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Laminated Reservoir Analysis (LARA)

Many highly-laminated reservoirs have been missed in
existing wells due to the coarse vertical resolution of older
logging tools and the inadequate analysis techniques of
traditional interpretation programs. To better detect and
study thin-bed reservoirs, it has been necessary to develop
new logging tools, postprocessing techniques, and data
analysis methods.
High-resolution shale indicators allow separation of the
sand and shale components, but still require thin-bed
resolution of true formation resistivity and porosity.
The measurements produced by high-resolution shale
indicators are used with those from conventional or
resolution-enhanced porosity logging tools to improve the
saturation analysis of the laminated reservoir. This is the
basis of LARA.
To determine shale volume, the high-resolution shale device
data is first integrated to the vertical resolution of the
porosity device. Then two medium-resolution shale volumes
are calculated-one from the integrated high-resolution data
and one from the porosity data. Device-specific shale
parameters are automatically adjusted until the two volumes
are equal. Then LARA calculates the conventional total and
effective porosities. It also determines the mode of clay
distribution, i.e., dispersed or laminated.
The high-resolution shale volumes are then used with the
known shale resistivity to generate high-resolution resistivity
expressions that involve shale and non-shale volumes and
resistivities. These expressions are integrated to the vertical
resolution of the resistivity device. The integrated resistivity
is equated to the measured resistivity, and the resulting
equation solved to give the non-shale resistivity, which is
essentially a shale-corrected true formation resistivity (R
Finally, the calculated effective porosity and true formation
resistivity are used in a modified Waxman-Smits equation to
calculate S
As can be seen in the LARA interpretation above, thinly laminated
hydrocarbon bearing zones above the main clean sand pay zones would
have been overlooked with conventional log analysis. In this case high
resolution data from the EMI Image tool was integrated into the LARA
analysis. Note the gas effect Density-Neutron x-over in the clean sands and
lack of x-over in the thinly laminated zone above the clean sand zone.
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LARA Features
The use of a high-resolution shale indicator in LARA
generally yields significantly more accurate analysis in
laminated reservoirs than standard shaly sand models.
LARA Benefits
LARA offers the following benefits:
Resolving gross shale volume % to high-resolution
laminated and dispersed clay content
Helps with the reliable quantitative interpretation of
thinly laminated reservoirs
Helps identify potential hydrocarbon production often
missed by conventional analysis
Laminated Reservoir Analysis (LARA)
In addition to the minimun of a GR, resistivity and porosity measurement, one or more of the following thin-bed shale indicator
inputs is required for LARA: SED, Pe (unfiltered), Microresistivity (ML, MSFL), CAST, EMI, EVR-GR
The best high-resolution shale indicators are six-arm dipmeter or EMI, but alternatives include all of the above. LARA program
requires only a single porosity device but yields better results when more than one is used.
, S
, V
, Lithology Hydrocarbon weight (oil, gas), Permeability