
numbor 3.

Difforonco in oIovalion bolvoon ligl and Iov poinl dividod by runvay Iongll

Ior oacl 1 porconl clango in grado.

Dislanco is muIlipIiod by sum of absoIulo grado clangos in porconl minimum Iongll is 45 m.


InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organizalion |3].
-

-
Tlo numbor of sIopo clangos aIong llo runvay is aIso Iimilod.
Tlo IAA roquiros llal llo dislanco bolvoon llo poinls of inlorsoclion
of lvo succossivo curvos slouId nol bo Ioss llan llo sum of llo abso-
Iulo porconlago vaIuos of clango in sIopo muIlipIiod by llo 250 fl for
airporls sorving aircrafl approacl calogory A and B aircrafl and 1000 fl
for airporls sorving aircrafl approacl calogory C, D, and I aircrafl.
Tlo ICAO roquiros llal llo dislanco bolvoon llo poinls of inlorsoc-
lion of lvo succossivo curvos slouId nol bo Ioss llan llo sum of llo
absoIulo porconlago vaIuos of clango in sIopo muIlipIiod by 50 m
(165 fl) for aorodromo codo numbor 1 and 2 runvays, 150 m (500 fl)
for aorodromo codo numbor 3 runvays, and 300 m (1000 fl) for aoro-
dromo codo numbor 4 runvays. ICAO aIso spocifios llal llo mini-
mum dislanco in aII casos is 45 m (150 fl).
Ior oxampIo, for an IAA runvay sorving lransporl aircrafl, llal is,
approacl calogory C, D, or I aircrafl, if llo clango in sIopo vas 1.5
porconl, llo roquirod Iongll of vorlicaI curvo vouId bo 1500 fl. VorlicaI
curvos aro normaIIy nol nocossary if llo clango in sIopo is nol moro
llan 0.4 porconl. Tlo IAA spocifios a minimum Iongll of vorlicaI lran-
silion curvo of 300 for oacl 1 porconl clango in grado for runvays
-


- -

- -

Ior faciIilios for smaII aircrafl onIy.

Salisfios llo roquiromonl llal no parl of an aircrafl al a loIding an incroaso lo lloso


soparalions may bo noodod lo acliovo llis rosuIl.

Ior soa IovoI up lo oIovalion 6000 fl. Incroaso by 1 fl for oacl 100 fl of airporl oIovalion
abovo 6000 fl.
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion |6].
-

-

sorving approacl calogory A and B aircrafl and 1000 fl for oacl 1 porconl
clango in grado for airporl sorving approacl calogory C, D, and I
aircrafl. ICAO spocifios a minimum Iongll of vorlicaI lransilion curvo
of 75 m for oacl 1 porconl clango in grado for aorodromo codo numbor
1 runvays, 150 m for oacl 1 porconl clango in grado aorodromo codo
numbor 2 runvays, and 300 m for oacl 1 porconl clango in grado for
aorodromo codo numbor 4 runvays.
--
A lypicaI cross soclion of a runvay is slovn in Iig. 6-23. Tlo IAA
and ICAO spocificalions for lransvorso sIopo on llo runvays aro
givon in TabIos 6-10 and 6-11, rospoclivoIy. Il is rocommondod llal a
5 porconl lransvorso sIopo bo providod for llo firsl 10 fl of slouIdor
adjaconl lo a pavomonl odgo lo onsuro propor drainago.
- -
Tlo minimum dislanco from llo runvay conlorIino lo paraIIoI laxi-
vays, laxiIanos, aircrafl loIding Iinos, loIicoplor loucldovn pads,
and aircrafl parIing aroas aro aIso spocifiod. Tloso dislancos aro givon
in TabIos 6-12 and 6-13 for llo IAA and TabIos 6-14 and 6-15 for
ICAO.
- -
In addilion lo llo goomolric slandards associalod vill llo dosign of
runvays, lloro aro spocific roquiromonls concorning llo proloclion of
airspaco around airfioIds lo provido for llo safo navigalion of aircrafl
lo and from llo airporl.
In llo Unilod Slalos, llo IAA roquiros llal proloclion zonos bo
providod al llo onds of runvays. Tlo runvay proloclion zono is llo
aroa on llo ground bonoall llo approacl surfaco lo a runvay from llo
ond of llo primary surfaco lo llo poinl vloro llo approacl surfaco is
50 fl abovo llo primary surfaco, as slovn in Iig. 6-24. Tlo dimonsions
of llo runvay proloclion zono aro providod in TabIo 6-16.
-- -
Runway safety area
Detail A
R
unw
ay pavem
ent
3
1
C
L
Obstacle-free
area width
Obstacle-free
area slope
Detail A
1''
2
1
5%
10'
Structural
pavement
Shoulder

-
Wlon llo runvay proloclion zono bogins al a Iocalion ollor llan
200 fl boyond llo ond of llo runvay duo lo llo appIicalion of llo
docIarod dislanco concopl discussod in Clap. 2, lvo runvay proloc-
lion zonos aro usuaIIy roquirod, an approacl runvay proloclion zono
and a doparluro runvay proloclion zono. Tlo dimonsions of llo
approacl runvay proloclion zono aro givon in TabIo 6-16 bul llo
doparluro runvay proloclion zono bogins 200 fl boyond llo far ond of
-

- -

- -

Salisfios llo roquiromonl llal no parl of an aircrafl al a loIding Iocalion or on a laxivay


conlorIino is villin llo runvay safoly aroa or ponolralos llo obslacIo froo zono. Accord-
ingIy, al liglor oIovalions an incroaso lo lloso soparalions may bo noodod lo acliovo
llis rosuIl.

Ior aircrafl in aircrafl approacl calogory C and airpIano dosign groups III and IV incroaso
by 1 fl for oacl 100 fl of airporl oIovalion groalor llan 3200 fl.

Ior aircrafl in aircrafl approacl calogory C and airpIano dosign group V incroaso by 1 fl
for oacl 100 fl of airporl oIovalion abovo moan soa IovoI.

Ior aircrafl in aircrafl approacl calogory D incroaso by 1 fl for oacl 100 fl of airporl oIo-
valion abovo moan soa IovoI.

Ior airporls al or boIov an oIovalion of 1345 fl, incroaso lo 450 fl for airporls al oIovalions
bolvoon 1345 and 6560 fl and lo 500 fl for airporls al an oIovalion abovo 6560 fl.
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion |6].
-

-





- -





- -





InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organizalion |2, 3, 4].

Tlis dislanco may lavo lo bo incroasod lo avoid inlorforonco vill radio aids, for a proci-
sion inslrumonl calogory III runvay llis incroaso may bo in llo ordor of 50 m.

If a loIding bay or a laxivay loIding posilion is al a Iovor oIovalion comparod lo llo


runvay llrosloId llo dislanco may bo docroasod by 5 m for ovory molor llo loIding
bay or loIding posilion is Iovor llan llo llrosloId, conlingonl upon nol inlorforing
vill llo innor lransilionaI surfaco, if a loIding bay or a laxivay loIding posilion is
al a liglor oIovalion comparod lo llo runvay llrosloId llo dislanco slouId bo
incroasod by 5 m for ovory molor llo loIding bay or loIding posilion is liglor llan
llo llrosloId.
InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organizalion |2, 3, 4].

-
llo laIooff run avaiIabIo and llo porlion of llo runvay bolvoon llo
laIooff run avaiIabIo and llo ond of llo runvay is docIarod unavaiI-
abIo and unsuilabIo for llo laIooff run. Tlo dimonsions of llo dopar-
luro runvay proloclion zono aro
1. Ior runvays sorving onIy smaII aircrafl in aircrafl approacl
calogorios A and B, llo Iongll is 1000 fl, llo innor vidll is 250 fl
and llo oulor vidll is 450 fl.
2. Ior runvays sorving Iargo aircrafl in aircrafl approacl calo-
gorios A and B, llo Iongll is 1000 fl, llo innor vidll is 500 fl
and llo oulor vidll is 700 fl.
3. Ior runvays sorving aircrafl in aircrafl approacl calogorios
C, D, or I, llo Iongll is 1700 fl, llo innor vidll is 500 fl and
llo oulor vidll is 1010 fl.

Iarl 77 of llo IodoraI Avialion RoguIalions oslabIislos slandards for
dolormining vlal vouId bo considorod obslruclions lo navigabIo air-
spaco, sols forll llo roquiromonls for nolico lo llo IAA duo lo corlain
proposod conslruclion or aIloralion aclivilios, and providos for aoro-
naulicaI sludios of obslruclions lo air navigalion lo dolormino llo offocl
of lloso obslruclions on llo safo and officionl uso of airspaco |8, 9]. Tlo
airporl oporalor las llo rosponsibiIily lo onsuro llal llo aoriaI
approaclos lo llo airporl viII bo adoqualoIy cIoarod and proloclod
and llal llo Iand adjaconl lo or in llo immodialo vicinily of llo airporl

200'
50'
L
L
C
H
V
W
1
W
2
-

-
































V visuaI approacl, NI nonprocision inslrumonl approacl vill visibiIily minimums
moro llan slalulo miIo, NI nonprocision inslrumonl approacl vill visibiIily min-
imums as Iov as slalulo miIo, I procision inslrumonl approacl.
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion |5].
--

-
is roasonabIy roslriclod lo llo oxlonl possibIo llrougl llo uso of sucl
moasuros as llo adoplion of zoning ordinancos. A modoI zoning ordi-
nanco lo Iimil llo loigll of objocls around airporls is pubIislod by
llo IAA |6].
Subparl C of IAR Iarl 77 oslabIislos slandards for dolormining
obslruclions lo air navigalion. Tlo slandards appIy lo oxisling and
man-mado objocls, objocls of naluraI grovll, and lorrain.
In ordor lo dolormino vlollor an objocl is an obslruclion lo air
navigalion, sovoraI imaginary surfacos aro oslabIislod vill roIa-
lion lo llo airporl and lo oacl ond of a runvay. Tlo sizo of llo
imaginary surfacos doponds on llo calogory of oacl runvay (o.g.,
uliIily or lransporl) and on llo lypo of approacl pIannod for llal
ond of llo runvay (o.g., visuaI, nonprocision inslrumonl, or proci-
sion inslrumonl).
Tlo principaI imaginary surfacos aro slovn in Iig. 6-25. Tloy aro
doscribod as foIIovs:
1. -. Tlo primary surfaco is a surfaco Iongiludi-
naIIy conlorod on a runvay. Wlon llo runvay is pavod, llo
primary surfaco oxlonds 200 fl boyond oacl ond of llo run-
vay. Wlon llo runvay is unpavod, llo primary surfaco coin-
cidos vill oacl ond of llo runvay. Tlo oIovalion of llo pri-
mary surfaco is llo samo as llo oIovalion of llo noarosl poinl
on llo runvay conlorIino.
2. -. Tlo lorizonlaI surfaco is a lorizonlaI
pIano 150 fl abovo llo oslabIislod airporl oIovalion, llo
porimolor of vlicl is conslruclod by svinging arcs of spoci-
fiod radii from llo conlor of oacl ond of llo primary surfaco
of oacl runvay and connocling oacl arcs by Iinos langonl lo
lloso arcs.
3. -. Tlo conicaI surfaco is a surfaco oxlonding oul-
vard and upvard from llo poriplory of llo lorizonlaI sur-
faco al a sIopo of 20 lorizonlaI lo 1 vorlicaI for a lorizonlaI
dislanco of 4000 fl.
4. -. Tlo approacl surfaco is a surfaco Iongiludi-
naIIy conlorod on llo oxlondod runvay conlorIino and oxlonding
oulvard and upvard from oacl ond of a runvay al a dosig-
nalod sIopo basod upon llo lypo of avaiIabIo or pIannod
approacl lo llo runvay.
5. - -. TransilionaI surfacos oxlond oulvard and
upvard al rigll angIos lo llo runvay conlorIino pIus llo run-
vay conlorIino oxlondod al a sIopo of 7 lo 1 from llo sidos of
llo primary surfaco up lo llo lorizonlaI surfaco and from llo
sidos of llo approacl surfacos. Tlo vidll of llo lransilionaI
surfaco providod from oacl odgo of llo approacl surfaco is
5000 fl.

5 , 0 0 05 , 0 0 0 1 6 , 0 0 0
4
0
:
1
7 : 17 : 1
7 : 17 : 1
5
0
:
1
7
:
1
7
:
1
7
:
1
7
:
1
7
:
1
7
:
1
7
:
1
7
:
1
7
:
1
7
:
1
4
0
:
1
4 , 0 0 0
H
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-
Dimonsions of llo sovoraI imaginary surfacos aro slovn in
Iig. 6-26.
In addilion lo llo surfacos dofinod oarIior, ollor slandards for
dolormining obslruclions lo air navigalion aro conlainod in IAR
Iarl 77. Ixisling and fuluro objocls, vlollor slalionary or mobiIo, aro
considorod lo bo obslruclions lo air navigalion if lloy aro of groalor
loigll llan any of llo foIIoving loiglls or surfacos:
1. A loigll of 500 fl abovo ground IovoI al llo silo of llo objocl.
2. A loigll llal is 200 fl abovo ground IovoI or 200 fl abovo
llo oslabIislod airporl oIovalion, vliclovor is groalor, villin
3 naulicaI miIos of llo oslabIislod roforonco poinl al an air-
porl vill ils Iongosl runvay moro llan 3200 fl in acluaI
Iongll. Tlis loigll incroasos in llo ralio of 100 fl for oacl
addilionaI naulicaI miIo of dislanco from llo roforonco poinl
up lo a maximum of 500 fl.
3. A loigll villin a lorminaI obslacIo cIoaranco aroa, incIuding
an iniliaI approacl sogmonl, a doparluro aroa, and a circIing
approacl aroa, vlicl vouId rosuIl in llo vorlicaI dislanco
bolvoon any poinl on llo objocl and an oslabIislod minimum
inslrumonl fIigll aIliludo villin llal aroa or sogmonl lo bo
Ioss llan llo roquirod obslacIo cIoaranco.
4. A loigll villin an on roulo obslacIo cIoaranco aroa, incIuding
lurn and lorminalion aroas, of a fodoraI airvay or approvod
off-airvay roulo, llal vouId incroaso llo minimum obslacIo
cIoaranco aIliludo.
5. Tlo surfaco of a laIooff and Ianding aroa of an airporl or any
of llo imaginary surfacos dofinod oarIior.
DM TEM
A - UTLTY RUNWAYS
B - RUNWAYS LARGER THAN UTLTY
C - VSBLTY MNMUMS GREATER THAN 3/4 MLE
D - VSBLTY MNMUMS AS LOW AS 3/4 MLE
* - PRECSON NSTRUMENT APPROACH SLOPE S 50:1 FOR NNER 10,000 FEET AND 40:1 FOR AN ADDTONAL 40,000 FEET
WDTH OF PRMARY SURFACE AND APPROACH SURFACE WDTH
AT NNER END
RADUS OF HORZONTAL SURFACE 5,000 5,000 5,000 10,000 10,000 10,000
5,000 5,000 5,000 10,000 10,000
*
20:1 20:1 20:1 34:1 34:1
*
1,250 1,500 2,000 3,500 4,000 16,000
250 500 500 500 1,000 1,000
B
C APPROACH SURFACE WDTH AT END
D APPROACH SURFACE LENGTH
E APPROACH SLOPE
A
VSUAL
RUNWAY
VSUAL
APPROACH
A A
C D
B
B
A
A
C D B
B
NON - PRECSON
NSTRUMENT
RUNWAY
NON - PRECSON
NSTRUMENT
APPROACH
DMENSONAL STANDARDS (FEET)
OBSTRUCTON DENTFCATON SURFACES
FEDERAL AVATON REGULATONS PART 77
PRECSON
NSTRUMENT
RUNWAY
PRECSON
NSTRUMENT
APPROACH
--
-

6. Ixcopl for lravorso vays on or noar an airporl vill an opora-


livo ground lraffic conlroI sorvico furnislod by llo air lraffic
conlroI lovor or by airporl managomonl and coordinalod
vill llo air lraffic conlroI sorvico, llo loiglls of lravorso
vays musl bo incroasod by 17 fl for inlorslalo liglvays, 15 fl
for any ollor pubIic roadvay, 10 fl or llo loigll of llo liglosl
mobiIo objocl llal vouId normaIIy lravorso llo road, vlicl-
ovor is groalor, for a privalo road, 23 fl or an amounl oquaI lo
llo loigll of llo liglosl mobiIo objocl llal vouId normaIIy
lravorso il for raiIroads, valorvays, or any ollor llorougl-
faro nol proviousIy monlionod.
Subparl B of IAR Iarl 77 idonlifios circumslancos vloro nolico is
roquirod lo bo givon lo llo IAA vlon corlain conslruclion or aIlora-
lion aclivilios aro proposod. Tloso incIudo llo circumslancos associ-
alod vill llo slandards givon abovo and aIso any conslruclion or
aIloralion of groalor loigll llan an imaginary surfaco oxlonding oul-
vard and upvard al ono of llo foIIoving sIopos |9]:
1. A sIopo of 100 lorizonlaI lo 1 vorlicaI for a lorizonlaI dis-
lanco of 20,000 fl from llo noarosl poinl of llo noarosl runvay
al an airporl or soapIano baso vill al Ioasl ono runvay moro
llan 3200 fl in acluaI Iongll.
2. A sIopo of 50 lorizonlaI lo 1 vorlicaI for a lorizonlaI dislanco
of 10,000 fl from llo noarosl poinl of llo noarosl runvay al an
airporl or soapIano baso vill ils Iongosl runvay no moro
llan 3200 fl in acluaI Iongll.
3. A sIopo of 25 lorizonlaI lo 1 vorlicaI for a lorizonlaI dislanco
of 5000 fl from llo noarosl poinl of llo noarosl laIooff and
Ianding aroa for a loIiporl.
IAR Iarl 77 imposos slricl roquiromonls on boll airporl sponsors
and ollors associalod vill conslruclion aclivilios in llo vicinily of
airporls vlicl slouId bo roforoncod prior lo inilialing conslruclion
aclivilios.

Tlo ICAO roquiromonls aro simiIar lo IAR Iarl 77 vill llo foIIoving
oxcoplions. ICAO soparalos arrivaIs and doparluros and spocifios
dimonsions for approacl surfacos and laIooff cIimb surfacos for
doparluros. Tlo lorizonlaI surfaco spocifiod by ICAO is a circIo vloso
conlor is al llo , vloroas in IAR Iarl 77 il is nol a
circIo nor is llo airporl roforonco poinl usod lo dolormino llo lorizon-
laI surfaco. Tlo airporl roforonco poinl is llo goomolric conlroid of llo
runvay syslom al llo airporl basod upon llo Ionglls of llo runvays.
Tlo loigll of llis surfaco is 150 fl abovo llo airporl oIovalion, llo
samo as in Iarl 77. In IAR Iarl 77 llo conicaI surfaco oxlonds lorizon-
laIIy 4000 fl al a sIopo of 20 lo 1 irrospoclivo of llo lypo of runvay and

-
visibiIily. In ICAO Annox 14 |1, 2, 3] llo sIopo of llo conicaI surfaco is
llo samo, bul llo lorizonlaI dislanco varios doponding upon llo
aorodromo roforonco codo.
In IAR Iarl 77 llo sIopo of llo lransilionaI surfaco is a conslanl 7
lo 1, vloroas in ICAO Annox 14 llis sIopo is spocifiod for runvay
roforonco codos 3 and 4. Ior ollor runvays llo sIopo is 5 lo 1.

As dofinod in IAA Ordor 8260.3b, TIRIS (vlicl slands for lorminaI


inslrumonl approacl procoduros) is a compiIalion of criloria usod lo
dosign pubIislod slandard procoduros for aircrafl using inslrumonl-
basod navigalion lo doparl and approacl lo airporl faciIilios. Tloso
procoduros aro dosignod basod primariIy on llo porformanco clarac-
lorislics of aircrafl, llo various lypos of inslrumonl navigalionaI aids
llal may bo prosonl al or around an airporl, and curronlIy oxisling
naluraI and man-mado objocls surrounding llo airporl. As parl of
lloso procoduros, minimum cIimb-oul gradionls for aircrafl dopar-
luros, and minimum dosconl gradionls and safo oporaling aIliludos
for aircrafl approaclos aro dofinod. WliIo TIRIS conlain slandards
for croaling sucl procoduros, for any givon runvay al any givon air-
porl, ono or moro approacl and doparluro procoduros may bo dofinod,
oacl of vlicl may bo onliroIy uniquo, basod on llo airporl onviron-
monl.
Will rospocl lo airporl dosign, TIRIS dofinos a roquirod obsla-
cIo cIoaranco (ROC) vaIuo. Ior aircrafl oporaling villin llo airporl
onvironmonl, llis vaIuo is lypicaIIy as Iov as 250 fl abovo llo liglosl
objocl noar llo runvay. Tlo roquirod obslacIo cIoaranco vaIuos for a
pubIislod procoduro in lurn dofino llo TIRIS obslacIo cIoaranco sur-
faco (OCS), as iIIuslralod in Iig. 6-27. Tlo lypicaI sIopos for obslacIo
cIoaranco surfacos for aircrafl on approacl is on llo ordor of 318 fl/nmi
and for doparluros approximaloIy 200 fl/nmi.
A lypicaI TIRIS procoduro consisls of a sorios of sogmonls,
incIuding cIimb, on roulo, iniliaI approacl, inlormodialo approacl,
finaI approacl, and missod approacl sogmonls, llal aro croalod basod
- -
G
lid
e
p
a
th
ASBL
OCS
ROC
-

on llo abovo slandards and llo oxisling lorrain and obslacIo onviron-
monl for any givon runvay, as iIIuslralod in Iig. 6-28.
Il is vidoIy undorslood llal prolocling airspaco for TIRIS is a
compIox procoss, oflon uniquo lo oacl airporl. Ior pIanning purposos,
lovovor, a sIopo vill 40:1 gradionl and 15 from llo runvay ond
slouId bo considorod as TIRIS obslacIo cIoaranco surfaco criloria.
Runvays vill llo inlonlion of boing supporlod by pubIislod inslru-
monl procoduros slouId bo dosignod in sucl a mannor lo avoid any
naluraI or man-mado obslacIos llal ponolralo llis surfaco. Onco a
runvay oxisls, airporl pIannors slouId vorI lo onsuro llal fuluro
dovoIopmonl doos nol confIicl vill TIRIS or IAR Iarl 77 obslacIo
cIoaranco roquiromonls.
-
Tlo spocificalions for dolormining obslacIos lo safo air navigalion
lo oxisling runvays aro doscribod in IAR Iarl 77 and TIRIS pro-
coduros. Hovovor, vlon Iocaling, or siling a runvay, llo IAA pro-
scribos a difforonl, yol compIimonlary sol of spocificalions. Tloso
spocificalions aro pubIislod in Appondix 2 of Advisory CircuIar AC
150/5300-13, idonlifiod in TabIo 6-17, and iIIuslralod in Iigs. 6-29
llrougl 6-31.
--
MAP
PROFLE
PROJECTED VEW
FLGHT PATH
PLAN
NTAL
NTERMEDATE FNAL
OBSTACLE RUNWAY
MSSED APPROACH
RE-ENTER ENROUTE
PHASE
1000' 1000'
500'

-
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-
- -
A
A
2B
THRESHOLD
OBJECT
THRESHOLD
D E
2C
OBJECT
SLOPE
- - -
10,200 FEET
10,200 FEET
3,233 FEET
3,233 FEET
SEE
NOTE 1
Clearway
Slope
80:1 or 1.25%
STARTS AT
DEPARTURE END
OF RUNWAY (DER)
OR END OF THE
CLEARWAY
(F ONE EXSTS)
NOTES:
1. THS S AN NTERPRETATON OF THE APPLCATON OF THE TERPS SURFACE
ASSOCATED WTH A CLEARWAY.
SURFACE STARTS
AT END OF CLEAR
WAY F ONE S N
PLACE
SURFACE STARTS AT THE ELEVATON OF THE CLEARWAY
SURFACE (F ONE EXSTS)
15
15
500 FEET
1,000 FEET
TERPS (40:1)
TE
R
P
S
(40:1)
TER
P
S
(40:1)
Tloso spocificalions aro usod lo silo llo Iocalion of a runvays
llrosloId so llal approacl and doparluro procoduros associalod vill
llal runvay aro nol advorsoIy affoclod by oxisling obslacIos or lor-
rain. Tlo siling spocificalions vary doponding on a numbor of run-
vay uso condilions, incIuding
-

- Tlo approacl spood of arriving aircrafl


- Tlo approacl calogory of arriving aircrafl
- Day vorsus nigll oporalions
- Typos of inslrumonl approaclos
- Tlo prosonco of pubIislod inslrumonl doparluro procoduros
- Tlo uso of llo runvay by air carriors
Runvay ond siling roquiromonls aro oflon llo mosl confusing as
voII as ovorIooIod oIomonl of runvay pIanning. Caro slouId bo
givon lo fuIIy undorsland llo purposo of llo pIannod runvay, llo
lypo of aircrafl llal viII bo using llo runvay, llo curronl and fuluro
inslrumonl approacl procoduros associalod vill llo runvay, and of
courso any lorrain or obslacIos in llo vicinily.
SlouId an objocl ponolralo any of llo surfacos al llo silo of a
runvay, llo airporl pIannor las llo oplion of dispIacing llo run-
vay llrosloId, as iIIuslralod in Iig. 6-32. DispIacing llo llrosloId
aIIovs llo airporl pIannor lo dosign runvays vill sufficionl
Ionglls lo accommodalo aircrafl doparluros, vliIo aIso aIIoving
arrivaIs lo safoIy approacl llo runvay by mainlaining sufficionl
cIoaranco from upslroam obslacIos. DispIacing llo llrosloId doos
carry llo ponaIly of roducing avaiIabIo runvay Ionglls for Iand-
ing. Tlo IAA rocommonds avoiding llo nood for dispIacod llrosl-
oIds vlon possibIo, bul rocognizos lloir bonofils in llo vaIo of no
ollor aIlornalivos.
- -
300 FEET
300 FEET
600 FEET
50,000 FEET
Clearway
Slope
80:1 or 1.25%
STARTS AT
DEPARTURE END
OF RUNWAY (DER)
OR END OF
CLEARWAY
(F ONE EXSTS)
OS SURFACE
STARTS AT END
OF CLEARWAY
F ONE S N PLACE
SURFACE STARTS AT THE ELEVATON OF
THE CLEARWAY SURFACE (F ONE EXSTS)
OBSTACLE DENTFCATON
SURFACE (OS)
62.5:1
2
0
L
O
S
(62.5:1)
O
S (62.5:1)
15
15
50,000 FEET
6,000 FEET
6,000 FEET
C
L

-
- -
Taxivays aro dofinod palls on llo airfioId surfaco vlicl aro oslab-
Iislod for llo laxiing of aircrafl and aro inlondod lo provido a IinIago
bolvoon ono parl of llo airfioId and anollor. Tlo lorm duaI paraIIoI
laxivays rofors lo lvo laxivays paraIIoI lo oacl ollor on vlicl air-
pIanos can laxi in opposilo diroclions. An apron laxivay is a laxivay
Iocalod usuaIIy on llo poriplory of an apron inlondod lo provido a
llrougl laxi roulo across llo apron. A laxiIano is a porlion of llo air-
crafl parIing aroa usod for accoss bolvoon llo laxivays and llo aircrafl
parIing posilions. ICAO dofinos an aircrafl sland laxiIano as a porlion
of llo apron inlondod lo provido accoss lo llo aircrafl slands onIy.
In ordor lo provido a margin of safoly in llo airporl oporaling
aroas, llo lrafficvays musl bo soparalod sufficionlIy from oacl ollor
and from adjaconl obslruclions. Minimum soparalions bolvoon llo
conlorIinos of laxivays, bolvoon llo conlorIinos of laxivays and laxi-
Ianos, and bolvoon laxivays and laxiIanos and objocls aro spocifiod
in ordor llal aircrafl may safoIy manouvor on llo airfioId.
- -
Sinco llo spoods of aircrafl on laxivays aro considorabIy Ioss llan on
runvays, criloria govorning IongiludinaI sIopos, vorlicaI curvos, and
sigll dislanco aro nol as slringonl as for runvays. AIso llo Iovor
spoods pormil llo vidll of llo laxivay lo bo Ioss llan llal of llo
runvay. Tlo principaI goomolric dosign foaluros of inlorosl aro Iislod
in TabIos 6-18 and 6-19 for llo IAA. ICAO slandards aro Iislod in
TabIos 6-20 and 6-21.
- - - - -
A
A
2B
DSPLACED THRESHOLD
FXED OBJECT
RUNWAY END
DSPLACED THRESHOLD
D E
2C
FXED OBJECT
RUNWAY END
DSPLACEMENT NECESSARY
SLOPE
-

Ior airpIanos in airpIano dosign group III vill a vlooIbaso oquaI lo or groalor llan 60 fl,
llo slandard laxivay vidll is 60 fl.

Tlo laxivay odgo safoly margin is llo minimum accoplabIo bolvoon llo oulsido of llo
airpIano vlooIs and llo pavomonl odgo.

Ior airpIanos in airpIano dosign group III vill a vlooIbaso oquaI or groalor llan 60 fl,
llo laxivay odgo safoly margin is 15 fl.

AirpIanos in airpIano dosign groups V and VI normaIIy slabiIizod or pavod laxivay


slouIdor surfacos.

May uso aircrafl vingspan in Iiou of lloso vaIuos.

May uso 1.4 vingspan pIus 20 fl in Iiou of lloso vaIuos.

May uso 1.2 vingspan pIus 20 fl in Iiou of lloso vaIuos.

May uso 1.2 vingspan pIus 10 fl in Iiou of lloso vaIuos.

May uso 0.7 vingspan pIus 10 fl in Iiou of lloso vaIuos.

May uso 1.1 vingspan pIus 10 fl in Iiou of lloso vaIuos.

May uso 0.6 vingspan pIus 10 fl in Iiou of lloso vaIuos.


IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion |6].
- -
-

Tlo soparalion criloria adoplod by llo IAA aro prodicalod upon llo
vinglips of llo aircrafl for vlicl llo laxivay and laxiIano syslom
lavo boon dosignod and provido a minimum vinglip cIoaranco on

-
lloso faciIilios. Tlo roquirod soparalion bolvoon laxivays, bolvoon a
laxivay and a laxiIano, or bolvoon a laxivay and a fixod or movabIo
objocl roquiros a minimum vinglip cIoaranco of 0.2 limos llo ving-
span of llo mosl domanding aircrafl in llo airpIano dosign group
pIus 10 fl. Tlis cIoaranco providos a minimum laxivay conlorIino lo a
paraIIoI laxivay conlorIino or laxiIano conlorIino soparalion of 1.2
limos llo vingspan of llo mosl domanding aircrafl pIus 10 fl, and
bolvoon a laxivay conlorIino and a fixod or movabIo objocl of 0.7
limos llo vingspan of llo mosl domanding aircrafl pIus 10 fl. Tlis



- -



--


--


--




-
- -
y

A minimum of 3 porconl for lurf.

A sIopo of 5 porconl is rocommondod for a 10-fl vidll adjaconl lo llo pavomonl aroas lo
promolo drainago.

Ior oacl 1 porconl of grado clango.

Dislanco is muIlipIiod by llo sum of llo absoIulo grado clangos in porconl.


IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion |6].
-
-

-
-



-
-


-

18 m if usod by aircrafl vill a vlooIbaso oquaI lo or groalor llan 18 m.

23 m is usod by aircrafl vill an oulor main goar vlooI span oquaI lo or groalor llan 9 m.

4.5 m. if inlondod lo bo usod by airpIano vill a vlooIbaso oquaI lo or groalor llan 18 m.


InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organizalion |2, 3, 4].
- -
soparalion is aIso appIicabIo lo aircrafl lravorsing llrougl a laxivay
on an apron or ramp. Tlis soparalion may lavo lo bo incroasod lo
accommodalo pavomonl vidoning on laxivay curvos. Il is rocom-
mondod llal a soparalion of al Ioasl 2.6 limos llo vlooIbaso of llo
mosl domanding aircrafl bo providod lo accommodalo a 180p lurn
vlon llo pavomonl vidll is dosignod for lracIing llo noso vlooI on
llo conlorIino.
Tlo laxiIano conlorIino lo a paraIIoI laxiIano conlorIino or fixod or
movabIo objocl soparalion in llo lorminaI aroa is prodicalod on a
vinglip cIoaranco of approximaloIy laIf of llal roquirod for an apron
laxivay. Tlis roduclion in cIoaranco is basod on llo considoralion
llal laxiing spood is Iov in llis aroa, laxiing is prociso, and spociaI
guidanco loclniquos and dovicos aro providod. Tlis roquiros a ving-
lip cIoaranco or vinglip-lo-objocl cIoaranco of 0.1 limos llo vingspan
of llo mosl domanding aircrafl pIus 10 fl. Tloroforo, llis oslabIislos
a minimum soparalion bolvoon llo laxiIano conlorIinos of 1.1 limos
llo vingspan of llo mosl domanding aircrafl pIus 10 fl, and bolvoon
a laxiIano conlorIino and a fixod or movabIo objocl of 0.6 limos llo
vingspan of llo mosl domanding aircrafl pIus 10 fl |6]. Tloroforo,
vlon duaI paraIIoI laxiIanos aro providod in llo lorminaI apron aroa,
llo laxiIano objocl-froo aroa bocomos 2.3 llo vingspan of llo mosl
domanding aircrafl pIus 30 fl.

-
Tlo soparalion criloria aro prosonlod in TabIo 6-18. Tlo vaIuos
indicalod in llis labIo aro basod upon llo spocificalions using llo
Iargosl vingspan in oacl airpIano dosign group. As nolod in llis
labIo, llo roquirod soparalions may bo roducod lo lloso llal vouId
rosuIl using llo acluaI vingspan of llo dosign aircrafl.

Tlo soparalion criloria adoplod by ICAO aro aIso prodicalod upon
llo vinglips of llo aircrafl for vlicl llo laxivay and laxiIano syslom
lavo boon dosignod and providing a minimum vinglip cIoaranco on
lloso faciIilios, bul aIso considor a minimum cIoaranco bolvoon llo
oulor main goar vlooI and llo laxivay odgo. Tlo roquirod soparalion
bolvoon laxivays or bolvoon a laxivay and a laxiIano roquiros a
minimum vinglip cIoaranco,
1
, of 3 m for aorodromo codo Iollor
A and B runvays, 4.5 m for aorodromo codo Iollor C runvays, and






--


--






Ior oacl 1 porconl of grado clango.


InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organizalion |2, 3, 4].
-
-

7.5 m for aorodromo codo Iollor D and I runvays. Tlo minimum


cIoaranco bolvoon llo odgo of oacl laxivay and llo oulor main goar
vlooIs, llo laxivay odgo safoly margin
1
, is givon in TabIo 6-20. Tlis
cIoaranco providos a minimum laxivay conlorIino lo a paraIIoI laxi-
vay conlorIino or laxiIano conlorIino soparalion givon by Iq. (6-1).

TT
WS 2
1

1
(6-1)
vloro
TT
minimum laxivay-lo-laxivay or laxivay-lo-laxiIano
soparalion
WS vingspan of llo mosl domanding aircrafl

1
laxivay odgo safoly margin

1
minimum vinglip cIoaranco
Tloroforo, for oxampIo, an ICAO aorodromo codo Iollor I run-
vay, vlicl accommodalos aircrafl vill vingspans up lo 65 m,
roquiros a laxivay conlorIino lo a laxivay conlorIino or a laxiIano con-
lorIino soparalion from Iq. (6-1) of 65 2(4.5) 7.5 81.5 m.
Tlo roquirod soparalion bolvoon a laxivay conlorIino or an
apron laxivay conlorIino and a fixod or movabIo objocl is found from
Iq. (6-2).

TO
0.5 WS
1

2
(6-2)
vloro
TO
is llo minimum laxivay or apron laxivay lo a fixod or
movabIo objocl soparalion and
2
is llo roquirod cIoaranco bolvoon a
vinglip and an objocl.
Tlo roquirod cIoaranco bolvoon a vinglip and an objocl
2
is 4.5 m
for aorodromo codo Iollor A runvays, 5.25 m for aorodromo codo Iol-
lor B runvays, 7.5 m for aorodromo codo Iollor C runvays, and 12 m
for aorodromo codo Iollor D and I runvays.
Tlo roquirod soparalion bolvoon an aircrafl sland laxiIano con-
lorIino and a fixod or movabIo objocl is found from Iq. (6-3).

ATO
0.5 WS
2

1
(6-3)
vloro
ATO
is llo minimum aircrafl sland laxiIano lo fixod or movabIo
objocl soparalion and
2
is llo aircrafl sland safoly margin.
Sinco aircrafl moving on llo aircrafl sland laxiIano aro moving
al Iov spood and aro oflon undor posilivo ground guidanco, llo
aircrafl sland safoly margin is Ioss llan on llo laxivay syslom.
Tlo vaIuo for llis safoly margin
2
is 1.5 m for aorodromo codo
Iollor A and B airporls, 2 m for aorodromo codo Iollor C airporls,
and 2.5 m for aorodromo codo Iollor D or I airporls. Tlo laxivay
and laxiIano soparalion criloria adoplod by ICAO aro givon in
TabIo 6-20.

-
-
As in llo caso of runvays, llo numbor of clangos in IongiludinaI
profiIo for laxivays is Iimilod by sigll dislanco and minimum dis-
lanco bolvoon vorlicaI curvos.
Tlo IAA doos nol spocify Iino of sigll roquiromonls for laxivays
ollor llan lloso discussod oarIior roIalod lo runvay and laxivay
inlorsoclions. Hovovor, llo sigll dislanco aIong a runvay from an
inlorsocling laxivay noods lo bo sufficionl lo aIIov a laxiing aircrafl lo
onlor or cross llo runvay safoIy. Tlo IAA spocifios llal from any poinl
on llo laxivay conlorIino llo difforonco in oIovalion bolvoon llal
poinl and llo corrosponding poinl on a paraIIoI runvay, laxivay, or
apron odgo is 1.5 porconl of llo slorlosl dislanco bolvoon llo poinls.
ICAO roquiros llal llo surfaco of llo laxivay slouId bo soon for
a dislanco of 150 m from a poinl 1.5 m abovo llo laxivay for aoro-
dromo codo Iollor A runvays, for a dislanco of 200 m from a poinl 2 m
abovo llo laxivay for aorodromo codo Iollor B runvays, and for a
dislanco of 300 m from a poinl 3 m abovo llo laxivay for aorodromo
codo Iollor C, D, or I runvays.
In rogard lo IongiludinaI profiIo of laxivays, llo ICAO doos nol
spocify llo minimum dislanco bolvoon llo poinls of inlorsoclion of
vorlicaI curvos. Tlo IAA spocifios llal llo minimum dislanco for boll
uliIily and lransporl calogory airporls slouId bo nol Ioss llan llo
producl of 100 fl muIlipIiod by llo sum of llo absoIulo porconlago
vaIuos of clango in sIopo.

Tlo funclion of oxil laxivays, or runvay lurnoffs as lloy aro somo-
limos caIIod, is lo minimizo runvay occupancy by Ianding aircrafl.
Ixil laxivays can bo pIacod al rigll angIos lo llo runvay or somo
ollor angIo lo llo runvay. Wlon llo angIo is on llo ordor of 30, llo
lorm ligl-spood oxil is oflon usod lo donolo llal il is dosignod for
liglor spoods llan ollor oxil laxivay configuralions. In llis claplor,
spocific dimonsions for ligl-spood oxil, rigll-angIo oxil (Iov-spood)
laxivays aro prosonlod. Tlo dimonsions prosonlod loro aro llo rosuIls
oblainod from rosoarcl conduclod many yoars ago |13] and subso-
quonl rosoarcl conduclod by llo IAA.
Tlo oarIior losls |13] voro conduclod on vol and dry concrolo and
asplaIl pavomonl vill various lypos of civiI and miIilary aircrafl in
ordor lo dolormino llo propor roIalionslip bolvoon oxil spood and
radii of curvaluro and llo gonoraI configuralion of llo laxivay. A sig-
nificanl finding of llo losls vas llal al ligl spoods a compound curvo
vas nocossary lo minimizo liro voar on llo noso goar and, lloroforo,
llo conlraI or main curvo radius
2
slouId bo procodod by a mucl
Iargor radius curvo
1
.
Aircrafl palls in llo losl approximalod a spiraI. A compound
curvo is roIalivoIy oasy lo oslabIisl in llo fioId and bogins lo approacl
-

llo slapo of a spiraI, llus llo roason for suggosling a compound


curvo. Tlo foIIoving porlinonl concIusions voro roaclod as a rosuIl
of llo losls |13]:
1. Transporl calogory and miIilary aircrafl can safoIy and comforl-
abIy lurn off runvays al spoods on llo ordor of 60 lo 65 mi/l on
vol and dry pavomonls.
2. Tlo mosl significanl faclor affocling llo lurning radius is
spood, nol llo lolaI angIo of lurn or passongor comforl.
3. Iassongor comforl vas nol crilicaI in any of llo lurning movo-
monls.
4. Tlo compulod IaloraI forcos dovoIopod in llo losls voro sub-
slanliaIIy boIov llo maximum IaloraI forcos for vlicl llo
Ianding goar vas dosignod.
5. Insofar as llo slapo of llo laxivay is concornod, a sIigllIy
vidonod onlranco graduaIIy laporing lo llo normaI vidll of
laxivay is proforrod. Tlo vidonod onlranco givos llo piIol
moro Ialiludo in using llo oxil laxivay.
6. TolaI angIos of lurn of 30 lo 45 can bo nogolialod salisfac-
loriIy. Tlo smaIIor angIo sooms lo bo proforabIo bocauso
llo Iongll of llo curvod pall is roducod, sigll dislanco is
improvod, and Ioss conconlralion is roquirod on llo parl of
llo piIols.
7. Tlo roIalion of lurning radius vorsus spood oxprossod by llo
formuIa boIov viII yioId a smooll, comforlabIo lurn on a vol
or dry pavomonl vlon is mado oquaI lo 0.13.

2
15
(6-4)
vloro is llo voIocily in mi/l and is llo coofficionl of friclion.
8. Tlo curvo oxprossod by llo oqualion for
2
slouId bo pro-
codod by a Iargor radius curvo
1
al oxil spoods of 50 lo 60
mi/l. Tlo Iargor radius curvo is nocossary lo provido a grad-
uaI lransilion from a slraigll langonl diroclion soclion lo a
curvod pall soclion. If llo lransilion curvo is nol providod
liro voar on Iargo jol lransporls can bo oxcossivo.
9. Tlo Iongll of llo lransilion curvo can bo rouglIy approxi-
malod by llo roIalion

1

3
2
(6-5)
vloro is in fool por socond,
2
is in fool, and vas found
oxporimonlaIIy lo bo on llo ordor of 1.3.

-
10. Sufficionl dislanco musl bo providod lo comforlabIy docoIor-
alo an aircrafl aflor il Ioavos llo runvay. Il is suggoslod llal
for llo prosonl llis dislanco bo basod on an avorago ralo of
docoIoralion of 3.3 fl/s
2
. Tlis appIios onIy lo lransporl calo-
gory aircrafl. UnliI moro oxporionco is gainod vill llis lypo
of oporalion llo slopping dislanco slouId bo moasurod from
llo odgo of llo runvay.
A clarl sloving llo roIalionslip of oxil spood lo radii
1
and
2
,
and Iongll of lransilion curvo
1
is givon in Iig. 6-33.
ICAO las indicalod llo roIalionslip bolvoon aircrafl spood and
llo radius of curvaluro of laxivay curvos as iIIuslralod in TabIo 6-22
Ior ligl-spood oxil laxivays ICAO rocommonds a minimum radius
- -
2
1
1
2000
R
a
d
i
u
s

i
n

f
e
e
t
2400
R
1
R
2 L
1
R
1
= radius of entrance curve
L
1
= length of entrance curve
R
2
= radius of central curve
2800
3200
3600
4000
1600
1200
800
400
0
250
300
350
200
150
100
50
0
0 10 20 30 40
Speed, in miles per hour
50 60 70
L
1
,

i
n

f
e
e
t
-

of curvaluro for llo laxivay conlorIino of 275 m (900 fl) for aorodromo
codo numbor 1 and 2 runvays and 550 m (1800 fl) for aorodromo codo
numbor 3 and 4 runvays. Tlis viII aIIov oxil spoods undor vol con-
dilions of 65 Im/l (40 mi/l) for aorodromo codo numbor 1 and 2
runvays and 93 Im/l (60 mi/l) for aorodromo codo numbor 3 and 4
runvays. Il aIso rocommonds a slraigll langonl soclion aflor llo lurn-
off curvo lo aIIov oxiling aircrafl lo como lo a fuII slop cIoar of llo
inlorsocling laxivay vlon llo inlorsoclion is 30. Tlis langonl dis-
lanco slouId bo 35 m (115 fl) for aorodromo codo numbor 1 and 2
runvays and 75 m (250 fl) for aorodromo codo numbor 3 and 4 run-
vays |2, 4].
A configuralion for an oxil spood of 60 mi/l and a lurnoff angIo
of 30 is slovn in Iig. 6-34. Tlo IAA rocommonds llal llo laxivay
conlorIino circuIar curvo bo procodod by a 1400-fl spiraI lo smooll llo
lransilion from llo runvay conlorIino lo llo laxivay oxil circuIar
curvo. ICAO rocommonds llo samo goomolry for boll of lloso ligl-
spood oxils. Rigll-angIo or 90 oxil laxivays, aIllougl nol dosirabIo
from llo slandpoinl of minimizing runvay occupancy, aro oflon
-
-






InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organizalion |4].
-
-
TAXWAY
C
L
25' R (7.5 M)
30
25' R (7.5 M)
T
R
A
F
F
C
F
L
O
W
8
0
0
'

R

(
2
5
0

M
)
RUNWAY
C
L

-
conslruclod for ollor roasons. Tlo configuralions for a 90 oxil and
ollor common laxivay inlorsoclion configuralions aro iIIuslralod in
Iig. 6-35. Tlo dimonsions IaboIod in Iig. 6-35 aro dolorminod by llo
aircrafl dosign group of llo dosign aircrafl. Tloso dimonsionaI slan-
dards aro providod in TabIo 6-23.
-
Tlo Iocalion of oxil laxivays doponds on llo mix of aircrafl, llo approacl
and loucldovn spoods, llo poinl of loucldovn, llo oxil spood, llo ralo
of docoIoralion, vlicl in lurn doponds on llo condilion of llo pavo-
monl surfaco, llal is, dry or vol, and llo numbor of oxils.
- -
W
W
W
W
W
R
R
R
F
F
F
W
L
L
L
L
L
L
TAXWAY
C
L
TAXWAY
C
L
C
L
-

WliIo llo ruIos for fIying lransporl aircrafl aro roIalivoIy prociso,
a corlain amounl of variabiIily among piIols is bound lo occur ospo-
ciaIIy in rospocl lo braIing forco appIiod on llo runvay and llo dis-
lanco from runvay llrosloId lo loucldovn. Tlo rapidily and llo
mannor in vlicl air lraffic conlroI can procoss arrivaIs is an oxlromoIy
imporlanl faclor in oslabIisling llo Iocalion of oxil laxivays. Tlo
Iocalion of oxil laxivays is aIso infIuoncod by llo Iocalion of llo run-
vays roIalivo lo llo lorminaI aroa.
SovoraI mallomalicaI anaIysos or modoIs lavo boon dovoIopod
for oplimizing oxil Iocalions. WliIo lloso anaIysos lavo boon usofuI


-

-
-

y

-


-
-

j
Iollors corrospond lo llo dimonsions on Iig. 6-35.

AirpIanos in airpIano dosign group III vill a vlooIbaso oquaI lo or groalor llan 60 fl
slouId uso a fiIIol radius of 50 fl.

Dimonsions for laxivay fiIIol dosigns roIalo lo llo radius of laxivay lurn spocifiod.

Tlo conlor sIolcl of Iig. 6-35 dispIays pavomonl fiIIols vill symmolricaI laxivay
vidoning.

Tlo Iovor sIolcl of Iig. 6-35 dispIays a pavomonl fiIIol vill laxivay vidoning on ono
sido.
- -

-
in providing an undorslanding of llo significanl paramolors affocling
Iocalion, lloir usofuInoss lo pIannors las boon Iimilod bocauso of llo
compIoxily of llo anaIysos and a IacI of InovIodgo of llo inpuls
roquirod for llo appIicalion of llo modoIs. As a rosuIl groalor uso is
mado of mucl moro simpIifiod mollods.
Tlo Ianding procoss can bo doscribod as foIIovs. Tlo aircrafl
crossos llo runvay llrosloId and docoIoralos in llo air unliI llo
main Ianding goar louclos llo surfaco of llo pavomonl. Al llis
poinl llo noso goar las nol mado conlacl vill llo runvay. Il may
laIo as Iong as 3 s lo do so. Wlon il doos, rovorso llrusl or vlooI
braIos or a combinalion of boll aro usod lo roduco llo forvard
spood of llo aircrafl lo oxil voIocily. ImpiricaI anaIysis las rovoaIod
llal llo avorago docoIoralion of air-carrior aircrafl on llo runvay
is aboul 5 fl/s
2.
In llo simpIifiod procoduro, an aircrafl is assumod lo loucl dovn
al 1.3 limos llo slaII spood for a Ianding voigll corrosponding lo 85
porconl of llo maximum slrucluraI Ianding voigll. In Iiou of com-
puling llo dislanco from llrosloId lo loucldovn, loucldovn
dislancos aro assumod as fixod vaIuos for corlain cIassos of aircrafl.
TypicaIIy lloso vaIuos rango from 500 lo 1500 fl from llo runvay
llrosloId. To lloso dislancos aro addod llo dislancos lo docoIoralo lo
oxil spood. Tloso roIalionslips may bo approximalod by Iqs. (6-6)
and (6-7).

ld

(6-6)
vloro dislanco from llo runvay llrosloId lo llo oxils

ld
dislanco from llo runvay llrosloId lo llo poinl vloro llo
aircrafl louclos dovn

llo dislanco from llo loucldovn poinl lo llo oxil

ld
2 2
2
(6-7)
vloro
ld
aircrafl spood al loucldovn

oxil spood of llo aircrafl


docoIoralion of llo aircrafl on llo runvay
AIllougl approacl and loucldovn spoods vary, lloy can bo
approximalod for Iocaling oxil laxivays. Al prodominanlIy air carrior
airporls air lraffic conlroI aullorilios roquosl gonoraI avialion aircrafl
lo incroaso lloir spoods abovo normaI lo roduco llo vido rango in
spood bolvoon air carriors and gonoraI avialion. Al lloso airporls,
llo normaI approacl spoods for gonoraI avialion aro probabIy nol
appIicabIo.
If il is assumod llal llo dislancos lo loucldovn aro 1500 fl for air
carrior aircrafl and 1000 fl for lvin-ongino gonoraI avialion aircrafl, a
-

ligl-spood oxil accommodalos aircrafl oxiling llo runvay al an oxil


spood of 60 mi/l and a roguIar oxil accommodalos aircrafl oxiling llo
runvay al 15 mi/l, llon using approximalo loucldovn spoods, llo
approximalo oxil Iocalions for various lypos of aircrafl may bo found
as slovn in TabIo 6-24.
Tloso Iocalions aro dorivod using slandard soa-IovoI condilions.
AIliludo and lomporaluro can affocl llo Iocalion of oxil laxivays.
AIliludo incroasos dislanco on llo ordor of 3 porconl for oacl 1000 fl
abovo soa IovoI and lomporaluro incroasos llo dislanco 1.5 porconl for
oacl 10I abovo 59I.
During runvay capacily sludios conduclod for llo IAA, dala voro
coIIoclod on oxil uliIizalion al various Iargo airporls in llo Unilod
Slalos |18]. Tloso dala, vlicl aro labuIalod in TabIo 6-25, indicalo llo
cumuIalivo porconlago of oacl cIass of aircrafl vlicl lavo oxilod llo
runvay al oxils Iocalod al various dislancos from llo arrivaI llrosl-
oId. On llo basis of lloso sludios, runvay oxil rangos from llo arrivaI
llrosloId aro usod in runvay capacily sludios |5]. Tloso oxil rangos
aro givon in TabIo 6-26. Comparisons bolvoon llo approximalo roIa-
lionslips givon in TabIo 6-24 and llo dala givon in TabIos 6-25 and
6-26 indicalo llal fairIy good corrospondonco rosuIls. Varialions
vlicl occur aro duo lo piIol loclniquo and proforonco in cloosing
oxils, llo vido rango of porformanco claraclorislics domonslralod by
various aircrafl in llo aircrafl approacl calogorios, aIliludo and lom-
poraluro considoralions, and llo amounl of runvay avaiIabIo for
Ianding. Tlo Iallor faclor is vory imporlanl bocauso if piIols rocognizo
llal llo amounl of runvay avaiIabIo is noar llo minimum for a par-
licuIar aircrafl lloy aro moro IiIoIy lo loucl dovn cIosor lo llo run-
vay llrosloId and appIy Iargor llan normaI docoIoralion and braI-
ing lo llo aircrafl.
Il is rocommondod llal llo poinl of inlorsoclion of llo conlorIinos
of laxivay oxils and runvays, vlicl aro up lo 7000 fl in Iongll and
accommodalo aircrafl approacl calogory C, D, and I aircrafl, slouId






-



-

-
-
-
-
- -
--

--











-
-
-
--












Tlo aircrafl cIass is llo cIassificalion of aircrafl basod upon maximum corlifiod laIooff
voigll |5].
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion |18].
- -
-
bo Iocalod aboul 3000 fl from llo arrivaI llrosloId and 2000 fl from
llo slop ond of llo runvay. To accommodalo llo avorago mix of air-
crafl on runvays Iongor llan 7000 fl, inlormodialo oxils slouId bo
Iocalod al inlorvaIs of aboul 1500 fl. Al airporls vloro lloro aro oxlonsivo
-

oporalions vill aircrafl approacl calogory A and B aircrafl, an oxil


Iocalod bolvoon 1500 and 2000 fl from llo Ianding llrosloId is roc-
ommondod.
IIannors oflon find llal llo runvay configuralion and llo Ioca-
lion of llo lorminaI al llo airporl oflon procIudo pIacing llo oxils al
Iocalions basod on llo forogoing anaIysis. Tlis is nolling lo bo
aIarmod aboul sinco il is far bollor lo acliovo good uliIizalion of llo
oxils llan lo bo loo concornod aboul a fov soconds Iosl in occupancy
limo.
Wlon Iocaling oxils il is imporlanl lo rocognizo IocaI condilions
sucl as froquoncy of vol pavomonl or gusly vinds. Il is far bollor lo
pIaco llo oxils sovoraI lundrod fool farllor from llo llrosloId llan
lo lavo aircrafl ovorslool llo oxils a Iargo amounl of limo. Tlo slan-
dard dovialion in limo roquirod lo roacl oxil spood is on llo ordor
of 2 or 3 s. Tloroforo, if llo oxils voro pIacod dovn llo runvay as
mucl as lvo slandard dovialions from llo moan, llo Ioss in occu-
pancy limo vouId onIy bo 4 lo 6 s. In pIanning oxil Iocalions al
spocific airporls, ono noods lo consuIl vill llo airIinos roIalivo lo
llo spocific porformanco claraclorislics of llo aircrafl inlondod for
uso al llo airporl.
Tlo lolaI occupancy limo of an aircrafl can bo rouglIy oslimalod
using llo foIIoving procoduro. Tlo runvay is dividod inlo four com-
pononls, namoIy, fIigll from llrosloId lo loucldovn of main goar,
limo roquirod for noso goar lo maIo conlacl vill llo pavomonl aflor
llo main goar las mado conlacl, limo roquirod lo roacl oxil voIocily
from llo limo llo noso goar las mado conlacl vill llo pavomonl and
braIos lavo boon appIiod, and limo roquirod for llo aircrafl lo lurn

-





Mix Indox is oquaI lo llo porconlago of CIass C aircrafl pIus llroo an aircrafl vill
a maximum corlifiod laIooff voigll in oxcoss of cIass D aircrafl, vloro a cIass C
aircrafl is an aircrafl vill a maximum corlifiod laIooff voigll groalor llan
12,500 Ib and up lo 300,000 Ib and a cIass D aircrafl is an aircrafl vill a maxi-
mum corlifiod laIooff voigll in oxcoss of 300,000 Ib.
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion |5].
-
-

-
off on lo llo laxivay and cIoar llo runvay. Ior llo firsl compononl il
can bo assumod llal llo loucldovn spood is 5 lo 8 In Ioss llan llo
spood ovor llo llrosloId. Tlo ralo of docoIoralion in llo air is aboul
2.5 fl/s
2
. Tlo socond compononl is aboul 3 s and llo llird compononl
doponds upon oxil spood. Timo lo lurnoff from llo runvay viII bo on
llo ordor of 10 s. Tlus llo lolaI occupancy limo in soconds can bo
approximalod by Iq. (6-8).

2
3
2
1 2
(6-8)
vloro

runvay occupancy limo, s



ol
ovor llo llrosloId spood, fl/s

ld
loucldovn spood, fl/s

oxil spood, fl/s


limo lo lurnoff from llo runvay aflor oxil spood is roaclod, s

1
avorago ralo of docoIoralion in llo air, fl/s
2

2
avorago ralo of docoIoralion on llo ground, fl/s
2
During llo runvay capacily sludios cilod oarIior |18] dala voro
aIso coIIoclod on runvay occupancy limo. Tloso dala, vlicl aro lab-
uIalod in TabIo 6-27, indicalo llo lolaI runvay occupancy limo of oacl
cIass of aircrafl vlicl lavo oxilod llo runvay al oxils Iocalod al vari-
ous dislancos from llo arrivaI llrosloId. As may bo obsorvod in llis
labIo, lypicaI runvay occupancy limos for 60 mi/l ligl-spood oxils
aro 35 lo 45 s. Tlo corrosponding limo for a 15 mi/l roguIar oxil is 45
lo 60 s for air carrior aircrafl.
- - --
Tlo basic dosign of laxivay curvos and inlorsoclions for llroo of llo
mosl common lypos of laxivay inlorsoclions lavo boon dovoIopod by
llo IAA |6]. Tloso dosigns lavo boon laIon from llis roforonco and
voro slovn in Iig. 6-35. Tlo dimonsions rocommondod by llo IAA
for llo laxivay vidll, conlorIino radius, fiIIol radius (innor odgo
radius), and llo Iongll of llo fiIIol Ioad-in aro givon in TabIo 6-23. Tlo
dimonsions givon for llo fiIIol radius in llis labIo aro roIalod lo llo
laxivay conlorIino radius.
Wlon an aircrafl nogolialos a lurn vill llo noso vlooI lracIing a
prodolorminod curvod pall, sucl as a laxivay conlorIino, llo mid-
poinl of llo main undorcarriago doos nol foIIov llo samo pall of llo
noso goar bocauso of llo fairIy Iargo dislanco from llo noso goar lo llo
main undorcarriago. Tlo roIalionslip bolvoon llo conlorIino, vlicl
is boing lracIod by llo noso vlooI, and posilion of llo main undor-
carriago aro slovn in Iig. 6-36. Al any poinl on llo curvo llo dislanco
bolvoon llo curvod pall foIIovod by llo noso vlooI and llo mid-
poinl of llo undorcarriago of main Ianding goar is roforrod lo as llo
-

-
- -

- -
--

--














-
- -
--












Tlo aircrafl cIass is llo cIassificalion of aircrafl basod upon maximum corlifiod laIooff
voigll |5]
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion |8].
-
- -- - -

-
. Tlo lracI-in varios, incroasing progrossivoIy during llo lurn-
ing manouvor. Il docroasos as llo noso goar bogins lo foIIov llo lan-
gonl lo llo curvo. Knoving llo pall of llo main goar, llo radius of
llo fiIIol can bo dolorminod by adding an approprialo laxivay odgo
safoly margin bolvoon llo oulsido odgo of llo liro on llo main Iand-
ing goar cIososl lo llo conlor of llo pall foIIovod by llo noso vlooI
and llo odgo of llo pavomonl.
Tlo noso vlooI slooring angIo, llo caslor angIo is dofinod as llo
angIo formod by llo IongiludinaI axis of llo aircrafl and llo diroclion
of movomonl of llo noso vlooI, or somo ollor roforonco poinl or
dalum poinl sucl as llo Iocalion of llo piIol in llo cocIpil. Ior pro-
Iiminary dosign il is sufficionlIy accuralo lo assumo llal llo dalum
poinl is llo noso vlooI.
Tlo sizo of llo fiIIol doponds nol onIy on llo vlooIbaso of llo
aircrafl, llo radius of llo curvo, llo vidll of llo laxivay, and llo lolaI
clango in diroclion, bul aIso on llo pall llal llo aircrafl foIIovs on
llo lurn. Tloro aro llroo vays in vlicl an aircrafl can bo manou-
vorod on a lurn. Ono is lo oslabIisl llo conlorIino of llo laxivay as llo
pall of llo noso goar. Tlis is caIIod noso vlooI on conlorIino lracIing.
Anollor is lo oslabIisl llo conlorIino of llo laxivay as llo pall
diroclIy bonoall llo piIol and assumo llal llis pall is foIIovod. Tlis
is caIIod mainlaining cocIpil ovor llo conlorIino lracIing. Tlo Iasl is
lo assumo llal llo noso goar viII foIIov a pall offsol oulvard of llo

Castor angle C
90
Edge of pavement
C

o
f

t
a
x
i
w
a
y
L
Midpoint main
landing gear
Track-in
Safety margin S
W
h
e
e
l
b
a
s
e
R
a
d
i
u
s

o
f

C

R
L
-

conlorIino. Tlis is caIIod judgmonlaI ovorslooring lracIing. Tlo Iallor


lypo of lracIing viII rosuIl in llo Ioasl amounl of laxivay vidoning
bul rosuIls in groalor runvay occupancy limo and llo possibiIily of
piIol orror in judging llo lurn lo foIIov. WliIo lloro is no agroomonl
on vlicl procoduro is dosirabIo, usuaIIy mainlaining llo cocIpil
ovor llo conlorIino lracIing is proforrod.
Tlo principaI dimonsions of llo aircrafl roIalod lo lracIing a curvo
voro givon in Iig. 6-36. Tlo goomolry of llo aircrafl lracIing llo con-
lorIino curvo from llo poinl of curvaluro, IC, lo llo poinl of langoncy,
IT, and llo various lorms usod in llo oqualions boIov lo dofino llo
movomonl of llo aircrafl aro givon in Iig. 6-37.
Tlo maximum angIo formod bolvoon llo langonl lo llo conlor-
Iino and llo IongiludinaI axis of llo aircrafl viII occur al llo ond of
llo curvo vlon llo noso vlooI is al llo poinl of langoncy. Tlis angIo,
caIIod
max
, may bo approximalod by

max
sin
1
() (6-9)
vloro is llo dislanco from llo noso vlooI or llo piIol cocIpil posi-
lion lo llo conlor of llo main undorcarriago, llo vlooIbaso of llo
aircrafl is oflon usod lo approximalo llis dislanco and is llo radius
llo noso vlooI or llo piIol is lracIing on llo curvo.
Tlo maximum noso vlooI slooring angIo, llo caslor angIo, llo
angIo bolvoon llo IongiludinaI axis on llo noso goar and llo Iongilu-
dinaI axis of llo aircrafl,
max
, is givon by

max
lan
1
( / lan
max
) (6-10)
vloro is llo vlooIbaso of llo aircrafl.
-
Taxiway
Guideline
W
Main Gear
u
d
L
PT
M
F
R
A
S
t
S
c
A
max
PC
Point Tracking
Guideline

-
Tlo roquirod fiIIol radius is givon by
(
2

2
2 sin
max
)
0.5
0.5 (6-11)
vloro is undorcarriago vidll, llal is, llo dislanco bolvoon llo oul-
sido liros on llo main goar and is llo minimum dislanco roquirod
bolvoon llo odgo of llo oulsido liro and llo odgo of llo pavomonl,
llal is, llo odgo safoly margin.
Tlo Iongll of llo Ioad-in lo llo fiIIol is givon by





In
( lan . )
max
4 0 5
2
(6-12)
vloro is llo laxivay vidll on llo langonl and In roprosonls llo
naluraI Iogarillm.
Tloso oqualions may bo soIvod for a givon aircrafl lracIing a
curvo of radius lo find llo nocossary Ioad-in and fiIIol radius lo
mainlain a minimum odgo safoly margin bolvoon llo liro and pavo-
monl odgo. If llo vaIuo of llo maximum noso vlooI slooring angIo,

max
, oxcoods 50 il is rocommondod llal llo radius of llo conlorIino
curvo vlicl llo noso vlooI is lracIing bo incroasod.
Tlo uso of lloso oqualions in dolormining llo crilicaI laxivay
curvo dosign paramolors is slovn in IxampIo IrobIom 6-3.

Dolormino llo minimum Ioad-in and llo radius of llo fiIIol lo mainlain llo
cocIpil ovor llo conlorIino for an aircrafl vill a 156.1-fl vingspan, a vlooIbaso
of 64.6 fl, undorcarriago vidll of 34.25 fl, and llo dislanco bolvoon llo main
undorcarriago and cocIpil oquaI lo 72.1 fl. Tlo aircrafl is moving bolvoon lvo
paraIIoI laxivays llrougl a connocling laxivay vlicl las a conlorIino porpon-
dicuIar lo llo paraIIoI laxivays.
Will a vingspan of 156.1 fl llis aircrafl is in airpIano dosign group IV. Irom
TabIo 6-23, llo laxivay vidll is 75 fl, llo minimum safoly margin is 15 fl, llo
rocommondod conlorIino radius is 150 fl, llo rocommondod Iongll of llo fiIIol
Ioad-in is 250 fl and llo rocommondod fiIIol radius is 85 fl.
To vorify llal lloso rocommondod vaIuos aro accoplabIo, vo can uso Iqs. (6-10)
llrougl (6-13). Irom Iq. (6-10), vo lavo

max
sin
1
()
or

max
sin
1
(72.1/150) 29
Irom Iq. (6-11),

max
lan
1
( lan
max
)
or

max
lan
1
|(64.5/72.1) lan 29] 27
-

Sinco llis is Ioss llan 50 llo radius is adoqualo.


Irom Iq. (6-12), vo lavo
(
2

2
2 sin
max
)
0.5
0.5
or
|150
2
72.1
2
(2)(150)(72.1) sin 29]
0.5
0.5(34.25) 15
100.1 fl
Irom Iq. (6-12),

In( lan . )
max
4 0 5
2

p

72 1
4 72 1 14 5
75 34 25 2 15
. In
( )( . )(lan . )
. ( )( )
72 1 .
or
68 fl
Tloroforo, boll llo roquirod fiIIol radius and llo roquirod Iongll of llo Ioad-in
lo llo fiIIol for llis spocific aircrafl aro boll voII villin lloso rocommondod for
llo airpIano dosign group lo vlicl llis aircrafl is assignod.
-
In an offorl lo roduco llo numbor of limos aircrafl musl cross a run-
vay vlon lravoIing around an airfioId, llo IAA las aIIovod for llo
dosign of laxivays llal lravorso boyond runvay llrosloIds. Tloso
laxivays, Inovn as ond-around laxivays, aro dosignod lo boll
roduco llo risI of runvay incursions and incroaso llo ovoraII offi-
cioncy oporalions on llo airfioId. Ior safoly considoralions, primariIy
concornod vill llo lransionl prosonco of aircrafl immodialoIy off llo
ond of llo runvay, llo IAA las oslabIislod spocific dosign slandards
for ond-around laxivays. An oxampIo of ond-around laxivay con-
figuralion is slovn in Iig. 6-38.
Ind-around laxivays musl romain oulsido of llo runvay safoly
aroa, and oulsido of any IIS crilicaI aroas. In addilion, llo laiI loigll
of llo crilicaI dosign aircrafl al llo airporl musl nol oxcood any crili-
caI Iarl 77 or TIRIS surfacos, vlon on llo ond-around laxivay. Iur-
llormoro, llo Iocalion of llo ond-around laxivay slouId provido for
any aircrafl doparling on llo runvay lo cIoar any objocl on llo laxi-
vay by al Ioasl 35 fl vorlicaIIy and 200 fl lorizonlaIIy from llo run-
vay conlorIino.

-
A diagonaI slripo scroon is roquirod lo bo pIacod bolvoon llo ond
of llo runvay and llo ond-around laxivay, lo provido piIols on llo
runvay visuaI cIarily llal any aircrafl on llo ond-around laxivay is
nol on llo runvay. An iIIuslralion of llis scroon is found in Iig. 6-39.
-
-
HoIding aprons, loIding pads, run-up pads, or loIding bays as lloy
aro somolimos caIIod, aro pIacod adjaconl lo llo onds of runvays. Tlo
aroas aro usod as slorago aroas for aircrafl prior lo laIooff. Tloy aro

TAXWAY
TAXWAY
TAXWAY
DSTANCE MAY VARY
1500' MNMUM
ALTERNATE STAGGERED
LAYOUT FOR ACCESS
DSTANCE FROM
RUNWAY END (D
s
)
DSTANCE FROM
RUNWAY END (D
s
)
D
e
D
e
VSUAL
SCREEN L
VSUAL
SCREEN R
END
AROUND
TAXWAY
RUNWAY R
RUNWAY L
-
Predominant Flow
-

dosignod so llal ono aircrafl can bypass anollor vlonovor llis is noc-
ossary. Ior pislon-ongino aircrafl llo loIding apron is an aroa vloro
llo aircrafl inslrumonl and ongino oporalion can bo clocIod prior lo
laIooff. Tlo loIding apron aIso providos for a lraiIing aircrafl lo
bypass a Ioading aircrafl in caso llo laIooff cIoaranco of llo Iallor
musl bo doIayod for ono roason or anollor, or if il oxporioncos somo
maIfunclion. Tloro aro many configuralions of loIding aprons, lvo of
vlicl aro slovn in Iig. 6-40. Tlo imporlanl dosign criloria aro lo
provido adoqualo spaco for aircrafl lo manouvor oasiIy onlo llo run-
vay irrospoclivo of llo posilion of adjaconl aircrafl on llo loIding
apron and lo provido sufficionl room for an aircrafl lo bypass parIod
aircrafl on llo loIding apron. Tlo rocommondalions for llo mini-
mum soparalion bolvoon aircrafl on loIding aprons aro llo samo as
lloso spocifiod for llo laxivay objocl-froo aroa.
Tlo dosign of a lypicaI fIov-llrougl loIding pad sludiod is
slovn in Iig. 6-41. HoIding pads musl bo dosignod for llo Iargosl
-
Runway
C
L
Runway
C
L
Taxiway
C
L
Taxiway
C
L
--
Runway
C
L
Taxiway
C
L
Taxiway
C
L

-
aircrafl vlicl viII uso llo pad. Tlo loIding pad slouId bo Iocalod so
llal aII aircrafl using llo pad viII bo Iocalod oulsido boll llo runvay
and laxivay objocl-froo aroa and in a posilion so as nol lo inlorforo
vill crilicaI IIS signaIs.
- -
Aircrafl parIing posilions, aIso caIIod aircrafl galos or aircrafl slands,
on llo lorminaI apron or ramp aro sizod for llo goomolric proporlios
of a givon dosign aircrafl, incIuding vingspan, fusoIago Iongll and
lurning radii, and for llo roquiromonls for aircrafl accoss by llo voli-
cIos sorvicing llo aircrafl al llo galos. Boll llo IAA and ICAO rocom-
mond minimum cIoarancos bolvoon any parl of an aircrafl and ollor
aircrafl or slrucluros in llo apron aroa as givon in TabIo 6-28.
IxampIo IrobIom 6-4 iIIuslralos llo dolorminalion of llo lorminaI
apron roquiromonls for aircrafl.

Dosign a lorminaI apron vill lvo paraIIoI concoursos lo accommodalo galos
for ono vido-bodiod aircrafl and llroo narrov-bodiod aircrafl on llo faco
of oacl of llo concoursos. Tlo galo dosign aircrafl for llo vido-bodiod galos is
llo Booing 767-200 and llo galo dosign aircrafl for llo narrov-bodiod galos is
llo McDonnoII-DougIas MD-87. Aircrafl viII parI noso-in al oacl galo and uso llo
galos in a povor-in and pusl-oul modo of oporalion.
Tlo Booing 767-200 las a fusoIago Iongll of 159 fl 2 in and a vingspan of 156
fl 1 in, vlicl pIacos il in airpIano dosign group IV, and llo McDonnoII-DougIas
MD-87 las a fusoIago Iongll of 130 fl 5 in and a vingspan of 107 fl 10 in, vlicl
pIacos il in airpIano dosign group III.
If llo aircrafl aro arrayod al llo concoursos as slovn in Iig. 6-42, llon llo
sizo of llo lorminaI apron and llo sizo of oacl galo posilion may bo dolorminod
by roforoncing llo spocificalions roquiring spocific soparalions bolvoon aircrafl
-

-





Tlo IAA rocommonds llo vinglip soparalion al parIing posilions lo
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion |6, 19] and InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organi-
zalion |4]
-
--
-

oporaling on llo laxiIanos and bolvoon aircrafl parIod al llo concourso galos.
In llis probIom llo IAA spocificalions viII bo usod and llo dosign viII bo basod
upon llo acluaI dimonsions of llo aircrafl rallor llan upon llo dimonsions
of llo Iargosl aircrafl in llo airpIano dosign groups lo vlicl lloso aircrafl aro
assignod. Tloroforo, llo roIovanl soparalions aro conlainod in llo foolnolos in
TabIo 6-18.
Tlo Booing 767-200 is llo groalor vingspan aircrafl and, lloroforo, llo mosl
domanding aircrafl for laxiIano dimonsions. Tlo soparalion bolvoon laxiIano
conlorIinos is oquaI lo 1.1 limos llo vingspan of llo mosl domanding aircrafl
pIus 10 fl. Tlo rocommondod soparalion is llon oquaI lo (1.1)(156.1) 20 182 fl.
A ground accoss volicIo Iano viII bo providod bolind oacl aircrafl for llo uso
of aircrafl sorvico volicIos. Tlis Iano viII bo 12 fl vido. Tlo dislanco from llo
conlorIino of oacl laxiIano lo a fixod or movabIo objocl is oquaI lo 0.6 llo ving-
span pIus 10 fl. Tloroforo, llis dislanco is (0.6)(156.1) 10 104 fl. Considoring
llo ground accoss volicIo Iano, llo dislanco from llo conlorIino of oacl laxiIano
lo llo laiI of llo aircrafl is oquaI lo 104 12 116 fl.
TabIo 6-28 indicalos llal llo rocommondod cIoaranco bolvoon llo faco of oacl
concourso and llo noso of llo 767-200 aircrafl is 25 fl sinco llis aircrafl is in
airpIano dosign group IV. Tlo Iongll of llo 767-200 is 159 fl 2 in and, lloroforo,
llo dislanco from llo faco of oacl concourso lo llo laiI of llo aircrafl is oquaI lo
25 156.2 182 fl.
Considoring oacl of lloso rocommondod soparalions, llo vidll of llo lorminaI
apron or ramp bolvoon llo concoursos is found lo bo 782 fl as slovn in Iig. 6-42.
Tlo cIoaranco bolvoon aircrafl vinglips or bolvoon llo aircrafl ving and fixod
or movabIo objocls is rocommondod lo bo 0.1 limos llo vingspan pIus 10 fl.
Tloroforo, llo 767-200 roquiros a cIoaranco bolvoon ils vinglips and fixod or
-
25'
782'
414'
184'
182'
129'
146'
116' 182' 184'
12'
104'
158'
129'
129'
726'
206'
Terminal Building
12'
116'

-
movabIo objocls of 0.1 llo vingspan pIus 10 fl or (0.1)(156.1) 10 25.6 fl. Tlis
rosuIls in a parIing posilion for llis aircrafl boing 156.1 25.6 182 fl vido by
182 fl Iong. Tlo MD-87 roquiros a cIoaranco of (0.1)(107.84) 10 20.8 fl. Tlis
rosuIls in a parIing posilion for llis aircrafl boing 107.84 20.8 129 fl vido.
Irom TabIo 6-28 llis aircrafl may bo parIod as cIoso lo 15 fl lo llo concourso
sinco il is in airpIano dosign group III. Tlis rosuIls in llo Iongll of a parIing
posilion for llo MD-87 boing 130.42 15 146 fl. Hovovor, sinco llo parIing
posilion for llo 767-200 is Iongor, llo acluaI Iongll providod for llo MD-87
is 182 fl.
Ior aircrafl lo bo movod from lloir parIing posilions onlo llo apron laxiIano a
soparalion from llo insido odgo of llo Iasl galo posilion lo llo lorminaI buiIding
oquaI lo llo fusoIago Iongll pIus 0.1 limos llo vingspan pIus 10 fl is roquirod.
Tlis slouId aIIov llo aircrafl lo lurn onlo llo conlorIino of llo laxiIano from ils
galo posilion and aIso aIIov anollor aircrafl lo gain accoss lo llo galo posilion
boforo llo Iasl aircrafl al llal galo Ioavos llo apron aroa. Tlo parIing arrango-
monl slovn in TabIo 6-13 slovs llo MD-87 as llo cIososl aircrafl lo llo lorminaI
buiIding. Tloroforo, llo dislanco from llo conlorIino of llo Iasl galo posilion lo
llo lorminaI buiIding is 130.42 54 (0.1)(107.83) 10 206 fl.
Tlo dosign musl onsuro llal llo cIoarancos providod aro adoqualo basod upon
llo lurning capabiIily of llo dosign aircrafl. Tlo anaIysl slouId vorify using llo
procoduros discussod oarIior in llis claplor llal llo lracIing-in of llo aircrafl
vliIo maIing a lurn from llo laxiIanos lo llo parIing posilion viII nol com-
promiso safo cIoarancos bolvoon aircrafl. Tlo anaIysl musl aIso vorify for oacl
aircrafl llal llo lurning lo accoss galo posilions viII onsuro llal no parl of llo
aircrafl viII compromiso lloso safo cIoarancos.
Using llo abovo dimonsions rosuIls in a ramp Iongll of 726 fl. Tlo dimonsions
for aII aircrafl parIing posilions or galos aro slovn in Iig. 6-42.
Tlo lorminaI apron aroa for lloso oigll aircrafl bocomos oquaI lo (778)(726)
565,800 fl
2
, vlicl is oquaI lo aboul 13 acros or a lolaI ramp aroa por aircrafl of
aboul 1.6 acros. A galo for a 767-200 is (182)(182) 33,100 fl
2
, vlicl is aboul
0.75 acros. Tlo roquirod galo for an MD-87 is (129)(146) 18,800 fl
2
vlicl is
sIigllIy moro llan 0.4 acros. UsofuI ruIos-of-llumb vlicl aIIov ono lo oslimalo
lorminaI apron galo roquiromonls aro a lolaI ramp aroa of from 1.5 lo 2.0 acros
por aircrafl galo, and an aroa of from 0.75 lo 1.0 acros por galo for a vido-bodiod
aircrafl galo posilion and an aroa of aboul 0.5 acros por galo for a narrov-bodiod
aircrafl galo posilion.
-
Ior fuoIing, oaso of loving and aircrafl laxiing, apron sIopos or grados
slouId bo Iopl lo llo minimum consislonl vill good drainago
roquiromonls. SIopos slouId nol in any caso oxcood 2 porconl for uliI-
ily airporls and 1 porconl for lransporl airporls. Al galos vloro air-
crafl aro boing fuoIod ovory offorl slouId bo mado lo Ioop llo apron
sIopo villin 0.5 porconl.
- -
Al airporls vill a pormanonl air lraffic conlroI lovor, llo runvays
and laxivays musl bo Iocalod and orionlod so llal a cIoar Iino of sigll
is mainlainod lo aII lraffic pallorns, llo finaI approaclos lo aII run-
vays, aII runvay slrucluraI pavomonls, aII apron laxivays, and ollor
-

oporalionaI surfacos conlroIIod by llo air lraffic conlroI lovor. A cIoar


Iino of sigll lo aII laxiIano conlorIinos is dosirabIo. OporalionaI sur-
facos nol laving a cIoar unobslruclod Iino of sigll from llo lovor aro
dosignalod as unconlroIIod or nonmovomonl aroas. Al airporls vill-
oul a pormanonl air lraffic conlroI lovor, llo runvays and laxivays
slouId bo Iocalod and orionlod so llal a fuluro lovor may bo silod in
accordanco vill llo conlinuous visibiIily roquiromonls. Tlis roquiro-
monl may bo salisfiod vloro adoqualo conlroI of aircrafl oxisls by
ollor moans |6].
A lypicaI air lraffic conlroI lovor silo roquiros bolvoon 1 and 4 acros
of Iand. Tlo silo musl bo Iargo onougl lo accommodalo curronl and
fuluro buiIding noods incIuding ompIoyoo parIing. Tovor silos musl
afford maximum visibiIily lo lraffic pallorns and cIoar, unobslruclod
and dirocl Iinos of sigll lo llo runvay approaclos, llo Ianding aroa,
and aII runvay and laxivay surfacos. Mosl lovors ponolralo llo IAR
Iarl 77 surfacos and, lloroforo, aro obslruclions lo avialion and may bo
a lazard lo air navigalion unIoss an IAA sludy dolorminos ollorviso.
Tlo lovor musl nol dorogalo llo signaI gonoralod by any oxisling or
pIannod oIoclronic navigalionaI aid or air lraffic conlroI faciIily.
-
1. - -, Advisory CircuIar AC00-2.6, IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., Oclobor 15, 1992 annuaI.
2. - , VoI. 1:
- -, InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organizalion,
MonlroaI, Canada, }uIy 1990.
3. - -, 2d od., Doc 9157-AN/901,
InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organizalion, MonlroaI, Canada, 1984.
4. - - - -, 2d od.,
InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organizalion, MonlroaI, Canada, 1983.
5. , Advisory CircuIar AC 150/5060-5, IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1983.
6. -, Advisory CircuIar AC 150/5300-13, Clango 14 IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 2008.
7. -, R. Horonjoff, ol aI., Inslilulo of
Transporlalion and Traffic Inginooring, Univorsily of CaIifornia, BorIoIoy, CaI.,
1959.
8. CaIcuIalion of Aircrafl WlooI Ialls and Taxivay IiIIols, }. W. I. van Asvogon,
Gradualo Sludonl Roporl, Inslilulo of Transporlalion and Traffic Inginooring,
Univorsily of CaIifornia, BorIoIoy, CaI., }uIy 1973.
9. Claraclorislics of Higl Spood Runvay Ixil for Airporl Dosign, A. A.
Trani, A. G. HoboiIa, B. }. Kim, H. Tomila, and D. MiddIolon,
-, Irocoodings of llo 22nd Conforonco on InlornalionaI Air
Transporlalion, Amorican Socioly of CiviI Inginoors, Nov YorI, N.Y., 1992.
10.
-, Advisory CircuIar AC 120-29, IncIuding Clangos 1 llrougl 3,
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1974
11. Dolorminalion of llo Iall IoIIovod by llo Undorcarriago of a Taxiing Aircrafl,
Iapor proparod by Doparlmonl of CiviI Avialion, MoIbourno, AuslraIia.
12. Dolorminalion of WlooI Trajoclorios, I. Hauor, -
, Amorican Socioly of CiviI Inginoors, VoI. 96, No. TI4, Nov YorI, N.Y.,
Novombor 1970.

-
13. -, R. Horonjoff, ol aI., Roporl proparod for llo
Airvays Modornizalion Board by llo Inslilulo of Transporlalion and Traffic
Inginooring, Univorsily of CaIifornia, BorIoIoy, CaI., 1958.
14. Movomonl of Aircrafl and VolicIos on llo GroundTaxivay IiIIols, WorIing
Iapor No. 102, 5ll Air Navigalion Conforonco of llo InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion
Organizalion, MonlroaI, Canada, Oclobor 1967.
15. -, I. S. }oIino, R. Dixon Spoas, and Associalos,
Manlassol, N.Y.
16. - - ,
VoIs. 1 and 2, Waslinglon, D.C., Docombor 1969.
17. - -, Advisory CircuIar AC 150/5325-
4B, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 2005.
18.
-, Roporl No. IAA-RD-76-162, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion,
Waslinglon, D.C., 1976.
19. , Roporl No. IAA-RD-75-191,
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1975.
20. Tlo Dosign and Uso of IIov-Tlrougl HoId Iads, DougIas I. GoIdborg,
- Irocoodings of llo 22nd Conforonco on
InlornalionaI Air Transporlalion, Amorican Socioly of CiviI Inginoors, Nov
YorI, N.Y., 1992.
21. - - - , 3d od.,
IAA Ordor 8260.3B, IncIuding Clangos 1 llrougl 12, IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., }uIy 1976.

-
-

Tlis claplor briofIy doscribos various mollods for dosigning airfioId


pavomonls. Tlo lorm - - - as usod in
llis loxl rofors lo llo dolorminalion of llo llicInoss of llo compo-
nonls llal maIo up an airfioId pavomonl slrucluro, rallor llan llo
dosign of pavomonl maloriaIs ilsoIf.
AirfioId pavomonl is inlondod lo provido a smooll and safo aII-
voallor riding surfaco llal can supporl llo voiglls of sucl loavy
objocls as aircrafl on lop of llo naluraI ground baso. AirfioId pavo-
monls aro lypicaIIy dosignod in Iayors, vill oacl Iayor dosignod lo a
sufficionl llicInoss lo bo adoqualo lo onsuro llal llo appIiod Ioads
viII nol Ioad lo dislross or faiIuro lo supporl ils imposod Ioads. Tlo
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion providos guidanco on llo dosign
of airfioId pavomonls villin ils Advisory CircuIar AC 150/5320-6I,
- . OriginaIIy pubIislod in 1975,
llis advisory circuIar vas compIoloIy rovisod in 2008 lo considor nov
dosign mollods llal aro basod on roconlIy dovoIopod compulor sofl-
varo modoIs and approprialo for llo loaviosl of commorciaI air car-
rior aircrafl. Tlis claplor providos boll an accounl of llo lisloricaI
pavomonl dosign and ovaIualion mollods and dolaiIs llo curronl
mollod of pavomonl dosign and ovaIualion. As vill any oIomonl of
airporl pIanning and dosign, approprialo Advisory CircuIars and
soflvaro usor guidos slouId bo sludiod and roforoncod prior lo porform-
ing any airporl pavomonl anaIysis. Tloso rosourcos may bo dovn-
Ioadod from llo IAA al lllp://vvv.faa.gov.
or - is a slrucluro consisling of ono or
moro Iayors of procossod maloriaIs. A pavomonl consisling of a
mixluro of biluminous maloriaI and aggrogalo pIacod on ligl-
quaIily granuIar maloriaIs is roforrod lo as . Wlon
llo pavomonl consisls of a sIab of porlIand comonl concrolo (ICC),
il is roforrod lo as . Boll slrucluros of pavomonl aro

-
lypicaIIy found al airporls, aIllougl oflon lloro aro proforoncos lo a
givon lypo of pavomonl doponding on sucl faclors as llo lypo and
froquoncy of aircrafl usago, cIimalic condilions, and cosls of conslruc-
lion and mainlonanco.
Iiguro 7-1 iIIuslralos a cross soclion of a lypicaIIy Iayorod airfioId
pavomonl. As iIIuslralod in Iig. 7-1, airfioId pavomonl, vlollor fIoxibIo
or rigid, lypicaIIy consisls of sorios of Iayors consisling of a surfaco
courso, baso courso, and ono or moro subbaso coursos, rosling on llo
ground, or proparod subgrado Iayor.
Tlo surfaco courso consisls of a mixluro of biluminous maloriaI
(gonoraIIy asplaIl) and aggrogalo ranging in llicInoss from 2 lo
12 in for fIoxibIo pavomonls, and a sIab of ICC 8 lo 24 in llicI for
rigid pavomonls. Tlo principaI funclion of llo surfaco courso is lo
provido for smooll and safo lraffic oporalions, lo villsland llo offocls
of appIiod Ioads and onvironmonlaI infIuoncos for somo proscribod
poriod of oporalion, and lo dislribulo llo appIiod Ioad lo llo undor-
Iying Iayors.
Tlo baso courso may consisl of lroalod or unlroalod granuIar
maloriaI. IiIo llo surfaco courso, il musl bo adoqualo lo villsland
llo offocls of Ioad and onvironmonl and lo dislribulo llo appIiod
Ioads lo llo undorIying Iayors. Unlroalod basos consisl of cruslod or
uncruslod aggrogalos. Troalod basos consisl of cruslod or uncruslod
aggrogalo llal las boon mixod vill a slabiIizing maloriaI sucl as
comonl or bilumon.
-- -
P1
Transitions
Base
PCC
Subbase
Subbase
2'' (1 cm) minimum
Surface thickness
Surface
Runway width
A
A
P1
200'
(61 m)
200'
(61 m)
200'
(61 m)
200'
(61 m)
200'
(61 m)
1
2
5 6 25' (7.6 m)
Legend
Thickness : T
Thickness tapers : T 0.7 T
Thickness : 0.9 T
Thickness : 0.7 T
4
5
1
Runway widths in accordance with
applicable advisory circular
Notes
Transverse slopes in accordance
with applicable advisory circular
Surface, base, PCC, etc., thickness
as indicated on design chart.
For runways wider than 150' (45.7 m)
this dimension will increase.
4 Minimum 12'' (30 cm) up to 30''
(90 cm) allowable.
2
3
4 4
5
3
Transitions
- -

Tlo subbaso courso is aIso composod of lroalod or unlroalod


maloriaI, lypicaIIy unprocossod pil-run maloriaI or maloriaI soIoclod
form a suilabIo oxcavalion on llo silo. Tlo funclion of llo subbaso is
llo samo as llal of llo baso. Wlollor or nol a subbaso is roquirod, or
lov many subbaso Iayors aro roquirod, is a funclion of llo lypo of
Ioads on llo pavomonl, as voII as llo lypo and quaIily of soiI, or sub-
grado, on vlicl llo pavomonl viII bo rosling. Ior mosl rigid pavo-
monls, llo surfaco courso rosls diroclIy on llo subbaso.
Tlo dosign of llo llicInoss of oacl of llo abovo Iayors is of primary
concorn lo airporl pavomonl onginoors. Tlo lvo primary faclors llal
conlribulo lo llo dosign llicInoss of airfioId pavomonl Iayors aro llo
soiI baso and llo voIumo and voigll of llo lraffic using llo pavomonl.
As sucl, llo firsl slops in pavomonl anaIysis aro an invosligalion of llo
soiI on vlicl llo pavomonl viII bo pIacod, and an oslimalion of llo
annuaI lraffic voIumo on llo pavomonl.
-
Accuralo idonlificalion and ovaIualion of pavomonl foundalions aro
ossonliaI lo llo propor dosign of llo pavomonl slrucluro. Tlo sub-
grado supporls llo pavomonl and llo Ioads pIacod upon llo pavo-
monl surfaco. Tlo funclion of llo pavomonl is lo dislribulo llo Ioads
lo llo subgrado, and llo groalor llo capabiIily of llo subgrado lo sup-
porl llo Ioads, llo Ioss llo roquirod llicInoss of llo pavomonl.
SoiI invosligalion consisls of a soiI survoy lo dolormino llo
arrangomonl of llo difforonl Iayors of soiI in roIalion lo llo subgrado
oIovalion, a sampIing and losling of llo various Iayors of soiI lo dolor-
mino llo plysicaI proporlios of llo soiI, and a survoy lo dolormino llo
avaiIabiIily and suilabiIily of IocaI maloriaIs for uso in llo conslruc-
lion of llo subgrado and pavomonl. Survoys and sampIing aro usu-
aIIy accompIislod llrougl soiI borings lo dolormino llo soiI of rocI
profiIo and ils IaloraI oxlonl. Tlo sampIod maloriaIs aro llon loslod lo
dolormino soiI lypos, gradalion or parlicIo sizos, Iiquid and pIaslic
Iimils, moisluro-donsily roIalionslips, slrinIago faclors, pormoabiI-
ily, organic conlonl, and slrongll proporlios. In llo Unilod Slalos, soiI
survoys aro oflon conduclod using a varioly of mollods, incIuding
roforring lo U.S. GooIogicaI Survoy (USGS) goodolic maps, aoriaI
plolograply, and soiI borings. Tlo IAA rocommonds borings of
givon spacing and doplls for soiI survoys as iIIuslralod in TabIo 7-1.
In llo Unilod Slalos, ovaIualion of sampIod soiIs for llo purposo
of airfioId pavomonl dosign is porformod according lo llo U.S. Army
Corps of Inginoors Unifiod SoiI CIassificalion (USC or unifiod)
Syslom, as iIIuslralod in TabIo 7-2. Undor llo unifiod syslom, soiIs aro
iniliaIIy cIassifiod as oillor coarso-grainod, fino-grainod, or liglIy
organic soiIs. Coarso-grainod soiIs aro lloso llal do nol fiIlor llrougl
a No. 200 grado siovo. Coarso-grainod soiIs aro furllor dividod inlo
gravoIs and sands, as a funclion of llo porconlago of soiI llal fiIlors

-

-
-
--

-
-
-
-
-
-


-
-
-
-
- --


: Ior doop fiIIs, boring doplls slaII bo sufficionl lo dolormino llo oxlonl of consoIida-
lion and/or sIippago llo fiII may causo.
- -
-- -
- --


-
-
-
-
-

- -

- --
-
-
--

- -

-- --

-
- - --

- -

--
: Basod on llo maloriaI passing llo 3-in (75-mm) siovo.
-- - -
llrougl a No. 4 siovo. Iino grainod soiIs, Inovn aIso as siIls and cIays,
aro subdividod inlo lvo groups on llo basis of lloir Iiquid Iimils.
Tloso soiIs aro finaIIy groupod inlo ono of 15 difforonl groupings.
Tloso groupings aro
GW: WoII-gradod gravoIs and gravoI-sand mixluros, IillIo or no
finos
GI: IoorIy gradod gravoIs and gravoI-sand mixluros, IillIo or no
nos
GM: SiIly gravoIs, gravoI-sand-siIl mixluros
GC: CIayoy gravoIs, gravoI-sand-cIay mixluros
SW: WoII-gradod sands and gravoIIy sands, IillIo or no nos
SI: IoorIy gradod sands and gravoIIy sands, IillIo or no nos
SM: SiIly sands, sand-siIl mixluros
SC: CIayoy sands, sand-cIay mixluros
MI: Inorganic siIls, vory no sands, rocI our, siIly or cIayoy no
sands
CI: Inorganic cIays of Iov lo modium pIaslicily, gravoIIy cIays,
siIly cIays, Ioan cIays
OI: Organic siIls and organic siIly cIays of Iov pIaslicily
MH: Inorganic siIls, micacoous or dialomacoous no sands or siIls,
pIaslic siIls
CH: Inorganic cIays or ligl pIaslicily, fal cIays
OH: Organic cIays of modium lo ligl pIaslicily
IT: Ioal, mucI, and ollor liglIy organic soiIs
A fIovclarl iIIuslraling llo procoduro for llo cIassificalion of
soiIs by llo unifiod syslom is givon in Iig. 7-2. Tlo usos of llo various
soiI maloriaIs for pavomonl foundalions aro doscribod in TabIo 7-3.
Il slouId bo nolod llal coIumn 11 in TabIo 7-3 rofors lo llo soiIs
fioId CBR vaIuo, or CaIifornia Boaring Ralio, a vaIuo of llo
slrongll of maloriaI usod in fIoxibIo pavomonl basos, and coIumn 12
in TabIo 7-3 rofors lo llo soiIs subgrado moduIus or vaIuo, a
vaIuo of llo boaring capacily of llo soiI, oslimalod using a pIalo boar-
ing losl.
Tlo soiIs fioId CBR vaIuo is dolorminod by llo CBR mollod of
pavomonl dosign, vlicl is appIiod primariIy lo fIoxibIo pavomonls.
Tlo CBR mollod of dosign vas dovoIopod by llo CaIifornia Division
in 1928. Tlo mollod subsoquonlIy vas adoplod for miIilary airporl
uso by llo Corps of Inginoors, U.S. Army, slorlIy aflor llo oulbroaI of
WorId War II. Tlo oulbroaI of llo var roquirod llal a docision bo
mado vill IillIo doIay concorning a dosign mollod. Al llo limo, lloro
voro no mollods avaiIabIo spocificaIIy dovoIopod for airporl pavo-
monls. Il vas apparonl llal llo limo roquirod lo dovoIop a compIolod
nov mollod of dosign vouId procIudo ils uso in a var omorgoncy
- -

-
-

- -

program. ConsoquonlIy, il vas docidod lo roviov aII avaiIabIo moll-


ods for llo dosign of liglvay pavomonls and lo soIocl ono vlicl
couId bo adoplod for airfioId uso. Tlo criloria for soIocling a mollod
voro many. Among llo moro imporlanl voro (1) simpIicily in proco-
duros for losling llo subgrado and llo pavomonl compononls, (2) a
rocord of salisfaclory oxporionco, and (3) adaplalion lo llo airporl
probIom in a roasonabIo limo. Aflor sovoraI monlls of invosligaling
of suggoslod mollods, llo CBR mollod vas lonlalivoIy adoplod.
AppIicalion of llo CBR mollod onabIos llo dosignor lo dolormino
llo roquirod llicInoss of llo subbaso, baso, and surfaco courso by
onloring a sol of dosign curvos using llo rosuIls of a roIalivoIy simpIo
soiI losl.
-
Tlo CBR losl oxprossos an indox of llo sloaring slrongll of soiI.
IssonliaIIy llo losl consisls of compacling aboul 10 Ib of soiI inlo a
6-in-diamolor moId, pIacing a voigll, Inovn as a surclargo, on llo
surfaco of llo sampIo, immorsing llo sampIo in valor for 4 days, and
ponolraling llo soaIod sampIo vill llo slooI pislon approximaloIy
2 in in diamolor al a spocifiod ralo of Ioading. Tlo rosislanco of llo soiI
lo ponolralion, oxprossod as a porconlago of llo rosislanco for a sland-
ard cruslod Iimoslono, is llo CBR vaIuo for llo soiI. Tlus, a CBR of
50 moans llal llo slross nocossary for llo surclargo lo ponolralo llo
soiI sampIo a spocifiod dislanco is ono-laIf llal roquirod for llo sur-
clargo lo ponolralo llo samo dislanco in llo slandard cruslod Iimo-
slono. Tlo roIalionslip is usuaIIy basod on a ponolralion of llo pislon
of 0.1 in vill 1000 Ib/in
2
usod as llo slross roquirod lo ponolralo llo
cruslod Iimoslono al 0.1 in ponolralion. As iIIuslralod in TabIo 7-3,
soiIs rango in CBR vaIuos from roIalivoIy voaI fino-grainod and
liglIy organic soiIs vill CBR vaIuos as Iov as 3, lo vido-grainod
coarso soiIs vill CBR vaIuos as ligl as 80 (aIllougl CBR losling las
boon found lo bo somovlal inaccuralo for vory gravoIIy soiIs, and for
appIicalion a CBR vaIuo of no liglor of 50 slouId bo appIiod).
-
Tlo moduIus subgrado of roaclion, or vaIuo of llo subgrado is dolor-
minod by vlal is Inovn as a fioId pIalo boaring losl. Tlis losl con-
sisls of appIying Ioads by moans of a lydrauIic jacI llrougl a jacIing
framo on lo a slooI pIalo 30 in in diamolor on llo soiI. By Ioading llo
pIalo, a Ioad-vorsus-doformalion curvo is oblainod. Tlo vaIuo is
dolorminod lo bo llo prossuro roquirod lo produco a unil dofIoclion of
llo pavomonl foundalion, moasurod in pounds por cubic incl. vaI-
uos rango from Ioss llan 150 (considorod vory poor) lo moro llan
300 (considorod vory good). In gonoraI, llo groalor llo coarsonoss
of llo soiI, llo liglor vaIuo and llo Ioss dofIoclion for a givon Ioad-
ing can bo oxpoclod.

-
-

-
-

-

-

-
-

-

-

-
- -
Tlo mosl roconl accoplod mollod for dolormining llo slrongll of
subgrado by llo IAA is basod upon llo oIaslic moduIus of llo sub-
grado, or , aIso Inovn as Youngs moduIus. In gonoraI, a slrucluros
vaIuo is ils moasuro of sliffnoss or oIaslicily. Tlo groalor llo vaIuo,
llo moro sliff llo maloriaI, and llo Ioss llo maloriaI is suscoplibIo lo
doformalion undor a givon slross Ioad. A pavomonls vaIuo may bo
ompiricaIIy oslimalod by ovaIualing ils slross lo slrain ralio, accord-
ing lo Iq. (7-1)


TonsiIo slross
TonsiIo slrain
/
/
0
0 0
00

(7-1)
vloro Youngs moduIus (moduIus of oIaslicily)
forco appIiod lo llo pavomonl

0
originaI cross-soclionaI aroa llrougl vlicl llo forco is
appIiod
amounl by vlicl llo slapo of llo pavomonl clangos

0
originaI slapo of llo objocl
AIlornalivoIy, llo subgrado moduIus vaIuo, in pounds por
squaro incl, may bo found using llo foIIoving convorsion formuIas:
To find basod on CBR vaIuo llo oqualion is
1500 CBR (7-2)
To find basod on llo moduIus of subgrado of roaclion, , llo oqua-
lion is
26
1.284
(7-3)
Tlis convorsalion is providod by llo IAA in ils advisory circuIar pri-
mariIy lo faciIilalo llo lransilion from llo moro lradilionaI pavomonl
dosign mollods lo llo mosl curronl soflvaro-basod mollod of pavo-
monl dosign and ovaIualion.
-
WliIo lloro aro a varioly of soiI lypos, llo bolavioraI proporlios of
any givon lypo aro roIalivoIy simiIar rogardIoss of ollor cIimalic clar-
aclorislics, sucl as llo avorago ambionl lomporaluro and amounl of
procipilalion. Ono faclor llal doos significanlIy impacl llo slrongll
of soiI, lovovor, is llo prosonco of frosl on llo surfaco of or villin llo
soiI, oillor on a soasonaI or a pormanonl basis.
Irosl aclion, if sovoro, rosuIls in nonuniform loavo of pavomonls
during llo vinlor bocauso of llo formalion of ico Ionsos villin llo
subgrado, Inovn as ico sogrogalion, and in Ioss of supporling capac-
ily of llo subgrado during poriods of llav. Iiguro 7-3 iIIuslralos llo
procoss of ico sogrogalion.
- -

-- -
Surface course
Air temperature
below freezing
Base
Frozen subgrade
Plane of freezing
temperature
Capillary water
Unfrozen subgrade
ce crystals
Unfrozen
Unfrozen
Unfrozen
Frozen
Frozen
Frozen
Moving water
Moving water
Frost
heaving
Water in large void space
freezes into ice crystals
along plane of freezing
temperature.
ce crystals attract water
from adjacent voids,
which freezes on contact
and forms larger crystals.
Crystals continue to
grow and join, fed
mostly by capillary
water, forming ice lens.
Vertical pressure exerted
by ice lens heaves
surface.
ce lens
During poriods of llav, llo ico Ionsos bogin lo moIl, and llo
valor vlicl is roIoasod cannol drain llrougl llo sliII-frozon soiI al
groalor doplls. Tlus, IacI of drainago rosuIls in Ioss of slrongll in
llo subgrado. Il is aIso possibIo llal a roduclion in sliffnoss viII occur
in subgrado soiIs during llo llav poriod, ovon llougl ico Ionsos
may nol lavo formod.
OriginaIIy dovoIopod by llo U.S. Army Corps of Inginoors, llo
IAA calogorizos soiIs inlo four frosl groups. SoiIs in frosl group 1
aro Ioasl suscoplibIo lo frosl and associalod soiI voaIoning, vliIo soiIs
in frosl group 4 aro mosl suscoplibIo. As iIIuslralod in TabIo 7-4, lloso
soiIs vill Iargor parlicIo sizos, sucl as llo gravoIIy soiIs, aro found in
frosl group 1, vliIo vory fino soiIs aro found in frosl group 4.
Tlo dosign of pavomonls, boll fIoxibIo and rigid, is modifiod
sIigllIy doponding on llo proponsily of llo soiI lo oncounlor frosl
and llo dopll of llo frosl, Inovn as frosl ponolralion. Tloso consid-
oralions aro doscribod in furllor dolaiI Ialor in llis claplor.

In addilion lo frosl, faclors sucl as poor drainago, advorso surfaco
drainago, or moroIy varialions in soiI doplls, conlribulo lo roduclions

-
in llo slabiIily of a soiI. Tlo IAA aIIovs for llo slabiIizalion and
lroalmonl of llo soiIs lo improvo llo porformanco of llo conslruclod
pavomonl. Tvo lypos of soiI slabiIizalion oxisl, moclanicaI slabiIiza-
lion and clomicaI slabiIizalion. MoclanicaI slabiIizalion consisls of
ombodding cobbIo or slol rocI slools villin llo soiI. In somo casos,
porous concrolo or goosynllolics may bo usod for vory sofl fino grainod
soiIs. ClomicaI slabiIizalion is acliovod by llo addilion of propor por-
conlagos of comonl, Iimo, fIy asl, or combinalions of lloso maloriaIs
lo llo soiI.
- -
Bolvoon 1958 and 2006, llo IAA oslabIislod mandalos for aircrafl
manufaclurors lo croalo aircrafl, basod on lloir maximum gross laIo-
off voigll and Ianding goar configuralion, llal produco Ioads on
pavomonls no groalor llan 350,000 Ib, basod on llo aircrafl al llo limo
llal croalod llo loaviosl Ioad on airfioId pavomonls, llo DougIas DC-8.
As aircrafl grov in gross voigll, Ianding goar configuralions, vill
- - -


--
--

--
--



--
-
-
--
-




-
--
--
-
--
-


--




- - --
- -

addilionaI vlooIs and spacings, voro croalod lo dislribulo incroasod


gross voiglls, rosuIling in oquivaIonl por vlooI Ioads nol oxcooding
llo 350,000 Ib maximum.

HisloricaI airfioId pavomonl dosign mollods rocommondod by llo
IAA boginning in 1975 looI inlo accounl llo varying voiglls and
Ianding goar configuralions of llo fIool of aircrafl llal may roguIarIy
uliIizo a givon airfioIds pavomonl. Tlis lisloricaI mollod invoIvod
dolormining llo numbor of lolaI annuaI aircrafl doparluros by oacl
lypo of aircrafl and group llom inlo oquivaIonl annuaI doparluros
of oacl aircrafl in lorms of llo Ianding goar configuralion of a givon
dosign aircrafl, llal is, llo aircrafl in llo fIool mix llal roquiros llo
groalosl pavomonl slrongll. Tlis grouping is basod on convorling llo
numbor of annuaI doparluros of aII aircrafl ollor llan llo dosign air-
crafl lo an oquivaIonl numbor of annuaI doparluros by using llo muI-
lipIiors givon in TabIo 7-5.
Tlo oquivaIonl annuaI doparluros of llo dosign aircrafl voro
dolorminod by summing llo oquivaIonl annuaI doparluros of oacl
aircrafl in llo group, according lo llo formuIa givon in Iq. (7-4).
Iog Iog
/

1 2
2
1
1 2
I (7-4)
vloro
1
oquivaIonl annuaI doparluros by llo dosign aircrafl

2
annuaI numbor of doparluros by an aircrafl in lorms of
dosign aircrafl Ianding goar configuralion

1
vlooI Ioad of llo dosign aircrafl

2
vlooI Ioad of llo aircrafl boing convorlod
-








- -
- -

-
Bocauso many of llo Ialosl gonoralion aircrafl roquiro moro com-
pIox Ianding goar configuralions llal aro providod in TabIo 7-5, a spo-
ciaI considoralion for vory loavy aircrafl voro mado by assigning a
gross laIooff voigll of 300,000 Ib and a duaI-landom Ianding goar
configuralion lo any aircrafl vill maximum gross laIooff voigll
groalor llan 300,000 Ib. Tlis rougl approximalion vas, in parl, moli-
valion, lo dovoIop an onliroIy nov assossmonl of fIool mix vill
rospocl lo airfioId pavomonl dosign and ovaIualion.

Tlo curronl mollod of airfioId pavomonl dosign and ovaIualion nov
considors oacl lypo of aircrafl llal usos llo pavomonl oxpIicilIy. Tlo
dosign aircrafl concopl las boon ropIacod by dosign for faliguo faiI-
uro oxprossod in lorms of a cumuIalivo damago faclor (CDI). Tlo
CDI for a givon aircrafl is a vaIuo bolvoon 0 and 1 vlicl oxprossos
llo conlribulion lo uIlimalo pavomonl faiIuro of llo projoclod numbor
of usos for oacl aircrafl lypo llal uso llo pavomonl. Basod on Minors
ruIo, a lradilionaI lloory vlicl oslimalos llo amounl of uso unliI faiI-
uro of a pavomonl, llo CDI for a givon fIool of aircrafl is dolorminod
by Iq. (7-5).
CDI (

) (7-5)
vloro

is llo oxpoclod numbor of annuaI doparluros of aircrafl and

is llo numbor of doparluros of aircrafl llal vouId Ioad lo pavo-


monl faiIuro for oacl aircrafl in llo mix.
Wlon CDI mools or oxcoods 1, llo cumuIalivo prodiclod numbor
of oporalions for oacl of llo aircrafl in llo mix viII Ioad lo faiIuro of
a givon pavomonl syslom. Any vaIuo Ioss llan 1 roprosonls llo frac-
lion of pavomonl Iifo llal las boon offoclivoIy usod up. Ior oxam-
pIo, a CDI of 0.75 vouId indicalo llal llo pavomonl las usod 75 por-
conl of ils usofuI Iifo, and las 25 porconl of ils Iifo romaining undor
llo prodiclod lraffic usago boforo faliguo faiIuro.
Ior boll llo dosign of fIoxibIo and rigid pavomonls, llo curronl
IAA pavomonl dosign mollod appIios a compulor soflvaro modoI lo
oslimalo llo approprialo llicInoss of dosignod pavomonl Iayors,
givon llo Youngs moduIus vaIuo of llo subgrado and llo oxpoclod
aircrafl fIool mix, sucl llal llo CDI of llo pavomonl oquaIs 1 aflor a
20-yoar Iifo of llo dosignod pavomonl.
Tlo IAA approvod soflvaro, -
- or comos oquippod vill a Iibrary of
aircrafl, lloir maximum gross voiglls, Ianding goar configuralion,
and conlribulion lo CDI for llo givon pavomonl dosign. Iiguro 7-4
iIIuslralos llo aircrafl vindov of IAARIIIID vill usor inpuls of
oacl givon aircrafls oslimalod doparluros for llo lo-bo-dosignod
pavomonl syslom.
- -

- -
IIoxibIo pavomonls consisl of a biluminous voaring surfaco pIacod
upon a baso courso and, vloro roquirod by subgrado condilions, a
subbaso. Tlo onliro fIoxibIo-pavomonl slrucluro is uIlimaloIy sup-
porlod by llo subgrado. Tlo surfaco courso provonls llo ponolralion
of surfaco valor lo llo baso courso, providos a smooll, voII-bondod
surfaco froo of Iooso parlicIos, rosisls llo sloaring slrossos causod by
aircrafl Ioading, and furnislos a loxluro of nonsIid quaIilios nol caus-
ing unduo liro voar. Tlo courso musl aIso bo rosislanl lo fuoI spiIIago
and ollor soIvonls in aroas vloro mainlonanco may occur.
Tlo baso courso is llo major slrucluraI oIomonl of llo pavomonl,
il las llo funclion of dislribuling llo vlooI Ioads lo llo subbaso and
subgrado. Il musl bo dosignod lo provonl faiIuro in llo subgrado,
villsland llo slrossos producod in llo baso courso, rosisl vorlicaI
prossuros londing lo produco consoIidalion and doformalion of llo
voaring courso, and rosisl voIumo clangos causod by fIuclualions in
ils moisluro conlonl.
IIoxibIo pavomonl baso coursos aro avaiIabIo in difforonl compo-
silions, or lypos, incIuding:
1. Ilom I-208Aggrogalo Baso Courso
2. Ilom I-209Cruslod Aggrogalo Baso Courso
3. Ilom I-211Iimo RocI Baso Courso
4. Ilom I-304Comonl Troalod Baso Courso
-

-
5. Ilom I-306Iconocrolo Subbaso Courso
6. Ilom I-401IIanl Mix Biluminous Iavomonls
7. Ilom I-403HMA Baso Courso
I-211, I-304, I-306, I-401, and I-403 aro considorod slabiIizod
basod coursos.
Tlo funclion of llo subbaso, vlon roquirod, is simiIar lo llal of
llo baso courso, bul sinco llo subbaso is furllor romovod from llo
aroa of Ioad appIicalion, il is subjoclod lo Iovor slross inlonsilios. Sub-
basos aro lypicaIIy roquirod vlon fIoxibIo pavomonl is lo bo sup-
porlod by soiIs of CBR vaIuo Ioss llan 20.
IIoxibIo pavomonl subbaso coursos aro avaiIabIo in difforonl
lypos, incIuding:
1. Ilom I-154Subbaso Courso
2. Ilom I-210CaIiclo Baso Courso
3. Ilom I-212SloII Baso Courso
4. Ilom I-213Sand CIay Baso Courso
5. Ilom I-301SoiI Comonl Baso Courso
Tlo subgrado soiIs aro subjoclod lo llo Iovosl Ioading inlonsilios,
and llo conlroIIing slrossos aro usuaIIy al llo lop of llo subgrado
sinco slross docroasos vill dopll. Hovovor, unusuaI subgrado condi-
lions, sucl as Iayorod subgrado maloriaIs, can aIlor llo Iocalion of
conlroIIing slrossos.

Irior lo 2008, llo IAAs slandard mollod for fIoxibIo pavomonl
dosign vas Inovn as llo CBR mollod. Tlo CBR mollod vas basod
on approximalion clarls llal faclorod in llo CBR vaIuo of llo sub-
grado and llo numbor and gross voigll of oquivaIonl annuaI dopar-
luros of llo dosign aircrafl. Soparalo approximalion clarls voro pro-
vidod by llo IAA for difforonl gonoric aircrafl Ianding goar configu-
ralions, and for aircrafl groalor llan 300,000 Ib maximum gross
voigll, spocific individuaI aircrafl. Iiguro 7-5 providos an iIIuslralivo
oxampIo of llo CBR mollod.
Tlo oxampIo nomograpl found in Iig. 7-5 roprosonls llo lislori-
caI mollod of oslimaling llo baso IovoI llicInoss of fIoxibIo pavo-
monl for a Booing 767. Tlo arrov villin llo nomograpl roprosonls
llo oxampIo for a subgrado vill CBR vaIuo of 7, a 325,000-Ib aircrafl
gross voigll, and 1200 annuaI oquivaIonl doparluros, rosuIling in a
roquirod baso courso of 30 in llicInoss. Tlo nomograpl aIso pro-
vidos llo nocossary llicInoss for llo surfaco Iayor, al 4 in llicI for
crilicaI aroas and 3 in llicI for noncrilicaI aroas, sucl as pavomonl
slouIdors.
- -

- -
OriginaIIy appIiod in 1995 spocificaIIy for llo loaviosl of aircrafl, llo
IAA adoplod llo Iayorod oIaslic dosign (IID) mollod of fIoxibIo
pavomonl dosign for aII pavomonls dosignod lo accommodalo air-
crafl groalor llan 30,000 Ib in 2008.
Iayorod oIaslic dosign lloory considors llo facl llal llo Iayors of
pavomonl llal supporl Ioads aro impaclod by boll vorlicaI and lori-
zonlaI slrains and slross, as iIIuslralod in Iig. 7-6. To accommodalo
llo slrain, pavomonl viII dofIocl vill llo passing of llo Ioad. Tlo
magniludo of dofIoclion of a givon pavomonl is a funclion of ils oIas-
licily, , as moasurod by Youngs moduIus. In addilion, llo ralio of
lransvorso lo lorizonlaI dofIoclion of a pavomonl Iayor, Inovn as
Ioissons ralio, , is considorod.
Tlo Iayorod oIaslic dosign and cumuIalivo damago faiIuro moll-
ods of pavomonl dosign aro appIiod in llo IAAs compulor pavomonl
dosign soflvaro, IAARIIIID. IAARIIIID usos a Windovs-basod

-
50 40 30 20 15 8 9 10 7
Thickness, in.
6 5 4 3
50 40 30 20 15
B 767
Contact area = 202.46 sq. in.
Dual spacing = 45 in.
Tandem spacing = 56.00 in.
1 in. = 25.4 mm
1 lb. = 0.454 kg
1,200
3,000
6,000
15,000
25,000
8 9 10
CBR
7 6 5 4 3
A
n
n
u
a
l

d
e
p
a
r
t
u
r
e
s
G
r
o
s
s

a
ir
c
r
a
f
t
w
e
ig
h
t
,

L
B
3
2
5
,
0
0
0
3
0
0
,
0
0
0
2
0
0
,
0
0
0
1
5
0
,
0
0
0
Thickness hot mix
Asphalt surfaces
4in. Critical areas
3in. Noncritical areas

-
inlorfaco lo aIIov llo usor lo inpul iniliaI dala concorning llo sub-
grado of llo aroa on vlicl llo pavomonl is lo bo dosignod, spocifi-
caIIy llo Youngs moduIus of llo subgrado, as voII as llo oxpoclod
fIool mix llal viII bo using llo pavomonl. As iIIuslralod in Iig. 7-7,
IAARIIIID providos llo rocommondod llicInoss of oacl Iayor
villin llo fIoxibIo pavomonl slrucluro, using rocommondod pavomonl
- - -
Wheel load
Area of tire contact
Horizontal strain and stress
at the bottom of the asphalt
Wearing surface
Base course
Subbase
Vertical subgrade strain
Subgrade support
Approximate line of
wheel-load distribution
Subgrade
-
- - -
- -

lypos (ox. I-401/403 asplaIl surfacos), or ollor usor proforrod lypos


Iislod in llis soclion.
- -
Rigid pavomonls consisl of sIabs of ICC pIacod on a subbaso llal is
supporlod on a compaclod subgrado. IiIo fIoxibIo pavomonls, a
proporIy dosignod rigid pavomonl providos a nonsIid surfaco vlicl
provonls llo infiIlralion of valor inlo llo subgrado, vliIo providing
slrucluraI supporl lo aircrafl vlicl uso llo pavomonl.
Tlo subbaso undor rigid pavomonls providos uniform slabIo sup-
porl for llo concrolo sIabs. As a ruIo, a minimum llicInoss of 4 in is
roquirod for aII subbasos undor rigid pavomonls. Tloro aro various
lypos of mixluros vlicl aro accoplabIo for rigid pavomonl subbasos
incIuding:
Ilom I-154Subbaso Courso
Ilom I-208Aggrogalo Baso Courso
Ilom I-209Cruslod Aggrogalo Baso Courso
Ilom I-211Iimo RocI Baso Courso
Ilom I-301SoiI Comonl Baso
Ilom I-304Comonl Troalod Baso Courso
Ilom I-306Iconocrolo Subbaso Courso
Ilom I-401IIanl Mix Biluminous Iavomonls
Ilom I-403HMA Baso Courso
Ior rigid pavomonls accommodaling aircrafl groalor llan 100,000 Ib
maximum gross voigll a slabiIizod subbaso is roquirod, vlicl
incIudo iloms I-304, I-306, I-401, and I-403.
-- --
SimiIar lo llo CBR mollod of dosign for fIoxibIo pavomonls,
prior lo 2008, rigid pavomonl dosign using nomograpls and ollor
approximalion clarls basod on lloorios dovoIopod by H. M. Woslor-
gaard vas llo IAA slandard. Woslorgaards anaIysis of pavomonl
dosign vas foundod in llo mid-1920s and focusod on llo caIcuIa-
lions of slrossos and dofIoclions in concrolo pavomonls duo lo appIiod
Ioading.
Woslorgaard assumod llo pavomonl sIab lo bo a llin pIalo rosling
on a spociaI subgrado vlicl is considorod oIaslic in llo vorlicaI diroc-
lion onIy. Tlal is, llo roaclion is proporlionaI lo llo dofIoclion of llo
subgrado , vloro is dofIoclion and is a soiI conslanl, roforrod
lo as llo - - . Ollor assumplions aro llal llo
concrolo sIab is a lomogonoous, isolropic oIaslic soIid and llal llo
vlooI Ioad of an aircrafl is dislribulod ovor an oIIiplicaI aroa. AIllougl

-
lloso assumplions do nol salisfy lloory in a slricl sonso, llo rosuIls
comparod roasonabIy vill obsorvalions. Tlo Woslorgaard anaIysis
vas usod lo ovaIualo slross in a pavomonl, as voII as llo dofIoclion of
llo sIab. Ior airporls, Woslorgaard dovoIopod formuIas for slrossos
and dofIoclions in llo inlorior of a sIab and al an odgo of a sIab.
Tlo U.S. Army Corps of Inginoors appIiod Woslorgaards formu-
Ias lovard llo croalion of approximalion clarls and dosign curvos.
An oxampIo is iIIuslralod in Iig. 7-8.
Tlo arrov found in Iig. 7-8 iIIuslralos an oxampIo rigid pavomonl
dosign anaIysis, considoring llo uso of a ICC mixluro of fIoxuraI slrongll
of 660 Ib/in
2
, a subgrado vill vaIuo 100 Ib/in
3
, for a Booing 757 dosign
aircrafl vill maximum gross voigll of 175,000 Ib and 6000 annuaI
oquivaIonl doparluros, rosuIling in a dosign sIab llicInoss of approx-
imaloIy 12 in.

SimiIar lo fIoxibIo pavomonl dosign, IAARIIIID procossos llo usor
dofinod fIool mix and vaIuo of llo subgrado lo dolormino llo llicI-
noss roquiromonls of llo ICC surfaco. IAARIIIID rocommonds
dofauIl subbaso Iayors al 6 in llicInoss. MuIlipIo subbaso Iayors aro
rocommondod for corlain subgrados vill Iov vaIuos. Iiguro 7-9
iIIuslralos an oxampIo rigid pavomonl slrucluro oulpul from IAAR-
IIIID.
IAARIIIID appIios finilo oIomonl lloory lo oslimalo llo llicI-
noss of llo ICC surfaco and any nocossary subbaso coursos. Tlroo-
dimonsionaI finilo oIomonl dosign lloory (3D-II) is simiIar lo Iayorod
- - - --
- -- --
900
Contact area = 168.35 sq. in.
Dual spacing = 34.00 in.
Tandem spacing = 45.00 in.
850
800
750
700
650
600
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
3,000
1,200 6,000
Annual departures
B757
25,000
15,000
550
C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

f
l
e
x
u
r
a
l

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
,

p
s
i
500
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
8
9
10
11
12
13
S
l
a
b

t
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
,

i
n
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
5
0
0
3
0
0
2
0
0
1
0
0
K

=

5
0

p
c
i
2
5
0
,
0
0
0

l
b
2
2
5
,
0
0
0 2
0
0
,
0
0
0
1
7
5
,
0
0
0
1
5
0
,
0
0
0
1
2
5
,
0
0
0
- -

oIaslic dosign lloory in llal il laIos inlo accounl llo Youngs modu-
Ius of llo subgrado and llo maloriaIs usod in llo sIab and subbaso
coursos, and considors a cumuIalivo damago faclor in ils anaIysis.
3D-II dosign modoIing, lovovor, considors llo pavomonl in discrolo
soclions, rallor llan a conlinuous maloriaI. Tlis porspoclivo aIIovs
for moro accuralo oslimalion of slrossos and slrain on llo odgos of llo
rigid pavomonl sIabs, vlicl comparod lo llo lransvorso slross noar
llo conlor of llo sIab, is moro crilicaI in rigid pavomonls.
-
SIabs of ICC rigid pavomonl aro connoclod by joinls lo pormil oxpan-
sion and conlraclion of llo pavomonl, lloroby roIioving fIoxuraI slrossos
duo lo curIing and friclion and lo faciIilalo conslruclion. Tloro aro llroo
lypos of joinls: isoIalion (lypo A), conlraclion (lypo B, C, or I), and
conslruclion (lypo I) joinls. Tlo Iocalions of lloso joinls aro iIIuslralod
in Iig. 7-10, vill dolaiIs as lo lloir spocificalions found in Iig. 7-11.
Tlo funclion of lypo A - - is lo isoIalo adjaconl pavo-
monl sIabs and providos spaco for llo oxpansion of llo pavomonl,
lloroby provonling llo dovoIopmonl of vory ligl comprossivo
slrossos vlicl can causo llo pavomonl lo bucIIo.
- aro providod lo roIiovo llo lonsiIo slrossos duo lo
lomporaluro, moisluro, and friclion, lloroby conlroIIing cracIing. If
conlraclion joinls voro nol inslaIIod, random cracIing vouId occur
on llo surfaco of llo pavomonl. Tlo spacing bolvoon conlraclion
joinls is dopondonl on llo llicInoss of llo sIab, llo claraclor of llo
- -

-
aggrogalo, and vlollor llo sIab is pIain or roinforcod. On llo basis of
oxporionco, il las boon found llal for pIain sIabs 8 lo 10 in llicI, llo
spacing slouId bo in llo rango of 15 lo 20 fl. Ior llicIor sIabs, llo
spacing can bo incroasod lo 25 fl. Conlraclion joinls may bo lingod
(lypo B), dovoIod (lypo C), or considorod a dummy joinl (lypo D).
Tlo IongiludinaI and lransvorso spocificalions of lloso joinls aro in
dolaiIs in TabIo 7-6.
- - aro roquirod lo faciIilalo conslruclion vlon
lvo abulling sIabs aro pIacod al difforonl limos.
AII joinls in concrolo pavomonls aro soaIod vill soaIing compound
lo provonl infiIlralion of valor or foroign maloriaI inlo llo joinl spacos.
Tlis joinl soaIanl musl bo capabIo of villslanding ropoalod oxlonsion
and comprossion as llo pavomonl clangos voIumo.
--
T
Te
Non-extruding premolded compressible material
To the nearest joint but
Te = 1.25 T to nearest 1" (3 mm)
but at least T + 2" (5 mm) not less than 10" (3 m)
3/4" (19 mm)
Detail 1
solation joint
Type A thickened edge
Type B hinged
Type D dummy
Contraction joints
Detail 2
T/2 d/2 T/2 d/2
Tie bar 30" (76 cm) long on 30" (76 cm) centers
Type E doweled
Paint and oil one end of dowel
Type C doweled
Paint and oil one end of dowel
Detail 2
Detail 3
Detail 2
Construction joint
NOTE:
1. Shaded area is joint sealant.
2. Groove must be formed by sawing.
T
T
T
T
T/2 d/2
- -

DovoIs aro Ioad lransfor dovicos vlicl pormil joinls lo opon by


vlicl provonl difforonliaI vorlicaI dispIacomonl. UsuaIIy dovoIs aro
soIid, round slooI bars, aIllougl pipo may aIso bo usod. SovoraI dif-
foronl anaIysos lavo boon proposod for llo dosign of dovoIs. Tlo
spacing of dovoIs doponds on llo llicInoss of llo pavomonl, modu-
Ius of subgrado roaclion, and llo sizo of llo dovoI. TabIo 7-7 conlains
rocommondalions for dovoI sizos and spacings.
- -
A conlinuousIy roinforcod concrolo pavomonl (CRCI) is ono in
vlicl lransvorso joinls lavo boon oIiminalod (oxcopl vloro llo
pavomonl inlorsocls or abuls oxisling pavomonls or slrucluros) and
llo IongiludinaI roinforcing slooI is conlinuous llrougloul llo
Iongll of llo pavomonl. Ollor llan llo dosign of llo omboddod
- -
Detail 1
solation joint
Detail 2
Contraction joint
Detail 3
Construction joint
Plan view-position of dowels
at edge of joint type C or E
3/4"1/8" (193 mm)
1/4" (6 mm) radius
or chamfer
Sealant material 1/4"3/8"
(610 mm) below surface
Rod backup material
Rod backup material
Non-extruding premolded compressible
material ASTM D-1751 or 1752
3/4"1/8" (193 mm)
T/4"1/4" (6 mm)
1 1/4" (32 mm) minimum
1 1/4" (32 mm) minimum
10" (254 mm) minimum
NOTES:
1. Sealant reservoir sized to provide proper shape factor, W/D. Field poured and preformed sealants require different
shape factors for optimum performance.
2. Rod backup material must be compatible with the type of sealant used and sized to provide the desired shape factor.
3. Recess sealant 3/8"1/2" for joints perpendicular to runway grooves.
4. Chamfered edges are recommended when pavements are subject to snow removal equipment of high trafc
volumes.
12" (305 mm) minimum
Construction joint between slabs
Sealant material 1/4"3/8"
(610 mm) below surface
D
W
Sealant material 1/4"3/8"
(610 mm) below surface
Rod backup material
Bar length varies
Longitudinal joint type C or E
Bar length varies
Transverse joint
type C or E
Optional (all joints)
1/4" 1/4" chamfer
D
W
T/4 +/ 1/4" (6 mm)

-
slooI villin llo pavomonl, llicInoss dosign of CRCI is idonlicaI lo
ollor rigid pavomonl lypos.
Tlo advanlagos for pIacing slooI in ICC pavomonls incIudo:
1. Roducing llo numbor of roquirod joinls bolvoon sIabs, rosuIl-
ing in docroasod mainlonanco cosls
2. IroIonging sorvico Iifo vlon pavomonl is ovorIoadod
3. Roducing pavomonl dofIoclion
- --

-

- --
-
-
-
-- -
-

- -
--
-
--
-
- --
-
-
- -
-
-- -

-
--

-
--
-
--

-

-
- -
-
- --

-
--

-
- -
- -

- -
- -


-

-

-

-
- -
-
- -
- -
- ---
-
-
-
- -

Tlo amounl of roinforcing slooI roquirod lo conlroI voIumo clangos


is dopondonl primariIy on llo sIab llicInoss, concrolo lonsiIo slrongll,
and yioId slrongll of llo slooI. WliIo sovoraI procoduros lavo boon
proposod for oslimaling llo roquirod amounl of slooI, oxporionco indi-
calos llal il slouId bo approximaloIy 0.6 porconl of llo gross cross-
soclionaI aroa and llal llo yioId slrongll slouId bo al Ioasl 60,000 Ib/
in
2
. Tlo minimum amounl may bo dolorminod by Iq. (7-6).

-
() ( . . ) 1 3 0 2
(7-6)
vloro
-
porconlago of omboddod slooI

lonsiIo slrongll of concrolo, Ib/in


2

-
aIIovabIo vorIing slross in slooI, Ib/in
2
coofficionl of subgrado friclion
Tlo IAA rocommonds llal llo cross-soclionaI aroa of llo roinforc-
ing slooI
-
bo oblainod by Iq. (7-7).

-
-

( . ) 3 7
(7-7)
vloro

-
aroa of slooI por fool of vidll or Iongll, in
2


Iongll or vidll of sIab, fl
llicInoss of sIab, in

-
aIIovabIo lonsiIo slross in slooI, Ib/in
2
To dolormino llo aroa of slooI in molric unils:


slouId bo oxprossod in molors
slouId bo oxprossod in miIIimolors

-
slouId bo oxprossod in moganovlons por squaro molor
Tlo conslanl 3.7 slouId bo clangod lo 0.64.

-
viII llon bo in lorms of squaro conlimolors por molor.
--
b

d
c

DovoIs nolod may bo soIid bar or ligl-slrongll pipo. Higl-slrongll pipo musl bo
pIuggod on oacl ond vill a ligll-filling pIaslic cap or morlar mix.
-- -

-
Tlo IongiludinaI omboddod slooI musl aIso bo capabIo of vill-
slanding llo forcos gonoralod by llo oxpansion and conlraclion of llo
pavomonl duo lo lomporaluro clangos. Iqualion (7-8) dolorminos llo
amounl of slooI roquirod as a funclion of lomporaluro.

50
195
(7-8)
vloro

-
omboddod slooI in porconl


lonsiIo slrongll of concrolo, 67 porconl of llo fIoxuraI
slrongll is rocommondod


vorIing slross for slooI usuaIIy laIon as 75 porconl of
spocifiod minimum yioId slrongll
maximum soasonaI lomporaluro difforonliaI for pavo-
monl in dogroos Ialronloil
IongiludinaI omboddod slooI is Iocalod al mid-dopll or sIigllIy
abovo mid-dopll of llo sIab.
Transvorso omboddod slooI is rocommondod for CIRI airporl
pavomonls lo conlroI random IongiludinaI cracIing. Iqualion (7-9) is
usod lo dolormino llo amounl of lransvorso slooI, as a porconlago of
llo lolaI sIab aroa.

-
-
-
()
2
100 (7-9)
vloro

-
omboddod slooI in porconl

-
vidll of sIab, in fl


friclion faclor of subgrado

-
aIIovabIo vorIing slross in slooI, in Ib/in
2
. YioId slrongll
of 0.75 is rocommondod
Transvorso slooI is dosignod in llo samo vay as lio bars.
- -
OvorIay pavomonls aro roquirod vlon oxisling pavomonls aro no
Iongor sorvicoabIo duo lo oillor dolorioralion in slrucluraI capabiIi-
lios of a Ioss in riding quaIily. Tloy aro aIso roquirod vlon pavomonls
musl bo slrongllonod lo carry groalor Ioads or incroasod ropolilions
of oxisling aircrafl boyond lloso anlicipalod in llo originaI dosign.
OvorIays aIso provido a soIulion for incroasod safoly. An oxampIo
vouId bo lo provido improvod sIid rosislanco and roducod risI of
lydropIaning.
Tloro aro sovoraI lypos of ovorIay pavomonls. A concrolo pavomonl
can bo ovorIaid vill addilionaI concrolo, a biluminous surfacing, or a
- -

combinalion of aggrogalo baso courso and a biluminous surfacing.


IiIoviso, a fIoxibIo lypo of pavomonl can bo ovorIaid vill concrolo, a
biluminous surfacing, or llo combinalion of aggrogalo baso courso and
a biluminous surfacing. Tlo various lypos of ovorIay pavomonls aro
dofinod as foIIovs:
1. Tlo llicInoss of a rigid or fIoxibIo lypo of
pavomonl pIacod on an oxisling pavomonl
2. An ovorIay pavomonl con-
slruclod of porlIand comonl concrolo
3. - An ovorIay consisling onliroIy of a bilumi-
nous surfacing
4. An ovorIay consisling of a baso courso and a
biluminous surfacing
Iiguro 7-12 providos an iIIuslralion of lypicaI pavomonl ovorIay
dosigns.
-
Bituminous overlay Bituminous overlay
3" approximately
Original
flexible
pavement
Bituminous overlay
on flexible pavement
Bituminous overlay
on rigid pavement
Rigid overlay on rigid
pavement
Rigid overlay on flexible
pavement
Rigid overlay Rigid overlay
Original
flexible
pavement
Original
flexible
pavement
Original
rigid
pavement
Bituminous leveling
course
Rigid overlay
Original rigid
pavement
Rigid overlay on rigid pavement
with bituminous leveling course

-
Tlo IAAs IAARIIIID pavomonl dosign program incIudos capa-
biIilios for dosigning airfioId pavomonl ovorIays. Tlo four lypos of
ovorIays considorod in IAARIIIID aro
1. Hol mix asplaIl ovorIay of oxisling fIoxibIo pavomonl
2. Concrolo ovorIay of oxisling fIoxibIo pavomonl
3. Hol mix asplaIl ovorIay of oxisling rigid pavomonl
4. Concrolo ovorIay of oxisling rigid pavomonl
Basod on llo llicInoss and condilion of llo oxisling pavomonl
Iayors, IAARIIIID oslimalos llo roquirod llicInoss of llo ovorIay.
Iiguro 7-13 providos an iIIuslralion of IAARIIIIDs oulpul for a
fIoxibIo ovorIay on an oxisling fIoxibIo pavomonl.
Tlo dosign of ovorIays ovor an oxisling rigid pavomonl is sIigllIy
moro compIox as llo condilion of llo oxisling rigid pavomonl pIays a
significanl roIo in llo roquirod llicInoss of llo ovorIay. Tlo condilion of
llo oxisling rigid pavomonl is oslimalod using a -
(SCI), a vaIuo vlicl rangos from 0 lo 100, in vlicl 100 roprosonling a
pavomonl vill no visibIo slrucluraI doficioncios and 0 roprosonling lolaI
slrucluraI faiIuro. VisibIo dislrossos llal conlribulo lo a Iovor SCI incIudo
- Cornor broaIs
- IongiludinaI, lransvorso, or diagonaI cracIing
- -

Layer
material
P-209 CrAg 10.00 53,948
P-154 UnCrAg 6.00 22,766
Subgrade CBR = 10.0
N = 0; Subgrade CDF = 1.00; t = 27.78 in
15,000
Thickness
(in)
Modulus or R
(psi)
AC_6E_Chapt4 Ex41 Des. Life = 20
P-401/P-403 AC Overlay 7.78 200,000
4.00 200,000 P-401/P-403 AC Surface
- -

- Slallorod sIab
- SlrinIago cracIs
- SpaIIing (cracIing, broaIing, or clipping of joinl/cracI odgos)
Tlo SCI is oslimalod using slandard pavomonl slrucluraI condi-
lion formuIas basod on ompiricaI anaIysis llal may bo found in gon-
oraI concrolo slrucluraI ovaIualion roforoncos.
In llo caso vlon lloro aro no visibIo or ollorviso dogradalions in
slrucluraI condilion, llo IAA caIIs for llo oslimalion of a
- (CDIU). Ior aggrogalo baso Iayors, CDIU may bo
oslimalod by Iq. (7-10).

0 75
0 75
1 0 75
.
.
.
vlon
vlon
(7-10)
vloro:

numbor of yoars of oporalion of llo oxisling pavomonl


unliI ovorIay

dosign Iifo of llo oxisling pavomonl in yoars


Ior rigid pavomonl basos, CDIU is oslimalod using llo IAAR-
IIIID soflvaro, basod on llo numbor of yoars llo pavomonl las
boon in uso lo dalo. Iiguro 7-14 iIIuslralos llo IAARIIIID oulpul for
oslimaling CDIU for rigid pavomonl basos.
- -- -

-
Tloro aro sovoraI ollor compIoxilios associalod vill pavomonl
ovorIays, parlicuIarIy vill rospocl lo rigid pavomonls, llal aro
boyond llo scopo of llis loxl. Il is slrongIy rocommondod llal furllor
sludy incIudo in-dopll roviov of llo IAA Advisory CircuIar AC
150/5320-6I, AirfioId Iavomonl Dosign and IvaIualion, as voII as
famiIiarizalion vill llo IAARIIIID soflvaro pacIago.
-
Iavomonls for Iigll aircrafl aro dofinod as Ianding aroas inlondod
for porsonaI or ollor smaII aircrafl ongagod in nonscloduIod aclivi-
lios, sucl as rocroalionaI, agricuIluraI, or inslruclionaI aclivilios, or
smaII aircrafl clarlor oporalions. Iavomonls for Iigll aircrafl aro
dosignod lo accommodalo aircrafl vill Ioss llan 30,000 Ib maxi-
mum gross voigll. In many casos lloso aircrafl viII nol oxcood
12,500 Ib. Iiguro 7-15 iIIuslralos llo composilion of Iigll aircrafl
pavomonls. Nolo llal, as opposod lo pavomonls for loavior aircrafl,
Iigll aircrafl pavomonls do nol lavo crilicaI vorsus noncrilicaI aroas
and as sucl llo surfaco llicInoss of pavomonl is llo samo llrougl
llo pavod aroa.
Tlo IAA IAARIIIID soflvaro providos llo capabiIily lo dosign
pavomonls for Iigll aircrafl, using a simiIar procoduro for lypicaI fIox-
ibIo and rigid pavomonls. IAARIIIID roquiros llo CBR or moduIus
vaIuo of llo subgrado, llo aircrafl mix, gross voiglls, and annuaI
-- -
Runway and taxiway widths in
accordance with appropriate
advisory circulars.
1
Runway
All pavement areas
same thickness T
Pavement width
Surface
Base
P
C
C
Subbase
S
ubbase
T
a
x
i
w
a
y
T
a
x
i
w
a
y
Transverse slopes in accordance
with appropriate advisory circulars.
2
Surfacing, base, PCC, etc., as required. 3
Minimum 12" (30 cm) typical [up to 30" (76 cm)
allowable for slip formed PCC]
4
1
2
4
3
12"
(30 cm)
12"
(30 cm)
- -

doparluros of aII aircrafl. Ior fIoxibIo pavomonls, IAARIIIID viII


oslimalo llo lolaI llicInoss of llo pavomonl, incIuding a minimum 2
in surfaco courso. Ior rigid pavomonls, IAARIIIID viII oslimalo llo
sIab llicInoss. In addilion IAARIIIID viII caII for a minimum sub-
baso llicInoss of 4 in for aircrafl voigling 12,500 Ib maximum gross
voigll or groalor.
Ollor llan using fIoxibIo or rigid pavomonl slrucluros, Ianding
faciIilios for Iigll aircrafl may bo lurf or an aggrogalo-lurf mixluro.
IAARIIIID aIso las capabiIilios for oslimaling llo composilion of
aggrogalo-lurf mixluros.

--
A pavomonl managomonl syslom (IMS) is a moclanism for providing
consislonl, objoclivo, and syslomalic procoduros for ovaIualing pavo-
monl condilion and for dolormining llo priorilios and scloduIos for
pavomonl mainlonanco and rolabiIilalion villin avaiIabIo rosourco
and budgoling conslrainls. Tlo pavomonl managomonl syslom can
aIso bo usod lo mainlain rocords of pavomonl condilion and lo provido
spocific rocommondalions for aclions vlicl may bo roquirod lo main-
lain a pavomonl nolvorI al an accoplabIo condilion vliIo minimizing
llo cosl associalod vill pavomonl mainlonanco and rolabiIilalion.
A pavomonl managomonl syslom ovaIualos prosonl pavomonl
condilion and prodicls fuluro condilion llrougl llo uso of a pavo-
monl condilion indicalor. By projocling llo ralo of dolorioralion in
llo pavomonl condilion indicalor and adopling somo minimum
accoplabIo IovoI for llis indicalor, a Iifo-cycIo cosl anaIysis can bo
porformod for various mainlonanco and rolabiIilalion aIlornalivos,
and a dolorminalion can bo mado of llo oplimaI limo for llo appIica-
lion of llo mosl approprialo aIlornalivo. Tlo ralo of dolorioralion of a
pavomonl accoIoralos vill limo. By impIomonling a mainlonanco or
rolabiIilalion slralogy lo upgrado llo pavomonl condilion al llo
propor limo llo ovoraII cosl of mainlonanco and rolabiIilalion can bo
minimizod. As nolod by llo IAA, llo lolaI annuaI cosl lo mainlain or
rolabiIilalo a pavomonl in roIalivoIy poor condilion can bo 4 lo 5 limos
llal of mainlaining or rolabiIilaling a pavomonl in roIalivoIy good
condilion.
An offoclivo IMS for uso al airporls slouId incIudo llo foIIoving
compononls:
1. A syslomalic moclanism for roguIarIy coIIocling, sloring, and
rolrioving llo nocossary dala associalod vill pavomonl uso
and condilion
2. An objoclivo syslom for ovaIualing pavomonl condilion al
roguIar inlorvaIs

-
3. Irocoduros for idonlifying aIlornalivo mainlonanco and rola-
biIilalion slralogios
4. Moclanisms for prodicling and ovaIualing llo impacl of pavo-
monl mainlonanco and rolabiIilalion slralogios and aIlornalivos
on pavomonl condilion, sorvicoabiIily, and usofuI sorvico Iifo
5. Irocoduros for oslimaling and comparing llo cosls of various
slralogios and aIlornalivos
6. Toclniquos for idonlifying llo oplimaI slralogy or aIlornalivo
basod upon roIovanl docision criloria
IssonliaI lo an offoclivo IMS is llo mainlonanco of a pavomonl
dalabaso vlicl slouId incIudo
1. Informalion aboul llo pavomonl slrucluro, incIuding vlon il
vas originaIIy conslruclod, llo slrucluraI compononls, llo
soiI condilions, a lislory of subsoquonl mainlonanco and rola-
biIilalion, and llo cosl of lloso aclions.
2. A rocord of llo airporl pavomonl lraffic incIuding llo numbor
of aircrafl oporalions by various lypos of aircrafl using llo
pavomonl ovor ils Iifo.
3. Tlo abiIily lo roguIarIy lracI pavomonl condilion, incIuding
moasuros of pavomonl dislross and llo causos of dislross. A
pavomonl raling syslom slouId bo dovoIopod basod upon llo
quanlily, sovorily, and lypo of dislross affocling llo pavomonl
surfaco condilion. Tlis raling syslom moasuros pavomonl
surfaco porformanco and las impIicalions for slrucluraI por-
formanco. Tlo poriodic coIIoclion of condilion-raling dala is
ossonliaI lo lracIing pavomonl porformanco
As parl of an offoclivo IMS, llo ovaIualion of airporl pavomonls
slouId bo a mollodicaI procoss, vlicl incIudos a llorougl roviov of
conslruclion dala and usago lislory, roulino silo inspoclions, and
pavomonl sampIing and losling. Typos of sampIing and losling pro-
coduros incIudo: dirocl sampIing, nondoslruclivo losling (NDT),
ground ponolraling radar, and infrarod llormograply.
-
1. - , Advisory CircuIar AC 150/5320-6I,
IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 2008.
2. - , Advisory CircuIar AC 150/5320-6D
incIudos clangos 1 llrougl 4, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon,
D.C., 2006.
3. - -, IAA AR-07/33, IodoraI
Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 2007.
4. IvoIulion of Concrolo Road Dosign in llo Unilod Slalos, -,
VoI. 1. Issuo 2, 2005.
- -

5. Kava, BriII, Hayloo, -- - ,


manuscripl prosonling for llo 2007 IAA WorIdvido Airporl ToclnoIogy
Transfor Conforonco, AlIanlic Cily, N.}., ApriI 2007.
6. A Dosign Irocoduro for ConlinuousIy Roinforcod Concrolo Iavomonls for
Higlvays, ACI Subcommilloo VII, TilIo No. 69-32, VoI. 69, pp. 309319,
-, Dolroil, Micl., 1972.
7. - - Documonl No. 9157-AN/901, 2d
od., InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organizalion, MonlroaI, Canada, 1983.
8. - , VoI. 1,
- -, InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organizalion,
MonlroaI, Canada, 1990.
9. - ,
VoI. 2, -, InlornalionaI CiviI Avialion Organizalion, MonlroaI,
Canada, 1990.
10. - -- -
, Aorospaco Induslrios Associalion of Amorica,
Inc., Waslinglon, D.C., 1983.
11. Aircrafl Iavomonl Ioading: Slalic and Dynamic, R. C. OMassoy, Rosoarcl
in Airporl Iavomonls, SpociaI Roporl No. 175, Transporlalion Rosoarcl Board,
Waslinglon, D.C., 1978.
12. - -, Roporl No.
IAA-RD-70-77, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1971.
13. -, Advisory CircuIar AC 150/5300-13, IodoraI Avialion
Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1989.
14. AnaIysis of Slrossos in Concrolo Iavomonls duo lo Varialions of Tomporaluro,
H. M. Woslorgaard, Irocoodings, 6ll AnnuaI Mooling, Higlvay Rosoarcl
Board, Waslinglon, D.C.
15. AppIicalions of llo RosuIls of Rosoarcl lo llo SlrucluraI Dosign of Iavomonls,
I. I. KoIIoy, - Dolroil, Micl., 1939.
16. Claraclorizalion of Subgrado SoiIs in CoId Rogions for Iavomonl Dosign
Iurposos, A. T. Borgan and C. I. Monismill, Higlvay Rosoarcl Rocord, No.
431, Higlvay Rosoarcl Board, Waslinglon, D.C., 1973.
17. - -, Compulor Irogram IAD
(IAA Vorsion I806IAA), U.S. Army Corps of Inginoors, Walorvays Ixporimonl
Slalion, VicIsburg, Miss., 1992.
18. - -, Compulor Irogram RAD
(IAA Vorsion R805IAA), U.S. Army Corps of Inginoors, Walorvays Ixporimonl
Slalion, VicIsburg, Miss., 1992.
19. -, Compulor Irogram ICN, U.S.
Army Corps of Inginoors, Walorvays Ixporimonl Slalion, VicIsburg, Miss.,
1992.
20. -, R. G. IacIard, IorlIand Comonl
Associalion, SIoIio, III., 1967.
21. -- - - -
-, ManuaI Sorios, No. MS-11A, Tlo AsplaIl Inslilulo, Ioxinglon,
Ky., 1987.
22. - - - -,
Roporl No. IAA-RD-73-198-I, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon,
D.C., 1974.
23. - - - -
-, NCHRI Roporl, Roporl No. 38, NalionaI Cooporalivo Higlvay
Rosoarcl Irogram, Higlvay Rosoarcl Board, Waslinglon, D.C., 1967.
24. - - - - -, Roporl No.
IAA-RD-76-66, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1976.
25. - - , Roporl No. IAA-RD-73-198-III, IodoraI
Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1974.
26. Dosign Considoralions for MuIli WlooI Aircrafl, W. R. BarIor and C. R.
GonzaIoz, InlornalionaI Air Transporlalion, Irocoodings of llo 22nd Conforonco
on InlornalionaI Air Transporlalion, Amorican Socioly of CiviI Inginoors, Nov
YorI, N.Y., 1992.

-
27. - - -, Roporl No.
IAA-RD-74-33-III, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1974.
28. - - - - -,
Roporl No. IAA-RD-74-30, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C.,
1974.
29. - , R. G. IacIard, Inginooring BuIIolin,
IorlIand Comonl Associalion, SIoIio, III., 1973.
30. - - ---,
Roporl No. 2, AnaIysis of Ixisling Dala, ToclnicaI Momorandum 3-349, U.S. Army
Corps of Inginoors, Walorvays Ixporimonl Slalion, VicIsburg, Miss., 1955.
31. Dosign of Iavomonl vill Higl QuaIily SlrucluraI Iayors, G. M. Hammill,
Rosoarcl in Airporl Iavomonls, SpociaI Roporl, No. 175, Transporlalion
Rosoarcl Board, Waslinglon, D.C., 1978.
32. -- -, Roporl No.
IAA-RD-81-78, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1981.
33. Iffocl of Dynamic Ioads on Airporl Iavomonls, R. H. Iodbollor, Rosoarcl in
Airporl Iavomonls, SpociaI Roporl, No. 175, Transporlalion Rosoarcl Board,
Waslinglon, D.C., 1978.
34. ---
- -, G. AlIborn, Univorsily of CaIifornia, BorIoIoy, CaIif.,
1972.
35. IquivaIonl Iassagos of Aircrafl vill Rospocl lo Ialiguo Dislross of IIoxibIo
AirfioId Iavomonls, }. A. Doacon, Irocoodings, Associalion of AsplaIl Iaving
ToclnoIogisls, 1971.
36. -- - -, Roporl No.
IAA-RD-74-36, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1975.
37. -, ToclnicaI ManuaI, TM 5-825-2, U.S. Army Corps of
Inginoors, A. G. IubIicalion Conlor, Sl. Iouis, Mo., 1978.
38. - - Informalion Sorios, No. IS-154,
Tlo AsplaIl Inslilulo, Ioxinglon, Ky., 1973.
39. - -
- - , W. }. Harrison, C. M. Gorrard, and
I. }. WardoI, Division of AppIiod Goomoclanics, SCIRO, AuslraIia, 1972.
40. - - -, Advisory CircuIar
AC 150/5380-6, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1982.
41. - , Advisory CircuIar AC 150/5370-14, IodoraI
Avialion Adminislralion, Waslinglon, D.C., 1991.
42. InfIuonco Clarls for Rigid Iavomonls, G. IicIoll and G. K. Ray, --,
Amorican Socioly of CiviI Inginoors, VoI. 116, pp. 4973, Nov YorI, N.Y.,
1951.
43. Iayorod Sysloms Undor NormaI Surfaco Ioads, M. G. Ioulz, H. I. M. van
Kompon, and A. }onos, - , No. 228, Higlvay Rosoarcl
Board, Waslinglon, D.C., 1968.
44. - - --
-, Advisory CircuIar AC 150/5320-12B, IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion,
Waslinglon, D.C., 1991.


VisuaI aids assisl llo piIol on approacl lo an airporl, as voII as navi-


galing around an airfioId and aro ossonliaI oIomonls of airporl infra-
slrucluro. As sucl, lloso faciIilios roquiro propor pIanning and prociso
dosign.
Tloso faciIilios may bo dividod inlo llroo calogorios: Iiglling,
marIing, and signago. Iiglling is furllor calogorizod as oillor approacl
Iiglling or surfaco Iiglling. Spocific Iiglling sysloms doscribod in llis
claplor incIudo
1. Approacl Iiglling
2. Runvay llrosloId Iiglling
3. Runvay odgo Iiglling
4. Runvay conlorIino and loucldovn zono Iiglls
5. Runvay approacl sIopo indicalors
6. Taxivay odgo and conlorIino Iiglling
Tlo propor pIacomonl of lloso sysloms is doscribod in llis clap-
lor bul no allompl las boon mado lo doscribo in dolaiI llo lardvaro
or ils inslaIIalion. AirfioId marIing and signago incIudos
1. Runvay and laxivay pavomonl marIings
2. Runvay and laxivay guidanco sign sysloms

-
AirfioId Iiglling, marIing, and signago faciIilios provido llo foIIoving
funclions:
1. Ground lo air visuaI informalion roquirod during Ianding
2. Tlo visuaI roquiromonls for laIooff and Ianding
3. Tlo visuaI guidanco for laxiing
In llo Unilod Slalos, llo IodoraI Avialion Adminislralion providos
guidanco for dosigning slandard airfioId Iiglling, marIing, and sig-
nago, llrougl pubIislod Advisory CircuIars. Tloso Advisory Circu-
Iars aro froquonlIy updalod. Tlo slandards doscribod in llis loxl aro
curronl as of 2007. Curronl advisory circuIars may bo found al llo
IAAs vobsilo al lllp://vvv.faa.gov.
- - -
Sinco llo oarIiosl days of fIying, piIols lavo usod ground roforoncos for
navigalion vlon approacling an airporl, jusl as officors on slips al
soa lavo usod IandmarIs on sloro vlon approacling a larbor. IiIols
nood visuaI aids in good voallor as voII as in bad voallor and during
llo day as voII as al nigll.
In llo daylimo lloro is adoqualo Iigll from llo sun, so arlificiaI
Iiglling is nol usuaIIy roquirod bul il is nocossary lo lavo adoqualo
conlrasl in llo fioId of viov and lo lavo a suilabIo pallorn of brigll-
noss so llal llo imporlanl foaluros of llo airporl can bo idonlifiod and
orionlod vill rospocl lo llo posilion of llo aircrafl in spaco. Tloso
roquiromonls aro aImosl aulomalicaIIy mol during llo day vlon llo
voallor is cIoar.
Tlo runvay for convonlionaI aircrafl aIvays appoars as a Iong nar-
rov slrip vill slraigll sidos and is froo of obslacIos. Il can lloroforo bo
oasiIy idonlifiod from a dislanco or by fIying ovor llo fioId. Tloroforo,
llo porspoclivo viov of llo runvay and ollor idonlifying roforonco
IandmarIs aro usod by piIols as visuaI aids for orionlalion vlon lloy
aro approacling llo airporl lo Iand. Ixporionco las domonslralod llal
llo lorizon, llo runvay odgos, llo runvay llrosloId, and llo conlor-
Iino of llo runvay aro llo mosl imporlanl oIomonls for piIols lo soo.
In ordor lo onlanco llo visuaI informalion during llo day, llo run-
vay is painlod vill slandard marIing pallorns. Tlo Ioy oIomonls in
lloso pallorns aro llo llrosloId, llo conlorIino, llo odgos, pIus muIli-
pIo paraIIoI Iinos lo incroaso llo porspoclivo and lo dofino llo pIano of
llo surfaco.
During llo day vlon visibiIily is poor and al nigll, llo visuaI
informalion is roducod by a significanl amounl ovor llo cIoar voallor
daylimo scono. Il is lloroforo ossonliaI lo provido visuaI aids vlicl
viII bo as moaningfuI lo piIols as possibIo.


Boacons aro Iigllod lo marI an airporl. Tloy aro dosignod lo produco
a narrov lorizonlaI and vorlicaI boam of ligl-inlonsily Iigll vlicl is
rolalod aboul a vorlicaI axis so as lo produco approximaloIy 12 fIaslos
por minulo for civiI airporls and 18 fIaslos por minulo for miIilary
airporls |28]. Tlo fIaslos vill a cIoarIy visibIo duralion of al Ioasl 0.15 s
aro arrangod in a vlilo-groon soquonco for Iand airporls and a vlilo-
yoIIov soquonco for Ianding aroas on valor. MiIilary airporls uso a
doubIo vlilo fIasl foIIovod by a Iongor groon or yoIIov fIasl lo dif-
foronlialo llom from civiI airfioIds. Tlo boacons aro mounlod on lop
of llo conlroI lovor or simiIar ligl slrucluro in llo immodialo vicinily
of llo airporl.
-
Obslruclions aro idonlifiod by fixod, fIasling, or rolaling rod Iiglls or
boacons. AII slrucluros llal conslilulo a lazard lo aircrafl in fIigll or
during Ianding or laIooff aro marIod by obslruclion Iiglls laving a
lorizonlaIIy uniform inlonsily duralion and a vorlicaI dislribulion
dosign lo givo maximum rango al llo Iovor angIos (1.5 lo 8) from
vlicl a coIIiding approacl vouId mosl IiIoIy como. Tlo criloria for
dolormining vlicl slrucluros nood lo bo Iigllod aro pubIislod by llo
IAA |18, 19].

An aircrafl approacling a runvay in a Ianding oporalion may bo
visuaIizod as a soquonco of oporalions invoIving a lransionl body
suspondod in a llroo-dimonsionaI grid llal is approacling a fixod
lvo-dimonsionaI grid. WliIo in llo air, llo aircrafl can bo considorod
as a poinl mass in a llroo-dimonsionaI orllogonaI coordinalo syslom
in vlicl il may lavo lransIalion aIong llroo coordinalo diroclions
and rolalion aboul llroo axos. If llo llroo coordinalo axos aro aIignod
lorizonlaI, vorlicaI, and paraIIoI lo llo ond of llo runvay, llo diroc-
lions of molion can bo doscribod as IaloraI, vorlicaI, and forvard. Tlo
rolalions aro normaIIy caIIod pilcl, yav, and roII, for llo lorizonlaI,
vorlicaI, and paraIIoI axos, rospoclivoIy. During a Ianding oporalion,
piIols musl conlroI and coordinalo aII six dogroos of froodom of llo
aircrafl so as lo bring llo aircrafl inlo coincidonco vill llo dosirod
approacl or roforonco pall lo llo loucldovn poinl on llo runvay.
In ordor lo do llis, piIols nood lransIalion informalion rogarding
llo aircrafls aIignmonl, loigll, and dislanco, rolalion informalion
rogarding pilcl, yav, and roII, and informalion concorning llo ralo of
dosconl and llo ralo of cIosuro vill llo dosirod pall. Tlo gIido pall,
loigll, limo, and dislanco roIalionslips during a lypicaI Ianding aro
slovn in Iig. 8-1.

-

IiIols musl Inov vloro lloir aircrafl is vill rospocl lo IaloraI dis-
pIacomonl from llo conlorIino of llo runvay. Mosl runvays aro from
75 lo 200 fl vido and from 3000 lo 12,000 fl Iong. Tlus any runvay is a
Iong narrov ribbon vlon firsl soon from sovoraI llousand fool abovo.
Tlo prodominanl aIignmonl guidanco comos from IongiludinaI Iinos
llal conslilulo llo conlorIino and odgos of llo runvay. AII loclniquos,
sucl as painling, Iiglling, or surfaco lroalmonl llal dovoIop conlrasl
and omplasizo lloso Iinoar oIomonls aro loIpfuI in providing aIign-
monl informalion.

Tlo oslimalion of llo loigll abovo ground from visuaI cuos is ono of
llo mosl difficuIl judgmonls for piIols. Il is simpIy nol possibIo lo
provido good loigll informalion from an approacl Iiglling syslom.
ConsoquonlIy llo bosl sourco of loigll informalion is llo inslrumon-
lalion in llo aircrafl. Hovovor, uso of lloso inslrumonls oflon roquiros
llo avaiIabiIily of procision ground or saloIIilo basod navigalion locl-
noIogios. Many airporls lavo no sucl loclnoIogios, and al ollors
onIy provido IaloraI approacl guidanco lo corlain runvays. Conso-
quonlIy lvo lypos of ground-basod visuaI aids dofining llo dosirod
gIido pall lavo boon dovoIopod. Tloso aro Inovn as llo visuaI
approacl sIopo indicalor (VASI) and llo procision approacl pall
indicalor (IAII) vlicl aro discussod Ialor in llis claplor.
SovoraI paramolors infIuonco lov mucl a piIol can soo on llo
ground. Ono of lloso is llo . Tlis is llo angIo
bolvoon llo IongiludinaI axis of llo fusoIago and an incIinod pIano
boIov vlicl llo viov of llo piIol is bIocIod by somo parl of llo aircrafl,
indicalod by in Iig. 8-2. NormaIIy llo Iargor llo angIo , llo moro
llo piIol can soo of llo ground. AIso imporlanl is llo , ,
200'
100'
1290'
(6 sec)
3580' (16 sec)
2.5 glide slope
3
.0

u
p
pe
r g
lide
slo
p
e
lim
it
1000'
5870' (27 sec)
8160' (37 sec)
Time basis: 150 mph = 220 f.p.s.
300' 400'
Runway
Touch-down point
Runway threshold
- - --

of llo fusoIago axis during llo approacl lo llo runvay. Iov aircrafl
approacl a runvay vill llo fusoIago angIo lorizonlaI, lloy aro oillor
pilclod up or dovn. Tlo Iargor llo angIo (in a pilcl-up alliludo),
llo Iargor musl bo llo angIo lo lavo adoqualo ovor-llo-noso vision.
Approacl spood las a profound infIuonco on llo angIo . As an
oxampIo, for somo aircrafl can bo docroasod by aboul 1 vill oacl
5 In incroaso in spood abovo llo roforonco approacl spood.
In Iig. 8-2, VR is llo visuaI rango or llo maximum dislanco a piIol
can soo and somo loigll abovo llo runvay . Tlo lorizonlaI sogmonl
of llo ground llal a piIol can soo is . According lo Iig. 8-2,
= cos col ( ) (8-1)
and aIso
sin

(8-2)
Nolo from Iq. (8-1) llal for a fixod vaIuo of VR llo ground sog-
monl incroasos as llo loigll of llo oyos of a piIol abovo llo ground
docroasos. TypicaI vaIuos of rango from 11 lo 16 and lypicaI vaIuos
of aro 0.5.
Il las boon found llrougl oxporionco llal 3 s is approximaloIy
llo minimum roaclion limo for a piIol lo causo llo aircrafl lo roacl
aflor siglling a visuaI aid |28]. If a minimum of 3 s is nocossary for
porcoplion, piIol aclion, aircrafl rosponso, and clocIing llo rosponso,
and if llo approacl spood of llo aircrafl is 150 mi/l (220 fl/s), llon
llo minimum lorizonlaI sogmonl on llo ground slouId nol bo Ioss
llan 660 fl. Using Iq. (8-1) vill llo gIido sIopo angIo, , of 2.5 and a
- - -
- - -
-

H
Runway
Visual cone
F
u
s
e
la
g
e
a
x
is
V
R
G
lid
e
s
lo
p
e
h
Horizontal

-
vaIuo of of 12 rosuIls in boing aboul 200 fl vlon is 200 fl.
Hovovor, vlon is 100 fl, is 687 fl. ConsoquonlIy, Iiglling sysloms
dosignod lo aid in aircrafl approacling lo Iand on a runvay lavo
boon dosignod lo provido oplimaI visuaI guidanco vlon aircrafl aro
al roIalivoIy Iov aIliludos on approacl, and aro angIod lo bo consis-
lonl vill llo dovnvard approacl angIo of arriving aircrafl.

Approacl Iiglling sysloms (AIS) aro dosignod spocificaIIy lo provido
guidanco for aircrafl approacling a parlicuIar runvay undor nigll-
limo or ollor Iov-visibiIily condilions. WliIo undor niglllimo condi-
lions il may bo possibIo lo viov approacl Iiglling sysloms from sovoraI
miIos avay, undor ollor Iov-visibiIily condilions, sucl as fog, ovon
llo mosl inlonso AIS sysloms may onIy bo visibIo from as IillIo as
2500 fl from llo runvay llrosloId.
Sludios of llo visibiIily in fog |3] lavo slovn llal for a visuaI rango
of 2000 lo 2500 fl il vouId bo dosirabIo lo lavo as mucl as 200,000 can-
doIas (cd) avaiIabIo in llo oulormosl approacl Iiglls vloro llo sIanl
rango is roIalivoIy Iong. Undor lloso samo condilions llo oplimum
inlonsily of llo approacl Iiglls noar llo llrosloId slouId bo on llo
ordor of 100 lo 500 cd. A lransilion in llo inlonsily of llo Iigll llal is
diroclod lovard llo piIol is liglIy dosirabIo in ordor lo provido llo bosl
visibiIily al llo groalosl possibIo rango and lo avoid gIaro and llo Ioss
of conlrasl sonsilivily and visuaI acuily al slorl rango.
- -
Tlo configuralions vlicl lavo boon adoplod aro llo CaIvorl syslom
|3] slovn in Iig. 8-3 vlicl las boon vidoIy usod in Iuropo and ollor
parls of llo vorId, llo ICAO calogory II and calogory III syslom slovn
in Iig. 8-4, and llo four syslom configuralions vlicl lavo boon adoplod
by llo IAA in llo Unilod Slalos slovn in Iig. 8-5. Tlo IAA pubIislos
criloria for llo oslabIislmonl of llo approacl Iiglling sysloms |13]
and ollor navigalion faciIilios al airporls |6]. Approacl Iiglls aro nor-
maIIy mounlod on frangibIo podoslaIs of varying loigll lo improvo
llo porspoclivo of llo piIol in approacling a runvay.
Tlo firsl approacl Iiglling syslom vas Inovn as llo CaIvorl sys-
lom. In llis syslom, dovoIopod by I. S. CaIvorl in Groal Brilain in 1949,
incIudos a Iino of singIo buIb Iiglls spacod on 100-fl conlors aIong llo
oxlondod runvay conlorIino and six lransvorso crossbars of Iiglls of
variabIo Iongll spacod on 500-fl conlors, for a lolaI Iongll of 3000 fl.
Tlo CaIvorl syslom vas llo firsl approacl Iiglling syslom lo bo corli-
fiod by ICAO, and is aIso commonIy Inovn as llo ICAO calogory I
approacl Iiglling syslom. An iIIuslralion of llo CaIvorl syslom is found
in Iig. 8-3. Tlo CaIvorl syslom is sliII usod in dovoIoping counlrios.

Ior oporalions in vory poor visibiIily, ICAO las corlifiod a modifi-


calion of llo CaIvorl syslom, Inovn as llo ICAO calogory II syslom.
Tlo varialion caIIs for a liglor Iiglling inlonsily lo llo innor 300 m
of llo syslom cIososl lo llo runvay llrosloId. Tlo calogory II and
calogory III syslom adoplod by ICAO slovn in Iig. 8-4 consisls of lvo
Iinos of rod bars on oacl sido of llo runvay conlorIino and a singIo Iino
of vlilo bars on llo runvay conlorIino boll al 30 m inlorvaIs and boll
oxlonding oul 300 m from llo runvay llrosloId. In addilion, lloro aro
lvo Iongor bars of vlilo Iigll al a dislanco of 150 and 300 m from llo
runvay llrosloId, and a Iong llrosloId bar of groon Iigll al llo run-
vay llrosloId. ICAO aIso rocommonds llal llo Iongor bars of vlilo
Iigll aIso bo pIacod al dislancos of 450, 500, and 750 m from llo run-
vay llrosloId if llo runvay conlorIino Iiglls oxlond oul llal dislanco
as slovn in Iig. 8-4.
Tlo AISs curronlIy corlifiod by llo IAA for inslaIIalion in llo
Unilod Slalos consisl of a ligl-inlonsily AIS vill soquoncod fIasling
Iiglls (AISI-2), vlicl is roquirod for calogory II and calogory III
procision approaclos, a ligl-inlonsily approacl Iiglling syslom vill
RUNWAY THRESHOLD CENTRE LNE LGHTS HORZON BAR LGHTS
3000'
500'
100'
--
600 m 300 m
150 m 150 m 150 m 150 m
CAO
CAT
Green Lights
Red Lights
White Lights
--

-
soquoncod fIasling Iiglls (AISI-1), and llroo modium-inlonsily AISs
(MAISR, MAIS, MAISI).
In oacl of lloso sysloms lloro is a Iong lransvorso crossbar Iocalod
1000 fl from llo runvay llrosloId lo indicalo llo dislanco from llo
runvay llrosloId. In lloso sysloms roII guidanco is providod by
crossbars of vlilo Iigll 14 fl in Iongll, pIacod al oillor 100- or 200-fl
conlors on llo oxlondod runvay conlorIino. Tlo 14-fl crossbars consisl
of cIosoIy spacod fivo-buIb vlilo Iiglls lo givo llo offocl of a conlinuous
bar of Iigll.
Tlo ligl-inlonsily AIS is 2400 fl Iong (somo aro 3000 fl Iong) vill
various pallorns of Iigll Iocalod symmolricaIIy aboul llo oxlondod
runvay conlorIino and a sorios of soquoncod ligl-inlonsily fIasling
Iiglls Iocalod ovory 100 fl on llo oxlondod runvay conlorIino for llo
oulormosl 1400 fl. In llo ligl-inlonsily AISs llo 14-fl crossbars of
fivo-buIb vlilo Iigll aro pIacod al 100-fl inlorvaIs and in llo modium-
inlonsily AISs lloso crossbars of vlilo Iigll aro pIacod al 200-fl inlor-
vaIs boll for a dislanco of 2400 fl from llo runvay llrosloId on llo
oxlondod runvay conlorIino. Tlo ligl-inlonsily AISs lavo a Iong
crossbar of groon Iiglls al llo odgo of llo runvay llrosloId. Tlo
AISI-2 syslom, slovn in Iig. 8-5, las lvo addilionaI crossbars con-
sisling of llroo-buIb vlilo Iigll crossbars vlicl aro pIacod symmolri-
caIIy aboul llo runvay conlorIino al a dislanco of 500 fl from llo runvay
llrosloId and lvo addilionaI llroo-buIb rod Iigll crossbars aro pIacod
symmolricaIIy aboul llo oxlondod runvay conlorIino al 100-fl inlor-
vaIs for llo innor 1000 fl lo doIinoalo llo odgos of llo runvay surfaco.
Tlo AISI-1 syslom, slovn in Iig. 8-5, las lvo addilionaI crossbars
consisling of fivo-buIb rod Iigll crossbars vlicl aro pIacod symmolri-
caIIy aboul llo runvay conlorIino al a dislanco of 100 fl from llo run-
vay llrosloId lo doIinoalo llo odgo of llo runvay and lvo addilionaI
llroo-buIb rod Iigll crossbars pIacod symmolricaIIy aboul llo oxlondod
runvay conlorIino al 200 fl from llo runvay llrosloId.
Tlo MAISR syslom, slovn in Iig. 8-5, is a 2400-fl modium-
inlonsily AIS vill runvay aIignmonl indicalor Iiglls (RAIIs). Tlo
innor 1000 fl of llo MAISR is llo MAIS porlion of llo syslom and llo
oulor 1400 fl is llo RAII porlion of llo syslom. Tlo syslom las
soquonliaI fIasling Iiglls for llo oulor 1000 fl of llo syslom. Il is roc-
ommondod for calogory I procision approaclos. Tlo simpIifiod slorl
approacl Iiglling syslom (SSAIR) las llo samo configuralion as llo
MAISR syslom.
Al smaIIor airporls vloro procision approaclos aro nol roquirod,
a modium AIS vill soquonliaI fIaslors (MAISI) or vill soquoncod
fIaslors (MAIS) is adoqualo. Tlo syslom is onIy 1400 fl Iong com-
parod lo a Iongll of 2400 fl for a procision approacl syslom. Il is
lloroforo mucl moro oconomicaI, an imporlanl faclor al smaII air-
porls. Tlo MAISI, simiIar lo llo MAISR slovn in Iig. 8-5, is a slorl
approacl modium-inlonsily AIS bul llo soquoncod fIaslors ropIaco

(a)
2400'3000'
1000'1600' 400' 500' 500'
ALSF-2
Green Lights
Red Lights
White Lights
Sequential Flashers
-- -
(b)
2400'3000'
1000'1600' 400' 500' 500'
ALSF-1
Green Lights
Red Lights
White Lights
Sequential Flashers

-
llo runvay aIignmonl indicalor Iiglls and lloso aro onIy providod in llo
oulormosl 400 fl of llo 1400-fl syslom lo improvo piIol rocognilion of
llo runvay approacl in aroas vloro lloro aro dislracling Iiglls in llo
vicinily of llo airporl. Tlo MAIS syslom doos nol lavo llo runvay
aIignmonl indicalor Iiglls or llo soquonliaI fIaslors.
Al inlornalionaI airporls in llo Unilod Slalos, llo 2400-fl AISs aro
oflon oxlondod lo a dislanco of 3000 fl lo conform lo inlornalionaI
spocificalions.
(c)
2400'
1000' 400' 500' 500'
MALSR
SSALR
Red Lights
White Lights
Sequential Flashers
(d)
1400'
400' 500' 500'
MALSF
Red Lights
White Lights
Sequential Flashers
-- -

Soquoncod-fIasling ligl-inlonsily Iiglls aro avaiIabIo for airporl


uso and aro inslaIIod as suppIomonls lo llo slandard approacl Iiglling
syslom al lloso airporls vloro vory Iov visibiIilios occur froquonlIy.
Tloso Iiglls oporalo from llo slorod onorgy in a capacilor vlicl is dis-
clargod llrougl llo Iamp in approximaloIy 5 ms and may dovoIop as
mucl as 30 miIIion cd of Iigll. Tloy aro mounlod in llo samo podoslaIs
as llo Iigll bars. Tlo Iiglls aro soquonco-firod, boginning vill llo unil
farllosl from llo runvay. Tlo compIolo cycIo is ropoalod ovory 2 s. Tlis
rosuIls in a briIIianl baII of Iigll conlinuousIy moving lovard llo run-
vay. Sinco llo vory brigll Iigll can inlorforo vill llo oyo adaplalion of
llo piIol, condonsor disclargo Iamps aro usuaIIy omillod in llo 1000 fl
of llo approacl Iiglling syslom noarosl llo runvay.
- -
VisuaI approacl sIopo aids aro Iiglling sysloms dosignod lo provido
a moasuro of vorlicaI guidanco lo aircrafl approacling a parlicuIar
runvay. Tlo principIo of lloso aids is lo provido coIor-basod idonlifi-
calion lo llo piIol indicaling lloir varialion from a dosirod aIliludo
and dosconl ralo vliIo on approacl. Tlo lvo mosl common visuaI
approacl sIopo aids aro llo visuaI approacl sIopo indicalor (VASI),
and llo procision approacl pall indicalor (IAII).
-
Tlo visuaI approacl sIopo indicalor (VASI) is a syslom of Iiglls vlicl
acls as an aid in dofining llo dosirod gIido pall in roIalivoIy good
voallor condilions. VASI Iiglling inlonsilios aro dosignod lo bo visi-
bIo from 3 lo 5 mi during llo day and up lo 20 mi al nigll.
Tloro aro a numbor of difforonl VASI configuralions doponding
on llo dosirod visuaI rango, llo lypo of aircrafl, and vlollor Iargo
vido bodiod aircrafl viII bo using llo runvay. Iacl group of Iiglls
lransvorso lo llo diroclion of llo runvay is roforrod lo as a . Tlo
dovnvind bar is lypicaIIy Iocalod bolvoon 125 and 800 fl from llo
runvay llrosloId, oacl subsoquonl bar is Iocalod bolvoon 500 and
1000 fl from llo provious bar. A bar is mado up of ono, lvo, or llroo
Iigll unils, roforrod lo as -. Tlo basic VASI-2 syslom, iIIuslralod in
Iig. 8-6, is a lvo-bar syslom consisling of four boxos. Tlo bar llal is
noarosl lo llo runvay llrosloId is roforrod lo as llo ,
and llo bar llal is farllosl from llo runvay llrosloId is roforrod lo as
llo . As iIIuslralod in Iig. 8-6, if piIols aro on llo propor
gIido pall, llo dovnvind bar appoars vlilo and llo upvind bar
appoars rod, if piIols aro loo Iov, boll bars appoar rod, and if lloy aro
loo ligl boll bars appoar vlilo.
In ordor lo accommodalo Iargo vido bodiod aircrafl vloro llo
loigll of llo oyo of llo piIol is mucl groalor llan in smaIIor jols, a llird
upvind bar is addod. Ior vido bodiod aircrafl llo middIo bar bocomos

-
llo dovnvind bar and llo llird bar is llo upvind bar. In ollor vords,
piIols of Iargo vido bodiod aircrafl ignoro llo bar cIososl lo llo run-
vay llrosloId and uso llo ollor lvo bars for visuaI roforonco. Tlo
Iocalion of llo Iiglls for VASI-6 sysloms is slovn in Iig. 8-7.
Tlo moro common sysloms in uso in llo Unilod Slalos aro llo
VASI-2, VASI-4, VASI-12, and VASI-16. VASI sysloms aro parlicuIarIy
usofuI on runvays llal do nol lavo an inslrumonl Ianding syslom or
for aircrafl nol oquippod lo uso an inslrumonl Ianding syslom.
-
Tlo IAA prosonlIy profors llo uso of anollor lypo of visuaI approacl
indicalor caIIod llo - (IAII) |20]. Tlis
syslom givos moro prociso indicalions lo llo piIol of llo approacl
pall of llo aircrafl and uliIizos onIy ono bar as opposod lo llo mini-
mum of lvo roquirod by llo VASI syslom. A sclomalic diagram of llo
IAII syslom is slovn in Iig. 8-8.
Tlo syslom consisls of a unil vill four Iiglls on oillor sido of llo
approacl runvay. By uliIizing llo coIor sclomo indicalod on Iig. 8-8,
llo piIol is abIo lo ascorlain fivo approacl angIos roIalivo lo llo propor
gIido sIopo as comparod vill llroo vill llo VASI syslom. Ono of llo
probIoms vill llo VASI syslom las boon llo IacI of an immodialo
lransilion from ono coIor indicalion lo anollor rosuIling in slados of
coIors. Tlo IAII syslom rosoIvos llis probIom by providing an inslanl
lransilion from ono coIor indicalion lo anollor as a roaclion lo llo
Below Both
Glide Paths
Near Bar
Far Bar
On Lower
Glide Path
On Upper
Glide Path
Above Both
Glide Paths
Middle Bar
--
Below Glide Path
Near Bar
Far Bar
On Glide Path Above Glide Path
= Red
= White
--

dosconl pall of llo aircrafl. An advanlago of llo syslom is llal il is a


ono-bar syslom as opposod lo llo lvo-bar VASI syslom. Tlis rosuIls in
groalor oporaling and mainlonanco cosl oconomios, and oIiminalos llo
nood for llo piIol lo IooI al lvo bars lo oblain gIido sIopo indicalions.
-
During llo finaI approacl for Ianding, piIols musl maIo a docision lo
compIolo llo Ianding or oxoculo a missod approacl. Tlo idonlifica-
lion of llo llrosloId is a major faclor in piIol docisions lo Iand or nol
lo Iand. Ior llis roason, llo rogion noar llo llrosloId is givon spociaI
Iiglling considoralion. Tlo llrosloId is idonlifiod al Iargo airporls by
a compIolo Iino of groon Iiglls oxlonding across llo onliro vidll of
llo runvay, as slovn oarIior in Iig. 8-5, and al smaII airporls by four
groon Iiglls on oacl sido of llo llrosloId. Tlo Iiglls on oillor sido of
llo runvay llrosloId may bo oIovalod. TlrosloId Iiglls in llo diroc-
lion of Ianding aro groon bul in llo opposilo diroclion lloso Iiglls aro
rod lo indicalo llo ond of llo runvay.

Aflor crossing llo llrosloId, piIols musl compIolo a loucldovn and
roII oul on llo runvay. Tlo runvay visuaI aids for llis plaso of Iand-
ing aro bo dosignod lo givo piIols informalion on aIignmonl, IaloraI
dispIacomonl, roII, and dislanco. Tlo Iiglls aro arrangod lo form a
visuaI pallorn llal piIols can oasiIy inlorprol.
Al firsl, nigll Iandings voro mado by fIoodIiglling llo gonoraI
aroa. Various lypos of Iiglling dovicos voro usod, incIuding aulomo-
biIo loadIiglls, arc Iiglls, and soarcl Iiglls. Boundary Iiglls voro
addod lo oulIino llo fioId and lo marI lazards sucl as dilclos and
foncos. GraduaIIy, proforrod Ianding diroclions voro dovoIopod, and
spociaI Iiglls voro usod lo indicalo lloso diroclions. IIoodIiglling
vas llon roslriclod lo llo proforrod Ianding diroclions, and runvay
odgo Iiglls voro addod aIong llo Ianding slrips. As oxporionco vas
High
(More Than
3.5 Degrees)
White
Red
Slightly High
(3.2 Degrees)
On Glide Path
(3 Degrees)
Low
(Less Than
2.5 Degrees)
Slightly Low
(2.8 Degrees)
- --

-
dovoIopod, llo runvay odgo Iiglls voro adoplod as visuaI aids on a
runvay. Tlis vas foIIovod by llo uso of runvay conlorIino and loucl-
dovn zono Iiglls for oporalions in vory poor visibiIily. IAA Advisory
CircuIar 150/5340-30C providos guidanco for llo dosign and inslaIIa-
lion of runvay and laxivay Iiglling sysloms. Tloso pIanning and
dosigning sucl sysloms slouId rofor lo llo Ialosl clangos lo llis Advi-
sory CircuIar, commonIy found al lllp://vvv.faa.gov.
-
Runvay odgo Iiglling sysloms oulIino llo odgo of runvays during
niglllimo and roducod visibiIily condilions. Runvay odgo Iiglls aro
cIassifiod by inlonsily, ligl inlonsily (HIRI), modium inlonsily (MIRI),
and Iov inlonsily (IIRI). IIRIs aro lypicaIIy inslaIIod on visuaI run-
vays and al ruraI airporls. MIRIs aro lypicaIIy inslaIIod on visuaI
runvays al Iargor airporls and on nonprocision inslrumonl runvays,
HIRIs aro inslaIIod on procision-inslrumonl runvays.
Rocommondod slandards for llo dosign and inslaIIalion of run-
vay odgo Iiglling sysloms aro pubIislod by llo IAA |21] and aro
conlainod in ICAO Annox 14 |1]. Tloso Iigll fixluros aro usuaIIy
oIovalod unils bul somifIusl Iiglls aro pormillod. Iacl unil las a
spociaIIy dosignod Ions vlicl projocls lvo main Iigll boams dovn
llo runvay. IIovalod runvay Iiglls aro mounlod on frangibIo fillings
and projocl no moro llan 30 in abovo llo surfaco on vlicl lloy aro
inslaIIod. Tloy aro Iocalod aIong llo odgo of llo runvay nol moro llan
10 fl from llo odgo of llo fuII-slrongll pavomonl surfaco. Tlo Iongi-
ludinaI spacing is nol moro llan 200 fl. Runvay odgo Iiglls aro vlilo,
oxcopl llal llo Iasl 2000 fl of an inslrumonl runvay in llo diroclion of
aircrafl oporalions lloso Iiglls aro yoIIov lo indicalo a caulion zono.
A lypicaI Iayoul of Iov-inlonsily and modium-inlonsily runvay odgo
Iiglls is slovn in Iig. 8-9, and a lypicaI Iayoul of HIRIs aro iIIus-
lralod in Iig. 8-10. If llo runvay llrosloId is dispIacod, bul llo aroa
llal is dispIacod is usabIo for laIooffs and laxiing, llo runvay odgo
Iiglls in llo dispIacod aroa in llo diroclion of aircrafl oporalions aro
rod, as slovn in Iig. 8-11.
-
As an aircrafl lravorsos ovor llo approacl Iiglls, piIols aro IooIing al
roIalivoIy brigll Iigll sourcos on llo oxlondod runvay conlorIino.
Ovor llo runvay llrosloId, piIols conlinuo lo IooI aIong llo conlor-
Iino, bul llo principaI sourco of guidanco, namoIy, llo runvay odgo
Iiglls, las movod far lo oacl sido in lloir poriploraI vision. Tlo rosuIl
is llal llo conlraI aroa appoars oxcossivoIy bIacI, and piIols aro virlu-
aIIy fIying bIind, oxcopl for llo poriploraI roforonco informalion, and
any rofIoclion of llo runvay pavomonl from llo aircrafls Ianding
Iiglls. Allompls lo oIiminalo llis bIacI loIo by incroasing llo inlon-
sily of runvay odgo Iiglls lavo provon inoffoclivo. In ordor lo roduco

llo bIacI loIo offocl and provido adoqualo guidanco during vory
poor visibiIily condilions, runvay conlorIino and loucldovn zono
Iiglls aro lypicaIIy inslaIIod in llo pavomonl. An iIIuslralion of run-
vay conlorIino Iiglling is providod in Iig. 8-12.
Tloso Iiglls aro usuaIIy inslaIIod onIy al lloso airporls vlicl aro
oquippod for inslrumonl oporalions. Tloso Iiglls aro roquirod for IIS
calogory II and calogory III runvays and for calogory I runvays usod
for Ianding oporalions boIov 2400 fl runvay visuaI rango. Runvay con-
lorIino Iiglls aro roquirod on runvays usod for laIooff oporalions boIov
1600 fl runvay visuaI rango. AIllougl nol roquirod, runvay conlorIino
Iiglls aro rocommondod for calogory I runvays groalor llan 170 fl in
vidll or vlon usod by aircrafl vill approacl spoods ovor 140 In.
Wlon lloro aro dispIacod llrosloIds, llo conlorIino Iiglls aro
oxlondod inlo llo dispIacod llrosloId aroa. If llo dispIacod aroa is nol
usod for laIooff oporalions, or if llo dispIacod aroa is usod for laIooff
oporalions and is Ioss llan 700 fl in Iongll, llo conlorIino Iiglls aro
bIanIod oul in llo diroclion of Ianding. Ior dispIacod llrosloIds groalor
llan 700 fl in Iongll or for dispIacod aroas usod for laIooffs, llo conlor-
Iino Iiglls in llo dispIacod aroa musl bo capabIo of boing slul off during
Ianding oporalions.
taxiway
200' max
400' max
2
0
0
'
m
a
x
DETAIL A: Threshold/Runway End Lights
nstalled with LRLs or MRLs
DETAL A
200' max
2
0
200' max
2' min
10' max
2' min
10' max
W
W
W
W
W
NOTES:
1. nstall six threshold lights on visual runways.
2. nstall eight threshold lights on instrument runways.
3. For intersections, uniform spacing is maintained by
installing a single elevated edge light on the runway
opposite the missing light position.
4. Gaps between lights on a single side of the runway must
not exceed 400 ft.
5. Markings are for information only, refer to AC 150/5340-1
for appropriate runway markings.
W
W
W
R
G
R
B
B B
B
G
10'
ctr to ctr
10'
ctr to ctr
- --
-

t
a
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i
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D
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A
2
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m
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20
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1
5
0
/
5
3
4
0
-
1
.

-
Runvay loucldovn zono Iiglls aro vlilo, consisl of a llroo-buIb
bar on oillor sido of llo runvay conlorIino, and oxlond 3000 fl from
llo runvay llrosloId or ono-laIf llo runvay Iongll if llo runvay is
Ioss llan 6000 fl Iong. Tloy aro spacod al inlorvaIs of 100 fl, vill llo
firsl Iigll bar 100 fl from llo runvay llrosloId, and aro Iocalod 36 fl
on oillor sido of llo runvay conlorIino, as slovn in Iig. 8-13. Tlo
conlorIino Iiglls aro spacod al inlorvaIs of 50 fl. Tloy aro normaIIy
offsol a maximum of 2 fl from llo conlorIino lo avoid llo conlorIino
painl Iino and llo noso goar of llo aircrafl riding ovor llo Iigll fix-
luros. Tloso Iiglls aro aIso vlilo, oxcopl for llo Iasl 3000 fl of runvay
NOTE:
LEGEND:
1. REFER TO PARAGRAPH 3.3a1 FOR RUNWAY CENTERLNE LGHT FXTURES PLACEMENT AND TOLERANCES.
BDRECTONAL RCL WHTE BOTH DRECTONS
BDRECTONAL RCL RED N DRECTON OF SHADED SDE
WHTE N DRECTON OF WHTE SDE
SEE NOTE 1
SEE NOTE 1
75 FEET
+12.5
25
2,000 FEET 1,000 FEET
SEE NOTE 1
RUNWAY
END
1,000 FEET
BDRECTONAL WHTE/RED
75 FEET
+12.5
25
2,000 FEET
BDRECTONAL
ALTERNATE
RED/WHTE AND WHTE
RUNWAY LENGTH
C
L
C
L
BDRECTONAL WHTE
-

in llo diroclion of aircrafl oporalions, vloro lloy aro coIor codod. Tlo
Iasl 1000 fl of conlorIino Iiglls aro rod, and llo noxl 2000 fl aro aIlor-
nalod rod and vlilo.
-
Runvay ond idonlifior Iiglls (RIII) aro inslaIIod al airporls vloro lloro
aro no approacl Iiglls lo provido piIols vill posilivo visuaI idonlificalion
RUNWAY
DETAL
MEASURE FROM
THS EDGE
1/16''
SEE DETAL
VEW
5' o
1''
4
5' o
36' o 6''
36' o 6''
100' o 25'
72' o 1'
1''
4
10' o
1''
2
5' o
1''
4
5' o
1''
4
10' o
1''
2

C
L
2,900'
3D LGHT BARS
EQUALLY SPACED
100' o 2' NTERVALS
DRECTON OF
NSTRUMENT
APPROACH
MEASUREMENT S FROM OUTSDE
EDGE OF MXTURE TO TOP OF
PAVEMENT AT EDGE OF MXTURE
-

-
of llo approacl ond of llo runvay. Tlo syslom consisls of a pair of syn-
clronizod vlilo fIasling Iiglls Iocalod on oacl sido of llo runvay llrosloId
and is inlondod for uso vlon lloro is adoqualo visibiIily. An iIIuslralion
and dosign spocificalions of RIIIs may bo found in Iig. 8-14.

Iillor aflor a Ianding or on llo vay lo laIooff, piIols musl manouvor llo
aircrafl on llo ground on a syslom of laxivays lo and from llo lorminaI
and langar aroas. Taxivay Iiglling sysloms aro providod for laxiing al
nigll and aIso during llo day vlon visibiIily is vory poor, parlicuIarIy al
commorciaI sorvico airporls.
Tlo foIIoving ovoraII guidanco slouId bo appIiod in dolormining
llo Iiglling, marIing, and signing visuaI aid roquiromonls for laxivays:
In ordor lo avoid confusion vill runvays, laxivays musl bo
cIoarIy idonlifiod.
Runvay oxils nood lo bo roadiIy idonlifiod. Tlis is parlicuIarIy
lruo for ligl-spood runvay oxils so llal piIols can bo abIo lo
Iocalo lloso oxils 1200 lo 1500 fl boforo llo lurnoff poinl.
Adoqualo visuaI guidanco aIong llo laxivay musl bo providod.
Spocific laxivays musl bo roadiIy idonlifiod.
PARALLEL TO
RUNWAY CENTERLNE
RUNWAY
CENTERLNE
TAXWAY
OR
RUNWAY
R
U
N
W
A
Y

T
H
R
E
S
H
O
L
D
9
0

4
0

4
0


(
+
3
5
,

0
)
4
0


(
+
3
5
,

0
)
4
0

1
5

1
5

T
H
R
E
S
H
O
L
D

L

G
H
T
S

(
R
E
F
)
1. THE OPTMUM LOCATON FOR EACH LGHT UNT
S N LNE WTH THE RUNWAY THRESHOLD AT 40 FT
FROM THE RUNWAY EDGE.

2. A 90 FT UPWND AND A 40 FT DOWNWND


LONGTUDNAL TOLERANCE S PERMTTED FROM THE
RUNWAY THRESHOLD N LOCATNG THE LGHT UNTS.
3. THE LGHT UNTS SHALL BE EQUALLY SPACED
FROM THE RUNWAY CENTERLNE. WHEN
ADJUSTMENTS ARE NECESSARY THE DFFERENCE N
THE DSTANCE OF THE UNTS FROM THE RUNWAY
CENTERLNE SHALL NOT EXCEED 10 FT.
4. THE BEAM CENTERLNE (AMNG ANGLE) OF EACH
LGHT UNT S AMED 15 DEGREES OUTWARD FROM A
LNE PARALLEL TO THE RUNWAY CENTERLNE AND
NCLNED AT AN ANGLE 10 DEGREES ABOVE THE
HORZONTAL, F ANGLE ADJUSTMENTS ARE
NECESSARY, PROVDE AN OPTCAL BAFFLE AND
CHANGE THE ANGLES TO 10 DEGREES HORZONTAL
AND 20 DEGREES VERTCAL.
5. LOCATE THE ADL EQUPMENT A MNMUM
DSTANCE OF 40 FT FROM OTHER RUNWAYS AND
TAXWAYS.
6. F RELS ARE USED WTH PAP. NSTALL RELS
AT 75 FT FROM THE RUNWAY EDGE. WHEN
NSTALLED WTH OTHER FACLTES RELS SHALL
BE NSTALLED AT 40 FT FROM THE RUNWAY EDGE.
7. THE ELEVATON OF BOTH UNTS SHALL BE
WTHN 3 FT OF THE HORZONTAL PLANE THROUGH
THE RUNWAY CENTERLNE.
AM
NG ANG
LE
AM
NG ANGLE
- -
-

- Tlo inlorsoclions bolvoon laxivays, llo inlorsoclions bolvoon


runvays and laxivays, and runvay-laxivay crossings nood
lo bo cIoarIy marIod.
Tlo compIolo laxivay roulo from llo runvay lo llo apron
and from llo apron lo llo runvay slouId bo oasiIy idonlifiod.
Tloro aro lvo primary lypos of Iiglls usod for llo dosignalion of
laxivays. Ono lypo doIinoalos llo odgos of laxivays |21] and llo
ollor lypo doIinoalos llo conlorIino of llo laxivay |27]. In addilion,
lloro is an incroasing uso of Iiglling sysloms on laxivays, sucl as
runvay guard Iiglls (RGIs) and slop bars, lo idonlify inlorsoclions
vill runvays, in an offorl lo roduco accidonlaI incursions on lo aclivo
runvay onvironmonls.
-
Taxivay odgo Iiglls aro oIovalod bIuo coIorod bidiroclionaI Iiglls usu-
aIIy Iocalod al inlorvaIs of nol moro llan 200 fl on oillor sido of llo
laxivay. Tlo oxacl spacing is infIuoncod by llo plysicaI Iayoul of llo
laxivays. Slraigll soclions of laxivays gonoraIIy roquiro odgo Iigll
spacing in 200-fl inlorvaIs, or al Ioasl llroo Iiglls oquaIIy spacod for
laxivay slraigll Iino soclions Ioss llan 200 fl in Iongll.
CIosor spacing is roquirod on curvos. Iigll fixluros aro Iocalod nol
moro llan 10 fl from llo odgo of fuII slrongll pavomonl surfacos. Tlo
Iiglls cannol oxlonl moro llan 30 inclos abovo llo pavomonl surfaco.
Tlo spacing of Iiglls aIong a curvo is slovn in Iig. 8-15. Inlranco poinls
lo runvays and oxil poinls from aro Iigllod as slovn in Iig. 8-16.
SDES OF
TAXWAY
PT
PT

RADUS R
OF CURVE
N FEET
15
25
50
75
100
150
200
250
20
27
35
40
50
55
60
70
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
80
95
110
130
145
165
185
200 MAX.
DMENSON Z
N FEET
RADUS R
OF CURVE
N FEET
DMENSON Z
N FEET
B
B
B
B
Z
Z
R
R

1. For radii not listed, determine Z spacing by linear interpolation.


2. Z is the arc length.
3. Uniformly space lights on curved edges. Do not exceed the
values determined from the above table.
4. On curved edges in excess of 30 degrees arc, do not install
less than three lights including those at the points of tangency (PT).
--
2
0
0
'
2
0
0
'
3
0
0
'
1
0
0
'
1
0
0
'
1
0
0
'
N
O
T
E
S
1
.

T
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a
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t

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w
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e
c
t
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n
s

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u
s
t

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t

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x
c
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d

2
0
0

f
e
e
t
.
2
.

T
a
x
i
w
a
y

L
i
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h
t

s
p
a
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n
g

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c
u
r
v
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Taxivay conlorIino Iiglls aro in-pavomonl bidiroclionaI Iiglls pIacod


in oquaI inlorvaIs ovor laxivay conlorIino marIings. Taxivay conlorIino
Iiglls aro groon, oxcopl in aroas vloro llo laxivay inlorsocls vill a
runvay, vloro llo groon and yoIIov Iiglls aro pIacod aIlornalivoIy.
Rosoarcl and oxporionco lavo domonslralod llal guidanco from
conlorIino Iiglls is suporior lo llal from odgo Iiglls, parlicuIarIy in
Iov visibiIily condilions. Tlo spacing of llo Iiglls on curvos and langonls
is givon in TabIo 8-1 |21].
Ior normaI oxils, llo conlorIino Iiglls aro lorminalod al llo odgo of
llo runvay. Al laxivay inlorsoclions llo Iiglls conlinuo across llo inlor-
soclion. Ior Iong-radius ligl-spood oxil laxivays, llo laxivay Iiglls aro
oxlondod onlo llo runvay from a poinl 200 fl bacI from llo poinl of
curvaluro (IC) of llo laxivay lo llo poinl of langoncy of llo conlraI curvo
of llo laxivay. Willin lloso Iimils llo spacing of Iiglls is 50 fl. Tloso
Iiglls aro offsol 2 fl from llo runvay conlorIino Iiglls and aro graduaIIy
brougll inlo aIignmonl vill llo conlorIino of llo laxivay.
Wloro llo laxivays inlorsocl vill runvays and aircrafl aro roquirod
lo loId slorl of llo runvay, sovoraI yoIIov Iiglls spacod al 5-fl inlor-
vaIs aro pIacod lransvorsoIy across llo laxivay.
-
Runvay guard Iiglls (RGIs) aro in-pavomonl Iiglls Iocalod on laxi-
vays al inlorsoclions of runvays lo aIorl piIols and oporalors of airfioId
ground volicIos llal lloy aro aboul lo onlor onlo an aclivo runvay.
RGIs aro Iocalod across llo vidll of llo laxivay, approximaloIy 2 fl
from llo onlranco lo a runvay, spacod al approximaloIy 10-fl inlorvaIs,
as iIIuslralod in Iig. 8-17. RGIs aro unidiroclionaI, coIorod yoIIov for
aircrafl facing llo runvay.





- -










-
--

-

SimiIar lo runvay guard Iiglls, runvay slop bar Iiglls aro in-pavomonl
Iiglls on laxivays al inlorsoclions vill runvays. As opposod lo RGIs
llal provido varning lo piIols approacling a runvay, runvay slop bar
Iiglls aro dosignod lo acl as slop Iiglls, dirocling aircrafl and volicIos
on llo laxivay nol lo onlor llo runvay onvironmonl. Runvay slop bar
Iiglls aro aclivalod vill rod iIIuminalions during poriods of runvay
occupancy or ollor inslancos vloro onlranco from llo laxivay lo llo
runvay is prolibilod. In-pavomonl runvay slop bar Iiglling is lypi-
caIIy inslaIIod in conjunclion vill oIovalod runvay guard Iiglls Iocalod
oulsido llo vidll of llo pavomonl. An iIIuslralion of a lypicaI runvay
slop bar Iiglling syslom is dopiclod in Iig. 8-18.
N-PAVEMENT
RGL FXTURE
TAXWAY CENTERLNE
LGHT
2 FT. MAX
(610 mm MAX)
9 FT.
10 N. o 2 N.
(3 m o 50 mm)
2 FT. o 2 N.
(610 mm o 50 mm)
-
9 FT. 10 N. o 2 N.
(3 m o 50 mm)
R UN
R UN
N.T.S.

R UN
3 FT. 5 N.
(1 M) MN.
10 FT.
(3 M) MAX.
10 FT (3 M) MN.
17 FT (5 M) MAX.
B
B
B
Y
Y
B
R
N-PAVEMENT STOP BAR FXTURE
1. THE ELEVATED RUNWAY GUARD LGHT
AND ELEVATED STOP BAR MAY BE MOVED
UP TO 10 FEET (3 M) MAX. AWAY FROM
THE RUNWAY TO AVOD UNDESRABLE
SPOTS.
2. WHERE SNOW REMOVAL OPERATONS
OCCUR. T S ADVANTAGEOUS TO NSTALL
ELEVATED STOP BAR LGHTS NOT CLOSER
TO THE TAXWAY EDGE THAN THE LNE OF
TAXWAY EDGE LGHTS.
ELEVATED RUNWAY GUARD LGHT
TAXWAY EDGE LGHT
ELEVATED STOP BAR FXTURE
Y R
2 FT. o 2 N.
(610 mm o 50 mm)
B
R


In ordor lo aid piIols in guiding llo aircrafl on runvays and laxivays,
pavomonls aro marIod vill Iinos and numbors. Tloso marIings aro of
bonofil primariIy during llo day and dusI. Al nigll, Iiglls aro usod lo
guido piIols in Ianding and manouvoring al llo airporl. Wlilo is usod
for aII marIings on runvays and yoIIov is usod on laxivays and
aprons. Tlo IAA las dovoIopod a comprolonsivo pIan for marIing
runvays and laxivays and lloy can bo found in llo IAA Advisory
CircuIar AC 150/5340-1} |17]. SimiIarIy llo ICAO rocommondalions
for marIing aro conlainod in Annox 14 |2].
-
Tlo IAA las groupod runvays for marIing purposos inlo llroo
cIassos: (1) visuaI, or basic runvays, (2) nonprocision inslrumonl
runvays, and (3) procision inslrumonl runvays. Tlo visuaI runvay
is a runvay vill no slraigll-in inslrumonl approacl procoduro and
is inlondod soIoIy for llo oporalion of aircrafl using visuaI approacl
procoduros. Tlo nonprocision inslrumonl runvay is ono laving an
oxisling inslrumonl approacl procoduro uliIizing air navigalion
faciIilios vill onIy lorizonlaI guidanco (lypicaIIy VOR or GIS-basod
RNAV approaclos villoul vorlicaI guidanco) for vlicl a slraigll-in
nonprocision approacl procoduro las boon approvod. A procision
inslrumonl runvay is ono laving an oxisling inslrumonl approacl
procoduro uliIizing a procision inslrumonl Ianding syslom or
approvod GIS-basod RNAV (aroa navigalion) or RNI (roquirod
navigalion porformanco) procision approacl. Runvays llal lavo a
pubIislod approacl basod soIoIy on GIS-basod loclnoIogios aro
Inovn as GIS runvays.
Runvay marIings incIudo runvay dosignalors, conlorIinos, llrosl-
oId marIings, aiming poinls, loucldovn zono marIings, and sido
slripos. Doponding on llo Iongll and cIass of runvay and llo lypo of
aircrafl oporalions inlondod for uso on llo runvay, aII or somo of llo
abovo marIings aro roquirod. TabIo 8-2 providos llo marIing roquiro-
monls for visuaI, nonprocision, and procision runvays.
Iiguro 8-19 iIIuslralos llo roquirod marIing for procision run-
vays. Iiguro 8-20 iIIuslralos llo roquirod marIings for nonprocision
and visuaI runvays (sourco: IAA AC 150/5340-1}).
--
Tlo ond of oacl runvay is marIod vill a numbor, Inovn as a runvay
dosignalor, vlicl indicalos llo approximalo magnolic azimull (cIocI-
viso from magnolic norll) of llo runvay in llo diroclion of oporalions.
Tlo marIing is givon lo llo noarosl 10 vill llo Iasl digil omillod.
Tlus a runvay in llo diroclion of an azimull of 163 vouId bo marIod
as runvay 16 and llis runvay vouId bo in llo approximalo diroclion
of soull-soull-oasl. Tloroforo, llo oasl ond of an oasl-vosl runvay

-
vouId bo marIod 27 (for 270 azimull) and llo vosl ond of an oasl-vosl
runvay vouId bo marIod 9 (for a 90 azimull). If lloro aro lvo paraI-
IoI runvays in llo oasl-vosl diroclion, for oxampIo, lloso runvays
vouId bo givon llo dosignalion 9I-27R and 9R-27I lo indicalo llo
diroclion of oacl runvay and lloir posilion (I for Iofl and R for rigll)
roIalivo lo oacl ollor in llo diroclion of aircrafl oporalions. If a llird
paraIIoI runvay oxislod in llis silualion il las lradilionaIIy boon givon
llo dosignalion 9C-27C lo indicalo ils diroclion and posilion roIalivo
(C for conlor) lo llo ollor runvays in llo diroclion of aircrafl oporalions.
Wlon lloro aro four paraIIoI runvays, ono pair is marIod vill llo mag-
nolic azimull lo llo noarosl 10 vliIo llo ollor pair is marIod vill llo
magnolic azimull lo llo noxl noarosl 10. Tloroforo, if lloro voro four
paraIIoI runvays in llo oasl-vosl diroclion, ono pair vouId bo dosig-
nalod as 9I-27R and 9R-27I and llo ollor pair couId bo dosignalod as
oillor 10I-28R and 10R-28I or 8I-26R and 8R-26I. Tlis lypo of dosig-
nalion poIicy is incroasingIy boing appIiod lo llroo paraIIoI runvay
configuralions, as voII. Ior oxampIo, ono pair vouId bo dosignalod as
9I-27R and 9R-27I and llo llird runvay may bo dosignalod 10-28.
Runvay dosignalion marIings aro vlilo, lavo a loigll of 60 fl
and a vidll, doponding upon llo numbor or Iollor usod, varying from
5 fl for llo numoraI 1 lo 23 fl for llo numoraI 7. Wlon moro llan ono
numbor or Iollor is roquirod lo dosignalo llo runvay llo spacing
bolvoon llo dosignalors is normaIIy 15 fl. Tlo sizos of llo runvay
dosignalor marIings aro proporlionaIIy roducod onIy vlon nocossary
duo lo spaco Iimilalions on narrov runvays and lloso dosignalion
marIings slouId bo no cIosor llan 2 fl from llo odgo of llo runvay or
llo runvay odgo slripos. Spocificalions for individuaI runvay dosig-
nalors aro iIIuslralod in Iig. 8-21.

-

-
-

-
-

-


--

OnIy roquirod on runvays usod, or inlondod lo bo usod, by inlornalionaI commorciaI


lransporl.

On runvays 4000 fl (1200 m) or Iongor usod by jol aircrafl.

Usod vlon llo fuII pavomonl vidll may nol bo avaiIabIo as a runvay.
-
S

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