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The Anatomy of an Image

Painting in the Digital Age


The Anatomy of an Image
Painting in the Digital Age
Miles S. Hall DNSEP, BVA, DipFA
Department of Fine Art, Queensland College of Art, Griffth University
Submitted in fulflment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
July 2010
iv
v
Abstract
The expansion of digital media and technology is rapidly transforming our perception of
the material world. Marginalising the tactile potential of an image to convey meaning,
advances in new-media have emphasized speed and effciency over weight and sub-
stance. In light of the digital paradigm, my research promulgates the concept of paint-
ing as a physical encounter. An encounter that negates the disembodied nature of digital
technology and that initiates an important rupture within the established felds of visual
representation and communication. In order to extend the relevance of painting within
contemporary art and culture, this paper analyses the material dimension of painting; its
potential to convey signifcant meaning through creating a visual experience that is both
optical and tactile. As the invention of photography can be seen to have liberated paint-
ing from a mimetic, narrative role, the nature of digital media likewise offers painters a
unique challenge digital technology requires us to think about painting in a new way.
The concerns for physicality and media-specifcity are already well mapped out in
modernist discourse and, as Rossalind Kraus rightly points out, it is diffcult to raise
the term medium in relation to visual art without evoking both the ideas and/or cri-
tique of modernist critic Clement Greenberg. Consequently, one of the challenges for
my research is to redefne the role of painting and its tactility beyond the confnes of
modernist debate and offer an alternate way to consider how painting may operate in
the contemporary world. By examining the impact of digital technology on our percep-
tion, this paper analyses the specifc historical and cultural context that confers paintings
physicality with an important role. In expanding the concept of painting as a physical
encounter, my research explores the aesthetic philosophy of Gilles Deleuze. I maintain
that Deleuzes writings offer a coherent and creative strategy for contemporary artists to
consider the material dimension of painting as a strategic zone for arts production. I
consider both the production and reception of painting in specifc relation to the mate-
rial processes that engender the emergence of meaning. This is a meaning that is felt
through sensation motivating us to think about the signifcance of an image beyond
the regime of semiotics or communication. Paintings tactile dimension affrms a con-
nection with the immanence of the physical world an experience of art grounded in
substance.
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This work has not previously been submitted for a degree or diploma in any other uni-
versity. To the best of my knowledge and belief, the thesis contains no material previ-
ously published or written by another person except where due reference is made in the
thesis itself.
Miles S. Hall
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Table of Contents
Abstract v
Acknowledgments viii
List of Illustrations and Table ix
Introduction 1
Chapter I The Anatomy of an Image 17
Chapter II Encounter, Sensation and Affect 47
Chapter III New Territories and New Meanings 83
Conclusion 119
Bibiliography 127
viii
Acknowledgements
Sincere gratitude goes to my two supervisors Prof. Mostyn Bramley-Moore and Dr.
Rosemary Hawker for their continual support and expertise. Their knowledge and ex-
perience made the journey of my doctoral research an ongoing pleasure. Thank you
Virginie, my prized critic, for you patience and encouragement over the past three years.
I must extend my acknowledgment also to Wayne Ennis and David Sawtell in the QCA
workshop for their technical advice and know-how in resolving technical issues of stu-
dio research.
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List of Illustrations and Table
Illustration 1. Tokyo, 2009.
Illustration 2. Michael Luenig, TV Sunset, cartoon.
Illustration 3. Screens the contemporary window onto the world.
Illustration 4. Jackson Pollock in studio, 1950s New York.
Illustration 5. Installation view, Les Immatriaux, Centre George Pompidou,
Paris, 1985.
Illustration 6. Designed to become old the planned obsolescence of new
technologies.
Illustration 7. Paul Czanne, Mont St-Victoire de Lauves, oil on canvas,
72x60cm., 1902. Collection Kunstmuseum, Basel.
Illustration 8. Miss Digital World pageant winner 2009 - Katty-Ko.
Illustration 9. Still from Orson Welles, The Lady of Shanghai, 1947.
Illustration 10. Pia Fries, Amanat, oil and mixed media on board, 170 x 100 &
170 x 154 cm., 2003. Courtesy Galeria Filomena Soares.
Illustration 11. Pia Fries, Beringer, oil on board, 170x220cm., 2003. Private
Collection.
Illustration 12. Jonathan Lasker, Reasonable Love, oil on linen, 205x275cm.,
2007. Courtesy Cheim & Reid.
Illustration 13. Jonathan Lasker, A Sentient Picture, oil on linen,
76.2 x 101.6 cm., 2008. Private collection.
Illustration 14. Detail Jonathan Lasker.
Illustration 15. Jonathan Lasker, When Dreams Work, oil on canvas,
228x305cm., 1992. Daros Collection.
Illustration 16. Katharina Grosse, Cincy, acrylic paint on wall, varying dimen
sions, 2006. Contemporary Arts Centre, Cincinnati.
Illustration 17. Katharina Grosse, Final Cuts, 2003, acrylic paint on wall,
950 x 895 x 320 cm., 2003. Union Space, London.
Illustration 18. Katharina Grosse producing Picture Park, 2007. Gallery of
Modern Art, Brisbane.
Illustration 19. Katharina Grosse, Untitled, acrylic on window, wall and book
shelves, 2003. Courtesy Galerie Conrads.
Illustration 20. Miles Hall, Norton Drawing#09, oil on Norton brand wet and
dry sandpaper, 28x22cm. 2007. Private Collection.
Illustration 21. Miles Hall, Norton Blue #05, oil, acrylic and silica-oxide on
canvas, 160x140cm., 2007. Griffth University Art Collection.
Illustration 22. Installation view. Miles Hall, Norton Blue, 2007. Queensland
College of Art, Brisbane.
Illustration 23. Installation view. Miles Hall, Dirty Drawings, 2009. Evan
Hughes Gallery, Sydney.
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Illustration 24. Miles Hall, Penetration #3, charcoal and Tefon paint on alu
minium panel, 120x100cm., 2009. Collection Ray Hughes.
Illustration 25. Miles Hall, Ungual, charcoal and Tefon paint on aluminium
panel, 120x100cm., 2008.
Illustration 26. Work in progress, bath and drying technique. Miles Hall, Dirty
Drawings, 2008.
Illustration 27. Miles Hall, Monarchs, oil on form-ply, 240cm x varying di
mensions. 2009. Collection the artist.
Illustration 28. Detail. Miles Hall, Monarchs, 2009.
Illustration 29. Imi Knoebel, oommmm, acrylic on aluminium, 305x457x
10cm, 2008. Mary Boone Gallery, New York.
Illustration 30. Richard Tuttle, 20 Pearls (3 Blacks), acrylic on museum board
and archival foam core 50x45cm., 2009.
Illustration 31. Reto Boller, untitled, silicon, wood, glue, acrylic, adhesive flm
95x60x25cm. 2009. Collection the artist.
Table 1. Les Trois Ages de Regard, Debray, Rgis. Vie et Mort De
Limage. Paris: Folio, 1994.
Introduction
Introduction
Paradoxical though it may be, the problem for painting, for example, an art of images,
becomes how to live as a thing in a world that has ceased to be a world of things and
become itself a world of images
Gilbert-Rolf
3
In the 1960s Guy Debord denounced Western societys gradual transformation into a
population of docile spectators in what he famously termed a society of the spectacle
1
.
At the time, he was labelled a paranoid. Fifty years later, the affects of visual technolo-
gies on our patterns of perception seems to confer Debords prognosis with an uneasy
verity. In a planet inundated with images, our relationship to the world and those
around us, has found itself increasingly determined by the magnitude of our exposure to
visual imagery and representation. Prompted by the growing power and profciency of
digital technology, the food of images characteristic of contemporary society is pro-
1. First published in 1967, La Societ du Spectacle is essentially a Marxist critic of what the author saw
as a growing infuence of consumerism and mass media in post war society. Central to Debords text
is the denouncement of how modern capitalism has replaced authentic social life with its representa-
tion, referring to the dominance of imagery: All that was once directly lived has become mere repre-
sentation. Guy Debord, La Societ du Spectacle, 4
th
ed., (Paris: Gallimard, 1996).
Illustration 1. Tokyo, 2009.
gressively altering the way in which we perceive and relate to the physical world (Ill.1).
Advances in new media have invariably emphasised speed and effciency over time and
complexity; our images are perceived predominately as instantaneous transmissions on
a fat homogenous screen rather than an experience of articulated substance. Heaviness,
tactility, smell, materiality and physical contact seem platitudinous concepts in the face
of internet, plasma TVs, i-phones, GPS guidance systems, play stations, etc. Digital
technologies provide interfaces that allow us to move without the need for a body.
In this environment, the material dimension of an image has become marginalised. It
would seem that dominant ideologies give more value to speed and effciency than to
touch and sensuality. No longer a determining factor in the reception or constitution of
an image, the tactile qualities that engage our experience of the real have been forsaken
in favour of the virtual. As Rgis Debray points out, the contemporary image has come
from being a physical object that depicts, to a virtual simulation that performs
2
; matter
is subsumed to the mathematical workings of a binary code. In front of our screens, we
can travel, consult, shop, communicate, and establish new contacts through informa-
tion networks where we can indeed interact and respond emotionally. Yet, are these sen-
timents and beliefs the same when we meet someone in real-life or experience physical
contact with another body? As spectators, we believe in having choices and freedom:
we can send an SMS to see its infuence on the outcome of a reality TV show; we can
fall in love with an actor in a series; we can even romance and fornicate with a virtual
partner on second-life. However, is this life? Is this reality? Whatever the response,
the point is that our conception of the real has become blurred by new visual technolo-
gies. We have become accustomed to a world of appearances, where the image of a
thing is often more valued than the thing itself (Ill.2).
2. Rgis Debray, Vie et Mort de lImage (Paris: Folio, 1992).
5
Albertis 15
th
-century metaphor of painting as a window onto the world has found
itself replaced by the ubiquitous employment of the screen. Governed by the vested
interests of techno-capitalism, poetically manifest la Microsoft Windows
TM
, screens
have become a pervasive part of the everyday experience in our relationship to the
world (Ill.3). As computer users, we spend hours of immobile time, in front of a glow-
ing, two-dimensional, fat, homogenous frame. The screen creates an ontological sepa-
ration between the materiality of spectatorial space and the immaterial dimension of
what it presents. What distinguishes a collection of images on a screen is the evapora-
Illustration 2. Michael Luenig TV Sunset, cartoon.
tion of texture and physical depth.
No longer constrained by a material
dimension, images can be manipu-
lated and publicised in an infnite
number of ways often in move-
ment to compensate for the physical
immobility of the spectator. The so-
ciety of the spectacle, denounced by
Debord, seems alive and well consid-
ering the fux of images and informa-
tion that, in constant movement, fght
to gain the attention of our gaze. The recent success of plasma screens has not only
fattened the world further, but seen the moving image infltrate into a whole new arena
of public space from restaurants, bars, public transport, to hospital waiting rooms,
cars and sporting stadiums. A constant stream of image-fodder has become indispensa-
ble to feed the techno-capitalist machine of information communication.
In the last two decades, digital technology has assimilated cinema, television, video, and
photography beyond their media-specifc distinction into a powerful visual force that is
transforming the face of contemporary society
3
. It is worthwhile noting that, until the
mid 20
th
-century, Western society was marked by a paucity of images. Watching any
old documentary flm is suffcient to realise the lack of imagery in both public and pri-
vate life. Images were rare, in black and white; reproductions in magazines and journals
were of limited quality. With few televisions, and even fewer stations, reportages were
never direct, as flm was used to produce them. Broadcast even stopped after a certain
3. I refer the reader to Anne Friedbergs recent publication: Anne Friedberg, The Virtual Window - From
Alberti to Microsoft (Massachusetts: MIT, 2006).
Illustration 3. Screens the contemporary window onto
the world.
7
hour. This historical reality, just over half a century ago, seems peculiarly antique when
we compare it to the infltration that images have and the role that digital technology
plays in todays world.
The ascendance of new technology, notably the digital, has been governed and control-
led in direct complicity with capitalist interest, this has resulted in what Gilles Deleuze
refers to as a techno-capitalist society. Today, the dominant use of images fnds itself
at the service of fnancial diversion; advertising, television, internet, billboards and the
majority of our audio-visual interaction is regulated in close proximity to capitalist ide-
ology. The manipulation of imagery that inundates contemporary society shares a cosy
relationship with capitalism, operational under the obsequious banner of information
communication. The plight of an image, subordinate to the capitalist-machine, has seen
the subsequent rise of art directors, advertising agents, public relation and marketing
directors, graphic designers and best of all image consultants recent careers made
possible by the rising dominance that the image plays in capitalist culture.
Thus, it is within the context of a techno-capitalist information-communication culture
that I wish to situate painting as a tactile phenomena. The physical tactility of painting
seems at odds with our everyday experience of the screen and digital media. Painting
is dirty; it makes a mess; it is slow and awkward; it smells and is diffcult to manipulate
into image. Yet, could painting be a necessary physical counterpoint to the immaterial-
ity of digital media? Can painting resist the disembodied dimension of digital repre-
sentation? The resistance that I am concerned with is not one of nostalgic romanticism,
nor a stubborn denial in the face of technical progress. My motivation to reconsider the
physicality of painting is led by the belief that it is arts responsibility to provide an in-
telligent and creative force in which to question the dominant ideology and technology
of our time. The material constitution of painting can provide an arena in which to sen-
sitise our experience of an image, its potential to engage the spectator in an awareness
of a shared physicality, an experience that is immanent to the material world. I argue
that the tactile dimension of painting can engender the emergence of a physical encoun-
ter that resists the disembodied fate of digital imagery. By establishing a necessary rup-
ture in representation, painting can explore new ways of seeing and thinking about the
world. A reply to Deleuzes provoking claim that we dont need communication but
resistance to the present
4
.
To consider the important role that painting can play in responding to the digital para-
digm is to also reconsider the signifcance of painting within the realm of contemporary
art. Coincidence or not, the marginalisation of the tactile by new media over the last
thirty years has occurred simultaneously with the marginalisation of painting within
the domain of contemporary art. With the changes that have marked the end of the
20
th
-century, the validity of paintings raison dtre in contemporary practice has been
questioned ad infnum, notably to the point of being proclaimed dead by hopeful crit-
ics. While the shift from analogue to digital has seen the rise of photography, video and
new media, recent exhibitions and biennales dedicated to contemporary art have been
characterised by an absence of painting. A noteworthy example of this phenomena was
Documenta X in Kassel in 1997 that fnished off the last century with a somewhat con-
fused message. Dedicated to the acclaimed painter Gerhard Richter, this internationally
renowned event in the art world contained absolutely no paintings by the German artist.
Instead, observers were presented with a series of photographs taken by the artist, along
with his collection of photographic archives. While the photographs demonstrated an
important part of the artists process, and were no doubt justifed by curatorial inter-
4. In reference to a paper delivered in 1987 to cinema students see, Gilles Deleuze, Quest-ce quun
Acte de Cration? (Dans le Cadre des Mardis de la Fondation Femis: Paris, 1987).
9
est, the complete absence of his paintings seems to demonstrate the confusion as to
how contemporary art is positioned to address the impact of mass media imagery. As
Robert Fleck remarked: not to exhibit the paintings of Gerhard Richter, but only his
photographic archives, otherwise seen as a substitute for the food of media images, of-
fers no solution. It is precisely the paintings of Gerhard Richter that propose an intense
response to mass media
5
.
As Fleck has rightly implied, the radical submission of painting to the photographic
image in the last two decades has had a lasting effect on the character of contemporary
painting. My research considers that paintings physicality needs to be re evaluated in
relationship to this trend, notably through the alterity of paintings tactile and mate-
rial constituency. I argue that painting can respond to the digital paradigm not through
embracing photography, or responding to the contemporary sublime of video and new
technologies that writers such as Gilbert-Rolf have suggested, but through affrming a
material dimension, felt and made present through touch a sensual rupture in the ho-
rizon of the mediasphere.
6
In a recent conference chaired by Robert Storr, Thick and
Thin Painters and curators discuss the state of painting in the last two decades
7
, what
becomes apparent is the way painters struggle to come to terms with their relationship to
media and the impact of new digital technologies. Artist Lisa Yuskavage pinpoints the
need for painters to fnd new avenues of inquiry beyond the use of dominant media:
Flipping through the recent book on new painting, Vitamin P (2002),
what jumps out is not the diminishing returns of modernism, but the di-
minishing returns of copying photographs and the over-dependence on
other media to make painting vital.
8
5. Robert Fleck, Y Aura-t-il un Deuxime Sicle de lArt Moderne? (Paris: Editions Pleins Feux, 2001).
6. American artist/theorist Jeremy Gilbert-Rolfe challenges painters to respond to what he considers a
new sublime that is no longer to be found in nature but in the limitless dimension of new technolo-
gies, notabley the digital. Whilst his ideas offer a reconsidered notion of where the sublime might be
situated, my thesis is essentially opposed to such transcendal enthusiasm. See Jeremy Gilbert-Rolfe,
Beauty and the Contemporary Sublime (New York: Allworth Press, 1999).
7. Robert Storr, Thick and Thin Painters and Curators discuss the State of Painting in the last Two Dec-
ades, ArtForum, (April 2003): pp. 58-66.
8. Lisa Yuskavage in Storr, Thick and Thin, p. 61.
In light of our constant exposure to digital media, my research is a signifcant attempt
to maintain the pertinence of painting within contemporary art. My work endeavours to
make painting vital, not though a dependence on the use of digital and photographic
media, but through its very negation. I believe that a reconsideration of the role of the
tactile, in both the production and reception of an image, is crucial for paintings con-
tinuing pertinence in the contemporary world.
The concern for materiality and media specifcity however, are nothing new to the his-
tory of art. As Rosalind Krauss rightly points out, it is diffcult to raise the term physi-
cality in relation to painting without evoking modernism and, specifcally, the ideas of
New York critic Clement Greenberg
9
. It is necessary to acknowledge this fact, and to
position my research accordingly, suggesting how my research differs from Greenbergs
renowned idealism. Through his writing, Greenberg promulgated the media-specifcity
of painting and subsequently infuenced a large generation of post-war artists. He pro-
moted an ideology that encouraged artists to refne the specifcity of their media in the
pursuit of a transcendental purity or a metaphysical absolute. As Richard Shiff notes:
no other essay of the 1960s had more impact than Clement Greenbergs Modernist
Painting
10
. Convinced by the vehemency of Greenbergs arguments, painters exploited
gesture and the material constituency of paint to imbue their works with what was con-
sidered an authorial identity and authenticity. This included the movement of Gestural
Abstraction or Action Painting (Tachisme in Europe) which saw artists emphasise
the physical process of painting itself as the crucial element of meaning. Modernist
painters, who embraced Greenbergs ideology, can be seen as pursuing a formalism that
sought to give painting an autonomy that negated the growing impact of mass-media,
mechanical reproduction and popular culture. This saw painters, such as Jackson Pol-
9. For a more detailed analysis of media-specifcity and its evolution from modernist, specifcally
Greenbergian discourse, to post-modern practice see Rosalind Krauss infuential text: Rosalind
Krauss, A Voyage on the North Sea: Art in the Age of the Post-medium Condition (London: Thames &
Hudson, 2000).
10. Richard Shiff, Constructing Physicality, Art Journal, no. 50 (1991): pp. 42-47.
11
lock, exploit the materiality of paint through an intense gestural application that con-
frmed an important use of the body (Ill.4). Pollocks dripped abstract canvases can be
seen as an attempt to move beyond the growing dominance of reproduction by empha-
sising the immediate, pictorial, physical presence of paint.
My research might be seen as an attempt to reconfrm the physical role of painting in
a similar vein to Greenberg. However, while I seek to confrm the importance of paint-
ings materiality in response to the growing dominance of digital and information
technology, I do not seek to sanctify the material components of painting as did Green-
berg. Instead, I believe the tactile, physical experience that painting offers should be
employed as an affrmation of the material world, in what Christine Buci-Glucksmann
refers to as un athisme pictural (a pictorial atheism) that is grounded in immanence
11
.
I believe that any serious painter working today is aware of the debt owed to modern-
ism but, nevertheless, is motivated by a new set of values. My research promotes an
affrmation of paintings materiality through a gestural, corporal process; however, I
consider that this corresponds to an altered historical context and necessity to that of our
modernist counterparts (where the impact of the digital was still far from view).
Since the demise of modernist discourse, the search for a metaphysical truth, or a tran-
scendental reality, through painting seems absurd - it is precisely this, I maintain, that
we dont need. Modernist painters were criticised for their idealistic pursuit of a formal
purityresulting in what many critics, such as Jrgen Habermas and J.M.Bernstein,
saw as an aesthetic alienation from society
12
. Painting today cannot afford this. As
my thesis establishes, the virtual, immaterial realm of the digital operates on a meta
physical horizon, beyond the tactile dimension of the physical body and its sensorial
11. Christine Buci-Glucksmann, Au-del de la Mlancholie (Paris: Galile, 2005).
12. J. M. Bernstein, The Fate of Art: Aesthetic Alienation from Kant to Derrida (New York: Penn State
Press, 1992).
complexity. As a negation of this paradigm, my research attempts to situate the tactile,
sensual realm of painting as a physical encounter that confrms our immanence in the
world a materialist encounter. Painting today can no longer pursue the metaphysical
Illustration 4. Jackson Pollock in studio, 1950s New York.
13
idealism dear to modernism. The challenge for contemporary painting is to establish a
signifcance that is not beyond the physical world but situated precisely in it.
Despite its position on the periphery of contemporary art, some curators and critics have
recently endeavoured to revive the validity of painting on various grounds with uncanny
melodramatic justifcations. Perhaps the most boastful and presumptuous example was
the Saatchi Gallerys recent series of exhibitions entitled The Triumph of Painting,
which commenced in 2005 with a series of six exhibitions entirely dedicated to con-
temporary painters
13
. While the attention given to painting in this way is indeed wel-
coming, exhibitions of this sort seem to obfuscate the actual reasons why painters paint
behind the veil of sensationalist rhetoric. An engaged reading of the Saatchi catalogue
(amongst other recent publications on painting), reveals very little in the way of what
motivates artists to pursue painting, nor how a presumptuous title such as The Triumph
of Painting suggests a reconsidered role that painting may play in the contemporary
world. Questions that concern artists, such as what is the sense of creating a manual
image in the face of digital technology?, or in a world of immeasurable choice, what is
the signifcance of using paint?, seem ignored by the writers of such catalogues. Paint-
ing continues, and for diverse and complex reasons diffcult to summarise into a coher-
ent and easily digestible theory to please the public. I feel it is important to question the
preoccupation with defnition and classifcation that still lingers on after modernism; to
further the possibilities of painting without subjecting it to a rigid theory or fashionable
postulation. Therefore, my research is guided, not by an attempt to defne what painting
is, but rather to investigate the physical possibilities that may engender the emergence
of an art that resists dominant media. To advance the practice of painting in this way, is
an attempt to catalyse new avenues of thought that open painting outwards towards new
13. I refer the reader to the initial exhibition catalogue, Barry Schwabsky, The Triumph of Painting : The
Saatchi Gallery (London: Jonathan Cape, 2005).
relationships with the world, rather than a (modernist) idealism that seeks to dictate how
painting should or must function.
In Chapter I of this thesis, I attempt to establish the critical dimension of painting in a
digitalised world. By examining the historical paradigm of digital medias immaterial
confguration, I attempt to position painting as a physical encounter that urges us to par-
ticipate in, what Heidegger referred to as, being-in-the-world. I defne the differences
between painting and the digital in terms of their anatomy or physical structure and out-
line how this effects our engagement with an image. Contingent to my argument is the
notion of painting as substance and its inevitable participation in the material world - a
crucial resistance to the disembodied dimension of digital technology. This chapter out-
lines how the growing digitalisation of the world offers painting a unique ongoing chal-
lenge a challenge that requires us to think about painting in new ways.
After defning the challenge that digital media poses for painting, Chapter II outlines
a strategy for painting, positioning it as a form of critical resistance to the dominance
of digital representation. Central to my research is the aesthetic philosophy of Gilles
Deleuze. I argue that Deleuzes writings offer a coherent and creative strategy for con-
temporary artists to consider the material dimension of painting as a strategic zone for
arts production. I employ Deleuzes materialist ontology to explore how contemporary
painting is able to create an important sensual rupture within the dominant horizon of
representation and digital media through affrming art as a physical encounter an ex-
perience that is at once visual and tactile.
15
By examining specifc processes of a paintings production, Chapter III extends the im-
portance of painting as a physical encounter. In light of the growing communication
culture, where images have become reifed to the status of information, I examine how
the material and tactile components of painting can be used by artists to create an alter-
native kind of image. To support my analysis, I consider aspects of my studio practice
to demonstrate how painting can establish new meanings that emerge through the
material dimension of their production. I argue the signifcance of painting is not to be
found in a role of information or communication but in the production of new territories
that challenge our every day experience of the world.
Chapter I
Chapter I The Anatomy of an Image

The whole paradigm of the sensory has changed. The tactility here is not the organic
sense of touch: it implies merely an epidermal contiguity of eye and image, the collapse
of the aesthetic distance involved in looking.
Jean Baudrillard
19
A Disembodied Tale: The Arrival of the Digital
In his comprehensive work Vie et Mort de Limage : Une Histoire du Regard en Oc-
cident, Rgis Debray claims that the shift from analogue to the digital is as much a rup-
ture in the evolution of our images as the atomic bomb was to the history of warfare, or
genetic engineering to biology The new regime of the digital is transforming the fesh
of the world into a mathematical equation such is the utopia of new media
1
.

Whether
we fully agree with Debrays claim or not, it is clear that digital technology, and its
favoured support the screen, is radically transforming the ways in which we interact
with what we commonly call an image and, subsequently, the ways in which we interact
with the world. Debrays work highlights the immaterial nature of new digital technolo-
gies and the lack of any corresponding physicality; what we see is no more than a series
of stabilised mathematical and electric signals. Debrays ambitious project Vie et Mort
de lImage attempts to outline a history of the image using a newly-defned discipline
he calls mediology
2
. In order to better discuss the digital paradigm and its challenge for
painting, I will briefy outline what Debray calls les trios ages du regard (the three peri-
ods of seeing) within Western history. These three periods are defned by the dominant
technology of the time and its subsequent impact on the way an image is seen, experi-
enced and disseminated.
Debrays Table Les trois ges du regard (Table1) gives a comprehensive time-frame to
situate the arrival of digital technologies. First, Logosphre/Rgime Idole (after writing),
the image is founded on a transcendent presence that is considered magic and clairvoy-
ant, based on a connection with god. In the second period, Graphospre/Rgime Art
(after printing press), the image operates as art, seen through a logic of representation,
1. Rgis Debray, Vie et Mort de lImage (Paris: Folio, 1994) p. 386.
2. The discipline of Mediology was initiated by Debray in the 1980s. It can be seen as a continuation
of Walter Benjamins analysis of the ways in which technology infuences the diffusion, production
and reception of media. Other precursors include Paul Valry and Marshall McLuhan. It was taught
for the frst time at the Sorbonne, Paris IV in 2007, concentrating on the study of the phenomena of
transmission. The discipline has growing interest in the felds of continental philosophy and it main-
tains a larger audience through its journal MediuM.
Table 1. Les Trois Ages de Regard, Debray, Rgis. Vie et Mort de lImage. Paris: Folio, 1994.
21
based on a relationship with nature. Third, in Vidosphre/Rgime Visuel (after audio-
visual), the image is based on a simulation that is viewed, contingent to electrical com-
munication. Pertinent to my research is the shift Debray outlines between rgime art to
rgime visuel, as it elucidates the passage from an analogue culture to the digital culture
that is central to my analysis. Looking at Debrays table, we can infer that fundamental
to this change from analogue to digital, the referential element or what Debray calls
la source dautorit ( the source of authority), shifts from being based upon le rel (the
real) in analogue imagery to le performant (performance effciency) in the digital. In
other words, the paradigm of digital technology is shifting the referential element of an
image away from an intrinsic connection with the physical world, its matire primaire,
where the image is a thing, to a system of immaterial virtuality where the image exists
only in its perception. This difference is of critical importance in reconsidering paint-
ings contemporary raison dtre. I argue the tactile, physical components of painting,
retain a coherent referential element with the material world. It may be that paintings
analogue archaic constitution can play an important role in the contemporary world.
While the change from analogue to digital, or rgime art to regime visuel, cannot be
clearly demarcated by a specifc date, Debray titles an important passage of his book La
bombe numrique 1980 (1980 The Digital Bomb), this infers that the 1980s was a dec-
ade of intense change that saw the consequential rise of digital technologies and their
expansion within both the public and private spheres of society. So why does Debray
refer to this paradigm as a bomb? The response lies in what he considers to be digital
technologys reifcation of the material world into a series of simplifed binary codes:
De voie daccs limmatriel, limage informatise devient elle-mme
immatrielle, information quantife, algorithme, matrice de nombres
modifable volont et linfni par une operation de calcul.Une entit
virtuelle est effectivement perue (et eventuellement manipul) par un su-
jet mais sans ralit physique correspondante.
With the means to access the immaterial, the computerized image be-
comes itself immaterial, an unlimited matrix of numbers infnitely modif-
able by a calculated operation A virtual entity is effectively perceived
(and eventually manipulated) by somebody, but with no corresponding
physical reality.
3
I argue that this absence of a corresponding physicality has considerable consequences;
these make it necessary to reconsider the role of the tactile. If we agree with Debray
that, in the new world of images the image itself no longer exists only its percep-
tion
4
,

then this shift signals an alarming threat to the affnity between touch, materiality
and perception. As human beings we receive and communicate through the body our
gestures, our movements, our senses of smell, touch, hearing and vision. Situated in the
impermeable fatness of the screen, the digital image limits our interaction to a retinal
experience and denies the possibility of a more complex physical, sensorial encounter. I
claim that the process of painting both its creation and reception confers a physical
dimension to an image that resists this disembodied paradigm.
3. Ibid., p. 386.
4. Op.cit., p. 76.
23
The Historical Impact of the Digital on our Perception
The immaterialising effect of digital technology on culture has been of interest to nu-
merous disciplines from philosophy, sociology, art and cultural theory, psychology and
phenomenology. Discussions of the digital paradigm by urbanist cultural theorist Paul
Virilio and the recent work of literary scholar Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, are particularly
relevant in evaluating the impact of digital media on our perception.
Virilio has spent his entire career analysing the effects of technology on what one could
call the politics of perception. Militant at all times, Virilio was early to criticise the
effects of visual technologies on our perception. He holds that our vision of the world is
more tlobjective than objective inferring that the permeation of the screen is so in-
trinsic to our lives that it has altered our perception of the real world:
Aujourdhui, lcran de la tlsurveillance tend remplacer la fentre
notre vision du monde nest plus objective mais tlobjective. Nous vi-
vons le monde travers une representation qui, la manire des photos
au tlobjective, crase les plans lointoins et les plans rapprochs et fait
de notre rapport au monde un rapport o se tlscopent le lointoin et le
prochain... Loptique ondulatoire vhicule des signaux (digital, video et
audio) qui organisent un rapport au monde tlobjectif. Tout est cras
sur une seule surface, linterface du monitor ou du visiocasque.
Today, a screen of tl-surveillence tends to replace the window our
vision of the world is no longer objective but tlobjective. We live the
world through a representation that fattens both background and fore-
ground and makes our relationship with the world, one where both near
and far collide An optical wavelength conveys signals (digital, video
and audio) that organise a tlobjective connection with the world. Every-
thing is fattened on a seul surface, the interface of a monitor or video.
5

Central to Virilios critique of digital media is what he terms the loss of the body. Sub-
ject to the effects of recent media, he maintains that we have lost the grandeur of nature.
We are in the process of losing our real bodies in favour of a ghost body, the real
world in favour of a virtual world
6
. Virilio posits the question of le corporit (the ac-
tive reality of the body), and the physical, as a crucial issue for contemporary society to
confront - notably through art and dance. He argues that we need to reaffrm the physi-
cal dimension of the world through a rematerialisation of the body and its actions
7
.
The impact of digital technology on our perception is carefully analysed in Virilios
book Esthtique de la Disparition
8
and closely follows Debrays analysis of the ana-
logue-digital shift. Virilio reasons that, as a result of the disembodied nature of new
technology, our visual culture is shifting away from what he terms une esthtique de
lapparition (an aesthetic of appearance) towards une esthtique de la disparition (an
aesthetic of disapearance). Within the context of my argument, I situate the tactile and
sensual realm of painting in relation to Virilios defnition of apparition something
that allows form to emerge from a substrate of layers and textured surfaces. Here, the
resulting form is dependant on the persistence of a physical support and its duration in
space. Based on a logic of instantaneous transmission and detached from the perma-
nence of any support, Virilio situates the immaterial realm of new technologies within a
5. Paul Virilio, Cybermonde, La Politique du Pire (Paris: Les Editions Textuel, 1996) pp. 67, 81, 83.
6. Op.cit., p. 45.
7. Virilio considers dance to be the most effective form of resistance in reappropriating the body.
8. Paul Virilio, Estthique de la Disparition (Paris: Galile, 1989).
25
logic of disparition. According to Virilio, the danger is that this esthtique de la dispari-
tion will replace the former at the moment painting and drawing are on the path of
disappearance, as the written is at risk to disappear behind multimedia and without
suffcient resistance there will be no liberty in the face of multimedia and new tech-
nologies. There will be a tyranny of techno-science
9
. I believe the consequences of
Virilios analysis provides painters with a challenge to resist the disparition of the ma-
terial world; not out of a nostalgic romanticism for an unchanging past, but through an
active engagement with the sensual, haptic, physical realm of creation, an emergence of
art through the tactile. Through an awareness of this difference, the digital may enable
painters to reinvigorate their practice
Virilios loss of the body fnds an echo in the writings of eminent literary theorist Hans
Ulrich Gumbrecht. In his recent book Production of Presence: What Meaning Can-
not Convey, Gumbrecht laments the loss of the world, he accuses Western culture of
having lost touch with the human body and like Virilio, argues for what he calls the
production of presence
10
.

Gumbrechts fascination with how different media differ-
ent materialities of communication affect the meaning they carry
11
is conducive to
my research in maintaining that complex meaning can not be divorced from its medium
specifcity. The experience of a surface of painting and the fattened homogenized sur-
face of a screen offer two completely different potentialities of meaning and experience.
According to Gumbrecht, the disembodied nature of digital technology is essentially a
vehicle for, what he refers to as, the dominant Cartesian world view where the separa-
tion of mind and body has favoured the immaterial spirit over the weight of the fesh
12
.
Like Debray, Gumbrecht sees digital media as essentially an affair of the mind and, in
9. Paul Virilio, Cybermonde, La Politique du Pire (Paris: Les Editions Textuel, 1996) p. 34.
10. Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Production of Presence - What Meaning Cannot Convey (Stanford: Stanford
University Press, 2004). Gumbrecht sees the critique of Western cultures loss of the body as be-
ing initiated by Georges Bataille and Antonin Artaud. For a more in-depth analysis, see Hans Ulrich
Gumbrecht, About Antonin Artaud and the Miseries of Transgressing, in G. Neuman and R. Warn-
ing, eds., Transgressionen: Literatur als Ethnographie. (Berlin: Rombach, 2003).
11. Op.cit., p. 11.
12. I maintain that the digital is a sympton of our inherited Judeo-Christian world view, essentially pla-
tonic in its separation of idea and matter. The carnal, sensual and corporeal aspects of the body have
been historically repressed in Western culture in favour of the spirit - a metaphysical engagement
with the universe. I argue that this has had a profound infuence on our relationship with the image
this way, a Cartesian paradise the image operates without a physical body, erased of
any material depth or resistance; everything becomes fast, effcient and instantaneous.
Gumbrecht maintains that the Cartesian infuence is very much alive in contemporary
society and, as a consequence, has subordinated not only the human body but of all
things of the world as res extensae of the mind
13
. Parallel to Virilio, Gumbrechts pro-
duction of presence responds to what he considers is our need to experience the world
physically in the face of this Cartesian dominance:
Once we understand our desire for presence as a reaction to an everyday
environment so overtly Cartesian during the past centuries, it makes sense
to hope that aesthetic experience may help us recuperate the spatial and
the bodily dimension of our existence; it makes sense to hope that aes-
thetic experience may give us back at least a feeling of our being-in-the-
world, in the sense of being part of the physical world of things.
14
A Disembodied Response to Digital Media
Les Immatriaux, an exhibition curated by Jean Franois Lyotard at the Centre Pompi-
dou in 1985, was the frst major institutionalized response to the effects of digitalized
technology. (Ill.5) Seen at the time as a seminal contribution to the emergence of post-
modernism, the exhibition proposed that the electronic media revolution had initiated a
fast growing immaterialisation and disembodiment of human life and this corresponded
to the growing interest and concern from both artists and curators for the incorporeal
nature of digital technology. Lyotard was inspired to present what he called une nouvelle
and provides me with a topic that I feel needs to be argued in the context of a much larger thesis. For
a extensive analysis of our inherited Christian world view and the necessity for an alternative form
of ethics, I refer the reader to Micheal Onfrays Trait dAthologi: Physique de la Mtaphysique,
recently translated by Jeremy Leggatt for Melbourne University Press as Michel Onfray, The Atheist
Manifesto : The Case Against Christianity, Judaism and Islam (Melbourne: Melbourne University
Press, 2007).
13. Gumbrecht, Production of Presence, p. 33.
14. Op.cit., p. 116.
27
sensibilit in relation to new media. In an optimistic vein, the exhibition sought to sensi-
tise the public to the possibilities of new media and its creative potential within contem-
porary society.
Signifcantly, the rise of the digital cor-
responds precisely with the broader socio-
cultural changes that saw the role of art
break from modernist discourse, through
post modernism, into the plurality of gen-
res understood today as contemporary. I
agree with Lyotard in asserting that arts re-
sponse to digital technology and the screen
is essentially a post modern issue it de-
mands a response from painting (among other disciplines) that is beyond the context of
modernism
15
. Consequently, it is my belief that the digital offers painting the necessary
challenge to re-affrm its role in the contemporary art.
While the Les Immatriaux was considered a landmark success, it tended to demon-
strate the confusion of how artistic practice can respond to the growing evolution of
what is now called new media. In attempting to sensitise the public to what the cura-
tors considered a new era of representation and technology (what I consider the digital
paradigm), the exhibition was criticised for its actual lack of creativity. The most severe
criticism came from Michel Carnot. In his review, he declared to have found nothing
but a festival of dj vu and a shop of nave and macabre curiositiesOne only has to
look at the catalogue to realise that the works and objects exposed had nothing new
16
.
What upset the critics was the mystifcation of how the new of new technology con-
15. The differentiation between modern and contemporary is particularly problematic in relation to paint-
ing and this demarcation assists my desire to place painting beyond a dominant association within
modernism. For an intelligent evaluation of painting and the modern vs contemporary paradigm, see
Nathalie Heinich, Pour en Finir Avec La Querelle de lArt Contemporaine (Paris: LEchoppe, 1999).
16. Carnot in Hernadez, M. Les Immatriaux, in Appareil, < http://revues.mshparisnord.org/appareil/
index.php?id=93> (19
th
April 2008).
Illustration 5. Installation view, Les Immatri-
aux, Centre George Pompidou, Paris, 1985.
ferred an inherent creative and experimental condition to the work, when the visionary
ideas behind them were in fact unremarkable. As Jean-Louis Dotte argued; in the end
Lyotard accepted that as art it was only a techno-scientifc production
17
.
With the advent of what Debray calls the
vidosphre, the basis of our exchange of
images is indeed dominated by economic
capitalism and techno-scientifc produc-
tion. What Les Immatriaux, like numer-
ous exhibitions to follow, have endeav-
oured to demonstrate is that the dominant
use of digital technology by the mass me-
dia can be subverted for artistic purposes.
This is an idea that has been largely supported by art institutions on an international lev-
el. While it is imperative that art initiates a response to new media, I perceive a substan-
tial risk in a digital art, in its inability to remove itself from the very system it wants to
subvert. As Debray points out: there is a considerable amount of creation in the devel-
opment of new technologies and a lot of new technology in digital art
18
. I argue that the
paradoxical drawback with digital art is its overwhelming dependence on new technolo-
gies. Technologies that are precariously subject to a logic of planned obsolescence and
the constant need to upgrade, purchase, adapt, reconfgure, and ultimately conform to
the parameters set by the manufacturer. In this way, the real challenge in using digital
technologies is to establish a critical opposition that functions beyond the parameters of
its technical constituency. I suggest that it is the intrinsic attachment to the obsolescent,
or constantly changing nature of new media, that unfortunately tends (retrospectively),
17. Dotte, J.-L. Les Immatriaux de Lyotard : un program fugural, in Appareil, <http://revues.msh-
parisnord.org/appareil/index.php?id=797> (10
th
Febuary 2010).
18. Debray, Vie et Mort de lImage, p. 396.
Illustration 6. Designed to become old the
planned obsolescence of new technologies.
29
to demote digital art to the status of a relic. It speaks for a precise moment in history but
nothing else. Therefore, my reasons for favouring painting as a crucial response to the
digital lies in its tactile archaic alterity a materiality that is beyond the confnes of a
techno-scientifc ideology
19
(Ill.6).
In his recent essay The Cruelty of Numbers
20
, Stanford Kwintor has challenged artists to
use electronic technology to engage in the archaic intuitive sides of human nature in
order to divert the dominant use of technology for more humanistic purposes:
Communications networks, computers, microprocessor control systems
are socially toxic entities primarily when used correctly, that is, in their
capacity to routinize interactions with people and processes in increas-
ingly engineered, confned and deterministic spaces. It is our duty and
mandate to refuse this new, pseudo-material space entirely, and to follow
the minor, archaic path through the micro-chip, this is, to make the elec-
tronic world work for us to reimpart the rich indeterminacy and magic of
matter out of the arid, cruel, and numericalized world of the reductionist-
mechanical and the disciplinary-electronic.
21
If artists are going to respond to Kwinters astute challenge, I argue that the key problem
in subverting the digital is still that of Virilios corporit, the role of the body. To expe-
rience what Kwinter refers to as the archaic, intuitive side of our natures, then surely
the role of our body is paramount? As I have endeavoured to establish so far, the hazard
of digital technologies is the way in which they reify the physicality of the world into
a series of disembodied binary codes. Digital simulation and production, essentially an
19. The archaic nature of paint in this sense differs critically to the obsolete nature of digital technolo-
gies. The visibility of a digital artwork is dependant on a player or an instrument of transmission
that is subject to a logic of constant development or what Marcuse aptly termed planned obsoles-
cence. While painting is indeed ancestral to industrialisation and the modern world and, in this sense
archaic, it is able to maintain a critical visual autonomy that is independent from any need to be con-
verted or reconstituted as image.
20. Stanford Kwinter, Far From Equilibrium - Essays on Technology and Design Culture (Barcelona:
Actar, 2008).
21. Op.cit., p. 97.
affair of the mind, has left the body without a job; its rhythmic potentiality is confned
to a retinal conveyance. This leaves the body marginalised and, along with it, the organs
of knowledge, touch, sensitivity and movement that enable intuition to function crea-
tively
22
.

As Debray notes, without a corresponding physical reality, we can not imply
ourselves emotionally in operations of calculus, of combinations of parameters that ex-
clude chance and neutralise the impulsive
23
. Therefore, I argue that Kwinters notion of
human nature seems already somewhat limited if we cannot circumvent the immaterial
basis in which we interact with the digital. It would seem a diffcult project for artists to
respond impulsively through Kwinters archaic microchip.
A Tactile Perception
In response to this digital paradigm, the tactile dimension of painting has a critical role
in perception. From the Latin tangere (to touch), tactile implies a connection with the
sense of touch and the body. It operates as an adjective to designate something that is
perceptible by touch, or apparently so. Therefore, the tactile can be seen as crucial in es-
tablishing essential connections between subject and object, a condition that underpins
the basic ontology of our relationship to the world.
Prominent 19
th
-century German art historian, Alois Reigl was the frst to emphasise the
signifcant role that the tactile played in perception. In his seminal work A Historical
Grammar of the Visual Arts, Reigl asks why our perception of artistic form should be
limited to our organs of sight, as the optical sense alone does not suffce to provide us
with a true sense of form. The sense of sight is unable to penetrate objectswe must
22. I refer the reader to the work of Henri Bergson, who saw the role of intuition as dependant on the
duration of a body in time. See Henri Bergson, Matire et Mmoire, 7
th
ed. (Paris: Puf, 1939).
23. Debray, Vie et Mort de lImage, p. 391.
31
call on another sense, the sense of touch.
24
Riegl suggests that our understanding of
form will always be limited to a two dimensional realm without the active participation
of the tactile. He consequently establishes a co-dependant relationship between touch
and vision by defning two types of perceptible surface: the objective surface (die ob-
jektive fche) and the subjective surface (die subjektive fche). The objective surface
corresponds to our sense of touch (non pictorial); it is crucial to complete our visual
perception of what he calls the subjective surface (that which vision cannot penetrate).
In other words, our sense of vision is inherently subjective and relies on a more objec-
tive tactile experience to complete it.
25
According to Riegl, whether were looking at a
sculpture or a pictorial image, these two surfaces coincide to complete our perception of
form and are decisive in any experience of art.
The relationship between touch and vision was equally important for Merleau-Pontys
research in the feld of phenomenology. His work attempts to demonstrate that our per-
ception of the world is dependant on the totality of our sensory capacities; our funda-
mental cognition of the world could not be achieved by a purely mental function, but
to the extent that I have a body, and through that body I am at grips with the world
26
.

Similar to Virilios plea for a rematerialisation of the body, Merleau-Pontys work op-
erates as a doctrine of embodied perception that I consider highly relevant to my re-
search. According to Merleau-Ponty, embodied perception depends upon the totality of
our bodys sensory organs working as a whole in the perception of phenomena. Vision
cannot be isolated from touch. If the tactile surface of a form or object is essentially the
frst point of contact between our body and the world, then our sense of touch is crucial
in informing all subsequent perception.
24. Alos Riegl, Historical Grammar of the Visual Arts, trans. Jaqueline E. Jung (New York: Zone Books,
2004) p. 395.
25. Riegl refers to vision being subjective in the sense that without having actually touched the surface
of something (empirically), one has to make a value judgment about the surface qualities of an object
based on memory and previous experiences (both essentially subjective).
26. Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Phenomenology of Perception, (New York: Routledge, 1958) p. 353.
Illustration 7. Paul Czanne, Mont St-Victoire de Lauves, oil on canvas, 72x60cm.,
1902. Collection Kunstmuseum, Basel.
33
In relation to an image, this has consequences for the way vision can be intensifed and
completed through our sense of touch, Merleau-Ponty affrms: Not only do I use my
fngers and my body as a single organ, but also, thanks to this unity of the body, the
tactile perceptions gained through an organ are immediately translated into the lan-
guage of the rest
27
. Touch and vision are combined. Similar to Riegls objektive surface,
Merleau-Ponty isolated what he calls surface tactile phenomena (Oberfchentastun-
gen), where a two dimensional tactile surface is presented to the touch and more or less
frmly resists penetration
28
. This surface tactile phenomena evokes a physical response
from the body that establishes a union between touch and vision: This property which,
at frst sight, draws an absolute distinction between touch and vision, in fact makes it
possible to draw them together
29
.

I argue that this Oberfchentastungen, is manifest in
the tactile surface of all painting.
Merleau-Pontys phenomenology considered that art could convey an experience of the
fesh that bonds us with things
30
. In the Phenomenology of Perception, he highlights
the work of Czanne (Ill.7). He suggests that the value of Czanness art lies in its abil-
ity to create a skin that can illuminate our perceptual structure of the world. Merleau-
Ponty believes the built-up layering of coloured mass and line in Czannes paintings
(substance) is akin to the same structuring that underpinned the visible world and our
own bodies. The tactile nature of this skin conferred a sensual engagement between the
painting and the observer. According to Paul Crowthers reading of Merleau-Ponty, this
engagement made us aware of the physical forces that make things become visible:
Our everyday engagement with the world usually immerses us in things
which are, visually speaking, simply there. We have no time or incli-
27. Op.cit., p. 369.
28. Op.cit., p. 368.
29. Op.cit., p. 367
30. Paul Crowther, Art and Embodiment : From Aesthetics to Self-Consciousness (Oxford: Oxford Uni-
versity Press, 1993) p. 110.
nation to attend to that rich visual texture of light, colour, shape, and so
forth, which is inherent to all things and the visual background. Yet it is
precisely this texture which enables the visible to be seen. Hence, in so far
as the painting is a self contained portion of the world which invites us to
contemplate its sensuous particularity, both it and the texture which ena-
bles it to be seen are given full manifestation. Indeed, one can even say
that here we see what it is to see.
31
In relation to the digital paradigm I have outlined, I argue that paintings ability to con-
fer such an embodied perception has never been more crucial in maintaining this union
between touch and vision.
Painting and Touch
In a world saturated with images, it is often easy to forget that we are beings equipped,
not with one sense, but fve. Our sense of touch was considered by Aristotle as the car-
dinal sense, synonymous with life: I feel, therefore I am. A human being can survive
without the senses of sight, smell, taste, and hearing, but we cannot maintain life suc-
cessfully without the central nervous system maintaining a link with the world through
the sense of touch. Touch is indeed the most essential of all the senses for survival. Yet,
as Celeste Olalquiaga maintains, it is rarely valorised:
Les commentaires dAristote sont particulirement intressants lorsque
lon pense quel point nous somme loigns de la primaut sensorielle
31. Op.cit., p. 113.
35
du tactile. Le toucher est rarement valoris au-del de lexprience im-
mdiate (les gestes superfciels de la vie quotidienne, les caresses per-
sonelles et intimes de laffection et de la sexualit); en tant que tel, il est
presque inexistant dans la pratique culturelle publique, o il pourrait
jouer un rle systmatique et signifant.
The ideas of Aristotle are particularly interesting when we think of how
far removed we are from the sensorial primacy of the tactile. The touch is
rarely valorised beyond immediate experience (the common gestures of
everyday life, personal caresses and the intimacy of affection and sexual-
ity), in this way, it is almost inexistent in public cultural practice, where it
could play a systematic and signifcant role.
32

However, the history of painting has had a contingent relationship with touch. For the
artist, this implies the physical and tactile gesture of transforming the inert materiality
of paint or pigment into image. For the viewer, it corresponds with the unique capacity
of simultaneously seeing a painted image and the indexical traces of its physical con-
struction. In relation to Debrays Trois Ages du Regard, painting as a technology can be
defned as an analogue form of experience par exellence
33
. As established by Debray,
paintings source of authority is through the pact it makes with the physical world.
Any meaning that can be gathered from painting fnds its basis in the material constitu-
ents of its construction. For example, the fgure of Christ in a Byzantine icon cannot be
divorced from the fact that is a series of pigmented lines and colours in tempera that
operate together on a wooden support to create the pictorial fgure well before any
metaphysical interpretations can be entertained. As Maurice Denis famously reminds us:
32. Celeste Olalquiaga, Le Rle de la Tactilit lre de la Primaut du Visuel, in Sandra Grant March-
and ed., Trevor Gould : poser pour le public (Montral : Muse dart contemporain de Montral,
1998).
33. The Oxford English Dictionary defnes analogue as adj. relating to, or being a device in which data
are represented by continuously variable, measurable, physical quantities, such as length, width, volt-
age, or pressure. Oxford University Press. http://www.askoxford.com
Remember that a painting before it is a battle horse, a nude model, or some anecdote
is essentially a fat surface covered with colours assembled in a certain order. Thus,
a paintings meaning is inherently linked to its particular material constituency; a con-
stituency that, I argue, is simultaneously both pictorial and tactile.
As opposed to sculpture, installation and recent forms of relational art
34
, painting func-
tions primarily as image, and thus shares a proximity or voisinage with all other images.
While the notion of painting as image has been transgressed and challenged since late
modernism (notably by minimalism, land art and conceptual art), the pictorial dimen-
sion of painting has maintained its central role either through this negation or affrma-
tion by artists. I argue that it is precisely paintings proximity to the other images of the
world which enable it to function critically against what we have come to call the food
of images. As Deleuze remarked, somewhat cryptically, Seulement des choses qui se
ressemblent peuvent se differer

(only things that resemble one another can differ from
one another)
35
. Painting operates pictorially whether abstractly or fguratively and
shares a place in the world with all other images (resemblance). However, as my re-
search suggests, its physical tactility, confers painting with an embodied singularity (dif-
ference) that allows it to function critically in light of digital media.
Being-in-the-World
I maintain that the embodied singularity of painting can respond effectively to both
Virilio and Gumbrechts loss of the world and what I consider the marginalisation of
the tactile and sensual within contemporary imagery. By positioning painting within the
34. The recent trend for a Relational Art was largely infuenced by the writtings of Nicolas Bourriaud.
Art is seen to function through the inter-human relations that are established by the artist in a larger
social realm, beyond private space. Relational Art can be seen as a desire by artists to move beyond
the image. See Nicolas Bourriaud, Postproduction (Paris: Les Presses du Rel, 2003).
35. Gilles Deleuze, Diffrence et Rptition (Paris: Puf, 1968).
37
ontological framework of Martin Heideggers philosophy of being-in-the-world, I be-
lieve we can enlarge the importance of paintings physical dimension in light of digital
technology; paintings tactile specifcity can reconfrm a sustained consciousness of the
material world.
Opposing the Cartesian mind/body paradigm that promulgated a decisive interval be-
tween spirit and matter, Heideggers concept of being-in-the-world affrms an inextri-
cable union between consciousness and the thingnessof the physical world . Generally
speaking, his motivation was to bring human self-reference back in touch with the
things of the world and, as Gumbrecht notes, to reaffrm the bodily substantiality and
spatial dimension of human existence
36
. Opposed to the dominant belief, promulgated
essentially by the ideology of the church, that saw human existence as a shadow of an
eternal truth that lay beyond earthly and bodily apprehension, Heidegger sought to
challenge this metaphysical (mis)conception through an affrmation of our contact with
substance or what he called the things-of-the-world
37
. It is our contact with the material
dimension of the world that Heidegger argues, enables truth to emerge.
Heidegger referred to human existence as Dasein which, in German, literally means
Being-there
38
. Gumbrecht gives a concise description of this: Dasein is being-in-the-
world, that is, human existence that is always already in both spatial and functional
contact with the world. This world in which Dasein is in touch is ready-to-hand
39
.
If we agree with Merleau-Ponty, that our experience of the world is determined by our
bodys sensorial interaction with form, then Heideggers being-in-the-world re-affrms
this dynamic as the basis of any meaning we can make of our existence.
36. Gumbrecht, Production of Presence, p. 47.
37. The split between the spiritual and the material establishes the origin of our Western epistemologi-
cal structure that relies on the subject/object paradigm. The belief that the truth lies in a metaphysi-
cal realm was maintined through the dominance of Platonic idealism, where earthly existence had its
real true nature in the world of ideas. Intergrated and fortifed by Judeo-Christian religion, this same
world view informed Descartes mind/body split and continues today. This divergence of the mate-
rial and the spiritual world has been criticised as having led Western tradition into an extreme state
of alienation. The disembodied realm of the digital manifests a contemporary continuity of the denial
of the fesh in favour of the idea. For a more detailed analysis of this I refer the reader to Michel On-
frays opus Une Contre Histoire de la Philosophie, Vols. I - IX (Paris: Grasset, 2006).
What does this mean for painting? Paintings material constitution the visceral, pal-
pable modulation of a pigmented mass (paint) onto a physical support (canvas, wood,
aluminium, the wall, etc.) is a process of materialisation that transforms substance into
a fxed and bounded surface; what I like to call an inscribed tactile surface. I believe
that this surface has something uniquely close to the qualities of our own body; both are
subject to the laws of gravity, light, moisture, heat, resistance, etc. Like Merleau-Pontys
skin, painting and the spectator both participate in a shared physical order. I argue that
the tactile surface of a painting can instil in the spectator, an awareness of the physical
world that contributes to his or her experience of what Heidegger calls being-in-the-
world. In his essay Constructing Physicality Richard Shiff eloquently articulates how I
think painting draws us to participate in the immanence of the world:
They (paintings) address the interpreter as collaborator and equal, as if
viewer and artwork possessed complementary physicalities (we too have
bodies, faces, fronts, backs mirrorings). We tacitly recognize a natural
affnity between bodily actions implied by the features of such paintings
and actions as our own bodies can perform. As a result, the order of these
paintings becomes more social and shared than individual. We can be-
come part of their tactile pictorial order; it belongs not only to the works
and their makers but to us, connecting us to the material world and engag-
ing us in a consciousness of a common physicality.
40
Painting can therefore be seen as a tangible experience for human vision, touch and in-
teraction. Its tactile pictorial order has an immediate impact on our bodies through an
identifcation with what Shiff refers to as our shared physicality through a reciprocal
38. R. Solomon, From Rationalism to Existentialism: The Existentialists and Their Nineteenth Century
Backgrounds (New York: Harper & Row, 1972) p. 104.
39. Gumbrecht, Production of Presence, p. 71.
40. Richard Shiff, Constructing Physicality, Art Journal, no. 50(1991): p. 47.
39
awareness, the paintings body vibrates in the body of the spectator. Deleuze refers to
this as sensation the way an art work impacts upon our central nervous system. I ar-
gue that it is precisely this physical dimension of painting which enables it to exceed the
digital by affrming a tactile order that resonates with our physical, sensorial, sexual
selves. This is not to negate the importance of mind or spirit in our experience of the
world. The problem that I am addressing is not the absence of the spirit, but the absence
of the body.
Heideggers ideas come as a threat to any metaphysical dimension that can be conferred
to art as he maintains that meaning can only emerge through the physical world art is
being grounded in being-in-the-world
41
. In his essay The Origin of the Work of Art,
Heidegger further defnes this notion of being grounded in developing a concept he
refers to as earth. Earth is the vehicle that enables a work of art, a poem or a piece of
music to stand in itself; it is earth that enables a work of art to exist in space
42
. The
material dimension of a work of art - its earth- is what carries meaning for Heidegger
and his concept of earth stands in radical opposition to the idea of art as transcendence.
Truth is not somewhere beyond, but here in the earth, in the materiality of the physical
world. Ultimately, Heideggers work promotes a materialism that, I argue, is needed in
the face of the global extension of the virtual. It is my being-in-the-world, my existence
in space and time, my corporeal body that touches, feels, smells, and sees, my relation
to the physical world that ensures my existence. Painting can address all of these things.
41. Martin Heidegger, Being and Time (New York: Harper & Row, 1962).
42. Martin Heidegger, The Origin of the Work of Art, in Martin Heidegger ed., Poetry, Language,
Thought (New York: Harper Collins, 1971) p. 41.
Transmission
The material substance of painting has an antithetical correspondence to what I consid-
er a defning feature of new media technology transmission. I believe this (anatomi-
cal) distinction between substance and transmission can provide a greater understand-
ing of why paintings physicality is so crucial in the contemporary world. In her recent
publication The Virtual Window, Anne
Friedberg outlines the hegemony of digital
technology and the way in which digi-
talisation has blurred the media-specifc
boundaries of cinema, photography, video
and sound
43
. As I have ventured to estab-
lish, what unites these mediums in their
digitalised form is the disembodiment of
what Merleau-Ponty called the fesh that
bonds us with things, in favour of an in-
stantaneous transmission. Painting is slow,
digital media rapid.
Can this disembodiment be seen to function as a liberation for art? No longer with a
need for physical mass, the digital image can be anywhere at anytime. New media
presents us with a huge array of virtual possibilities that can be perceived through a
video/computer screen in any part of the planet. We only need to look at the capabilities
of digital modelling, where new spaces, landscapes, people, planets, and communities
are made perceivable, albeit in a virtual realm. Science-fction flms, video games and
43. Anne Friedberg, The Virtual Window - From Alberti to Microsoft (Massachusetts: MIT, 2006) p. 3.
Illustration 8. Miss Digital World pageant winner
2009 - Katty-Ko.
41
virtual-interactive programs all rely on this access to an immaterial dimension to create
virtual fctions that indeed transcend our shared physicality
44
(Ill.8). It is the immaterial-
ity of the digital media that gives it the unarguable power of instantaneous transmission.
As Gilbert-Rolfe observes: we have gone from that which takes place in a recognisable
duration to that which takes an instant
45
.
By virtue of digital transmission, an image appears instantly upon the screen. With
a child-like curiosity, one could very well ask: where is the image when we see it on
a screen? The image is inseparable from the screen both are continuous with each
other, animated by an electrical pulse. Unlike Czannes paintings that affrm the fesh
which binds us to the world, an image on a screen has no weight, no tactile specifcity,
no depth; it has no material thickness that subjects the image to the spatial conditions of
a specifc locale. A digital image and its support are fused; for video this infers the fat
surface of a screen, and for photography (if ever printed), a surface so thin you cannot
see it as a thing. The surface of digital media exists as a homogenised and continu-
ous plane that offers no resistance to touch a smooth insubstantiality. In his essay on
electric dematerialisation, Gilbert-Rolfe offers an apt summary to the digital paradigm
quintessential to my thesis:
The screen is a hard plastic surface with no discernable part to play in
ones relationship to the ephemeral image it contains, substance subsumed
into transmission. Videos surface, made of plastic illuminated and ani-
mated by electricity, provides no way through which the image may re-
turn to the world.
46
44. I refer the reader to recent phenomena such as Second Life, a free 3D virtual world where users
can socialize, connect and create a virtual existence. The ostensible freedom of these interactive
communities fnds itself, paradoxically, under complete control of the program. Is not the users abil-
ity to function creatively, and situate their virtual body in space, under the complete authority of the
technological apparatus that manages this interaction?
45. Jeremy Gilbert-Rolfe, Beauty and the Contemporary Sublime (New York: Allworth Press,1999) p.
113.
46. Op.cit., p. 26.
Whether scanned, drawn, flmed or photographed, all visual form becomes reduced to a
binary calculation. No longer tied to a specifc place or time, the immateriality of a digital
image allows itself to be endlessly modifed, copied and altered at the service of transmis-
sion, and what has become known as, information communication. Everything is accessi-
ble, paradoxically, with the touch of a fnger. Without a physical source of authority, what
we see on our screen can be effectively perceived and manipulated by the user, but with-
out any corresponding physical reality - everything comes in an instant. The effciency of
digital media to be here, there and everywhere is unparalleled in the history of technology.
However, this effciency of the virtual may be deceiving. The expansive force of dig-
ital transmission is also its weakness. What the digital gains in speed, it loses in mass
there is no fesh or substance that allows us to establish a physical connection with
Heideggers being-in-the-world. Without weight, the speed and facility in which digital
images can transform and multiply themselves has led to what Jean Baudrillard famous-
ly termed as:
A profusion of images in which there is nothing to see They leave no
trace, cast no shadow, and have no consequences. The only feeling one
gets from such images, is that behind each one there is something that has
disappeared.
47
Subject to the possibility of constant circulation, transmission effectively detaches an
image from a specifc temporal and socio-cultural context and any complex meaning
that this may carry. Debray believes this endless transmission of images heralds precise-
ly the death of the image: Its a fact nevertheless, that too many images kill the image.
47. Jean Baudrillard, The Transparency of Evil, trans. James Benedict (London: Verso, 1993) p. 17. (Ital-
ics in original).
43
Likewise the evolution of visual transmission is also the demise of our attention span:
we scan over paintings and photos like a news headline or a subway advertisement;
we view a flm like an advertisement; and our little screen like the footpath when we
walk.
48
Unlike the digital, painting resists such transmission. A painting tends to be inert, it does
not move or glow. I argue that this is its very strength paintings substance infers dura-
tion. Different to the immaterial performance of digital technologies, a painting has
a unique ability to present pictorial form through the manipulation of an intermediary
material (paint) that is intensely tangible: a material that subsequently goes on to occupy
its own place in the world, becoming itself a physical thing. It is this thingness that I
believe reconfers a tangible reality upon the image that effectively negates Baudrillards
description of the world where images leave no trace or cast no shadow. Resisting
transmission and disembodiment, paintings tactile body confers a crucial sense of what
is real in our experience of an image. American painter Jonathan Lasker argues that
this is historically pertinent:
At the moment, art is faced with a dilemma. Radicalism in art is dead, as
its position has been usurped by the space of contemporary technology. In
my opinion, the project for art today is to situate the boundaries of what
is real, in a world where meaning, space and even (in theory) the effects of
mortality have been neutralized by technology.
49
With their potential for endless transmission, the digitalised food of images have condi-
tioned us to a world of appearances; the fctive image of a thing is often more valued
48. Debray, Vie et Mort de lImage, p. 455.
49. Jonathan Lasker, Expressions Permanentes (Paris: Daniel Lelong, 2005) p. 34.
than the thing itself. At the end of Orson
Welles flm The Lady of Shanghai, the
central character fnds himself immersed
in a maze of mirrors unable to distinguish
the image of his killer from the real. Like-
wise, the contemporary viewer is confront-
ed with a simulacra where images are no
longer bound to the reality of what they
represent (Ill.9). In light of virtual technol-
ogy, what Lasker articulates is a need for art to sensitise the viewers curiosity towards
the immanence of the physical world and to challenge how we attach meaning to what
we see. Lasker maintains that bringing our attention to the physical process that is paint-
ing can increase our awareness of this
process:
To encourage an empirical understanding of this medium (painting), will
incite the spectator, hopefully, to pursue investigations into other media
and to encourage also a relation with the objects and events of the real
world that are less fctive.
50
50. Op.cit., p. 12.
Illustration 9. Still from Orson Welles The Lady of
Shanghai, 1947.
45
Gesture
As part of the process of a paintings construction, the gesture of the artists body can
also be harnessed to enlarge the physical dimension of an image. By gesture, I refer to
the specifc dynamic enabling a physical interaction between our body and form through
a tactile relationship. The disembodied nature of the digital presents artists with an acute
problem the direct impact of their body is immobilised. I have already argued against
Kwinters challenge for artists to respond intuitively through the microchip, as one can-
not involve oneself emotionally in binary operations and calculus. Likewise, the param-
eters of software programs effectively neutralise any impulse, spontaneity or chance that
may originate from the body; action and gesture become codifed, subjected to the pre-
determined functioning of a machine. Random programs do exist but does our corporeal
involvement have any infuence on the result? I maintain that, without engaging our-
selves physically through our body and its gestures, without a contact with substance,
everything is kept at a distance, in a kind of remote-control relationship. There is, what
I consider, a formalised cold-rationality that underpins the evolving mass of digital
imagery. For example, a line drawn on a piece of paper is critically different to a line
drawn on a computer screen. The line on paper is the direct, physical result of the ges-
ture it is the gesture; whereas the line on a computer screen is the result of numerous
computer processes that represent the gesture, enabling its perception, albeit removed
from the possibilities of any direct physical interaction with the body.
Crucial to my research is the recuperation of the tactile union between thought, action,
form and vision and to re-establish this through an affrmation of gestural form. I argue
the need to affrm this gestural realm, is not out of a romantic nostalgia for a return to
the hand un loge la main, it comes from a fervent belief that art must critically ad-
dress the digital paradigm that I have sought to outline through a affrmation of the
physical tactile body. As Virilio states: without the liberty to critique technology, there
can be no technical progress, only our conditioning to it
51
.

Paint retains the physical
gesture of the artists body; his or her actions, impulses and movements are preserved in
a palpable substance that once dried becomes fxed in a duration of time. As Lasker pro-
claims in no other artistic medium is creation so intimately linked, and so permanently,
to the movements of the body. Nowhere else does a human being have such a direct and
immediate affect on the image of his world
52
.
51 Virilio, Cybermonde, La Politique du Pire, p. 12.
52 Lasker, Expressions Permanentes, p. 35.
Chapter II
Chapter II Encounter, Sensation and
Affect
Something in the world forces us to think. This something is an object, not of
recognition but of a fundamental encounter
Deleuze, Difference and Repetition
49
Paintings tactile constituency presents an opportunity for artists to create an important
sensual rupture against the immaterial dimension of digital imagery, to affrm a material
experience at odds with the logic of representation that underlies the food of images.
This chapter develops the idea that painting can play an important role in responding to
the digital paradigm by establishing an art encounter that negates our structured pat-
terns of image reception. Central to my argument is the aesthetic philosophy of Gilles
Deleuze. I argue that Deleuzes writings offer a coherent and creative strategy for con-
temporary artists to consider the material dimension of painting as a strategic zone for
arts production. In the face of dominant media and established codes of visual represen-
tation, Deleuze confers a materialist meaning to the process of art that can be used to
promote painting as a decisive form of aesthetic resistance. Painting can be a pertinent
force against the disembodied homogenous nature of digital imagery, but also against
transcendence, metaphysics and the sanctifying ideology of modernist idealism. His
ideas relate to both my studio practice and the written aspects of my research, providing
an enriching dialogue between the two felds. Ultimately, I believe that Deleuzes ideas
offer an astute conceptual framework in which to reconsider the signifcance of painting
in the altered context of the contemporary world.
Deleuzes philosophical thinking was considerably informed through his relationships
with artists; his work might be understood as writing with artists rather than about
them. Painting is an important discipline in the eyes of the philosopher and informs a
large part of his writings on aesthetics. An essential text in understanding Deleuzes
aesthetic philosophy is the book he dedicated to the work of English painter Francis
Bacon Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation. While this book is rich in content, I
have also endeavoured to source a wider array of the Deleuzes writings that I feel ne-
cessitate consideration in the context of my thesis, notably What is Philosophy, A Thou-
sand Plateaus, LAbecdaire, and the entirety of his university courses at Universit
Paris VIII that have recently become available online. Equally, I am in debt to Simon
OSullivans recent work Art Encounter: Deleuze and Guattari for its succinct encap-
sulation of how Deleuzes ideas can be extended into the realm of contemporary art. As
OSullivan suggests: Deleuze and Guattaris increasing relevance, and indeed popular-
ity, cannot be divorced from the switch analogue to digital that perhaps more than any-
thing else characterises our contemporary world
1
. I will frst outline what I consider to
be the essential elements of Deleuzian aesthetics in relation to my research, and then go
on to consider how these ideas can be further enlarged through the reception of the work
of three contemporary painters: Pia Fries, Jonathan Lasker and Katharina Gross.
A Materialist Ontology
Deleuze positions art as essentially a physical encounter (une rencontre) an event that
brings two (or more) bodies in contact and precipitates the possibility of something new.
Therefore, meaning is considered in relation to the material encounter between forces,
or the expression of one force upon another. For the artist, this means the encounter
between herself (and her own subjectivity) and the specifc potentiality of her chosen
medium, resulting in an object of encounter the art object. Following this, there is an
important secondary encounter, the encounter between this artobject and the spectator.
Here, the spectator, like the artistic medium, also being an envelopment of potential.
Art is then the name for both of these encounters, and both have the potential to pro-
duce meaning.
1 Simon OSullivan, Art Encounters: Deleuze and Guattari Thought Beyond Representation (London:
Palgrave, 2007) p. 13.
51

Central to his aesthetic philosophy, Deleuze attempts to negate the dominant role that
representation plays in sustaining our habitual patterns of perception through what he
terms a logic of sensation. He affrms an experience of art that is located in the mate-
rial, physical world a feld of immanence that is felt rather than cerebral. Result-
ing from the encounter between the artobject and subject, sensation can be seen as an
indeterminate zone between the two. The composition of the artwork, or what Deleuze
calls a bloc of sensation, impacts upon the body of the subject (either artist or viewer);
not through the brain, not through a series of signs or representations, but directly on
the central nervous system of the body. As Elizabeth Grosz writes: Sensation requires
no mediation or translation. It is not representation, sign, symbol, but force, energy,
rhythm, resonance
2
. Deleuzes logic of sensation gives precedence to what we could
refer to as gut reaction, where meaning is felt throughout the body and its organs, rath-
er than being understood linguistically or through a lexis of signs. Again, this resonates
with the intention of my research to situate painting as a bodily experience that grounds
us in Heideggers beingintheworld:
Sensation is the opposite of the facile and the readymade, the clich, but
also of the sensational, the spontaneous, etc. Sensation has one face
turned toward the subject (nervous system, vital movement, instinct,
temperament a whole vocabulary common to both naturalism and
Czanne), and one face turned toward the object (the fact, the place, the
event). Or rather, it has no faces at all, it is both things indissolubly, it is
Beingintheworld as the phenomenologists say: at one and the same
time I become in the sensation and something happens through the sen-
sation, one through the other, one in the other. And at the limit, it is the
2 Elizabeth Grosz, Chaos, Territory, Art: Deleuze and the Framing of the Earth (New York: Columbia
University Press, 2008) p. 73.
same body that, being both subject and object, gives and receives the sen-
sation. As the spectator, I experience the sensation only by entering the
painting, by reaching the unity of the sensing and the sensed.
3
Sensation is not maintained in the body of the subject but in the material constituency
of the artobjects composition. Deleuze maintains that through an encounter with mat-
ter, the artist attempts to fx a bloc of sensation which gives duration and visible form
to the invisible forces and ideas that underpin its creation: What is preserved the
thing or the work of art is a bloc of sensations, that is to say, a compound of percepts
and affects
4
. Both percepts and affects become independent of those who experi-
ence them and give the subsequent artobject its own autonomy. This bloc of sensa-
tion engenders the composition of a work and fails or succeeds by virtue of its material
coherency. As Grosz remarks: Sensation can only emit its effects to the extent that its
materials, materiality itself, become expressive, passing in to sensation, transforming
themselves, giving themselves a new quality
5
. Therfore, the material dimension that
Deleuze ascribes to an art work, particularly painting, is not at the service of visual rep-
resentation but at the service of sensation. I argue that this offers painting an important
path of resistance against the plethora of digital images that represent the world to us via
the homogenized fattened screen.
Positioning art as a unique rupture in established codes of visual communication, the
art of sensation that Deleuze promotes, has considerable social and aesthetic conse-
quences in negating representation. Operating through a system of recognisable forms,
signs, signifers and codes, representation communicates already-established roles, func-
tions and understandings manifested in what Deleuze refers to as an object of recog-
3 Gilles Deleuze, Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation, trans. Daniel W. Smith (Minneapolis: Uni-
versity of Minnesota Press, 2004) p. 31 (Italics in original).
4 Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, What is Philosophy?, trans. Hugh Tomlinson and Graham Burchell
(New York: Columbia University Press, 1994) p. 164 (Italics in original).
5 Grosz, Chaos, Territory, Art: Deleuze and the Framing of the Earth, p. 74.
53
nition. A sign, symbol or index, stands in for, or takes the place of, another subject or
object and so must be commonly understood for it to function. For example, to interact
with a website, we rely on a logic of representation to understand the content of its
pages a series of signs, codes, images and language that convey meaning and impact
based upon these preestablished conventions. New representational technologies, no-
tably the digital, rely on a constant stream of reproduced images that operate through
logic of representation. Without representation, digital communications would cease to
function information communication would suffer an acute handicap. Representation
can be seen as what enables us to establish culturally-specifc meaning to the images
that are sent and received between two or more parties. However, art for Deleuze is
what precisely negates such representation, and presents our perception with something
previously unrepresentable. As John Rajchman implies, to resist representation is also
to free the art of seeing from its subordination to prior concept or discourse
6
.
If Deleuzes aesthetic philosophy encourages artists to consider how art may operate
beyond the horizon of representation, then this calls for a shift away from what the phi-
losopher terms signifer enthusiasm to an engagement with matter and its expressive
potentiality
7
. We need to think about the sign differently. Thus, Deleuzes concept of
affect and percept can be seen as an attempt to replace the signifer and to readdress
this physical dimension of an artwork
8
. For Deleuze art thinks through affects and per-
cepts
9
; and that this image of thought is composed as a bloc of sensation within what
he terms a plane of immanence. Deleuzes plane of immanence opposes any transcen-
dental belief whatever exists within this plane of immanence exists only to itself and
not to something. As soon as a composition is immanent to something, transcendence
is involved. Therefore, the immanence of an artwork is not immanent to substance but
6 John Rajchman, The Deleuze Connections (Massachusetts: MIT, 2000) p. 129.
7 Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus, trans. Brian Massumi (London: Continuum,
1987) p. 124.
8 Deleuzes art of affect can be seen as an attempt to affrm a pre-linguistic signifcance to an art
work, as approaches to the image in its relation to language are incomplete if they operate only on a
semantic or semiotic level. For Deleuze and Guattari Percepts are no longer perceptions; they are
independent of a state of those who experience them. Affects are no longer feelings or affections;
they go beyond the strength of those who undergo them. Sensations, percepts, and affects are beings
whose validity lies in themselves and exeeds any lived. They could be said to exist in the absence of
man, as he is caught in stone, on the canvas, or by words, is himself a compound of percepts and
immanence in substance. In resisting representation, where the image (idea) is always
immanent to something, art must establish its own autonomy where meaning remains
within the material consistency of the composition, maintained as a bloc of sensation.
10
It is precisely the role of affects and percepts that, tied to the material dimension of an
oeuvre, enable sensation to emerge. The sensation (meaning) of a work is therefore
inherent to its very material constitution and has nothing to do whatsoever with a refer-
ence from outside or any meta physical dimension. Deleuze argues that it is the mate-
rial plane of immanence, specifc to an art encounter, where meaning resides. This is
critically opposed to transcendence that Deleuze infers is governed by religious and
ideological interests: Whenever there is transcendence, vertical being, imperial state
in the sky or on earth, there is religion; and there is philosophy (art) whenever there is
immanence
11
.

Deleuzes material immanence stands in opposition to any metaphysi-
cal, transcendental idealism one can confer to a work of art (notably Greenbergian dis-
course) and questions the capabilities of semiotics to fully grasp complex meaning.
For Deleuze, an object of encounter (art) is therefore fundamentally different to an ob-
ject of recognition. The encounter that is issued from a creative event challenges our
habitual modes of seeing and interpreting the world, disrupting established patterns of
representation. As Simon OSullivan states:
With such a nonencounter (representation) our habitual way of being and
acting in the world is reaffrmed and reinforced, and as a consequence no
thought takes place. Indeed, we might say that representation precisely
stymies thought. With a genuine encounter however the contrary is the
case. Our typical ways of being in the world are challenged, our systems
affects. The work of art is a being of sensation and nothing else: it exists in itself. In Deleuze and
Guattari, What is Philosophy?, p. 164.
9 Deleuze and Guattari, What is Philosophy?, p. 66.
10 Here, the defnition of autonomy differs signifcantly to that made popular by modernist formalism.
Based on experimentation, rather than an aesthetic self-referential essentialism, for Deleuze, art is not
a self-contained process disconnected from the world, or a representation of the world, but a render-
ing of its forces and qualities (rhythms, harmonies, colours, forms, etc.) into an autonomous composi-
tion that establishes new connections and new posible becomings. A contrast to modernist discourse
that, according to Greenberg, criticizes from the inside rather than from the outside.
11 Deleuze and Guattari, What is Philosophy?, p. 43.
55
of knowledge disrupted. We are forced to thought. The encounter then
operates as a rupture in our habitual modes of being and thus in our ha-
bitual subjectivities.
12
Therefore the art-object establishes a rupture within the presiding feld of representa-
tion; a crack or space occurs here that brings about the possibility of something new.
In relation to painting, my research argues that the tactile specifcity of painting can be
exploited by artists to effectuate a distinct rupture within the dominant feld of digital
technology. I argue that our daily experience with the immaterial, fattened, sanitised,
two-dimensional nature of todays screen imagery, its implicit use of representation and
reproduction, can be momentarily breached by the physical sensuality of a painted sur-
face.
A Sensual Rupture: Pia Fries
The Swiss painter Pia Fries exemplifes the way painting can operate as a creative en-
counter that disrupts our habitual interaction with representation and advances painting
in new directions. I explore two concepts of Deleuze that I feel are visibly manifest in
Fries paintings: the rhizome and the haptic. Important to my analysis is how the
physical processes operating in Fries painting break away from any metaphysical or
transcendental concern and situate painting in a feld of immanence a critique of dig-
itals virtual immateriality.
The paintings of Fries strike us by the opulence of their physical sensual form (Ill.10-
12 OSullivan, Art Encounters, p. 1.
11). MerleauPontys call for an art that makes visible the fesh of the world fnds
itself answered in the corporeal, tactile palpability of Fries painted surfaces. Few
contemporary artists have endeavoured to emphasise the physical, material nature of
painted form as she. Neither expressionist, geometric nor even gestural, Fries
paintings seem liberated from the confnes of any authoritorial discourse. This liberty is
perceived in the thick, densely-pigmented forms that spread across her surfaces achiev-
ing an intense formal diversity a ludic encounter with painted substance. The spread
of painted form on her wooden support would appear at frst to have no established ra-
tional. When we look at Amanat (Ill.10), we struggle to perceive any underlying visual
logic or theoretical starting point to the image. Paul Good admits to the diffculty one
has responding to these paintings:
How are we to deal with the astonishing diversity of colour and form in
the paintings of Pia Fries? There is so much going on in the paint. As
though unfettered sensuality were running riot. As though there were no
attempt at creating order by any rational means. Her painting does not
bow down to any theory, let alone to any metaphysical notion of colour.
Here is an artist who has abandoned herself to a fetishism of the material
itself.
13
Fries intriguing composition and employment of paint I believe, is subject to a form of
nomadic thought. Such nomadic wanderings in paint can be seen as operating within a
type of connectivity that Deleuze labels a rhizome. Based on the biological structure
of a root system, Deleuzes rhizome is a system without any centre or hierarchy where
lines of fight connect nodal points within the rhizome and establish a series of con-
13 Paul Good Multiplicity Must Be Made, in Paul Good, Dieter Schwartz and Iris Wein eds., Pia Fries
(Dusseldorf: Richter Verlag, 2007) p. 11.
57
nected locations and events. Looking closer at the surface of Amanat, the rhythmic,
tactile manipulation of paint and the way in which it interacts physically (as event), can
be seen as forming connections between differing milieus and registers of painted form.
These connections are not subject to any programme of representation but instead go
on to produce new realities and new relationships within the world what Deleuze re-
fers to as new becomings. This process of connectivity between the differing parts of
Fries composition is where, I argue, meaning lies. Instead of looking for a metaphysical
meaning beyond the material as is often the case in modernism I believe that mean-
ing circulates in Fries painting via the connections and events that are inscribed in its
Illustration 10. Pia Fries, Amanat, oil and mixed media on board, 170 x 100 & 170 x 154 cm.,
2003. Courtesy Galeria Filomena Soares.
tactile surface. Art can name an object but, as Deleuze maintains, it can also name a
process. When looking at Fries pictorial universe, it is precisely this process, the way
these energies fxed in material form interact, that conveys meaning. As Good remarks:
This painting is not subject to transcendence. And so it cannot fall from
grace. It does not put itself at the service of form and representation, of
reference and reproduction. Instead, it produces maps a cartography of
energies. These maps differ from a copy of the world in that they are en-
tirely orientated towards an experimentation in contact with the real.
14
I argue that it is precisely our diffculty in describing what is happening on the surface of
Fries paintings that demonstrates the rupture they produce against representation: Evident-
ly, the conventional language of art criticism has proved unequal to the task of describing her
paint-laden works
15
.

The surface of Amanat is an unfolding of interrelated, interconnected
coloured and textured bodies that give form to the complexity of forces that have operated
in and upon the oil paint. Our experience of this painted encounter subjects our own eyes
to a nomadic way of seeing. Unable to rest on a fragmented detail of paint for too long,
we are forced to constantly move our eyes exploring paints protean-like capacity to be
transformed into strange and visually exciting forms by the artist. In constant movement,
our eyes jump from one island of form to another, discovering new painted territories and
surfaces, new connections and new lines of fight between fxed points. With no centre to the
image, our nomadic movements of perception are forever in fight, there is no pause, destina-
tion or formal hierarchy to the composition. I believe the rhizome like experience of Fries
work corresponds to Deleuzes defnition of a plateau a rhizome can be seen as being made
up of plateaus a continuous, self vibrating region of intensities whose development avoids
14 Op.cit., p. 20.
15 Dieter Schwarz Matrix of Painting, in Pia Fries, p. 75.
59
any orientation toward a culmination point or external end
16
. It is this anti-hierarchical na-
ture of the composition, its refusal to present pre-existing structures, that demonstrate Fries
painterly explorations into new possibilities of thought beyond representation. New ways of
painting and new ways of thinking I argue, are constructed along the same lines.
Haptic
In stark opposition to a screen, the magnifed tactility of Beringer (Ill.11) engages us
in a closeup encounter with substance. In a Thousand Plateaus, Deleuze develops an
aesthetic concept around the notion of the haptique that helps elucidate the rich visual
experience we enjoy with Fries surfaces
17
. Haptic originates from the Greek ptos to
touch. As mentioned in Chapter I, the term was frst employed by the 18
th
-century art
historian Alos Reigl to position the important role that surface texture played in our
perception of an artwork. In debt to Riegl, Deleuze distinguishes two types of vision
optical vision (regard optique) and haptic vision (regard haptique). Our optical vision
is determined by light, the way it renders form visible and allows us to perceive dis-
tance what can be considered as standard retinal perception. However haptic vision
is a concept Deleuze develops to explain our perception of something in close proxim-
ity a space of immediate contact that allows vision to palpate an object or surface and
to become completely immersed within it. Deleuze presents the idea of haptic art as
the antithesis of optical art. Haptic art is determined by a closeup engagement with
the tactility of a surface its thingness in the world. In contrast an experience of art
through optical vision is based on a physically distanced retinal perception. As I have
argued, the critical difference between painting and other media, notably the digital, lies
16 Deleuze and Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus, p. 24.
17 See particularly Chapter 1440: The Smooth and the Striated, in Deleuze and Guattari, A Thousand
Plateaus, pp. 543-551.
Illustration11. Pia Fries, Beringer, oil on board, 170x220cm., 2003. Private Collection.
61
in paintings ability to convey a haptic and optical dimension to an image. Of consider-
able interest here, is the reason why Deleuze employs the term haptique over tactile.
Haptic is preferred because it infers that the eye can perceive texture without necessar-
ily having to touch: Haptic is a better word than tactile since it does not establish an
opposition between the two sense organs but rather invites the assumption that the eye
itself may fulfl this nonoptical function
18
. In the context of my thesis, I maintain the
term tactile as it considers the role of touch not only during the reception and percep-
tion of a painting, but importantly also its artistic production
19
.
In looking at Beringer, one immediately experiences a rich sensuality that seems to en-
gage all the senses, particularly touch and vision. The visceral, palpable textured body
of her painted surface is reminiscent of other sensual encounters that we share with
things, such as food, skin, bodies, cakes, cream, mud, sand, etc. The polymorphous
perversity that interested Freud seems manifest in the way that paint has been erotically
caressed and manipulated by the artists hands. Good identifes this viserality when he
writes:
Looking at many of her works, one has the impression that this is an artist
who not only paints quite literally by hand, but who seems to touch and
feel the material itself : all the senses, including smell, taste and hearing
are fully alert. Each and every colour can seem either quiet or loud. It is
by no means the visual alone that governs the fow of material here.
20
Pia Fries paintings are a unique affrmation of Deleuzes haptic art, which I believe,
advance the tradition of painting in an important way. The sheer volume and palpable
18 Op.cit., p. 543.
19 I develop the important role that touch plays in the production of an art-object in chapter 3.
20 Good et al., Pia Fries, p. 13.
mass of Fries paint, gives the image a veritable presence that, in turn, infuences visual
effect; a spatial depth of palpable tactility is established by the relief-like nature of her
surfaces. In stark contrast to our experience of digital imagery, the textured surfaces
of her images provide an important connection with the physical, tangible world. This
haptic dimension, so prevalent in Fries oeuvre, directly encroaches upon the viewers
space and draws our awareness towards what Richard Shiff refers to as a shared physi-
cality. Her paintings effectuate a sensual rupture in the Cartesian world. The sensual,
erotic, material body, that Gumbrecht suggests has been subjugated by Cartesian ration-
alism, fnds itself re-affrmed in Fries material and immanent sensuality.
While Fries paintings share a common concern for paintings medium specifcity, so
dear to Greenbergian modernism, they nevertheless advance the process of painting in
new ways. What is interesting in Fries technique is the absence of any industrialised
element; she only uses traditional methods of paint application brush, palette knives
and hand-made spatulas. In a strange way, her approach can be seen as somewhat con-
servative. Yet, I believe this hands-on tactile involvement does not confer the work
with the authorial dimension so dear to say abstract expressionism or action painting.
Fries charges her composition with a constant dialogue between the intentionality of
her gestures and the facticity of paint itself. When Fries applies her paint as paint,
it retains the trace of the tool that put it there, however, sometimes the paint dribbles or
splashes and this randomness contrasts with the intentionality of the artists gesture. As
Iris Wien states: the event character of so many of Pia Fries paintings owes much to
this dialectical factor that blurs the boundary between the aleatory and the consciously
deliberate
21
.

The paintings are so intrinsically related to their material genesis that they
almost appear as natural formations. Wien continues :
21 Wein, I. in op.cit., p. 52.
63
The references to nature as a creative force, as natura naturans, do not re-
sult from any representational portrayal, but from the fact that the pictures
themselves are so deeply rooted in the material that they almost appear as
a natural aspect of earthly reality.
22
While Fries brushwork is evident, it merges with the material density of the paint in a
unique union that radically opposes any representation or premeditated thematic. Un-
like the painting of her once-teacher Gerhard Richter who, as Good argues uses paint-
ings, for instance, as a way of expressing a certain irony in a theme
23
, Fries work is
only concerned with the haptic potentiality of paints physical becoming. I believe there
is no meaning beyond the material dimension of her painted surface. The material im-
manence, so manifest in Fries paintings, provides a refreshing rupture against the im-
material realm of the digital and situates painting beyond the culdesac of modernist
idealism.
Multiplicity
If the tactility of painting can infer a critique of digital media and the dominant felds
of representation, then it must also guarantee an alternative experience. The strength of
Deleuzes aesthetic philosophy is his insistence that any rupture art produces must also
contain a moment of creative affrmation a means of thinking and seeing the world
differently. Deleuze opens up a way of readdressing painting, particularly abstraction,
that is essentially outward and inclusive to multiplicity, in stark contrast to late modern-
isms via negativa. John Rajchman has argued that a Deleuzian approach to contem-
22 Wein, I. in op.cit., p. 51.
23 Op.cit., p. 15.
porary abstract painting is crucial in challenging this via negativa in other words, the
modernist pursuit of a painterly essentialism by defning what painting should avoid
or cannot do (no illusion, no transparency, no narrative, no fguration, etc)
24
. Instead of
the sanctifying clearing-away and strippingaway demands of modernist formalism,
Rajchman promulgates a Deleuzian model for abstract painting that is connective and
inclusive. His model establishes new links and encounters with divergent disciplines
and rhizomic networks between differing milieus of thought and intensity. For Rajch-
man, a Deleuzian response confers an abstraction that consists in an impure mixture
and mixing-up of forms; a reassemblage that moves towards an outside, rather than a
purifcation that turns to essential ideas or in toward the constitutive forms of a me-
dium
25
.

The Deleuzian rhizomic model for painting articulated by Rajchman, suggests
that painting establish connections between things previously considered incompatible
in modernist discourse a more open playing feld.
Jonathan Lasker and the Thingness of Painting
In a deliberate reworking of the formal language of modernist vocabulary, American art-
ist Jonathan Lasker can be seen as a perfect example of this impure mixture and mixing
up of forms. For Lasker abstraction operates as a system that enables him to synthesise
various structures and components from divergent milieus into a unique pictorial com-
position notably through a sustained engagement with oil paint. Like Fries, Laskers
24 Deleuzes ideas on art were largely informed by his interest in modernism, notably painting, but also
in conceptual and minimalist practice. His regular interaction with artists during the 1970s and 1980s,
and the writtings of Clement Greenberg and Michael Fried, serve as points of reference. Therefore,
a large challenge for artists and theoriticians has been how to re-situate his ideas beyond modern-
ism - in specifc relation to contemporary art. The publications of Simon OSullivan, John Rajchman
and Simon Zepke are signifcant attempts to outline the validity of Deleuzes philosphy in light of
contemporary practice. For a more informed understanding, I refer the reader to the upcoming publi-
cation, Stephen Zepke and Simon OSullivan, Deleuze and Contemporary Art (Edinburgh: Edinburgh
University Press, 2010). It is also worth noting the contempt that Deleuze held towards his ideas
being applied to any discourse, (in the sense that artistic form could be seen as a representation or
illustration of his thought); rather, he sought his philosophy to be used in a pragmatic experimental
way a tool-box of enquiry. While his ideas were expressed through the investigation of modern-
ism, they are by no means limited to a modernist context.
25 John Rajchman in David Ryan, Talking Painting : Dialogues with Twelve Contemporary Artists (Lon-
don: Routledge, 2002) p. 3.
65
pictorial thinking is rhizomatic, where differing forms and textures are brought together
to form new encounters. Reasonable Love (Ill.12) operates as a kind of puzzle, an en-
counter between heterogeneous elements that confict and combine into a bloc of sensa-
tion. Unconscious doodling, akin to a surrealist automatism, is graphically opposed to
broad, densely-applied impastoed horizontal and vertical lines that form a modular grid
suggestive of minimalist practice. Likewise, colour is combined in a disharmonious
manner the essentials (blue, green, red) are offset by a strange mix of tertiary greens,
Illustration 12. Jonathan Lasker, Reasonable Love, oil on linen, 205x275cm.,
2007. Couresty Cheim & Reid.
Illustration 13. Jonathan Lasker, A Sentient Picture, oil on linen, 76.2 x 101.6 cm., 2008. Private collection
67
mauves and browns. The resulting composition is precariously situated between a de-
sire for pictorial unity and the artists insistence on the independence and autonomy of
the paintings parts.
Laskers practice can be seen as a Deleuzian encounter in two differing ways. Firstly as
an encounter between conficting formal registers. A Sentient Picture (Ill.13) is a fne
example of how Laskers practice combines two ostensibly incompatible components
of modernist painting, notably gestural expression with hard-edge abstraction. Areas of
gestural energy created with organic line are intermingled within formalised structures
of rigid geometric defnition. The opposing energies become strangely co-dependent.
The second encounter involves Laskers employment of divergent creative processes.
Unlike the encounter that Fries establishes through an essentially direct, intuitive un-
meditated use of paint, Laskers approach is a distinct combination of an unconscious
and conscious process. All of Laskers fnal works are based on small, quick uncon-
scious doodling (produced with markerpens, biro and oil paint), that are later recom-
posed and carefully enlarged as fnished works. What imbues these paintings with
such an idiosyncratic energy is this tension between the immediacy of the initial sketch
and the carefully rendered coolness of its fnalised composition. Here the encounter is
one between the subjective impulse of the automatic drawing and its rational, ordered,
objective transcription. The importance of Laskers work is the way in which these
encounters are given form through a controlled yet exuberant use of oil paint; the pal-
pable surface of Laskers paintings demonstrate the process of painting in an extremely
extroverted way. The divergent forces that drive these encounters are made visible,
enveloped in the material dimension of the paint (a bloc of sensation); as spectators, we
become part of their pictorial and tactile order. This is an experience that heightens our
perception of the image, its immanence in the physical world, and affrms an important
material dimension to the image so marginalized in contemporary society.
If we consider Reasonable Love or A Sentient Picture, we remain perplexed by the am-
biguous nature of the marks and their refusal to signify any recognisable meaning. Lask-
er is indeed guilty of committing a rupture in our established feld of representation.
While we may struggle to make sense of these forms, we are nevertheless drawn into
the physical complexity of their material dimension. In an interview with HansMichael
Herzog, Lasker voices a concern that his painted forms be read more as marks than
signs or signifers echoing Deleuzes defnition of an object of encounter:
Illustration 14. Detail.
69
Herzog : You said before that you would call some of the gestures in your
painting marks. Marking is pointing out something, as I take it. Would
you say that these marks could be called signs, and if so, what might their
signifcance be for you?
Lasker : That is interesting, because when we use a sign we are referenc-
ing a known meaning. On the other hand there is an ambiguity in marks
which cannot be clearly resolved. A mark is something about which the
only thing you know is that it is a mark. It is neutral in the sense that it
doesnt yet have a specifcally assigned meaning. I think there is a range
between signs and marks in my work, a certain frontier where you exit the
realm of the sign and enter that of the mark. You dont yet know what the
signs are for those marks, so you're confronted with the task of determining
what those marks mean, both their specifc signifcance and the grammar
of how they work together. The most exiting paintings for me are the
ones where you cannot really specifcally discuss the sign, but you know
that you are dealing with something which marks something. It denotes
something, yet at the same time you cannot really specify its exact signif-
cance.
26
26 Hans-Michael Herzog and Konrad Bitterli, Jonathan Lasker 1977-1997 (Dusseldorf: Hatje Cantz,
1998) p. 31.
What Laskers statement illustrates is a desire to situate experience away from the
dominance of a signifying regime to an experience of the physicality of the marks them-
selves their sensation. The artist seems conscious of paintings critical alterity to other
media the ability of paintings physical properties to convey meaning. If we consider
the surface of one of Laskers paintings at closer range (Ill.14), the thick application
of paint forces us to confront the material dimension of the paintings construction, its
thingness. Pictorial depth is established within the composition through the visual
interplay of line and colour and the layering of form, what Deleuze would call optical
Illustration 15. Jonathan Lasker, When Dreams Work, oil on canvas, 228x305cm., 1992. Daros Collection.
71
vision; however the physical density of their rendering engages us in an haptic experi-
ence that is crucial to Laskers work. The tactile application of paint, isolated on the fat
monochromatic green ground on which they are placed in When Dreams Work (Ill.15),
confer Laskers marks with a unique individuality a thing to be examined, experi-
enced and interpreted. As Richard Kalina comments on Laskers forms: you sense that
they are something, but you can not put your fnger on exactly what that might be
27
.
The thingness of Laskers painted forms play an important part in the artists desire to
confront the spectator with an experience of art that is grounded in the physical world.
Not only does Lasker rupture the codes of modernist purity, he demonstrates how the
physical dimension of painting can operate critically in light of virtual technologies. As
the artist himself notes:
Painting has a unique capacity to enlighten the knowledge of objects in
the real world, because painting, while alluding to a recollection of ob-
jects and experiences of the real world, transmits this recollection through
the intermediary of an intensely palpable material. A material which oc-
cupies its own space in the world, becoming itself a thing. This is differ-
ent to other medias such as television, cinema or photography, where the
image is disembodied and nothing obstructs the path of the image towards
the memory of the spectator. These medias function on a purely fctional
level.
28
27 Richard Kalina, Jonathan Lasker: Studies for Paintings 1986-2006 (New York: Timothy Taylor Gal-
lery, 2007) p. 4.
28 Jonathan Lasker, Expressions Permanentes (Paris: Daniel Lelong, 2005) p. 11.
Materialist Meaning
In order for painting to operate critically in light of the digital paradigm, I believe the
materialist ontology Deleuze outlines for art is necessary in reconsidering the contem-
porary relevance of painting. As I have argued, Deleuzes call to replace representa-
tion with sensation, infers that we must not expect the meaning of paintings affect to
be given as a signifer, but the result of physical forces inscribed in matter. Meaning
is not to be interpreted through rhetoric or linguistic logic but in terms of causes and
events. The semioticians approach to art, seen as a series of signifers working to cre-
ate a system of meaning, can limit our understanding of paintings signifcance, as it
fails to consider the material complexity that may convey meaning. I argue, Deleuzes
materialism rescues painting from such an enclosure and enables us to consider painting
from a more pragmatic and experimental point of view; one that is more connected with
the material processes that produce art than a concern for defnition and judgment. If
signs play a role in painting, then it is their affective potential as sensation that drives
their meaning. In his introduction to A Users Guide to Capitalism and Schizophrenia:
Deleuze and Guattari, Brian Massumi summarises meaning for Deleuze as a network
of enveloped material processes.Meaning might be the name to describe the process of
an event or the encounter we have with an artwork, perhaps ineffable during the en-
counter, yet nevertheless real in its effect
29
.
In thinking art away from the horizon of signifer, Deleuze and Guatarri develop a con-
cept of art based on a machine in A Thousand Plateaus. An artmachine or abstract
machine that functions as an event the expression of one force upon another and
synthesises Deleuzes desire to shift our encounter with art away from representation
29 Brian Massumi, A Users Guide to Capitalism and Schizophrenia (Massachusetts: MIT, 1992) p. 10.
73
towards new processes of seeing and thinking art. This machine paradigm can help us
move away from the concern for defnition and labelling that lingers on from modern-
ism and questions our habitual experience of art. As OSullivan observes:
Another way of thinking this change in approach to art is as a move towards
a more machinic understanding, one in which we are less involved with
questions of defnition and more with notions of function. We no longer
ask the interminable question: what does art, what does this art work,
mean? But rather, what does art, what does this art work do? Thinking
art as a machine in this way, literally and not just as a metaphor, side steps
many of the problems and culdesacs of aesthetic and art theory.
30
Katharina Grosse : Painting-Machines
The large-scale works of German artist Katharina Grosse can be seen as artmachines
that generate new spaces and expand the tactile dimension of painting in new ways
(Ill.16-19). Transforming architectural space into an arena of intense chromatic encoun-
ter, Grosses work questions the established codes of image production, immersing the
viewer within a powerful experience of colour and gesture. Likewise, her practice chal-
lenges notions of institutional power. Located in an architectural context, her sprayed
jets of colour disregard the habitual rules of conduct within a built environment. I be-
lieve that Grosses practice positions painting as a performative act; a paintingmachine
that brings colour, movement, gesture, form and architecture together in a physical en-
counter that aims to explore (rather than defne) what art can do.
30 OSullivan, Art Encounters, p. 22.
Unconcerned with the production of a specifc object or resolved work, Grosses prac-
tice openly explores the possibilities of how painting can alter the way in which we
experience space by producing new worlds, new pictorial becomings, within established
contexts. The eventlike nature of the works construction, completed over a series of
days using spray guns and industrial machinery, presents us with a visual record of the
works production. Like the artist, we are forced to engage with the work from multi-
ple viewpoints and become immersed in the chromatic and physical dimension of their
production. If we consider Cincy (Ill.16), we are no longer tied to the immobile recep-
Illustration 16. Katharina Grosse, Cincy, acrylic paint on wall, varying dimensions, 2006. Contemporary
Arts Centre, Cincinatti.
75
tion of a fat image. Sprayed paint is applied throughout various areas of the gallery,
on differing supports and surfaces, creating a multiplicity of painted forms. Grosses
piece confronts us with a process, an event that disrupts our controlled reception of an
image. This type of painting forces the viewer to respond physically through a three-di-
mensional investigation of painted space. As spectators, we are forced to experience the
work from various angles and points of view, to compose the piece through movement
and memory, through both the mobility of the eye and the body.
Grosses practice challenges received ideas as to how an image should function. It
would not be unusual to ask ourselves whether her paintings are in fact images? The
sheer scale and dimension of her chosen support suggests that the work exists outside
the boundaries of what we commonly call an image. Our habitual exposure to the food
of imagery, bound and contained within a stable surface, is momentarily thrown into
doubt and questioned. As Leonhard Emmerling notes: The impossibility of taking in
the whole work in one glimpse leads to a destabilisation of the viewers possibility of
understanding
31
. The habitual frame of an image fnds itself stretched to such an extent
that the pictorial dimension of the work becomes diffcult to defne or contain. Yet the
artist is adamant that her painting works as image, embedded in the pictorial tradition
of paintings history. I believe that Grosses painting questions not so much what is an
image?, but our conditioned response as to how we consider an image should function.
As spectators, Grosses work forces us to reconsider our relationship with an image
outside the familiar format of the screen (advertising, television etc.) and the very tradi-
tion of painting itself. Against modernist structure and containment, her painting gives
precedence to physical and visual experimentation; an artmachine that advances the
pictorial possibilities of painting in an important way.
31 Leonard Emmerling A Contusao/The Bruise, in Ullrich Loock, Katharina Grosse: Atoms Outside
Eggs (Lisbon: Museu Serralves, 2007) p. 119.
To shift the emphasis away from the thingness of paintings surface, Grosses paintings
allow me to demonstrate how the tactility of paint can be employed in an alternative
way. While these works are an encounter of extreme visual strength and force, they
have a soft touch that results from the way vaporised pigment settles on the specifc
Illustration 17. Katharina Grosse, Final Cuts, 2003, acrylic paint on wall, 950 x 895 x 320 cm., 2003.
Union Space, London.
77
surface of an object. Here the tactility of
paint, removed from any immediate con-
tact with the artists hands, is subordinated
to the rhythmic gestures of the spray gun.
While the painted surfaces of Grosses
works may not share a magnifed tactility
of Fries or Laskers paintings, I consider
that the artists employment of paint oper-
ates as a tactile extension of her own body
a means to explore the physical dimen-
sion of her immediate environment. If we
consider Final Cuts (Ill.17), the sprayed
nature of the pigment interrogates the spa-
tial dimension of surface in an extremely
tactile way, fusing vision and touch. Like
hosing a rough concrete wall with a fne
mist, Grosses vaporised pigment pro-
duces millions of individual chromatic particles that come into contact with her targeted
surface whether it be the wall, window, ceiling, foor. Having witnessed the artist pro-
duce Picture Park at the Gallery of Modern Art Brisbane, (Ill.18), in situ, what struck
me was the gentleness of the works production. A slow and intimate relation is estab-
lished between artist and image that was akin to a blindfolded person exploring their
way around an unfamiliar room such was the artists dependence on touch in locating
herself physically in space.
Illustration 18. Katharina Grosse producing Pic-
ture Park, 2007. Gallery of Modern Art, Brisbane.
Illustration 19. Katharina Grosse, Untitled, acrylic on window, wall and bookshelves, 2003. Courtesy
Galerie Conrads.
79
In this way, Grosse uses paint to touch surfaces and bringing divergent objects into con-
tact to form new meaning; a haptic encounter of form and colour. As Deleuze main-
tains in The Logic of Sensation : One might say that painters paint with their eyes, but
only insofar as they touch with their eyes
32
. The tactile qualities of sprayed pigment act
as a projection of Grosses gaze, atomized particles encounter the surface of objects and
the surrounding architecture, ignoring any predefned boundaries (both symbolic and
physical) of form. Like the artists gaze, the sprayed paint brings divergent milieus and
textures into contact. If we consider, Untitled (Ill.19), the sprayed application of paint
upon a set of bookshelves not only reveals their physical structure in an unfamiliar way,
it transforms their fxed identity by visually smudging their contours with overlapping
paint and colour. The relationship between the window, wall and bookshelf are recom-
posed into a new conglomerate of meaning or, for Deleuze, a new plateaux of encoun-
ter.
Despite the contemporary magnitude of Grosses work, there is an unembellished direct-
ness to her marks that share a consequential relationship with the archaic drawings
left by our ancestors. Whether we consider the early European paintings in Lascaux, or
the red ochre images of the central desert people in Australia, the coloured traces left by
Grosse share an aesthetic dimension determined by the inscription of pictorial form with-
in the confnes of a shelter. Interestingly, Grosses work celebrates a certain primordial
(not primitive) instinct the compulsion to leave a trace in order to position oneself in
a spatio temporal context a context that is also culturally determined. Grosse affrms
an important visual force that is rarefed in our world of predetermined and reproduced
images, a force that attempts to locate new spatial territories that are yet to be named or
coded. The rawness of Grosses pictorial marks confers her work with a certain disrup-
32 Deleuze, Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation, p. 125.
tiveness in the face of our familiar, clean, ordered, photoshoped fdelity. The artists
use of paint I feel, is an incarnation of the bothersome potentiality of art that Deleuzes
contemporary JeanFranois Lyotard defned as being essential to arts raison dtre.
Given the growing concern for what Deleuze referred to as control societies, that oper-
ate through ideological coding, Lyotard preached the importance of an artistic disrup-
tion:
Indeed, for the philosopher it is precisely an artworks nonftting into
any given system that constitutes its interest. This amounts to a certain
evasive or what we might call bothersome quality of art that makes any
given system malfunction.
33
As individuals, our way of looking is indeed determined by the technical evolutions
that modify the format, scale, materiality and reception of an image in a socio-historic
context. An enormous Book of Hours in the 18
th
-century was not read as a paperback
in the 20
th
-century, an altarpiece in a Gothic church demands a different approach to
looking than a cinema poster
34
. Likewise, the presence of digital media is changing
our reception of an image; an evaporation of texture in favour of visual performance.
Sharing a conscious concern for paintings physical properties, the three artists I have
considered confer our reception of an image with an important tactile distinction a
sensual rupture in the horizon of digital representation. By exploiting the material di-
mension of their practice, these artists demonstrate how painting can be positioned to
critically resist dominant media, by establishing a material confrontation that situates
the spectator in the physical world. The less an image maintains a singularity through
its medium-specifc physicality, the easier it becomes mediatised the more it lends
33 Lyotard, J.F. in OSullivan, Art Encounters, p. 158.
34 Rgis Debray, R. Vie et Mort de lImage (Paris: Folio, 1994) p. 57.
81
itself to an assimilation into the network of information technology. Paintings bother-
some nature its refusal to move, adapt, glow and perform maintains an important
aesthetic dimension in our experience of the world. It is an experience of reality that is
not beyond our tactile grasp, or at the service of the technocapitalist machine, but an
experience grounded in sensorial immediacy of the here and now.
Chapter III
Chapter III New Territories,
New Meanings, New Becomings
What is the relation between a work of art and communication? Nothing. Nothing, a
work of art is not an instrument of communication. A work of art has nothing to do with
communication. A work of art does not contain the slightest amount of information.
However, there is a fundamental affnity between a work of art and an act of resistance.
Deleuze
85
Extending the signifcance of painting as an art-encounter, this chapter considers the
process of paintings production and suggests how painting can engender the emer-
gence of a physical image that functions critically in light of dominant media. Contin-
gent to capitalist ideology, the recent expansion of digital technology has resulted in
the emergence of an information communication culture, where the dominant use of
images has become governed by their role in communication. In a number of impor-
tant publications, Deleuze with his collaborator Felix Guattari, expound the concern that
communication is in fact antagonistic to creation and propose that art develop strategies
to resist its growing hegemony. In analysing the physical dimension of paintings pro-
duction, I respond to Deleuzes claim by demonstrating how painting may resist com-
munication through establishing new territories, new meanings and new becomings. I
outline how the material processes involved in paintings production can be exploited
to generate a physical experience, or what Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht calls the production
of presence. In doing so, I continue to defne the art-object as a compound of affect or
sensation that resists representation; a system of forces made visible in matter rather
than a series of images functioning under a regime of signs. To support my analysis, I
introduce relevant aspects of my studio work to demonstrate how the material processes
of painting can create an aesthetic experience that dominant media are not capable of
offering us
1
.
Art Against Communication
With the ascendency of digital media and the ubiquitous presence of the screen, an im-
ages capacity to impact, manipulate and infuence the identity of a society has become
1 I use examples of my painting (visual research) to support my argument. However it is not my inten-
tion here to give a comprehensive outline of their meaning. In respecting the autonomy of studio
research, this paper functions as an independent body of knowledge indeed a companion to my
painting, but in no ways an explanation. It is my aim that both studio and written research work to-
gether, albeit as independent entities; distinct forms of enquiry that generate new connections and
correspondences of meaning between them. This methodology is founded on Yve-Alain Bois essay
Resisting Blackmail, where the author maintains that painting must operate as an autonomous form
of enquiry that one does not apply a theory to painting. Far from anti-theoretical, Bois outlines a
crucial need for theory to situate painting within a specifc feld and context, however the production
of painting is never the illustration of a theory, nor dependant on theory for its signifcance. See Yve-
Alain Bois, Painting as Model (Massachusetts: MIT, 1998).
acutely amplifed. We need only consider the modest state of visual media from as little
as ffty years ago to realise the magnitude of how digital technologies have transformed
the role that images play in contemporary culture. Fundamental to the digital paradigm,
techno-capitalism has embraced the inarguable impact that images have on our attention
and engendered their use in the widespread phenomena of communication technologies.
Since the close of the last century, the combination of computer technology with tel-
ecommunications has beneftted from a miniaturisation of components that has seen the
explosion of affordable multifunctional devices. For example, internet and television
are now all available on mobile phones phones that double up as digital cameras. The
combination of image and information has become the new doxa of modern communi-
cation. Without image, nothing sells. Journalism has disappeared behind an infux of the
audio-visual: CNN operating 24 hours a day can only break a story if the images are
eye catching the better the image, the better the story. As Regis Debray maintains,
the image itself has become information
2
. Digitalised into a series of binary codes of
quantifed information, images along with text and sound fnd themselves together
reunited under the banner of information communication.
In What is Philosophy, Deleuze and Guattari raise the problem of the intrinsic relation-
ship that capitalism has forged with communication. They outline a concern that the
creative roles of philosophy, science and art have been marginalised in society, sub-
sumed by the new creative class of image consultants, advertising and PR agents that
make communication their primary business. Deleuze and Guattari argue that creativ-
ity has become dominated by an interest in information and opinion, rather than in
the production of new meanings and experiences. The two philosophers entail a demand
for an art that resists communication, they affrm the need for sustained creativity against the
2 Rgis Debray, Vie et Mort de lImage (Paris: Folio,1994) p. 386.
87
dominant ideology of an information culture: We do not lack communication. On the
contrary, we have too much of it. We lack creation. We lack resistance to the present
3
.
In response to the plethora of information that we are subjected to on a daily basis, I
believe Deleuze and Guatarris assertion provides contemporary artists with an impor-
tant provocation.
Given Deleuzes dismissal of communication, it is important to frstly outline what he
infers by communication and why art should endeavour to resist its infuence. For
Deleuze, communication is the transmission and propagation of information. Here, in-
formation is a controlled system of watchwords and pre-established opinion that holds
sway in a given society
4
. If creativity is the affrmation of new worlds and new becom-
ings (beyond established representation and doxa), then the coded order of information
is something art must endeavour to resist. In an interview with Toni Negri in 1990,
Deleuze outlines the reasons why he is wary of communication, he argues that the cen-
trality of information and communication technology to capitalist ideology is such that
speech, expression and communication are thoroughly permeated by money and vested
ideological interest. So, rather than art develop a line of inquiry through communica-
tion, better it resist through a certain creative non-communication: Weve got to hi-
jack speech. Creating has always been something different from communicating. The
key thing may be to create vacuoles of non-communication, circuit breakers, so we can
elude control
5
.
For the painter, it would seem a diffcult path to compete with the visual capabilities of
new technologies a fact that might explain the growing profusion of new media art.
To create an image that grabs ones attention like a large plasma screen glowing in the
3 Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, What is Philosophy?, trans. Hugh Tomlinson and Graham Burchell
(New York: Columbia University Press, 1994) p108 (Italics in original).
4 Gilles Deleuze, Quest-ce quun Acte de Cration? (Dans le Cadre des Mardis de la Fondation Femis:
Paris, 1987).
5 Gilles Deleuze in M. Fuglsang ed., Deleuze and the Social (Ediburgh: Edinburgh University
Press, 2006) p. 222.
dark with Dolby surround sound is a considerable request. Living in what Debord de-
scribed as a society of the spectacle, conditioned by a constant stream of audio-visual
animation and the hypnotic presence of screens, it is indeed a diffcult task for painters
to imbue a fxed image with such diversionary potential. So how can painting react in
the face of dominate media? I believe Deleuzes assertion that We lack creation. We
lack resistance to the present encourages painters to produce an alternative kind of im-
age. Perhaps painting does not need to communicate or to compete with digital media
in a battle for attention or sensationalism la Saatchis Triumph of Painting. I argue that
painting must resist by establishing alternative encounters, something that our everyday
experience with technology is not capable of offering us. Painting can produce an aes-
thetic experience that is distinctly apart from communication, representation and infor-
mation an image without recourse to language.
Yet, to resist communication is not to resist meaning, quite the contrary. In a world flled
with the noise of constant information, I believe there is something very subversive in
not wanting to say anything. Instead, the artist produces, he or she creates something
(an encounter or an event) but one that is not in the order of language. As Debray as-
serts:
Si limage tait une langue, elle serait traduisable en mots, et ces mots
leur tour en dautres images, car le propre dun langage et dtre passible
de traduction. Si limage tait une langue, elle serait parl par une com-
munaut, car pour quil ait language, il faut quil y ait groupe.
If the image was a language, it could be translated into words, and then
these words in turn translated into images, as a characteristic of language
89
is its ability to be translated. If an image was a language, it would be spo-
ken by a community, for there to be language, there has to be a group.
6
A painting presents us with an art-object that demands to be experienced, yet it cannot
be read. Painting has no syntax or grammar, there is no dictionary to read a paint-
ing, a painting can not be right or wrong. Art historians have interpreted painting via
symbolism, narrative and iconographic references where meaning is indeed established
linguistically. However, the painting itself is always mute. While not denying the value
of linguistic meaning that can be attributed to a painting, words or syntax do not provide
the basis of visual experience. Through an engagement with line, colour, form, texture
and mass, the process of painting enables an artist to think visually. This visual process
provides the artist with a form of expression fundamentally different to the combination
of words and syntax. To think in images therefore means we do not confuse thought and
language. In paintings refusal to speak, there is an imposed silence that I believe brings
our attention to our other senses. The silence of painting enhances visual perception, just
as sight defciency intensifes hearing. I believe the less an image imposes itself through
this silence, and through the specifcity of its material construction the more it depends
upon language and communication to remind the reader that if art is to resist, it must
hijack speech.
6 Debray, Vie et Mort de lImage, p. 76.
Imperialism of the Signifer
The negation of communication is a call to interrogate the dominant role that semiot-
ics plays in our interpretation of art. The historical submission of art to the science of
semiotics has been central in maintaining the hierarchy of language and idea over an
engagement with the sensorial complexity of matter
7
. As I touched upon in the previous
chapter, when subjected to the feld of semiotics, paintings materiality, and the proc-
esses that form it, can only fnd expression or signifcance through the circulation of
signifers. After the signifer separates its linguistic meaning (the signifed) from the ma-
terial dimension of the sign, an art-objects physical dimension has no further role. The
possibility for an intensifed, physically present-based meaning is forfeited.
8
The dominance of semiotics has been further empowered through the rise of digital
communications themselves
9
. Reproduction and digitalisation has seen the evaporation
of all texture and depth from an image, including reproductions of painting and sculp-
ture. For example magazines and catalogues of art, detach colour and form from their
support and environment, abolishing any physical presence a work may have had. The
dematerialisation of the image by digital technology, which I discussed in Chapter I,
enables an image to enter the worldwide network of communication technology where
7 In an ambitous project to re-situate the materiality of an oeuvre as central to its historical and aes-
thetic signifcance, Florence De Mredieu states that the study of western art has been subjected to
the sciences of language and semitotics to such an extent that it has become diffcult to think about
art in any other way. The historical precedents that have favoured language and concept over a senso-
rial engagement with matter are outlined by De Mredieu as fnding their source in Platos idealism,
then propounded via the aesthetic philosophy of Kant and Hegel, where all writers maintain the ad-
vocacy of spirit over matter. Through an affrmation of the material realm, De Mredieus book is an
attempt to escape what the author refers to as the shadow of philosophic idealsim. See Florence De
Mredieu, Histoire Matrielle et Immatrielle de lArt Moderne, 2
nd
ed. (Paris: Larousse, 2004) p. 42.
8 From a deconstructivist point of view, it could be inferred that affects are only meaningful when
they fnd themselves articulated in language. However for Deleuze affect is positioned as unreach-
able by language (or before language). Affects are primarily felt experiences.
9 According to OSullivan, semiotics has also been favoured within art theory for two other reasons:
frst, the propensity to historically explain the production and reception of art through a Marxist
ideology (a social art history) and, second, the fashion of deconstruction (or the new art history)
that emerged with post-modernism. Within the frst factor, art is defned as representation par exel-
lence; with the second, the notion of representation is problematised. Whilst both these critiques are
in themselves important strategies of inquiry, as OSullivan states: but after the deconstruction the
art object remains. Life goes on. Art, whether we will it or not, continues producing affects. So what
is the nature of these affects, and can they be deconstructed? See OSullivan, Art Encounters, pp.
40-41.
91
its status as information allows it to be manipulated and circulated ad infnum; indeed,
an exacerbated manifestation of what Walter Benjamin famously termed the loss of
the aura
10
. Once digitalised, the unique material qualities of an art work become mere
signs. As Debray asserts, this has been a win for semioticians who, in dealing only
with the linguistic interpretation of sign and signifer, are not burdened with the material
complexities of an artwork a convenient circumstance for the recent boom of photo-
graphic and video art. Debray is adamant that the dominance of semiotics is itself a re-
sult of our very disconnectedness with the physical world
11
.
As I have outlined, an art of sensation can be seen as an attempt to negate what De-
leuze refers to as signifer enthusiasm or the academic fashion of deconstruction. For
Deleuze, a work of art establishes new becomings that are beyond representation, ir-
reducible to language or code. The forces underpinning an art-objects creation are con-
tained and made visible in matter: What is preserved the thing or the work of art is
a bloc of sensations, that is to say, a compound of percepts and affects
12
. If we are to
think about art differently, beyond the limitations of a signifying regime, then percepts
and affects can be seen as replacing the signifer and signifed. This is indeed prob-
lematic for language and communication and, as Deleuze himself recognises, diffcult
for discussion or opinion as you cannot read affects or percepts in this sense, you can
only experience them
13
. Subsequently for the artist, this infers a responsibility towards
the expressive potentiality of his or her materials and the possibility to convey meaning
through the singularity of their material forces.
10 Walter Benjamin, The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, in Walter Benjamin,
Illuminations, trans. Harry Zohn, 2
nd
ed. (London: Fontana Press, 1992) pp. 211-244.
11 Debray, Vie et Mort de lImage, p. 75.
12 Deleuze and Guattari, What is Philosophy?, p. 164 (Italics in original).
13 For both OSullivan and Massumi, affects are understood as passages of intensity while they may
resonate with language, they are of a fundamentally different order, prior to linguistic expression.
Approaches to the image and its relation to language are incomplete if they operate only on the se-
mantic and semiotic level. Massumi in OSullivan, Art Encounters, p. 170.
Encounter 1: Norton Blue
As an embodied experience, a paintings content or meaning consists of the substances
it is formed from and the technical operations that form them. Therefore, the choice and
utilization of materials is a determining aspect in any art encounter and the initial de-
parture point from which painting begins. Commencing my studio research, I explored
the idea of painting on sandpaper; the antithesis of a smooth transparent video screen
and a support that would affrm an overtly tactile genesis of an image (Ill.20). The na-
ture of sandpaper offered an important deviation from established fne art surfaces and
evoked an implicit relationship to manual force that I valued. The decision to experi-
ment with non artistic supports can be seen as an attempt to distance my work from
the clichs that inhabit established forms of visual expression and communication
14
.
Corresponding with a desire to produce a sensual encounter, I exploited the visceral
qualities of oil paint to bring its palpable, fesh-like nature into rhythmic contact with
the roughened surface of the sandpaper
15
. To highlight the physical dimension of the
encounter, I maintained a simplicity of monochromatic colour that would not compli-
cate the impact of the work with chromatic variation. The result was a surprising meet-
ing between the two materials, particularly how the textured surface created a delicate
scumbling effect in the paints application
16
.
Motivated by the success of the smaller works on wet and dry Norton brand sandpaper,
I decided to enlarge their format to increase the physical complexity of their impact.
Through a researched process of preparing a stretched silica-oxide grit surface over a
wooden frame, I was able to maintain the same texture of sandpaper albeit on a much
larger scale. In the resulting series Norton Blue (Ill.21-22), the composition of each
14 Paradoxically, despite my investigations into alternative supports for painting, my attempts likewise
led me back to a more to an enlarged appreciation of traditional supports (such as canvas) and their
material integrity.
15 An idea inspired by Willem De Koonings famous remark that oil paint was invented to paint the
fesh.
16 Employed throughout art history, notably by early Dutch masters, the technique of scumbling has
been used to create atmospheric effects of radiance and glow. Hence, an unforeseeable connotation
with photography became apparent, as the application of colour onto the darkened surface created an
x-ray effect that alluded to a photochemical process. Yet the existence of worn off hogs-hair bristles
in the paint remind us that the image is the result of a very different process.
93
Illustration 20. Miles Hall Norton Drawing#09, oil on Norton brand wet and dry sandapaer, 28x22cm.
2007. Private Collection.
Illustration 21. Miles Hall, Norton Blue #05, oil, acrylic and silica-oxide on canvas, 160x140cm., 2007.
Griffth University Art Collection.
95
painting is determined by the physical encounter between blue oil paint, the prepared
support and the rhythmic force of the corporal gesture. The colour blue was used for
the unique spatial qualities it conferred; an ability to shift between hardened opacity to
diaphanous transparency. Working on a larger scale allowed me to increase the diversity
of the gesture; to work with larger brushes and to affrm an important corporal presence
in the images production. The physical resistance of the surface against a loaded brush
determined a large part of the works formal development, as the roughened surface
made the application of paint a tactile experience that became intrinsic to the fnal im-
age. Here, affect can be considered as the resulting optical vibration of paint as it en-
ters into scumbled contact with the industrial surface and its formal containment within
a structured feld. The collision between the organic palpability of the paint and the
hardened rigidity of the sandpaper has a visual quality that opens up a unique spatial di-
mension; the softness of the oil paint is transformed into a skeletal-like fragility that, in
turn, transforms the character of the silica oxide ground and opens its hardened surface
into an arena of infnite depth.
While being applied with considerable force, the painterly gesture left by my move-
ments fnds itself partly negated in the production of these works. Unlike the heroic
gesture intrinsic to the work of abstract expressionists, the physicality of the paints
application here is revoked, sanded back and neutralised by the textured silica oxide
surface. Although the paint is applied in an ample and overtly physical way, its surface
is rendered uniform by the pervasive texture of silica oxide particles that defne the
support. This encounter between paint and ground produces two distinct dimensions in
which to experience the work. From afar, the textured surface of the work vanishes and,
as observers, we are presented with an overall engagement with the composition, its af-
frmation of colour and gesture. Up close however, we are enticed by the microcosm of
detail and the minute variations of surface where pigmented colour is rendered tactile
by the particles of silica oxide. The important consideration of the tactile in producing
these works can be viewed as a response to both Deleuzes and Riegls haptic vision
where the act of seeing is amplifed by physical sensation.
Illustration 22. Installation view. Miles Hall, Norton Blue, 2007. Queensland College of Art, Brisbane.
97
In an attempt to produce an image beyond the conveyance of any established knowledge
or information, the relationship that I have outlined between the chosen materials and
the physical processes of their transformation is paramount. The protean-like nature of
paints substance provides an arena of constant discovery; as gestural force and energy
transform the relationship between the paint and support, new visual possibilities con-
stantly emerge. In precipitating a materialist meaning, the content or sensation of these
paintings can be seen as arising in union with the gestural transformation of paint. Cen-
tred on an immediate dialogue between action and idea, meaning and the painting are
made together. The art works material components become intrinsic to the signifcance
or meaning of the work. As Deleuze clarifes: We will see how the plane of the material
ascends irresistibly and invades the plane of composition of the sensations themselves
to the point of being part of them or indiscernible from them
17
. In this way, complex
meaning cannot be considered independently from its materiality. A painting cannot be
decomposed into a series of independent fragments or pockets of information that al-
low us to make sense of it. Contained in a composition as a bloc of sensation, these
paintings must be felt and experienced on the basis of their material forces forces
that become continuous, independent beings. The signs at work here do not make their
appearance as signifers or representations, neither as information or communication;
rather they are assemblages of material rhythms structured into relations of content and
expression.
17 Deleuze and Guattari, What is Philosophy?, p. 166.
New Becomings
Best translated as the will of art, Riegls notion of Kunstwollen has been adapted by
Deleuze into a concept that outlines artistic volition the aesthetic urge that gives
form to an expressive or intelligible material. For Deleuze, an artist is involved in the
becoming-art or Kunstwollen of her chosen medium; she is drawn to the material and
invents new forms of expression and vision through its transformation. The things that
are expressed and made visible through this process do not pre-exist; rather they are
invented in the process. For Deleuze, creation is subsequently involved with a constant
exploration of new becomings that are yet to be represented or codifed. Therefore,
production here is not the desire for communication, but the will to create new worlds
that cannot be framed by language or information. For the artist, this infers a certain
risk factor; the exploration of new possibilities in material that precede premeditated
concept. One could say that concept and form are created together, simultaneously
through process. As OSullivan observes: Indeed, we might say that an effective art
practice, paradoxically, often relies on not knowing exactly in advance what effect the
practice might have
18
. We are unable to predict or determine what the character of an
art encounter will be; consequently, Deleuze maintains that the audience for whom the
work is constructed can not yet be known. As a result arts-becoming also defnes a new
audience. This may further suggest why, for Deleuze, art should never be a concern of
communication, as communication presupposes an established audience with a targeted
message.
18 OSullivan, Art Encounters, p. 23.
99
For Deleuze, sensation plays an imperative role in the generation of new becomings.
Through the production of an art-event, the artist attempts to draw out of his materials
a composition of affects and percepts (the two basic types of sensation) that cause us to
see and feel in new ways a liberation from habitual perception, memory and recogni-
tion. I employ the term production here in relation to its etymological signifcance
from the Latin producere, that refers to an act of bringing forth something in space.
Painting allows an artist to actualise forces and rhythms through the expressive texture
of paint in an experimental process that investigates the complexity of the physical
world and our connection to it. The bringing forwardness of paint corresponds to Paul
Klees famous dictum that the production of art is not to reproduce what we can already
see, but to make visible what we cannot
19
. For Deleuze, an artists role is therefore less
a concern for reproducing or inventing forms, it is about capturing forces forces that
are rendered visible through the transformation of matter into sensation. I feel it is im-
portant to emphasise that this capturing of forces is immanent to the physical world,
the sphere in which we have concrete tangible relations; the realm in which we move,
breathe, eat, touch and feel, etc. Such sensations or becomings are not subject to any
transcendental or metaphysical authority but, as John Rajchman remarks, contingent to
the production of new possibilities within this world :
Art works are composed of sensations, prelinguistic and presubjective,
brought together in an expressive material through a construct with an
anorganized plan, with which we have peculiar relations. They are not
there to save us or perfect us (or to damn or corrupt us), but rather to com-
plicate things, to create more complex nervous systems no longer subser-
vient to the debilitating effects of clichs, to show and release the possi-
19 Klee in Deleuze, The Logic of Sensation, p. 48.
bilities of a life.we must push sensation beyond transcendence where it
becomes a matter of belief not in another world, but in other possibilities
in this one.
20
Deleuzes conception of becoming encourages a certain impulsive attitude to art mak-
ing, that I believe fnds a beftting correspondence in painting. The bloc of sensation,
made up of percepts and affects, otherwise considered as the result of artistic volition,
gives precedence to an instinctual dimension of human behaviour that is rarefed in con-
temporary society. The production of painting, its proximity to touch and gesture, pro-
vides artists with an important form of expression in which to engage with the physical
world. This form of expression should not be reifed to a role of communicating estab-
lished information. For what we lack is not communication but the production of new
territories, new becomings and new meanings.
New Territories : Resisting Hylomorphism
In order for art to produce what Deleuze refers to as vacuoles of non-communication,
I argue that painting requires an alternative modus operandi than that of semantic de-
notation. If art is to render visible that which we have not yet thought or seen, beyond
representation or communication, how then is this to occur without code, syntax, nota-
tion or language? One response lies in the way that form can be transfgured rhythmi-
cally and instinctively as a physical event that maps out or explores new felds of visual
experience what Deleuze refers to as new territories. In What is Philosophy, Deleuze
argues that art begins with the animal; the instinct to carve out a territory where select
20 John Rajchman, The Deleuze Connections (Massachusetts: MIT, 2000) pp. 138-39.
101
boundaries or frames are imposed upon the primordial chaos of the earth. Therefore,
the production of painting can be seen as the production of new territories where con-
ventional and established domains are hijacked and de-territorialised. Signs become
diagrammatic and cartographic, rather than symbolic or iconic. The role of an artist is
therefore, one of an animal-like-becoming, where materials are used to establish new
territories that are yet to be named or, alternatively, de-territorialise existing territories
of control and re-territorialise them as unfamiliar. Deleuze maintains that art proceeds
and is, indeed, characterised by an animal-like compulsion:
Every morning the scenopoetes dentirostris, a bird of the Australian rain
forest, cuts leaves, makes them fall to the ground, and turns them over
so that the paler, internal side contrasts with the earth. In this way it con-
structs a stage for itself like a ready-made; and directly above, on a creep-
er or a branch, while fuffng out the feathers beneath its beak to reveal
their yellow roots, it sings a complex song made up from its own notes
and, at intervals, those of other birds that it imitates: it is a complete artist.
This is not synaesthesia in the fesh but blocs of sensation in the territory
colours, postures, and sounds that sketch out a total work of art. These
sonorous blocs are refrains; but there are also refrains of posture and col-
our, and postures and colours are always being introduced into refrains:
bowing low, straightening up, dancing in a circle of lines and colors. The
whole of the refrain is the being of sensation. Monuments are refrains. In
this respect art is continually haunted by the animal.
21
21 Deleuze and Guattari, What is Philosophy?, p. 184.
Consequently, the marking out of a territory implies the construction of a frame; the
drawing of a boundary or a series of marks that establish a defned space. Requiring an
inherent physical engagement, the production of territory also involves an implicit use
of the body; its forces, rhythms, and energies are essential to reshape material into new
formations. For Deleuze, rhythm can be seen as playing an intrinsic role in the produc-
tion of any territory; it is rhythm that connects the most rudimentary structures and
milieus together and allows for a specifc reality to resonate within the boundaries of a
delimited space. Thus, the rhythmic, corporal affrmation of the artists body is crucial
in transforming substance into new tactile confgurations. For the artist, territorialisa-
tion is an act of rhythm that has become expressive, or of milieu components that have
become qualitative. The making of a territory is dimensional, but it is not a meter , it is
a rhythm
22
. Fries work (Ill.10), is a perfect example of how painting, once fxed, gives
duration to such rhythm; maintained as a bloc of sensation, its forces are rendered vis-
ible in the creation of new cartographies.
In opposition to the disembodied realm of digital communication, the process of paint-
ing puts the artists body to work as an art-machine, where the production of an image
can be considered as a privileged site of corporeal experimentation
23
. Through the use
of her body, an artist imbues her materials with rhythmic forces that, becoming sensa-
tion, catalyse the creation of new possible worlds. Through a physical, bodily experi-
mentation with material, the production of new territories can negate the phenomena of
what Deleuze refers to as hylomorphism. Hylomorphism is any operation that moulds
matter into forms according to an ideal model or dominant ideology; an operation that
presents the world as conforming to a preconceived idea or representation
24
. Deleuze
maintains that it is arts duty to map, and drag out, the energies and forces that are held
22 Deleuze and Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus, p. 348.
23 Stephen Zepke, Art as Abstract Machine: Ontology and Aesthetics in Deleuze and Guattari (London:
Routledge, 2005) p. 4.
24 Is there no better example than Platos metaphysical opus Myth of the Cave where earthly existence
is considered a mere shadow of pure idea?
103
hostage or rendered unrecognisable by the hylomorphic model. Art is to liberate the
life and vitality that society does not cease to imprison
25
. Subsequently, the artist must
attempt to revoke the hylomorphism that shapes our existence by producing new con-
glomerations of rhythmic forces that become physically manifested as new territories of
experience. In doing so, the production of painting can liberate the energy and poten-
tial that is held within the limitations of representation, communication and opinion. As
Deleuze scholar Simon Zepke suggests, such creation involves the necessary destruction
of whatever seeks to oppose it :
Any creation worth its name will therefore encompass the destructions
necessary to set it free, an explosion that destroys negation and propels its
liberated matter into the new. Affrmation is therefore like a leap of faith,
a leap into the chaos of the world in order to bring something back, in or-
der to construct something that expresses life beyond its sad negation.
26
Therefore through an experimental and corporal process, painting presents an opportu-
nity for artists to establish new rhythmic cartographies that challenge hylomorphic con-
formity or prestablished opinion and information. Resisting the reifed status of com-
munication information, the energies and forces unique to a painted image are crucial
in maintaining an alternative experience to our codifed perception of dominant media.
This is an experience that presents the world to us as an intensifcation of energy, line
and colour; an affrmation of new territories and avenues of knowledge.
25 I refer the reader to a series of live interviews conducted with Claire Parnet published posthumously.
See Pierre-Andr Boutang, LAbcdaire de Gilles Deleuze, 453 mins. (Paris: Editions Montparnasse,
2004), DVD.
26 Zepke, Art as Abstract Machine, p. 8.
Encounter 2: Dirty Drawings, Line and Colour
By encouraging a physical genesis of form, paintings material constituency confers the
employment of line and colour with an important tactile dimension. For an artist, it is by
exploiting line and colour against any representational function that the production of an
art-object can resist communication. Once liberated from any relation to language or
information, the physical qualities of both line and colour can be exploited to produce
new territories that negate hylomorphic command. As Deleuze asserts: the production
of new territories dont function to represent, even something real, but rather constructs
a real that is yet to come, a new type of reality
27
. In the desire to produce an image at
odds with the immaterial nature of digital communication, I employed the tactile possi-
bilities of both line and colour to develop a series of works that celebrated the sensuality
of touch and substance: Dirty Drawings was the title given to the works
28
(Ill.23-25).
Again the choice of materials proved essential in the development and meaning of each
image. Providing an infnite variety of marks, the organic brittleness of charcoal was
central to the works production and provided the necessary inspiration for each im-
ages formal development. The fragility of its carbonised constitution encouraged the
charcoal stick to break and explode into diverse and randomised fragments that, subject
to the physical movement of the artists body, produced an incredible diversity of marks
and traces. Erratic and haphazard, the quality of line produced by the chipped and bro-
ken charcoal stick provided a constant source of unforeseeable possibilities in which
to infuence the direction of each work. Produced on prepared aluminium panels, the
hardened nature of the surface provides an important resistance against the fragility of
the charcoal line. As a by-product of the drawing process, a fne black dust appeared
27 Deleuze and Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus, p. 142.
28 The word dirty has an intentional ambiguity in the title - refering to the black charcoal dust but also
to the drawings penetration into pink (paint).
105
upon the surface of the aluminium allowing a range of softened sfumato tones to be pro-
duced with either the fngers or a brush. After the charcoal image was established and
rendered permanent with an industrial fxative, its dirty, carbonised surface was dipped
into a cleansing bath of pink Tefon-acrylic paint. Providing a body of colour in which
the work is partly immersed, the use of paint here is employed not only for its chromatic
impact but for its tactile, sensual presence. Subsequent technical experimentation was
needed to produce the fnal works; notably, an upright re-enforced bath and drying sys-
tem (Ill.26).
Illustration 23. Installation view. Miles Hall, Dirty Drawings, 2009. Evan Hughes Gallery, Sydney.
Illustration 24. Miles Hall, Penetration #3, charcoal and Tefon paint on aluminium panel, 120x100cm.,
2009. Collection Ray Hughes.
107
Illustration 25. Miles Hall, Ungual, charcoal and Tefon paint on aluminium panel, 120x100cm., 2008.
The Diagram
Through the immediacy of drawing, the encounter between charcoal and aluminium
can trigger a series of uncontrolled lines and accidental marks that have no formalised
intention behind them. Unattached to any signifying or symbolic regime, these marks
can be seen as mutilating or destroying any attempt to depict or represent an established
concept. In his text on Francis Bacon, Deleuze outlines the importance for painting to
overcome pre-existing clich through using what he calls a diagram. The diagram is
like the emergence of another world They are non representative, nonillustrative,
nonnarrative. They are no longer either signifcant or signifers: they are a-signifying
Illustration 26. Work in progress, bath and drying technique. Miles Hall, Dirty Drawings, 2008.
109
traits
29
. In the case of Dirty Drawings, line is used to create abstract diagrams that ex-
ploit the role of touch in the creation of a manual space (Ill.24-25). When held in close
proximity to the hand, a fragment of charcoal can create a series of marks and lines that
are more determined by touch and pressure than by any visual calculation; in this sense,
it is the hand, and not the eye, that functions as the dominant organ. These almost blind
marks remove the image from any pre-meditated visual condition, and encourage the
emergence of something that was previously un-thought, previously unseen. In opposi-
tion to optical vision that implies a necessary distance from the work, the genesis of
these images result from a tactile use of material; the close proximity of the medium to
manual force confers an inarguable haptic dimension the image. As Deleuzes states: It
is a manual space, a space of active manual strokes, which works through manual ag-
gregates rather than through luminous disaggregation
30
.
Throughout The Logic of Sensation, Deleuze promulgates the important tactile qualities
of line for its ability to generate a vital chaos (or diagram) that enables the emergence
of something previously inexistent a new becoming. However, in order for line to cre-
ate a new becoming, it must frst break with the principles of optical representation. Par-
ticularly developed through classical art, optical representations dominant use of line to
depict, enclose, defne and outline a form has to be negated through the affrmation of a
haptic, animal-like trace that gives prevalence to physical instinct over idea. Referring
to what he isolates historically as the Gothic line, Deleuze suggests that line can be used
to create a manual space where the hand can expresses itself in an overtly tactile way.
Applied with a considerable rhythmic force, I believe the material properties of the line
in Dirty Drawings corresponds with Gothic line liberating an image from any repre-
sentation or hylomorphic idealism:
29 Deleuze, The Logic of Sensation, p. 82 (Italics in original).
30 Op.cit., p. 105.
It is a geometry no longer at the service of the essential and the eter-
nal, but a geometry in the service of problems or accidents: ablation,
adjunction, projection, intersection. It is thus a line that never ceases to
change direction, that is broken, split, diverted, turned in on itself, coiled
up, or even extended beyond its natural limits, dying away in a distorted
convulsion: there are free marks that extend or arrest the line, acting be-
neath or beyond representation We are no longer directed toward the
purely optical; on the contrary, the tactile once again assumes its pure
activity, it is restored to the hand and given a speed, a violence, and a life
that the eye can barely follow.
31
In favour of a Gothic line, the dissolution of optical representation therefore enhances
the possibility to explore new avenues of visual form. Negating a subjection to pre-
established idea, the Gothic line celebrates a sensual production of form and confers
painting with the ability to produce something visually different to the habitual repre-
sentation of the ordered world.
In order to produce another series of works that expand the tactile dimension of line,
I experimented with a different medium (Ill.27). In replacing the use of charcoal with
small fragments of black oil-stick, I endeavoured to explore how this change of medium
might instigate alternative outcomes. While maintaining the direct approach to mark-
making and drawing used in Dirty Drawings, the use of oil-stick changed the character
of the image into a more textured, tonally diverse space. Akin to cake-icing, the soft
31 Op.cit., pp. 40, 104 (Italics in original).
111
Illustration 27. Miles Hall, Splice (Sibelius Blue), oil on aluminium panel, 120x100cm., 2009.
tackiness of the oil-stick provided a different range of marks against the aluminium sup-
port to that of the charcoal. Unlike the solid dryness of the charcoal, the softness of the
oil-stick imparted a greater fuidity to line and provided a denser substance in which
to inscribe marks with the hands and fngers. Like drawing on a foggy window, the oil
paint retained the traces of the fngers in a direct way, imbuing the image with a tactile
resonance or, what Deleuze refers to as, a manual space. Different media provide art-
ists with a range of divergent tactile possibilities. The unique difference in line and form
between these two series is a demonstration of how the physical properties of a chosen
medium become integral to the fnal nature of a painted image. The signifcance of a
paintings sensation cannot be removed from the material elements of its construction.
Colour
Likewise, the task to liberate colour from any involvement in representation or com-
munication is a challenge for painting. In seeking to utilise colour in an unfamiliar way,
I reconsidered its habitual use in the production of Dirty Drawings. The subsequent role
I ascribed to it was as a body of liquefed pigment that would surround the aluminium
support as it was slowly submerged into the paints liquid mass. The upright bath held
the large quantity of paint needed to perform such a task (Ill.26). As the fnished draw-
ing was partly submerged into the mass of pink paint, the immersed region of the draw-
ing became lost under the envelopment of paint. Upon its removal from the bath, the
aluminium panel retained an opaque band of thick pink colour that, once dried, became
a fxed element within the works composition (Ill.26). Subject to the forces of grav-
ity, the horizontal nature of the baths surface established a strong horizon-line upon
113
the surface of the drawing once removed.
Not only was this an impertinent take on
hard-edge abstractions dependence on
masking tape to achieve a straight edge, it
conferred the image with a subtle sense of
weight and immersion; an image that, like
us, shares its genesis in the reality of the
physical world
32
.
In this way, freeing colour from any de-
pendence on line or a process of tonal
graduation to produce form, paintings
tactile potential can be harnessed to
present colour in an overtly physical way.
After the aluminium panels were removed
from the paint, the pink-coloured bands
that remained (akin to tide-marks) con-
ferred the image with an important tactile
quality that engage us in a sensual experi-
ence of colour. Exploring this idea further,
I developed a series of painted works
experimenting with colour harmonies
(Ill.28), where thickened oil paint was applied with a large spatula against the smooth,
yet hardened, surface of form-ply panels. The encounter between the two materials cre-
ated a heightened awareness of the paints physical presence; our experience of colour
32 As an indexical reminder of the works production, the Tefon strengthened paint assured that the drips
that formed on the bottom of the image remained.
Illustration 28. Miles Hall, Monarchs, oil on form-
ply, 240cm x varying dimensions. 2009. Collec-
tion the artist.
becomes essentially a tactile affair. In de-territorialising colour from any role in commu-
nication or representation, the physical dimension that is conferred to its chromatic im-
pact heightens our attention as to how colour can relate to its immediate surroundings as
an autonomous body. Colour becomes what Deleuze refers to as a vector of intensity.
Made physical in such a way, new relationships can be established between the body
of colour and the space, architecture and light in which it is situated. Rescued from an
immaterial mode demploi, colour can achieve a direct physical impact upon our percep-
tion:
It is very simple. Painting directly attempts to release the presences be-
neath representation, beyond representation. The colour system itself is a
system of direct action on the nervous system.
33
The Production of Presence
In a world of perpetual representation, Deleuzes call for an art of sensation is indeed a
challenge for artists to remove the re from representation to create an art encounter
that presents us with something new, rather than the representation of an already es-
tablished idea. The appeal for presence (or presentation), in opposition to representation
is also Gumbrechts central argument in his book The Production of Presence
34
. A text,
that in the context of this thesis, establishes a number of pertinent connections with the
ideas of Deleuze concerning the importance of materiality in aesthetic experience. In
order to hijack speech and operate as a vacuole of non-communication, I have out-
lined how the physical process of paintings production can resist communication and
33 Deleuze, The Logic of Sensation, p. 45.
34 Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Production of Presence - What Meaning Cannot Convey (Stanford: Stanford
University Press, 2004).
115
likewise negate the re of representation. In examining the ideas of Gumbrecht, I would
like to fnish this chapter by suggesting how paintings refusal to communicate its si-
lence provides a moment of intensity or presence that is much needed in contempo-
rary society.



As discussed earlier in Chapter I, Gumbrecht laments the loss of our engagement with
the physical world. He argues that the challenge for art is to re-establish an important
material dimension to our experience of being, through what he calls the production of
presence:
Something that is present is supposed to be tangible for human hands
implying that it can have an immediate impact on our bodies There-
fore, production of presence refers to all kinds of events and processes
in which the impact that present objects have on human bodies is being
initiated or intensifed. All objects available in presence will be called
the things-of-the-world.
35
Gumbrechts text can be seen as a response to what he considers contemporary cultures
obsession with making sense, rationalising instinct, and the dominant (hylomorphic)
Cartesian interpretation of the world. Like Deleuze, he sees the dominance of semiotics
as being indicative of this tendency. Consequently, in order to deal with the problematic
issue of semiology, Gumbrecht defnes two types of cultures: a meaning-based culture
and a presence-based culture. As its name suggests, a meaning-based culture is defned
by its drive to interpret phenomena and to clearly outline the specifc elements that may
give it an intellectual signifcance. Typically cerebral and mind-based, this is the domain
35 Op.cit., p. xiii.
of semiotics. However, a presence-based culture considers the impact of phenomena on
our senses and body; a concern for felt experience which is echoed in Deleuzes concept
of sensation. While his text focuses on this presence-based culture, Gumbrecht does
not condemn a meaning-based relationship to the world. Instead, he fghts for a balance
to be made between presence and meaning-based cultures so that our experience of the
world can be liberated from the dominance of interpretation and linguistic dogma.
Gumbrechts argument is therefore not against meaning, but precisely how meaning can
be enlarged and intensifed through presence. In response to Gumbrecht, the unique
tactile properties of painting that I have outlined in this paper provide a privileged av-
enue of creation, where visual form can be imbued with an important physical presence.
Paintings bloc of sensation renders visible the rhythmic and manual forces of a physi-
cal encounter and offers an embodied image that is tangible to human touch. The mean-
ing of painting might be reconsidered in this way as a productive encounter that is less
concerned with a role of information, than with a desire to enable new kinds of tangible
relations with the world. These new relations operate through a silent connection with
the things-of-the-world; felt relations that, independent from language, enable us to ex-
perience what Gumbrecht calls a moment of intensity. Such moments of intensity are
defned by Gumbrecht as being experienced throughout the body and mind, as concrete
and authentic encounters characterized by an absence of any message or communica-
tion
36
. Therefore a presence based culture promotes the notion that meaning or subjec-
tive truth can be revealed through the quietude of substance; through the primordial
dimension in which relationships are established between bodies and the things-of-the-
world. A relationship that, like Gumbrecht, I argue has become marginalized in the con-
temporary world:
36 Op.cit., p. 98.
117
And are we not precisely longing for presence, is our desire for tangibility
not so intense because our own everyday environment is so almost insu-
perably consciousness-centred? Rather than having to think, always and
endlessly, what else there could be, we sometimes seem to connect with
a layer in our existence that simply wants the things of the world close to
our skin.
37
Painting, by virtue of its tactile qualities, has the potential to offer us such an experience.

The processes and techniques developed in my studio practice have therefore been insp-
ired by the challenge to generate a 'moment of intensity' an image without recourse
to language or communication. As a result, I have developed certain aesthetic predilecti-
ons: notably the employment of a reductivist, formally restrained visual vocabulary and
a concern for scale.

If the haptic qualities of painting are to operate critically, their potential to operate as a
'bloc of affects and percepts' must not be attenuated by perfunctory elements. I believe
that by employing a refined, minimal range of forms and colours, the physical attributes
of the painted image maintain a dominant role in our perception in this way the quie-
tude of substance is most felt. Likewise, a simplified range of colour and tonal variation
tends to bring the spectator's awareness towards the haptic qualities of an image where a
heightened awareness of physicality is fostered. Given the exploratory nature of my re-
search, I have attempted to maintain a strong formal coherency through the consideration
of scale. The majority of my studio production is conducted through developing specific
series where each work is developed on an identically sized support. This enables each
image to establish itself as a part of a greater whole and importantly creates unforseen
dialogues between individual works. The sequential nature gives not only a unified pre-
sence to the work, but importantly extends its dimension in a temporal sense; the viewer
is encouraged to move between works establishing an active interaction that negates an
involuntary, bodiless gaze.


37 Op.cit., p. 106.
Conclusion
Conclusion
Expression, like construction, signifes both an action and its result If the two mean-
ings are separated the object is viewed in isolation from the operation which produced
it, and therefore apart from vision, since the act proceeded from an individual live crea-
ture. Theories that seize upon expression as if it denoted simply the object, always
insist to the uttermost that the object of art is purely representative of other objects al-
ready in existence. They ignore the contribution which makes the object something new.
John Dewey, Art as Experience
121
What attracts us to a painting, I believe, is something that our everyday world is not
capable of offering us. If we understand that our day-to-day lives are both culturally
and materially determined, then it is reasonable to say that the objects of aesthetic ex-
perience are also culturally and materially specifc. In our media-led culture, where the
sensual materiality of an image has been marginalised in favour of instantaneous trans-
mission, the rarefed nature of paintings physical, tactile dimension provides an ex-
ceptional avenue of visual experience. Our growing interaction with the world through
screens has exacerbated what Marcel Brodthaers once referred to as monomania the
propensity of both art and society to fatten everything. In the face of this reality, the
desire for an embodied, tactile perception of the world becomes amplifed. Paint-
ing responds to this need. The analogue complexity of painting, its implicit link with
substance, offers artists a pertinent medium in which to create alternative territories
tactile ruptures within the dominant sphere of digital representation and communica-
tion. The recognition that art works, like actions or events, gain their signifcance only
within particular historic and cultural events confers paintings tactile dimension with
an important signifcance. Art has a responsibility to address the dominant paradigms
of our time; the pertinence of painting must therefore be evaluated in direct relation to
the technological developments that are rapidly changing the way we perceive reality;
paintings importance cannot be justifed through the use of debilitating clichs that re-
gard it as a timeless, universal or metaphysical pursuit.
To re affrm the material specifcity of painting is also to re affrm the subjective nature
of painting practice and its place within contemporary art. The recent rise to dominance
of concept-based practice has seen the emergence of an art concerned more with the
production of concepts than sensations; artists in the pursuit of a more objectifed, politi-
cal and social engagement have abandoned sensation for a production of meaning that is
situated predominately within linguistic and signifying regimes. The breaking down of
modernist discourse by conceptualist practice has challenged the subjective dimension
of art, especially painting, relegating it as an object of romantic, individualised expres-
sion. Remarkably infuential within contemporary art, Bourriauds relational aesthet-
ics for example, attempts to negate the role of subjectivity by focusing attention on an
artists relationship within the wider social community, an art taking as its theoretical
horizon the realm of human interactions and its social context rather than the asser-
tion of an independent and private symbolic space
1
. I believe painting problematises
Bourriauds assertion; the two domains of public and private are not mutually exclu-
sive. Painting is a subjectifed form of aesthetic production, yet its place in the world
as a thing engenders a series of ongoing encounters with the wider social and cultural
world that continually allow it to produce new meaning. I argue further that the subjec-
tive private realm, celebrated by painting, is essential to any successful art practice
how is it possible for an artwork to function without the assertion of any imagination?
Through the manipulation and interplay of paint on its support, painting explores new
possibilities of meaning (sensation) in essentially an intuitive and tactile way. The role
that I propose for painting engenders the emergence of an image that has no a priori
or linguistic message to justify its existence, for what we need is not communication.
The signifcance of the painting and the process of its production cannot be separated
meaning and the painting are made together. I believe that paintings production needs
to be positioned more as an affrmation of the subjective realm than the singular ex-
pression of the artists self. The encounter that painting offers is not limited to the
subjectivity of the artist alone with his materials; the subjective dimension of the specta-
1 Nicolas Bourriaud, Relational Aesthetics, trans. S. Pleasance, F. Woods and M. Copeland (Paris: Les
Presses du Rel, 1998) p. 14.
123
tor is equally important to the creation of a paintings meaning. Unlike communication,
painting celebrates subjectivity, ambiguity and the ability of form to evoke divergent
responses from the receiver. Opposing the didactic bombardment of information and
opinion from both dominant media and certain genres of contemporary art (what De-
leuze refers to as signifer enthusiasts), the nature of paintings presence-based mean-
ing offers a timely way out of the conceptualist/rationalist bind that characterises a large
part of contemporary art practice. The role of painting is neither to manipulate already-
existing codes and signs, nor to illustrate a theory; painting is a physical event that
brings about the possibility of something new by accessing the energies and rhythms
liberated from hylomorphic control.
As human beings we have no choice but to address the physical world. The affrmation
of paintings physical dimension is also an affrmation of the material world, a celebra-
tion of the here and now the isness of all things. Unlike the disembodied image of
photography and digital media, painting never leaves the natural world of things. Along
with the material dimension of paint itself, the physicality of a paintings support is also
of critical importance in establishing an image with presence; it is the support that
literally maintains the paint (fxed as a bloc of sensation), as a durable object in space.
Opposed to Greenbergian theory that neglected the signifcant role that a support could
provide in the creation of an image
2
, I believe painting today can be signifcantly diver-
sifed through encouraging a more active valorisation of the support. Paintings ability
to provide a visual experience that is both optical and tactile calls for artists to exploit
the possibility of paintings material extension into space. The use of varying supports
I believe will provide painters with an ongoing exploration as to how the impact of an
image can be made more tangible for human interaction. In contrast to sculpture that is
2 For Greenberg the support (predominately canvas) was something to be covered over and, hence de- For Greenberg the support (predominately canvas) was something to be covered over and, hence de-
materialized into a picture plane, receding into optical vision. In stressing the fatness of the support
the haptic potential of painting was disregarded by Greenberg. For an in-depth account of this from
a formalist point of view, I refer the reader to Resisting Blackmail in Yve Alain Bois, Painting as
Model (Massachusetts: MIT, 1990).
Illustration 29. Imi Knoebel, oommmm, acrylic on aluminium, 305x457x10cm., 2008. Mary Boone Gal-
lery, New York.
Illustration 30. Richard Tuttle, 20 Pearls (3 Blacks), acrylic
on museum board and archival foam core 50x45cm., 2009.
Illustration 31. Reto Boller, untitled,
silicon, wood, glue, acrylic, adhesive
flm95x60x25cm. 2009. Collection the
artist.
125
safely lodged in the three dimensionality of real space, paintings ability to function as
both a pictorial image and object creates a fecund visual tension that noteworthy artists
such as Richard Tuttle, Imi Kneobel and Reto Boller (Ill.29-31) are currently investi-
gating.
Against transcendence, metaphysics and the desire to locate meaning beyond that
which is tangible for the senses, I believe painting can provide a sensual experience that
grounds us in the immanence of the material world an embodied experience of reality
that operates beyond its mere representation. Regardless of any aesthetic sophistica-
tion and quality a digital image may have, the uniformity of it surface (its clean, ho-
mogenised two-dimensionality) and the disembodied nature of its perception, severely
limits the capacity of an image to embody sensuality. Given the proliferation of internet
pornography, it would seem that the screen can indeed excel in representing sensual
phenomena; however, beyond its mimetic role, a digital pixel remains a square, a naked
supine body a series of them. However, a painted image has a curious affliation with
an individual being it too is made of substance a product of accident, encounter and
hope, subject to the laws of gravity and nature. Painting has a physical contingency that
can never be repeated nor reproduced. The more a painting affrms its distinct physical-
ity, the less it resembles the plethora of photographic and digital imagery that surrounds
us. In affrming, rather than negating, the corporeality and materiality of paint, artists
can resist the evaporation of texture characteristic of digital technologies and create an
image at odds with dominant media. Yet a painting, by virtue of being an image, will
always invite comparison with the other images that surround it a position that confers
paintings material specifcity with a pronounced signifcance in questioning the digital
world.
127
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Printed in Brisbane, Australia, June 2010, edition of 6 copies.