a complex method based PSO ALGORITHM

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a complex method based PSO ALGORITHM

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Qiang Fu

College of Science and Technology, Ningbo University

Ningbo, China

E-mailgoodwill99@163.com

Nan Tong

College of Science and Technology, Ningbo University

Ningbo, China

E-mailtongnan@nbu.edu.cn

Abstract-In order to deal with problems of premature

convergence and slow convergence rate, this paper proposes a

Complex-method-based Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm,

namely CPSO. At the beginning of the evolution, the PSO is

applied to implement global search, and when the group of

particles has entered into the local optimum region, the Complex

method is used to quickly get the local optimal point, which can

effectively improve the ability of local search. The mutation

inertia weight is also used in the CPSO to jump out of the local

optimum, which can increase the diversity of the population and

solve the premature convergence problem. This new algorithm is

applied for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in the

photovoltaic system, and the effectiveness of this algorithm is

demonstrated in the experimental findings.

Keywords-Particle Swarm optimization; Complex method;

Mutation; Photovoltaic system; MPPT

I. INTRODUCTION

The Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm is a swarm

intelligence-based algorithm in an attempt to locate the global

optimal solutions. One of the reasons that PSO is attractive is

that there are only a very few parameters that need to be

adjusted. Although PSO is still in its infancy, it has been used

across a wide range of applications. Generally speaking, the

PSO like other evolutionary optimization algorithms is

applicable to most optimization problems and circumstances

that can be cast into optimization problems.

However, in the PSO there are two major weaknesses. First

of all, it is easy to be premature convergence and fall into local

minimum points when the PSO handle with high-dimensional

complex optimization problems. Second, the local convergence

accuracy of the PSO is not high. The algorithm can organize

efficient search in the early stages, but later on the convergence

rate will slow down or even stagnate and poor of the ability to

do local optimization.

To overcome all these problems, the paper presents a novel

PSO algorithm based on the Complex method and mutation

inertia weight mechanism, which has been applied to tack the

Maximum Power Point (MPP) of the photovoltaic (PV) system.

The numerical results show the effectiveness and efficiency of

the proposed algorithm.

II. MODELING THE PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL SIMULATION

A. simulation model

Worldwide the conventional energy sources are rapidly

depleting, while population growth and scientific and

technological developments have dramatically increased the

global demand for renewable energy resources. In particular,

solar photovoltaic energy is attracting a lot of attention, since it

is clean, pollution-free, and inexhaustible. Photovoltaic cell is

the core component of the PV system, which has the ability to

convert sunlight radiation into electrical energy directly.

As shown in Fig. 1, the equivalent circuit of a photovoltaic

cell [1] is a current source in parallel with a diode, which

includes a series resistance giving a more accurate shape

between MPP and the open circuit voltage. According to the

characteristics of the circuit and the internal structure of

photovoltaic cell, the I-V characteristics of the cell can be

described as follows (1) ~ (8):

S

R

) 1 (

/ ) (

0

=

+ nkT IR V q

L

S

e I I I (1)

)) ( 1 (

1 0 ) 1 (

T T K I I

T L L

+ = (2)

) ( ) , 1 ( ) 1 (

/ *

nom nom I SC T L

G I G I = (3)

) /( ) (

1 2 ) 1 ( ) 2 ( 0

T T I I K

T SC T SC

= (4)

) / 1 / 1 ( /

/ 3

1 ) 1 ( 0 0

1

* ) / ( *

T T nk qV

n

T

g

e T T I I

= (5)

) 1 /(

1 ) 1 (

1

/

) ( ) 1 ( 0

=

nkT qV

T SC T

T OC

e I I (6)

V V S

X dI dV R

OC

/ 1 / = (7)

1 )

1

(

1

/

1 ) ( 0

* / *

nkT qV

T V

T OC

e nkT q I X = (8)

Where, : photocurrent of the PV panel; : saturation

current of the diode; : series resistance;

L

I

0

I

V

S

R

S

IR +

: the

voltage across the diode; : the voltage equivalent of

temperature; : irradiance; : temperature of panel(

q KT /

T G K ); :

Boltzmann constant ( ); : elementary charge

( ); : diode factor (usually between 1 and 2);

: short circuit current; : open circuit voltage, normally

provided by PV panel manufacturers.

k

K . 1 J / 10

23

OC

38

V

q

C

19

10 6 . 1

SC

I

n

L

I

I

S

R

D

I

V

2010 Second International Conference on Information Technology and Computer Science

978-0-7695-4074-0/10 $26.00 2010 IEEE

DOI 10.1109/ITCS.2010.39

134

Figure1. The circuit diagram of the PV model

B. Analyzing the output characteristics of the photovoltaic

cell

The photovoltaic cell is by nature a non-linear power source.

As it is well known, the MPP of a PV power generation system

depends on temperature, irradiance and other external

conditions. By using (1) ~ (8), the simulation model of the

photovoltaic cell is built up and used to analyze its output

characteristics. Fig. 2 shows P-V curves at the same irradiance

value (1 ), but at various temperatures (075 ),

and Fig. 3 shows at constant temperature (25 ), but under

increasing irradiance (0.251 ).

2

/ m kw C

C

2

/ m kw

As seen in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, under different conditions, there

is a unique point on the curve, called the maximum power

point (MPP), at which the photovoltaic cell operates with

maximum efficiency and produces maximum output power. At

the same irradiance value, the voltage of the MPP decreases as

the temperature increases, the same as the maximum output

power. Under the conditions of constant temperature and

increasing irradiance, needless to say there is any change of the

voltage at which the MPP occurs, however, the value of the

maximum output power increases obviously.

C. Maximum Power Point (MPP) Analysis

In order to obtain mathematic characteristics of the MPP for

the photovoltaic cell, this paper provides a theoretical analysis

with (1) ~ (8) as follows:

Form (1), the expression of the output voltage can be

obtained:

S L

IR I I I I q nkT V + = ) / ) ln(( * / ) (

0 0

(9)

From (1) and (9), the following expression for P-I

characteristic can be obtained:

S L

R I I I I I I q nkT VI P

2

0 0

* ) / ) ln(( * / ) ( + = = (10)

From (10), the first order derivative of I can be obtained

as:

) / ) (ln(( * / ) ( /

0 0

I I I I q nkT dI dP

L

+ =

0 2 )) /(

0

= +

S L

IR I I I I (11)

Obviously, I that fits (11) is the current of the MPP,

marked as .

max

I

Substituting I = into (9), the voltage of the MPP can

be obtained, marked as . Then, the maximum output power

can be calculated as follows:

max

I

V

max

max

P

max max max

* I V P = (12)

However, (11) is a complex transcendental equation, cannot

be easily solved through conventional methods or the

numerical solution.

III. THE COMPLEX-METHOD-BASED PSO ALGORITHM(CPSO)

A. Particle swarm optimization(PSO)

In the PSO algorithm [2], the system is initialized as a set of

random solutions. The optimal particle in the group transmits

information to other particles, then, the entire search process

follows the current updating optimal solution to gain the goal.

Figure2. PV curves at various temperatures. (Temperature is 0

75 ; Irradiance is 1

2

) C / m kw

Figure3. PV curves at various irradiation levels. (Temperature is

25 ; Irradiance is 0.251 ) C

2

/ m kw

The position and velocity of each particle are initialized

randomly, and then each particle in the population moves

towards the global optimum and individual optimum.

Equations are given as follows:

) ( * () * ) ( * () * *

2 1

1 t

i

t

i

t

i

t

g

t

i

t

i

x p rand c x p rand c v w v + + =

+

(13)

1 1 + +

+ =

t

i

t

i

t

i

v x x (14)

Where indicates iteration number, is the best

position in the population at time t (global best),

represents the best ever position of each particle in the

population at time (best individual position), is a

random value inside (0, 1), which provides randomness to the

movement of the swarm.

t

g

p

i

p

t () rand

The acceleration coefficients and adjust the velocity

to move towards

g

p d

i

p . inertia weight w contro

the impact of the previous particle velocity on the current

particle velocity. Linear decrease of w an slow the

movement of particles, and convenient for convergence when

particles move close to .

1

c

The

2

c

an ls

c

g

p

After doing further analysis on (1) and (2), there are two

135

major weaknesses of the PSO algorithm.

Firstly, when the particles enter into the local optimum areas,

the global optimal value is similar with the individual optimal

value, and the inertia weight has been set smaller value to

catch the local optimum, so the velocity update for the global

best particle through (1) and (2) generates merely a tiny jump

for further improvement such that those particles are very

unlikely to pull themselves out of the local optimum.

w

Secondly, when the particles get into the local optimum area,

according to (1) and (2), particles randomly adjust their

velocity and position without certainty direction of search.

Therefore, particles will do a slight swing around the optimal

point, and difficult to converge on the optimal point.

To overcome these problems, many researchers take further

analyses on the PSO algorithm, and propose corresponding

improvements: Y. Shi[3] pointed out that the adjustment of

inertia weight could help particles to jump out of local

optimum area, and then enhanced the capability to reach the

global optimum; [4] integrated PSO with hybrid method

employed in the genetic algorithms, which greatly increased

the diversity of population and improved the ability to locate

the global optimal solution; [5] proposed the population of

particles was divided into several independent sub-groups with

different evolutionary mode, and then cooperated to search for

the global optimum. This approach could effectively avoid

being trapped into one of the local optima; [6] verified that the

simplex algorithm could effectively improve the accuracy of

local convergence. All these researches put forward many

improvements to enhance the ability of the PSO algorithm, but

they are difficult to balance the relationship between jumping

out of premature convergence and improving convergence rate.

w

B. Complex Method

The Complex method is essentially a deterministic local

search algorithm with high efficiency search ability [7]. It does

not need to calculate the gradient of the objective function, so

the computation cost is small. It is mainly through reflection,

contraction, expansion and other operations to adjust positions

of the vertices. The new complex keeps moving and

contracting to the optimum point.

When using the Complex method to solve an optimization

problem of variables, an initial Complex with

vertices, must first be constructed. All

vertices will be evaluated for their objective function values

and accordingly sorted to locate the direction of the next search.

The vertex with good performance will be located to replace

the worst one. The iterative process goes over and over until all

vertices occupy almost the same location, and the Complex

shrinks to one point. This point represents the optimum vertex

that can be found.

n

) 2n ~ 1 ( n k k + =

Assume constraint optimization problem:

m n x g t s

R x x f

n

n

, , 2 , 1 0 ) ( . .

), ( min

= s

e

In order to solve the problem above, an initial Complex

configuration with vertices, marked

as , should be generated randomly.

) 2 ~ 1 ( n n k k + =

) , , 2 , 1 (

) (

k j X

j

=

) (

) ( j

X f ) , , 2 , 1 ( k j = are the objective function value of

each vertex, in which the best point

) (L

X

and the worst point

) ( H

X

can be obtained according to (15)~(16):

) (L

X

: (15) )} , )( ( k j X f

j

= , 2 , 1 min{ ) (

) (

X f

L

=

) ( H

X : (16) )} , )( ( k j X f

j

, 2 , 1 = max{ ) (

) (

X f

H

=

Suppose the central point

) (c

X of vertices except for k

) ( H

X

,

) (

1

1

1

) (

H j X

k

k

j

j

=

=

_

=

) (

X

c

(17)

The worst point

) ( H

X should be removed from the

Complex, and the substituted vertex

) R (

X could be found

according to (18):

) (

) ( ) ( ) ( H c c

X X X + = o

(R)

X (18)

(o is the mapping coefficient from the range [1,2])

If < , )

) (R

X ( f ) (

) (H

X f

) (R

X is the new vertex of the

Complex in the next iteration. Otherwise, an appropriate

) (R

X

should be searched by modifying o through expansion,

contraction and other operations to make superior to

. The procedure is repeated to remove the worst point

) (

) (R

X f

) (

) (H

X f

) ( H

X from each new Complex, and find the new vertex

) (R

X with better objective function value to construct a new

Complex. The algorithm is terminated when the convergence

criterion has been met.

C. The procedure of Complex-method-based PSO(CPSO)

After the group of particles enters into the optimal region,

each particle is still in the state of random search without clear

direction, and takes a lot of time to reach the optimum. So it is

not enough to fundamentally solve the problem of slow

convergence rate only by reducing the inertia weight .

Therefore, when the particles have entered into the optimal

region, the Complex method is adopted in this paper to replace

random search process, which could efficiently improve the

local search ability of the PSO algorithm, and balance the

relationship between local performance and global search

ability, namely CPSO. The solution process of the CPSO

algorithm is as follows:

w

Step 1: Generate a population of size 6N. Randomly

initialize the position and velocity of each particle, and set the

convergence criterion.

Step 2: Evaluate the fitness value of each particle, and

record and .

i

f

i

p

g

p

Step 3: Determine whether the convergence criterion has

been met. If satisfied, go to step 9; otherwise execute step 4.

Step 4: To all of the particles in the population, carry out

following operations:

Apply PSO operator for updating position and velocity

of particles.

136

Evaluate the fitness of each particle, and update

and at the same time.

i

f

i

p

g

p

Step5: Calculate fitness variance according to (19):

2

o

2

1

2

_

=

=

l

i

aver i

f

f f

o (19)

Where, is the number of the particles, l

_

=

=

l

i

i aver

f

l

f

1

1

,

is the normalized scaling factor, which is to limit the size

of . The value of is as follows:

f

2

o f

>

=

others

f f f f

f

aver i aver i

, 1

1 } max{ }, max{

(20)

Step 6: Estimate the size of . If the algorithm is trapped

into the local optimum region, then execute Step 7. Otherwise,

go back to step 3.

2

o

Step 7: Rank all of the particles based on fitness . Apply

Complex algorithm to the top N particles, and then update

with the result.

i

f

g

p

Step 8: According to (21), adjust the inertia weight of

remained particles. Go back to step 3.

w

) * 6 . 0 1 ( * | + = w w (21)

( | is the mutation factor from the range [1,2])

Step 9: Output , end of running.

g

p

IV. EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION AND RESULT ANALYSIS

In order to train and test the CPSO algorithm for the MPP

prediction of PV systems, the actual data included irradiation,

temperature taken at half an hour intervals from 8:00 to 17:00

on a certain day at China. The CPSO algorithm was used to

solve (11) to evaluate the solution of the MPP at each collected

time. Each CPSO maintained 30 populations and 100

independent runs and the average statistical data are collected

as the final results. At the same time, the ideal values were

obtained from the previous simulation model. Comparison

between the solutions of the MPP by the CPSO and the ideal

values by the model are displayed in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4 illustrates that the CPSO algorithm can effectively

track the MPP of the photovoltaic cell under different

conditions. The convergence rate is rapid, and the convergence

precision is high.

V. CONCLUSION

This paper presents a Complex-method-based Particle

Swarm Optimization algorithm, namely CPSO, which

integrates the global search ability of the PSO and the local

search ability of the Complex method. Considering both

requirements of the search speed and population diversity, the

novel algorithm effectively solves problems of local search

efficiency and premature convergence in the PSO.

Figure 4. the CPSO prediction comparing with the ideal values from the

simulation model

The CPSO algorithm is applied to predict the MPP of the

photovoltaic system. The experimental results verify that the

proposed algorithm, which can accurately track the movement

of the MPP, is a practical and efficient search algorithm.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The work was supported by Foundation of Ningbo

University(XYL09007, XYL09009); Ningbo Natural Science

Foundation (2009A610061); Pre-Research Foundation of

college of Science and Technology of Ningbo University

(XYY09005), China.

REFERENCES

[1] Walker,Geoff, Evaluating MPPT converter topologies using a matlab PV

model. Journal of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Australia, Vol. 21,

2001, pp. 49-55.

[2] Kennedy J, Eberhart RC, Particle swarm optimization. Proc. IEEE

International Conf. on Neural Networks (Perth, Australia), IEEE Service

Center, Piscataway, NJ, 1995, pp. 1942~1948.

[3] Shi Y, Eberhart RC, A modified particle swarm optimizer. Proceedings

of IEEE International Conference on Evolutionary Computation, Anchorage,

AK, 1998, pp. 6973.

[4] Amgeline PJ, Evolutionary Optimization Versus Paticle Swarm

Optimization: Philosophy and Performance Differences. Evolutionary

Programming VII, UK, Vol. 1447, 1998, pp. 601-610.

[5] Lovbjerg M,Rasmussen T K, Krink T. Hybird Particle Swarm Optinmiser

With Breeding and Subpopulations. Proc of the third Genetic and

Evolutionary Computation Conference,2001.

[6] Begambre O,Laier JE, A hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization-Simplex

algorithm(PSOS) for structural damage identification. Adcances in

Engineering Software, UK, 2009, pp. 883-891.

[7] Ssu-yuan Hu and Jung-Ho Cheng, Development of the unlocking

mechanisms for the complex method. Computers & Structures, UK, Vol. 83,

2005, pp. 1991-2002

137

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