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Theory

Steel Connections
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Introduction
Welcome to the Steel Connections Theoretical Background.
This document provides background information on the connection checks according to
different national and international regulations.


Version info
Documentation Title Steel Connections Theoretical Background

Release 2011.0
Revision 09/2010


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 3
Table of Contents
Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. i
Version info ............................................................................................................ i
Table of Contents .......................................................................................................... 3
Bolted and welded frame connections ................................................................................................. 7
Introduction ................................................................................................................... 7
List of abbreviations ..................................................................................................... 8
The influence of the normal force ............................................................................ 15
Default Interaction Check......................................................................................... 15
For bolted connections ....................................................................................... 15
For welded connections ...................................................................................... 16
Interaction Check according to EN 1993-1-8 ........................................................... 17
The effective width beff .............................................................................................. 17
The calculation of weld sizes ..................................................................................... 18
Default ...................................................................................................................... 18
Calculation of a
f
........................................................................................................ 18
Calculation of a
w
for welded connection ................................................................... 20
Calculation of a
w
for bolted connection .................................................................... 21
The calculation of stiffener dimensions ................................................................... 22
The transformation factor .......................................................................................... 23
Center of compression ............................................................................................... 23
Default ...................................................................................................................... 23
Center of compression according to EN 1993-1-8 .................................................. 23
The use of 4 bolts / row .............................................................................................. 24
The use of haunches .................................................................................................. 26
Weld sizes for haunches .......................................................................................... 26
Haunch with flange ............................................................................................. 26
Haunch without flange ....................................................................................... 27
Column web in transverse compression .................................................................. 28
Resistance for haunches ......................................................................................... 29
Compression resistance for haunch without flange ................................................. 30
The design moment resistance for haunches at beam ............................................ 30
M
j,Rd
for haunches with flange ............................................................................. 30
Mj,Rd for haunches without flange ..................................................................... 31
The design shear resistance ...................................................................................... 32
The design shear resistance for normal bolts ......................................................... 32
The design shear resistance for preloaded bolts ..................................................... 32
The welded plate-to-plate connection ....................................................................... 33
The column base connection .................................................................................... 34
The design compression resistance ........................................................................ 34
The design moment resistance ................................................................................ 38
The design tension resistance ................................................................................. 40
The design shear resistance .................................................................................... 40
Default ................................................................................................................. 40
Friction resistance according to EN 1993-1-8 .................................................... 41
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Scia Group NV 4
The design shear resistance for shear iron. ............................................................ 41
The design shear resistance for I shaped shear iron. ........................................ 41
The design shear resistance for angle shaped shear iron. ................................ 43
The anchorage length .............................................................................................. 44
Calculation of tensile force in anchors F
t,bolt
according to internal forces. ............... 45
Design of the washer plate. ..................................................................................... 46
The influence of the normal force ............................................................................ 47
The use of RHS beam ................................................................................................. 48
The use of RHS beam in bolted beam-to-column connection ................................. 48
The use of RHS beam in column base connection ................................................. 48
The design compression resistance ................................................................... 48
The design tension resistance ............................................................................ 50
The design moment resistance ........................................................................... 52
The influence of the normal force ....................................................................... 54
The use of RHS beam in bolted plate-to-plate connection ...................................... 54
Connections with column minor axis ....................................................................... 56
Introduction .............................................................................................................. 56
Strength of column web in bending and punching ................................................... 57
Generalities ......................................................................................................... 57
Definition and design of local and global failure mode ....................................... 57
Local failure mechanism ..................................................................................... 58
Global mechanism .............................................................................................. 60
Rotational stiffness and ductility .............................................................................. 61
Stiffness coefficients ................................................................................................ 61
Calculation of stiffness ............................................................................................. 65
Stiffness classification .............................................................................................. 66
Check of required stiffness ...................................................................................... 67
Transferring the connection stiffness to the analysis model .................................... 68
Ductility classes ....................................................................................................... 69
Ductility classification for bolted joints ..................................................................... 70
Ductility classification for welded joints .................................................................... 70
Theoretical background for frame pinned connections ................................................................... 71
Introduction ................................................................................................................. 71
List of abbreviations ................................................................................................... 72
Calculation of VRd and NRd ...................................................................................... 75
Calculation VRd and NRd for connection type 1 ..................................................... 75
Calculation design shear resistance VRd for connection element ..................... 76
Calculation design shear resistance VRd for beam............................................ 76
Calculation design compression/tension resistance NRd for connection element
............................................................................................................................ 77
Calculation design compression/tension resistance NRd for beam ................... 77
Calculation design compression resistance NRd for column web ...................... 77
Calculation VRd and NRd for connection type 2 ..................................................... 79
Calculation design shear resistance VRd for connection element ..................... 79
Calculation design shear resistance VRd for beam............................................ 80
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 5
Calculation design shear resistance VRd for bolts in beam ............................... 81
Calculation design block shear resistance for beam element VRd .................... 83
Calculation design block shear resistance VRd in connection element (beam
side) .................................................................................................................... 84
Calculation design compression/tension resistance NRd for connection element
............................................................................................................................ 84
Calculation design compression/tension resistance NRd for beam ................... 85
Calculation design compression resistance NRd for column web ...................... 85
Calculation VRd and NRd for connection type 3 ..................................................... 86
Calculation design shear resistance VRd for connection element ..................... 86
Calculation design shear resistance VRd for beam............................................ 86
Calculation design shear resistance VRd for bolts in beam ............................... 86
Calculation design block shear resistance for beam element VRd .................... 86
Calculation design block shear resistance VRd in connection element (beam
side) .................................................................................................................... 87
Calculation design block shear resistance VRd in connection element (column
side) .................................................................................................................... 87
Calculation design shear resistance VRd for bolts in column ............................ 87
Calculation design compression/tension resistance NRd for connection element
............................................................................................................................ 90
Calculation design compression/tension resistance NRd for beam ................... 90
Calculation design compression resistance NRd for column web ...................... 90
Calculation design resistance NRd ..................................................................... 90
Calculation VRd and NRd for connection type 4 ..................................................... 93
Calculation design local shear resistance VRd for beam ................................... 93
Calculation design shear resistance VRd for bolts in column ............................ 94
Calculation design block shear resistance VRd in endplate ............................... 95
Calculation design compression/tension resistance NRd for beam web ........... 96
Calculation design compression resistance NRd for column web ...................... 96
Calculation design tension resistance NRd ........................................................ 96
Calculation of weld sizes ........................................................................................... 97
Theoretical background for GRID pinned connections .................................................................... 99
Introduction ................................................................................................................. 99
VRd : Design shear resistance at notch ................................................................. 100
Notched elements : calculation design block shear resistance VRd .................. 102
Long cleat connection V
Rd
: design shear resistance for the connection element
.................................................................................................................................... 104
Long cleat connection V
Rd
: design shear resistance due to the bolt distribution
in the column ............................................................................................................. 105
Connection analysis according to Different Codes ........................................................................ 106
Introduction ............................................................................................................... 106
Column web panel in shear ..................................................................................... 107
Column web in compression ................................................................................... 107
Column web in tension ............................................................................................. 108
Beam flange and web in compression .................................................................. 108
Beam web in tension ................................................................................................ 109
Bolts in tension ......................................................................................................... 109
Plastic moment capacity of T stub .......................................................................... 110
Resistance to shear force / bolts in shear .............................................................. 110
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 6
Bearing resistance for bolts/elements .................................................................... 111
The design shear resistance for preloaded bolts .................................................. 113
Column flange in bending ........................................................................................ 113
Calculation design shear resistance VRd for beam / Connection Element ........ 115
Block shear resistance ............................................................................................. 116
Design compression/tension resistance NRd for connection element ............... 117
Bolt interaction Shear/Tension ................................................................................ 118
Column web in compression ................................................................................... 119
Weld size .................................................................................................................... 120
List of abbreviations ................................................................................................. 121
Theoretical background for bolted diagonal connections ............................................................. 125
Introduction to the bolted diagonal connection .................................................... 125
Member resistance.................................................................................................... 125
Resistance of the gross section of diagonal .......................................................... 125
Resistance of the net section of diagonal .............................................................. 125
Angle diagonal with 1 bolt ................................................................................. 126
Angle diagonal with 2 bolts on 1 line ................................................................ 127
Angle diagonal with 3 bolts on 1 line ................................................................ 128
Angle diagonal with Double Leg connection ..................................................... 128
Other sections and configurations .................................................................... 129
Resistance of the gross section of gusset plate .................................................... 129
Resistance of the net section of gusset plate ........................................................ 130
Determination of Anet ............................................................................................ 130
Connection resistance ............................................................................................. 132
Shear resistance .................................................................................................... 132
Shear resistance for preloaded bolts ................................................................ 133
Bearing resistance ................................................................................................. 134
Checking the connection resistance ...................................................................... 134
Weld size calculation for gusset plate .................................................................... 135
Calculation of weld length ...................................................................................... 135
Basic Weld symbols ........................................................................................................................... 136
Weld symbols ............................................................................................................ 136
Bolt symbols ........................................................................................................................................ 137
Bolt symbols .............................................................................................................. 137
References ........................................................................................................................................... 138
List of references ...................................................................................................... 138


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 7
Bolted and welded frame connections

Introduction

In this document additional information is given about the used theory.
For the beam-to-column moment-resisting joints, we refer to Ref. |1|, [23] and [32].
For the other code regulations, we refer to chapter Connection analysis according to
Different Codes.

In the following parts, a list of the used abbreviations is given. In next parts, some more
theoretical background is given for particular items, or items which are not covered by Ref.
|1|, Ref. [23], [32].

- The influence of the normal force
- The effective width beff
- The calculation of weld sizes
- The calculation of stiffener dimensions
- The transformation factor
- Center of compression
- The use of 4 bolts / row
- The use of haunches
- The design shear resistance
- The welded plate-to-plate connection
- The column base connection
- The use of RHS beam
- Connections with column minor axis
- Rotational stiffness and ductility

For EN 1993-1-8 the calculation is done according to the following code regulations
Ref.[32],[33]:

EN 1993-1-8:2005
Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-8 : Design of Joints

Corrigendum
EN 1993-1-8:2005/AC:2009

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 8
List of abbreviations
| Transformation parameter
Stiffness ratio
stiffness ratio = S
j
/S
j,ini
intermediate parameters for minor axis connection
| intermediate parameters for minor axis bending
o intermediate parameters for minor axis bending
u intermediate parameters for minor axis bending

c
Partial safety factor for resistance of concrete

fr
Partial safety factor for friction
|
j
Joint coefficient

M0
Partial safety factor for resistance of cross-section to overall yielding

M1
Partial safety factor for resistance to buckling

Mb
Partial safety factor for resistance of bolts

Ms
Partial safety factor for slip resistance

Mw
Partial safety factor for welds

Mw
Partial safety factor for resistance of welds
|
W
Correlation factor
a Throat thickness of weld
a Factor for anchorage type
A Sectional area of the welds
a intermediate parameters for minor axis connection
a
1
Weld size a
1

a
2
Weld size a
2

a
3
Weld size a
3

A
d
Area
A
f
Area of compressed beam flange
a
f
Throat thickness of weld at beam flange (fillet weld)
a
h
Weld size of the stiffener
alfa Ratio for bolts stiffened column flange and endplate
alfa Angle between haunch and beam
alfa left Angle between endplate and left beam
alfa right Angle between endplate and right beam
alfa,ep Alfa value for endplate
alfa,fc Alfa value for column flange
A
s
Tensile stress area of bolt
as Weld size for webdoubler
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Scia Group NV 9
A
s,prov
Provided tensile stress area of the anchor
A
s,req
Required tensile stress area of the anchor
A
v
Shear area for shear iron
A
vc
Shear area
aw Throat thickness of weld at beam web
a
w
Throat thickness of weld at beam web (fillet weld)
b Width of element
b b=b
0
+0.9d
m

b
0
Bolt pitch in x direction
b
eff
Effective width
b
f
Beam flange width
b
hf
Width of haunch flange
b
hi
Critical width for haunch flange
b
m
intermediate parameters for minor axis connection
b
s
Width of webdoubler
B
t,Rd
Design tension resistance of a bolt
c Additional bearing width
c c=c
0
+0.9d
m

c
0
Bolt pitch in y direction between extreme bolt in tension zone
d
1
Edge distance of circular plate
d
a
Height of angle shaped shear iron
d
c
Clear depth of the column web
d
m
mean diameter of bolt head (nut)
d
o
Hole diameter
e Diagonal diameter of bolt head
e Edge distance
E Modulus of elasticity
e
1
Edge distance
e
1,cf
Edge distance for column flange
e
1,ep
Edge distance for endplate
E
c
Modulus of elasticity for concrete
e
min
Minimum edge distance
F Design resistance
F
b,ep,Rd
Bearing Resistance for endplate
F
b,fc,Rd
Bearing Resistance for column flange
F
c,base,Rd
Design compression resistance for concrete under the flange
F
c,ep,Rd
Design resistance of endplate in compression
F
c,fb,Rd
Design resistance of beam flange and web in compression
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 10
F
c,h,Rd
Design resistance of haunch flange in compression
F
c,ha,Rd,buck
ling

Design resistance of haunch web in buckling mode
F
c,ha,Rd,yield
ing

Design resistance of haunch web in yielding mode
F
c,wc,Rd
Design resistance of column web in compression
f
cd
Design value of the concrete cylinder compressive strength
f
ck_c
Characteristic cylinder compressive strength of the concrete
F
Com,Rd
Punching and bending (for tension or compression zone, for individual
bolt row or bolt group)
F
Global,Rd
Global failure force (for tension and compression zone)
f
j
Bearing strength of the joint
F
p,Cd
Design preloading force
F
Punch,Rd,L1
Punching resistance loading case 1. (for tension or compression zone,
for individual bolt row or bolt group)
F
Punch,Rd,L2
Punching resistance loading case 2. (for tension or compression zone,
for individual bolt row or bolt group)
F
Rd
Design force in the beam flange
F
s,Rd
Design slip resistance of preloaded high-strength bolt
F
t
Effective design tension resistance of bolt row
F
t,anchor,max
The maximum tensile force in the anchor
F
t,ep,Rd
Design tension resistance of endplate in bending
F
t,fc,Rd
Design tension resistance of column flange in bending
F
t,Sd
Applied tensile force
F
t,wb,Rd
Design resistance of beam web in tension
F
t,wc,Rd
Design resistance of column web in tension
f
u
Tensile strength
f
u
Ultimate tensile strength of the weaker part
F
v,Rd
Shear resistance per shear plane
F
w
Design resistance of the weld
fy Yield strength
f
y
yield strengh of the column web
f
yb
Yield strenght of the beam
h Height of element
h Distance from bolt row to centre of compression
h Lever arm of the connection
h head Height of bolt head
h nut Height of nut
h
1
Effective height for haunch without flange
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 11
h
b
Height of beam
h
c
Height of haunch
h
d
Effective height for haunch without flange
I Moment of inertia of the welds
I
b
Moment of inertia for beam
k intermediate parameters for minor axis connection
k
1
Stiffness coefficient for web panel in shear
k
2
Stiffness coefficient for column web in compression
k
3
Stiffness coefficient for column flange
k
4
Stiffness coefficient for column web in tension
k
5
Stiffness coefficient for endplate in tension
k
7
Stiffness coefficient for bolt in tension
k
c
Stiffness coefficient for concrete block in compression
k
eff
Effective stiffness coefficient for bolt row
k
eq
Equivalent stiffness coefficient
k
fc
Reduction factor
k
fr
Friction factor
k
I
stiffness factors
k
j
Concentration factor
k
rot
rotational stiffness factor
k
s
Value for slip resistance
k
wc
Reduction factor
l Depth of circular plate in concrete
L intermediate parameters for minor axis connection
l,anchor Anchor length
l
1
Buckling Length for haunch without flange
l
1
Length for weld size a
1

l
2
Length for weld size a
2

l
3
Length for weld size a
3

L
a
Length of angle shaped shear iron
lambda_r
el
Web slenderness ratio
L
b
Beam length
l
b
Basic anchorage length
l
b,min
Minimum anchorage length
l
b,net
Required anchorage length
l
c
Length of haunch
l
eff
Effective length
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 12
l
eff,1
Effective length for mode 1
l
eff,2
Effective length for mode 2
l
eff,cp,g
Effective length for circular patterns and inner bolt-row as part of group
l
eff,cp,g1
Effective length for circular patterns and end bolt-row as end of group
l
eff,cp,g2
Effective length for circular patterns and end bolt-row as start of group
l
eff,cp,i
Effective length for circular patterns and bolt-row considered
individually
l
eff,nc,g
Effective length for non-circular patterns and inner bolt-row as part of
group
l
eff,nc,g1
Effective length for non-circular patterns and end bolt-row as end of
group
l
eff,nc,g2
Effective length for non-circular patterns and end bolt-row as start of
group
l
eff,nc,i
Effective length for non-circular patterns and bolt-row considered
individually
L
q
Length of I shaped shear iron
l
s
Length of webdoubler
M Actual moment
m Distance bolt to beam/column web
m
1
Distance bolt to beam/column web
m
2
Distance bolt to beam flange/stiffener
M
c,Rd
Design moment resistance of the beam cross-section
M
e
Design elastic moment resistance
M
j,Rd
Design moment resistance
M
Rd
Design moment resistance
M
Rd
Design moment resistance of the connection
M
Sd
Design value for moment
M
y
Actual moment around y axis
N Actual normal force
n minimum of 1.25m and emin
n Number of friction interfaces
N
pl,Rd
Design plastic resistance of cross section
N
Rd,c
Design compression resistance for concrete
N
Rd,t
Design tension resistance
N
Sd
Design value for normal force
p Bolt pitch
p
1
Upper part of bolt pitch
p
1
Spacing
p
2
Lower part of bolt pitch
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 13
pos Position of stiffener
r Root radius
r Radius of root fillet
ro Reduction factor
ro1 Reduction factor 1
ro2 Reduction factor 2
S Width across flats, diameter of bolt head
S
j
Rotational stiffness
S
j,app
Approximate joint stiffness
S
j,ini
Rotational stiffness when the moment is zero, then initial rotational
stiffness
S
j,low
lower boundary stiffness
S
j,MRd
Rotational stiffness when the moment is equal to the design moment
resistance
S
j,rigid
Classification boundary for rigid classification
S
j,upper
upper boundary stiffness
S
l,pinned
Classification boundary for pinned classification
t Thickness of element
t
f
Flange thickness of cross section
t
fb
Thickness of the beam flange
t
h
Thickness of the stiffener
ts Thickness webdoubler
tw Web thickness of cross section
t
wb
Thickness of the beam web
t
wc
Effective thickness of the web
t
wc
column web thickness
u intermediate parameters for minor axis bending
V
Rd
Design shear resistance
V
Rd,f
Friction resistance between steel base plate and concrete
V
Rd,i
Design shear resistance for shear iron
V
Sd
Design value for shear force
V
wp,Rd
Design shear resistance of column web
V
z
Actual shear force in z direction
weld ab Weld size between beam and haunch
weld ac Weld size between column/endplate and haunch
weld awc Weld size for haunch without flange
x intermediate parameters for minor axis connection
x
0
intermediate parameters for minor axis connection
y Position of bolt row in relation to endplate bottom
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Scia Group NV 14
z Lever arm



p
p1
p2
e1
e
emin
m
0.8 a 1.41
e
emin
m
0.8 r




Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 15
The influence of the normal force
Default Interaction Check
When the axial force N
Sd
in the connected member exceeds 10 % of the plastic
resistance N
pl,Rd
of its cross-section, a warning is printed out and the value of the design
moment resistance M
j,Rd
is decreased.
For bolted connections
The value of the design moment resistance M
j,Rd
is decreased by the presence of the
axial tensile force N
Sd
.
2
h
. N M M
Sd Rd , j Rd , j
=
with

h the distance between the compression and
tension point in the connected member

If there is an axial compression force N
Sd
, we check the following :

h N M M
)) F Fc (
2
N
, 0 max( N
) F , F , V min( F
Rd , j Rd , j
tot
Sd
Rd , fb , c Rd , wc , c Rd , wp c
=
=
=


with

h the distance between the compression and
tension point in the connected member
F
c,wc,Rd
Design compression resistance for column
web
F
c,fb,Rd
Design compression resistance for beam web
and flange
V
wp,Rd
Design shear resistance of column web
F
tot
The sum of the tensile forces in the bolt rows
at Mj,Rd


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 16
For welded connections
) F , F , F , F , V min( F
Rd wc, t, Rd fc, t, Rd fb, c, Rd wc, c, Rd wp, tot
=
When an axial tensile force N
Sd is present :
h N M M
)) F Fc (
2
N
, 0 max( N
) F , F min( F
Rd , j Rd , j
tot
Sd
Rd wc, t, Rd fc, t, c
=
=
=

When an axial compressive force N
Sd is present :
h N M M
)) F Fc (
2
N
, 0 max( N
) F , F , V min( F
Rd , j Rd , j
tot
Sd
Rd fb, c, Rd wc, c, Rd wp, c
=
=
=


with

h the distance between the compression and
tension point in the connected member
F
c,wc,Rd
Design compression resistance for column web
F
c,fb,Rd
Design compression resistance for beam web and
flange
V
wp,Rd
Design shear resistance of column web
F
t,wc,Rd
Design resistance of column web in tension
F
t,fc,Rd
Design resistance of column flange in tension


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 17
Interaction Check according to EN 1993-1-8
If the axial force NEd in the connected beam exceeds 5% of the design resistance, Npl,Rd ,
the following unity check is added :


0 . 1
N
N
M
M
Rd , j
Ed , j
Rd , j
Ed , j
s +

Mj.Rd is the design moment resistance of the joint, assuming no axial force
Nj.Rd is the axial design resistance of the joint, assuming no applied moment
N
j,Ed
is the actual normal force in the connection
M
j,Ed
is the actual bending moment in connection


The value for N
j,Rd
is calculated as follows :

If N
j,Ed
is a tensile force, the N
j,Rd
is determined by critical value for the following
components (Ref.[32], table 6.1.):

- For bolted connection, as a combination for all bolt rows :
o component 3 : column web in transverse tension
o component 4 : column flange in bending
o component 5 : end plate in bending
o component 8 : beam web in tension
o component 10 : bolts in tension

- For welded connection :
o component 3 : column web in transverse tension, where the value for t
fb
in
formulas (6.10) and (6.11) is replaced by the beam height.
o component 4 : column flange in bending, by considering the sum of formula
(6.20) at the top and bottom flange of the beam.


If N
j,Ed
is a compressive force, the N
j,Rd
is determined by the following components
(Ref.[32], table 6.1.):
o component 2 : column web in transverse compression, where the value for t
fb
in
formulas (6.16) is replaced by the beam height.
o component 4 : column flange in bending, by considering the sum of formula
(6.20) at the top and bottom flange of the beam.


In all cases, N
j,Rd
s N
pl,Rd
.


The effective width beff

The effective width b
eff
used in the formulas for the calculation of the design tension
resistance of beam web (F
t,wb,Rd
) and the design tension resistance of column web
(F
t,wc,Rd
) for a bolted connection, are taken equal to the effective length of the non-circular
pattern (in the output these values can be found under the heading l
eff
).
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 18
The calculation of weld sizes

Default

The default values for the double fillet welds to the beam flange a
f
and for the double fillet
welds to the beam web a
w
, are as follows (see Ref. [10] and Ref. [11] (Element (833))

fyd Weld size
240 N/mm a
f
0.5 t
fb

a
w
0.5 t
wb

> 240 N/mm a
f
0.7 t
fb

a
w
0.7 t
wb



with a
f
the throat thickness of weld at beam flange
(fillet weld)
a
w
the throat thickness of weld at beam web (fillet
weld)
t
fb
the thickness of the beam flange
t
wb
the thickness of the beam web


In case the setting is activated in the Connection Setup , the weld sizes are calculated.

Calculation of a
f


The weld size a
f
is designed according to the resistance of the joint. The design force in
the beam flange can be estimated as:

h
M
F
Rd
Rd
=

with F
Rd
the design force in the beam flange
M
Rd
the design moment resistance of the
connection
h the lever arm of the connection

The design resistance of the weld F
w
shall be greater than the flange force F
Rd
, multiplied
by a factor . The value of the factor is (ref[1], J.3.1.3.) :

= 1.7 for sway frames
= 1.4 for non sway frames

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 19
However, in no case shall the weld design resistance be required to exceed the design
plastic resistance of the beam flange N
t.Rd
:

0
M
yb fb f
Rd , t
f t b
N


=

with b
f
the beam flange width
t
fb
the beam flange thickness
f
yb
the yield strenght of the beam

So, we have

F
w
= min ( N
t.Rd
, F
Rd
)
The weld size design for a
f
, using Annex M of EC3 (ref[2])

2 b f
F
a
f u
W Mw w
f

|
>

with F
w
the design resistance of the weld
b
f
the beam flange width
f
u
the ultimate tensile strength of the weaker part
|
W
the correlation factor

Mw
the partial safety factor for welds


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 20
Calculation of a
w
for welded connection

l1,a1
l3,a3
l2,a2



Consider the figure. (See also Ref[14], pp.545)

In the section, the moment M, the normal force N and the shear force D are present.
The moment M is defined by the critical design moment resistance of the connection. The
normal force N is taken as the maximum internal normal force on the node, the shear
force D is taken as the maximum internal shear force on the node.

We can define the following properties :

a
1
= a
f
(see above)
a
3
= a
f
(see above)
a
2
= a
w
(to be calculated)
l
1
= b
f

l
2
= h 3 t
fb
2r
l
3
= (b
f
t
wb
2r) /2.0

) t . 2 h ( l a
6
l a
2
h l a
I
fb 3 3
3
2 2 1 1
+

+

=

3 3 2 2 1 1
l a 4 l a 2 l a 2 A + + =

with b
f
the beam flange width
t
fb
the beam flange thickness
r the radius of root fillet
t
wb
the beam web thickness
a
1
the weld size a
1

a
2
the weld size a
2

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 21
a
3
the weld size a
3

l
1
the length for weld size a
1

l
2
the length for weld size a
2

l
3
the length for weld size a
3

A the sectional area of the welds
I the moment of inertia of the welds

To determine the weldsize a
2
in a connection, we use a iterative process with a
2
as
parameter until the Von Mises rules is respected (Ref[2],Annex M/EC3, Ref.[32], 4.5.3.) :

( )
w w
2 1 1
M
u
1
M w
u 2 2 2
f
and
f
3

s o
|
s t + t + o
2
1
I 2
l M
A
N
2
2 1
|
.
|

\
|

+ = t = o
2 2
1
l a 2
D

= t


with f
u
the ultimate tensile strength of the weaker part
|
W
the correlation factor

Mw
the partial safety factor for welds

Calculation of a
w
for bolted connection


Consider the figure.

For all possible bolt groups, the maximum tension pro unit length is calculated.
The tension pro unit length is (F
i
+ F
i+1
)/l2.
l2 is taken as the effective length of non-circular pattern for the considered bolt group.

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 22
On the weld 2 x l2 x a2, the normal force N (=F
i
+ F
i+1
) and the shear force D is acting.
The shear force D is taken as that part of the maximum internal shear force on the node
that is acting on the bolt rows i and i+1.


To determine the weld size a
2
in a connection, we use a iterative process with a
2
as
parameter until the Von Mises rules is respected (Ref[2],Annex M/EC3, Ref.[32] 4.5.3.) :

( )
w w
2 1 1
M
u
1
M w
u 2 2 2
f
and
f
3

s o
|
s t + t + o

2
1
A
N
2 1
|
.
|

\
|
= t = o
2 2
1
l a 2
D

= t


with f
u
the ultimate tensile strength of the weaker part
|
W
the correlation factor

Mw
the partial safety factor for welds
A 2 a
2
l
2




The calculation of stiffener dimensions

The stiffener thickness t
h
is designed according to the resistance of the joint. The design
resistance of the stiffener is equal to the design resistance of the weld F
w
(see chapter
"The calculation of weld sizes").

f y
M w
h
b f
F
t

>
0



with F
w
the design resistance of the weld
b
f
the beam flange width
f
y
the yield strength

M0
the partial safety factor
t
h
the thickness of the stiffener

The weld size a
h
for the stiffener is:

2
t
a
h
h
=
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 23
The transformation factor
The transformator factor | is calculated according to Ref.[23], formula (J.2a) and (J.2b)
and Ref.[32], formula (5.4a, 5.4b).

Sd , 1 b , j
Sd , 2 b , j
M
M
1 = |

with M
j,b2,Sd
the moment at the intersection from the left
hand beam
M
j,b1,Sd
the moment at the intersection from the right
hand beam

The value of the factor | is limited to 2.0.


Center of compression
Default
For calculating the design moment resistance of bolted end-plate connections the center
of compression is assumed to be at the exterior of the compression flange of the
connected member.


Center of compression according to EN 1993-1-8
In accordance with EN 1993-1-8 (Ref.[32]) article 6.2.7.2(2) for bolted end-plate
connections, the centre of compression is assumed to be in line with the centre of the
compression flange of the connected member.

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 24
The use of 4 bolts / row



Consider the figure. See alse Ref.[4], parts 1.2.1,1.2.2 and table 3.

When 4 bolts/row are used, additional capacity F
add
is added to the bolt row/group
capacity of the column flange and/or the endplate.



F
add
is defined as the minimum of F
add,1
, F
add,2
, F
add,3
, F
add,4
, F
add,5
for the following
conditions :

- The capacity of the inner two bolts is equal to the bolt tension resistance (failure mode
3) or is defined by a circular pattern
- The bolt row / group is stiffened
- The bolt group contains only 1 bolt row

If these conditions are not fulfilled, F
add
= 0.0.

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 25
y 9
y B 10
f t b
F
y 4
f ) t t ( b
F
B 2 F
m 9
m B 10
f t b
F
m 4
f t b 2
F
m 2 w b b
) m , m min( m
Rd . t
0 M
y
2
d m
5 , add
0 M
y
2
d
2
f m
4 , add
Rd . t 3 , add
2
2 Rd . t
0 M
y
2
f m
2 , add
0 M 2
y
2
f m
1 , add
12 2 m
2 1 12
+

+
=
=
+

=
=
=


with f
y
the yield strength

M0
the partial safety factor
t
d
the thickness of the stiffener
t
f
the flange / plate thickness
B
t.Rd
the design tension resistance of the bolt


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 26
The use of haunches

Weld sizes for haunches

The calculations of the weld size for the haunch elements, are taken from Ref. |3| and |4|.
Haunch with flange



lc
ab
tc
hc
alfa
bc
b
tw
tf
h
r


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 27
The weld size ab is given by :

( )
2
w f
f
e
c
tan 3
t 2 t 10
A 7 . 0
M
M
ab o +
+
=



with A
f
b tf
M
e
the design elastic moment resistance
M
c
the moment at position lc


For the limit state, we suppose M
c
=M
e
.

A similar formula is used for the weld size ac (between haunch and endplate/column) :

( )
2
w f
f
e
c
tan 3 1
t 2 t 10
A 7 . 0
M
M
ac o +
+
=



Haunch without flange



lc
hc
b
tw
tf
twc
alfa
h1
hd


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 28
The weld size awc is given by :

c
f
e
c
L 65 . 1
A
M
M
awc =



with A
f
b tf
M
e
the design elastic moment resistance
M
c
the moment at position lc
L
c
0.75 lc



For the limit state, we suppose M
c
=M
e
.

Column web in transverse compression
The effective width b
eff,c,wc
of the column web in compression for a bolted end-plate
connection is calculated as follows in case of a haunch with flange is applied to the
connected member:

b
eff,c,wc
= ac + 5(tfc + s) + sp

With: ac Weldsize ac between haunch and endplate/column
tfc, s, sp As defined in Ref.[32]



Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 29
Resistance for haunches



The design resistance of beam flange and web in compression F
c,fb,Rd
is given by :

( )
fb b
Rd , c
Rd , fb , c
t h
M
F

=


with M
c,Rd
the design moment resistance of the beam
cross section
h
b
the overall depth of the beam
t
fb
the thickness of the beam flange

The values for M
c,Rd
, h
b
and t
fb
can be taken from section (1) i.e. the beam or section (2)
i.e. the beam with haunch (see figure). This choice is made in the Connections Setup.


As an alternative, when the haunch flange is compressed, the design resistance F
c,h,Rd
for
the compressed haunch flange can be calculated by the method given by ( Ref.[15],
Annex 8-B)

0 M
y c h
Rd , h , c
) cos( f t b
F

o
=

with b
h
min(b
hf
,b
hi
)
t
c
, o see figure
b
hi

y c
f / t 235 42
b
hf
b
c
, width of haunch flange

This choice is made in the Connections Setup.

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 30
Compression resistance for haunch without flange

See figure in chapter "Haunch without flange".

The design resistance of haunch web in yielding mode F
c,ha,Rd,yielding
is given by :

0
M
y wc 1
Yielding , Rd , ha , c
f t h
F

=

with h
d
0.5 h
c



The design resistance of haunch web in buckling mode F
c,ha,Rd,buckling
is calculated as
follows :

For the rectangular cross-section (h
1
* t
wc
), the buckling reduction factor _ is calculated
around the weak axis with buckling curve d. The buckling length l
1
is taken equal to l*0.5.

1
M
y
buckling , Rd , ha , c
f A
F

_
=


with A h
1
* t
wc

The design moment resistance for haunches at beam

The compression force in the haunch should be transferred by the haunch into the beam.
The formula used for the buckling of the column web can also be applied to the check
failure of the beam web due to the vertical component of the force transferred by the
haunch. See Ref.[15], Annex 8-B. The influence of the local beam web buckling is taken
into account by the factor .

The calculation of this design moment resistance M
j,Rd
, are taken from Ref. |3| and |4|.
This design moment resistance M
j,Rd
is compared with the moment M
c
at the position
where haunch and beam are meeting.

M
j,Rd
for haunches with flange

Consider the figure in chapter "Haunch with flange"

( )
( )
( )
d
f
e
d
f
e Rd , j
A
A
cot
M
cot 5 . 0
A
A
cot 25 . 1
M M
o
s
o +
o
=

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 31
with A
f
b t
f

M
e
the design elastic moment resistance
A
d
{t
c
+ 5 (t
f
+r)}t
w

r rounding in beam

67 . 0 if 0 . 1
67 . 0 if
22 . 0
1
1
r
r
r r
s =
>
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=


r

2
w
yd c eff
Et
f d b
93 . 0 =

b
eff
{t
c
+ 5 (t
f
+r)}
d
c
h-2 (t
f
+r)



Mj,Rd for haunches without flange

( )
f
2
d wc
e Rd , j
A
cos h t
M M
o
=

Consider the figure in chapter "Haunch without flange".



with A
f
b t
f

M
e
the design elastic moment resistance
h
d
0.5 h
c



Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 32
The design shear resistance

The design shear resistance for normal bolts

The shear resistance per shear plane F
v,Rd
is given by the respective code.

The design shear force is given by (see Ref.|1| J.3.1.2.)

the total design shear resistance of the bolts in those bolt-rows that are not required to
resist tension.
0.4/1.4 (28%) of the total design shear resistance of the bolts in those bolt-rows that are
also required to resist tension

Suppose we have nt number of bolts in tension and nn number of bolts not in tension. The
design shear force V
Rd
is :

nn * F nt 28 . 0 F V
Rd , v Rd , v Rd
+ =

The bearing resistance for endplate (F
b,ep,Rd
) and the bearing resistance for column flange
(F
b,fc,Rd
) is given by the respective code.

Suppose we have n
tot
number of bolts. The design shear force V
Rd
is :

tot Rd , b Rd
n F V =


The design shear resistance for preloaded bolts

Suppose we have n
tot
number of bolts.
The design preloading force F
p,Cd
is given by the resepctive code.

The design slip resistance of preloaded high-strength bolt F
s,Rd
is given by the respective
code.

The design shear force V
Rd
is :

tot Rd , s Rd
n F V =


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 33
The welded plate-to-plate connection



Consider the figure :

When we write the horizontal equilibrium in point A, we have :

( ) ) left _ alfa cos( F right _ alfa cos F
left , fl right , fl
=

When we write the vertical equilibrium in point A, we have :

( )
ep left , fl right , fl
F ) left _ alfa sin( F right _ alfa sin F = +

In the limit state, the value Fep is limited by the capacity of the endplate :

0
M
y
ep
f t b
F


=


with b the width of the endplate
t the thickness of the endplate
f
y
the yield strength

M0
the partial safety factor for resistance of cross-
section to overall yielding

Out of the vertical and horizontal equilibrium, and the value for F
ep
in the limit state, we
can calculate the maximum force F
fl,right
and F
fl,left
. These values will result in the design
resistance of endplate in compression F
c,ep,Rd
for both sides.

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 34
The column base connection
If EN 1993-1-8 is selected, the column base connection is designed according to Ref.[32] :
- art. 6.2.5.
- art. 6.2.6.9
- art. 6.2.6.10
- art. 6.2.6.11
- art. 6.2.6.12
- art. 6.2.8

In all other cases, the following rules are applied :
- The design compression resistance
- The design moment resistance
- The design tension resistance

The design compression resistance
The determination of N
Rd,c
is based on Ref. [5]

j
f c , Rd
A N =

with A the resulting bearing area (The area in
compression under the base plate)
f
j
the bearing strength of the joint


For the determination of the resulting bearing area the additional bearing width c is
introduced.
0
M j
y
f 3
f
t c

=


with t the thickness of the steel base plate.
f
y
the yield strength of the steel base plate
material.


Where the projection of the base plate is less than c the effective bearing area should be
assumed to be as indicated in the figure.

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 35


Where the projection of the base plate exceeds c the additional projection should be
neglected, see figure.




with A bearing area
A' area not included in bearing area


The bearing strength of the joint f
j
is determined from:
cd j j j
f k f | =


with |
j
the joint coefficient, which may be taken as 2/3 (0.667) provided
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 36
that the characteristic strength of the grout is not less than 0.2
times the characteristic strength of the concrete foundation and
the thickness of the grout is not greater than 0.2 times the
smallest width of the steel base plate.
This value can be set in the Concrete Basic data.

f
cd
is the design value of the concrete cylinder compressive strength
of the concrete given by:
c
ck
cd
f
f

=
in which f
ck
is the characteristic cylinder compressive strength of
the concrete determined in conformity with Ref. [6].

This value can be set in the Concrete data.

c
is the partial safety factor for concrete material properties
given in Ref. [6]. This value can be set in the Safety factors
dialog box.

k
j
the concentration factor
ab
b a
k
1 1
j

=
where
a & b are the dimensions of the base plate
a
1
& b
1
are the dimensions of the effective area.
See figures.
For a
1
the least of the following should be taken:
- a
1
=a+2a
r

- a
1
=5a
- a
1
=a+h
- a
1
=5b
1
but a
1
> a

For b
1
the least of the following should be taken:
- b
1
=b+2b
r

- b
1
=5b
- b
1
=b+h
- b
1
=5a
1
but b
1
> b



Note 1:Conservatively k
j
can be taken as 1.0, The value can be set in the concrete
data.

B
p
= Base plate
C
f
= Concrete foundation
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 37



a1
a ar
h
b1 b
br
Bp
Cf



Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 38
The design moment resistance

The determination of M
Rd
is based on Ref. [1].

The following remarks are made.

- The resistance moment of the base plate is elastic, therefore the calculation of F
tRd
is done
with
0 M
y
2
eff
Rd , el
6
f t l
M


=
- A new joint component is introduced: The concrete in compression. The design compression
resistance for concrete under the flange.

j fl Rd , base , c
f A F =

with f
j
the bearing strength of the joint
A
fl
the bearing area under the compression
flange. See the following figures.

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 39

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 40



The design tension resistance
The determination of N
Rd,t
is based on Ref.[1].
It is the design tension resistance for the group of all bolt-rows. (No compression limits)
N
Rd,t
is the resistance against tension due to uplift.

The design shear resistance
Default

The determination of V
Rd
is described in chapter "The design shear resistance".

The following feature is added:
It is possible to increase the shear resistance with the value of the friction resistance
between the base plate and the concrete. (This option is controlled in concrete data
dialog box.)

The friction resistance between the steel base plate and the concrete.
fr
fr c
k N
f , VRd

=

with N
c
= N
sd,c
the design compressive force
k
fr
the friction coefficient between steel and
concrete. (~ 0.25)

fr
the safety factor for friction. (~ 2)

Note: k
fc
and
fr
can be set in the concrete data dialog box.
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 41
Friction resistance according to EN 1993-1-8
For EN 1993-1-8 Ref.[32] the design friction resistance is defined as follows:

Ed c d f Rd f
N C F
, , ,
=


with N
c,Ed
the design compressive force
C
f,d
the friction coefficient between base
plate and grout layer (~ 0.20)

The design shear resistance for shear iron.
The calculation of the shear resistance for shear irons is based on Ref. [7] pp116-120.

The design shear resistance for I shaped shear iron.



Consider the figure.

The design shear resistance for I shaped shear iron is given by the minimum of the following
shear resistance :

- V
Rd,1
: limited by the concrete capacity
- V
Rd,2
: limited by the stress in the shear iron flange
- V
Rd,3
: limited by the stress in the column web
- V
Rd,4
: limited by the shear capacity of the shear iron
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 42
The following formulas are used :

0 M
s , yd v
4 , Rd
0 M c q
c , yd c wc c p
3 , Rd
0 M c q
s , yd c
, Rd
cd q 1 , Rd
3
f A
V
) h h ( L
f h h t ) k 5 t 2 t ( 3
V
) h h ( L
f h h t b 3
2 V
f ) l L ( b V

=
+
+ +
=
+

=
A =



with f
cd
the design value of the concrete cylinder
compressive strength of the concrete
L
q
the length of shear iron
b the width of the shear iron
h the height of the shear iron
t the flange thickness of the shear iron
h
c
the height of column
f
yd,s
the yield strength of the shear iron
f
yd,c
the yield strength of the column

M0
the partial safety factor
t
p
the thickness of baseplate
k
c
1.4 a
wc

a
wc
the weld size for column web/base plate
A
v
the shear area of shear iron
t
wc
the web thickness of the column
Al 30 mm


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 43
The design shear resistance for angle shaped shear iron.



Consider the figure.

The design shear resistance for angle shaped shear iron is given by the minimum of the
following shear resistance :

- V
Rd,1
: limited by the concrete capacity
- V
Rd,2
: limited by the stress in the shear iron
- V
Rd,3
: limited by the shear capacity of the shear iron

The following formulas are used :

0 M
yd a
3 , Rd
0 M
2
c
2
a
yd a
2 , Rd
cd a a
1
, Rd
3
f t L
V
) 3
h 9
d 4
(
f L t
V
f ) l L ( d V


=
+


=
A =


with f
cd
the design value of the concrete cylinder
compressive strength of the concrete
L
a
the length of shear iron
d
a
the height of the shear iron
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 44
t the flange thickness of the shear iron
h
c
the height of column
f
yd
the yield strength of the shear iron

M0
the partial safety factor
t
p
the thickness of baseplate
Al 30 mm

The anchorage length
The determination of the anchorage length of the holding down bolts is based on Ref. [6].
The required anchorage length l
b,net
is calculated from:

min , b
prov , s
req , s
b a net , b
l
A
A
l l > o =

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
C
bd
yd
4 b
f
f
l


with
C
the diameter of the holding down bolt.
f
yd
the design yield strength of the holding down bolt. This is
determined as follows :
Mb
u
f 9 . 0

=
f
u
the ultimate tensile strength of the anchor

Mb
the partial safety factor for a bolted connection. (= 1.25)
f
bd
the design value for the ultimate bond stress.
f
bd
is dependent on the bond condition, which normally is good
for a column base and also dependent of the type of holding
down bolts. (plain or high bond bars)The bond condition and the
type of bars can be set in the concrete data dialog box.
l
b
the basic anchorage length.


o
a
is dependent on the anchorage method.
= 1 for straight bars.
= 0.7 for curved bars.

A
s,req
is the required tensile stress area of the anchor

u
Mb bolt , t
req , s
f 9 . 0
F
A


=

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 45
with F
t,bolt
the maximum tensile force in the anchors. (due
to N
Rd,t
or M
Rd
)

Mb
the partial safety factor for a bolted connection.
(= 1.25)
f
u
the ultimate tensile strength of the anchor

A
s,prov
is the provided tensile stress area of the anchor

l
b,min
is the minimum anchorage length
l
b,min
is the maximum of 0.3 l
b
, 10 C

Calculation of tensile force in anchors F
t,bolt
according to internal forces.
The tensile force in the anchor can be calculated using the actual internal forces. This
calculation is based on the regulations given in ref.[24], chapter 6.4.1.

This choice can be made in the Connection Setup.

Consider the following configuration :
N
M
Nb
Ft
Ft
h/2
h1
h2


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 46
Moment equilibrium gives :

2 1
2 t 1 t
h h
2
h
N M
Ft
h F h F
2
h
N M
+

=
+ + =


F
t
is the tensile force for each anchor row in the tension zone, M and N are the actual
internal forces.
When Ft<0, all anchors are in compression. The minimum anchor length is calculated.
When Ft>0.0, the value for F
t,bolt
is calculated.

The anchor rows in the tensile zone, are those anchor rows where h
i
> h/2 is valid.

Design of the washer plate.
The design of a circular plate is based on Ref. [7]

The allowable tensile force N
j
in 1 anchorage is given by:
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
| C
t =
v
r
1
4
r f 3 N
2
2
cd j


with v the smallest of l and d
1
. See figure.

By means of this formula r, the radius of the circular plate is determined.
The iterative process is started using 2,5 times the anchor diameter as an initial value for
r.


The thickness t is given by
33 . 0
cd
E
f
r 8 t |
.
|

\
|
>


with E Modulus of elasticity for anchorage.
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 47

The influence of the normal force

When the axial force N
Sd
in the connected member exceeds 10 % of the plastic resistance
N
pl,Rd
of its cross-section, a warning is printed out and M
j,Rd
is decreased.
The value of the design moment resistance M
j,Rd
is decreased by the presence of the axial
tensile force N
Sd
.

2
h
. N M M
Sd Rd , j Rd , j
=



with

h the distance between the compression and
tension point in the connected member

If there is an axial compression force N
Sd
, we check the following :

h N M M
)) F Fc (
2
N
, 0 max( N
) F , F min( F
Rd , j Rd , j
tot
Sd
Rd , fb , c Rd , base , c c
=
=
=


with

h the distance between the compression and tension point
in the connected member
F
c,Base,Rd
Design compression resistance for concrete under the
flange
F
c,fb,Rd

Bearing Resistance for column flange
F
tot
The sum of the tensile forces in the anchor rows at Mj,Rd
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 48
The use of RHS beam

The use of RHS beam in bolted beam-to-column connection
The bolts can only be positioned outside the beam flange. The normal procedure
described in Ref.[1] is followed for the calculation of the connection characterisrtics.

The use of RHS beam in column base connection
The bolts can only be positioned outside the beam flange. However, 3 bolts/row are
possible.
The rotational stiffness is not calculated.
The design compression resistance

The determination of N
Rd,c
is :

j c , Rd
Af N =

For more information, see chapter "The design compression resistance".

Where the projection of the base plate is less than c the effective bearing area should be
assumed to be as indicated in the following figures.



Where the projection of the base plate exceeds c the additional projection should be
neglected, see the figure,

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 49
with A Bearing area
A' Area not included in bearing area.




Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 50
The design tension resistance

The determination of N
Rd,t
is based on Ref.[22].

Consider the following figures :






Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 51
The allowable tension force for each bolt F
T,Rd,i
is given by


( )
i
i p
r
yp
Rd , t
p
i , Rd , T
t ) 2 / d ( b ' b
b 25 . 1 a
t b a
2
d
a
1
t
KT
p
' d
1
p f 9 . 0
' b 4
K
B ,
K
) 1 ( t
min F
+ =
s
(
(
(
(

+ + o
|
.
|

\
|
+
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
= o
= o
=
|
|
.
|

\
| oo +
=




with t
p
plate thickness
f
yp
yield strength of plate
d bolthole diameter
d bolt diameter
t
i
thickness of RHS section
a,b see figures
p = 2e
= w/2
= 2e
= w
B
t,Rd
design tension resistance of a bolt

The total design tension resistance Nt,Rd is then


i , Rd , T Rd , t
F N E =
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 52
The design moment resistance

The determination of M
Rd
is based on Ref. [1] and Ref.[22].


MRd is given by

h ) F , F min( M
c T Rd
=

with F
T
EF
T,RD,I
for the bolts in tension
F
c
min( F
c,base,Rd
, F
c,rhs_flange
)

The design compression resistance for concrete under the flange, F
c,base,Rd
is :

j fl Rd , base , c
f A F =

with f
j
the bearing strength of the joint
A
fl
the bearing area under the compression
flange.

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 53


The design compression resistance for the RHS compression flange, F
c,rhs_flange
is :


0 M
y
flange _ rhs , c
btf
F

=


with b

width of RHS section
t thickness of RHS section
fy yield strength of RHS section

M0
partial safety factor



Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 54
The influence of the normal force

When the axial force N
Sd
in the connected member exceeds 10 % of the plastic resistance
N
pl,Rd
of its cross-section, a warning is printed out.

The value of the design moment resistance M
j,Rd
is decreased by the presence of the axial
tensile force N
Sd
.

2
h
. N M M
Sd Rd , j Rd , j
=



with

h the distance between the compression and
tension point in the connected member

If there is an axial compression force N
Sd
, we check the following :

h N M M
)) F Fc (
2
N
, 0 max( N
) F , F min( F
Rd , j Rd , j
tot
Sd
Rd , flange _ rhs , c Rd , base , c c
=
=
=


with

h the distance between the compression and tension point in the
connected member
F
c,Base,Rd
Design compression resistance for concrete under the flange
F
c,rhs_flange,Rd

Bearing Resistance for RHS flange
F
tot


The sum of the tensile forces in the anchor rows at Mj,Rd


The use of RHS beam in bolted plate-to-plate connection
The bolts can only be positioned outside the beam flange. However, 3 bolts/row are
possible.
For the calculation of the allowable tension force for each bolt F
T,Rd,i
, we refer to chapter "
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 55
The design tension resistance".

The rotational stiffness is not calculated.


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 56
Connections with column minor axis
Introduction

In Ref.[21], some extensions are proposed to design the behaviour if the beam is attached
to the column web through some element as angle, plate etc. The implementation is
based on this proposals, and are described in the following chapters.
The new components are the column web submitted to punching shear and bending.
Different failure mechanisms of column web have been analysed and are essentially
based on the yield line theory.


The moment resistance and the rotational capacity of a minor-axis joint is calculated
based on the methods as proposed in Ref.[1].
The following elements are taken into account in the design procedure:

- Column web in bending and punching
- Bolts in tension
- End plate in bending
- Beam web in tension
- Beam flange and web in compression



The figure some common types of minor-axis connections where beams are assembled
with column web without stiffeners.



b)flush
endplate
c)flan
ge
cleat
s
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 57
Strength of column web in bending and punching
Generalities

The plastic resistance of the web results from its yielding and from a progressive apparition of
plastic yields line mechanism. The failure mode mechanism is divide into two main groups: the
local and the global mechanism similarly to those proposed in Ref.[1] J.3.6.2 (5) & (6). A local
mechanism means that the yield line is localized only in the compressive zone or in the tensile
zone of the joint while global failure mode design the yields line pattern involves both in
compressive and tensile zone. In the design model, it is assumed that prying action between
end plate or the angle cleat doesnt occur. This assumption is conflicting with assumptions
made in Ref.[1]. This point is still under investigation but in most practical cases, it is reasonable
to assume that no prying develops between components. The design resistance of the web in
transverse compression or tension is finally defined as: F
Rd
=min(F
local
,F
global
).




Definition and design of local and global failure mode

The moment carried out by the beam to the column web may be decomposed in a couple
of forces F acting in the compressive and the tensile zone. It is assumed that these forces
act on an area (compressive and tensile zone) defined in the plane of the column web.
The design value of the moment resistance can be calculated as follows:

Rd Rd , j
F z M =


with z the lever arm in the joint
F
Rd
the resistance of the weakest axis component in the minor axis joint
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 58

Basic failure mechanisms are obtained by yields line method.. In the flexural mechanism,
it is assumed that plastic moment is not reduced by the presence of shear forces
perpendicular to the plane web. The plastic moment per unit length of yield line is given
by:

0 M
y
2
w
pl
f t 25 . 0
m


=

where f
y
is the yield stress and t
w
the thickness of the column web.


Local failure mechanism

In the local failure mode different local mechanisms of the column web are considered.
The force F acts on a rigid rectangle. This rectangle is defined by the dimensions bxc (see
figure). The weld perimeter rectangle around the beam flange or the loaded area around
the bolt pattern defined the rigid rectangle. The yield pattern is localised in the
compression or the tension zone. As result from this definition, the resistance force is
evaluated in each rigid rectangle: one in the compression zone and one in the tension
zone. This mechanism is associated to the smallest force F
Rd,local
between the punching
shear resistance and the combination of punching shear and bending resistance in the
compression and the tension zone. Some adaptations and interpretations are needed to
design a pinned connection.



The resistance to punching depends on the loading case. For the loading case 1 the
punching function of the punching perimeter 2(b+c). For the loading case 2, the punching
perimeter of the column web depends on the diameter of the bolt heads (or nuts) and the
number n of bolts respectively in the tension/compression zone. The resistance is given
by:


( )
0 M
y wc
Rd , Punching
3
f t c b 2
F

+
= : loading case 1
0 M
y wc m
Rd , Punching
3
f t d n
F

t
= : loading case 2


with t
wc

the thickness of the column web
f
y

the yield strength of the column web

M0

the partial safety factor of steel
d
m

average diameter of the bolt head (see further)


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 59
Combined flexural and punching shear mechanism takes also into account that the plastic
moment per unit length of yield line is reduced by the presence of shear force.

( )
( )
0 M wc
2
y
2
wc Rd , Comb
1
x a t 3
x x c 5 . 1
x a
c 2 x a L
f t k F

(
(

+
+
+
+
+ + t
=

( ) | |

b b if c 4 x a L
2
t 3
c a 5 . 1 a a
b b if 0
x
m 0
wc 2
m

> + + t

+ +
s
=

|
|
.
|

\
|

(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
m
m
3
1
wc
3
2
wc
0
b L
b b
L
t
L
c
23 . 0
L
t
L x


0 b but
L t
c
8 . 2 1 1
c
t
82 . 0 1 L b
m
2
wc
2
2
2
wc
m
>
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

+ + =

( )

s
+
+
+
>
+
=
5 . 0
L
c b
if
L
c b 6 . 0
7 . 0
5 . 0
L
c b
if 1
k

b L a =
2
d d
d
d 9 . 0 c c
d 9 . 0 b b
2 1
m
m 0
m 0
+
=
+ =
+ =





d2
d1
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 60
Application to rigid bolted connection

For each zone (respectively tension/compression), the local punching shear resistance
following loading case 1&2 is determined. The tension rigid rectangle is defined by the
perimeter around the bolts placed respectively in the tension zone 2(b+c) . The rigid
rectangle of the compression zone through which the punching is transmitted to the
column web corresponds to the beam flange thickness and the beam flange width .
In the same way, the local combined punching and bending is calculated both for the
tension and the compression following the same perimeter values b & c.

Application to rigid welded connections

For each zone (respectively tension/compression), the local punching shear resistance
following loading case 1&2 is determined. For welded connections, the tension,
respectively the compression rectangle is the beam flange thickness and the beam flange
width.In the same way, the local combined punching and bending is calculated both for
the tension and the compression following the same perimeter values b & c.
Global mechanism

In the global failure mechanism, the force F is transmitted to the column web by one or
more rows of bolts. In this case, the definition of the loaded area depends on the distance
between bolts and the diameter of bolt heads (or nuts), or the weld around the beam
flanges. The yields line pattern involves both compression and tension zones.


The combined flexural and punching mechanism is evaluated as:

0 M
pl
Rd , Com
Rd , Global
1
2
z
b 2
m
2
F
F

|
.
|

\
|
+ t +

+ =

where F
Comb,Rd
: combined punching and flexural local resistance

s
=
10
b - L
z
if
b L
z
1
b - L
z
if 1


Global failure mechanism involves both compression and tensile zones. If the dimensions
bxc of the compression zone are different from those of the tensile zone, the F
Global,Rd

expression will be applied twice, once for the compression zone and once for the tension
zone separately.


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 61
Rotational stiffness and ductility
Stiffness coefficients

The rotational stiffness is calculated with the component method, which is described in
Ref.[1] Part J.4.

The following stiffness coefficients are used :

Coefficient Basic component Formula
k1 column web panel in
shear
z
A 38 . 0
vc
|


k2 column web in
compression
c
wc eff
d
t b 7 . 0

k3 column flange, single
bolt row in tension
3
3
fc eff
m
t l 85 . 0

k4 column web in tension,
single bolt row in
tension
c
wc eff
d
t b 7 . 0

k5 endplate, single bolt
row in tension
3
3
p eff
m
t l 85 . 0

k7 bolts, single bolt row in
tension
b
s
L
A
6 . 1


with A
vc
the shear area of the column
z the lever arm
| the transformation parameter
b
eff
the effective width of the column web
d
c
the clear depth of the column web
l
eff
the smallest effective length for the bolt
m the distance bolt to beam/column web
A
s
the tensile stress area of the bolt
L
b


the elongation length of the bolt

For the proper values of these variables, we refer to Ref.[1].

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 62
For EN 1993-1-8 Ref. [33] the naming of the stiffness coefficients is revised as follows:

Coefficient Basic component
k1 column web panel in
shear
k2 column web in
compression
k3 column web in tension,
single bolt row in
tension
k4 column flange, single
bolt row in tension
k5 endplate, single bolt
row in tension
k10 bolts, single bolt row in
tension


For bolted endplate connections, the basic components related to the bolt rows in tension,
are represented by a single equivalent stiffness coefficient k
eq
.

For a bolted beam-to-column connection, the following coefficients are used :

Coefficient Present k
eq

k1 x
k2 x
k3 x x
k4 x x
k5 x x
k7 x x

For a welded beam-to-column connection, the following coefficients are used :

Coefficient Present k
eq

k1 x
k2 x
k3
k4 x
k5
k7


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 63
When a column minor axis configuration is used, the values for k1 and k2 are replaced by
k
i,
the stiffness coefficient in the tension or the compression zone of the column web in
bending and punching.
The value for k
i
is given by (see Ref.[21]) :

( )
( )
( )
rot
2
2 1
3
2
3
wc
i
k
u
c c 4 . 10
1
tan 1
16
L
t
k
|
+ |
u | + o
=

with c
1
1.50
c
2
1.63

wc
t
L
u =
10sus50


L
b
= |
0.08s|s0.75


L
c
= o
0.05sos0.2
| = u 10 35

The factor k
rot
is equal to 1 if the rotation of the column flanges restrained

|
=
HEM600 - HEB500 - HEA400 to equal or smaller sections HE for 1
sections IPE for and HEM600 - HEB500 - 400 HEA an greater th sections HE for 4 . 0 52 . 0
k
rot



For a bolted plate-to-plate connection, the following coefficients are used :

Coefficient Present k
eq

k1
k2
k3
k4
k5 Left side
k5 Right side
x
x
x
x
k7 x x

A welded plate-to-plate connection is considered as rigid.

For a column base, the following coefficients are used :


Coefficient Present k
eq

k1
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 64
k2
k3
k4
k5 x x
k7 x x
kc x

See also Ref.[16].

The value of L
b
in coefficient k7 is taken as the free length of the anchor bolts plus the free
length of embedded part. The free length of the anchor bolts is equal to the base plate
thickness plus the head height of the anchor bolt. The free length of the embedded part is
equal to 8 x the anchor diameter.

The stiffness k
c
is the stiffness coefficient for the compression zone in the concrete block.

eq
c fl
c
Eh
E A
k =

with A
fl
the bearing area under the compression
flange
E
c
the E modulus of concrete
( )
3 / 1
ck
8 f 5 . 9 + =
(E
c
in Gpa, f
ck
in Mpa)
E the Young modulus (of steel)
h
eq
the equivalent height
( )
2
b a
eff eff
+
=
where a
eff
and b
eff
are based on the
rectangle for determining A
fl

A
fl
=a
eff
x b
eff




Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 65
Calculation of stiffness

The program calculates 3 stiffnesses :

Sj,ini the initial rotational stiffness
Sj the rotational stiffness, related to the actual moment M
j,Sd

Sj,MRd the rotational stiffness, related to Mj,Rd (without the influence of the
normal force)


The values for Sj,ini and Sj can be found on the numerical output.
The moment-rotation diagram is based on the values of Sj,ini and Sj,MRd.


Sj,MRd
Sj,ini
M
fi
MRd
0.66 MRd



Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 66
Stiffness classification

The connection is classified as rigid, pinned or semi-rigid according to its stiffness by
using the initial rotational stiffness Sj,ini and comparing this with classification boundaries
given in Ref.[1] Figure J.8.

If Sj,ini >= Sj,rigid, the connection is rigid.
If Sj,ini <= Sj,pinned, the connection is classified as pinned.
If Sj,ini<Sj,rigid and Sj,ini>Sj,pinned, the connection is classified as semi-rigid.

For braced frames :

b
b
b
b
L
EI
5 . 0 pinned , Sj
L
EI
8 rigid , Sj
=
=



For unbraced frames :

b
b
b
b
L
EI
5 . 0 pinned , Sj
L
EI
25 rigid , Sj
=
=



For column base connections, we use (see Ref.[17]) :

c
c
c
c
L
EI
5 . 0 pinned , Sj
L
EI
15 rigid , Sj
=
=



with I
b
the second moment of area of the beam
L
b
the span of the beam
I
c
the second moment of area of the column
L
c
the storey height of the column
E the Young modulus


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 67
Check of required stiffness
The actual stiffness of the connections is compared with the required stiffness, based on
the approximate joint stiffness used in the analysis model. See also Ref.[15] Part 6.1.2,
Ref.[18] and Ref.[19].
A lower boundary and an upper boundary define the required stiffness :

Frame Lower boundary
Sj,low
Upper boundary
Sj,upper
Braced
b b
b
L app , Sj I E 10
I E app , Sj 8
+


b
b
L
I E 8
app , Sj

s
b b
b
L app , Sj I E 8
I E app , Sj 10



b
b
L
I E 8
app , Sj

>


Unbraced
b b
b
L app , Sj I E 30
I E app , Sj 24
+


b
b
L
I E 24
app , Sj

s
b b
b
L app , Sj I E 24
I E app , Sj 30



b
b
L
I E 24
app , Sj

>




For column base connection , we use the following extrapolation :


Lower boundary Upper boundary
c c
c
L app , Sj I E 20
I E app , Sj 16
+


c
c
L
I E 16
app , Sj

s
c c
c
L app , Sj I E 16
I E app , Sj 20



c
c
L
I E 16
app , Sj

>




with I
b
the second moment of area of the beam
L
b
the span of the beam
I
c
the second moment of area of the
column
L
c
the storey height of the column
E the Young modulus
Sj,app the approximate joint stiffness
Sj,ini the actual initial joint stiffness
Sj,low the lower boundary stiffness
Sj,upper the upper boundary stiffness
Sj the actual joint stiffness

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 68
When a linear spring is used in the analysis model, we check the following :

When Sj,ini >= Sj,low and Sj,ini<=Sj,upper, the actual joint stiffness is conform with the
applied Sj,app in the analysis model.
The value of Sj,app is taken as the linear spring value introduced for <fi y> (in the hinge
dialog), multiplied by the stiffness modification coefficient q.

Type of connection q
bolted beam-to-column 2
welded beam-to-column 2
welded plate-to-plate 3
column base 3

When a non-linear function is used during the analysis model, we check the
following :

When Sj >= Sj,low and Sj<=Sj,upper, the actual joint stiffness is conform with the applied
Sj,app in the analysis model.
The value of Sj,app is taken as the analysis stiffness defined by the non-linear function.



Transferring the connection stiffness to the analysis model

When the connection template is stored to a node (by pushing the <Input> button), the
actual stiffness of the connection can be transferred to the analysis model. The linear
spring value for <fi y> (in the hinge dialog) is taken as Sj,ini divided by the stiffness
modification coefficient q.
For asymmetric connections which are loaded in both directions (i.e. tension on top and
tension in bottom), the linear spring value for <fi y> (in the hinge dialog) is taken as the
smallest Sj,ini (from both directions) divided by the stiffness modification coefficient q.

At the same time, a non-linear function is generated, representing the moment-rotation
diagram as in the following figure.

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 69
Sj,ini+
M
fi
MRd+
0.66 MRd+
0.66 MRd-
MRd-
Fi+ 3Fi+
Fi- 3Fi-
Sj,ini-




Ductility classes

According to Ref.[15] part 4.7, the following classification is valid for connections :

Class 1 joint : Mj,Rd is reached by full plastic redistribution of the internal forces within the
joints and a sufficiently good rotation capacity is available to allow a plastic frame analysis
and design.

Class 2 joint : Mj,Rd is reached by full plastic redistribution of the internal forces within the
joints but the rotational capacity is limited. An elastic frame analysis possibly combined
with a plastic verification of the joints has to be performed. A plastic frame analysis is also
allowed as long as it does not result in a too high required rotation capacity of the joints
where the plastic hinges are likely to occur.

Class 3 joint : brittle failure (or instability) limits the moment resistance and does not allow
a full redistribution of the internal forces in the joints. It is compulsory to perform an elastic
verification of the joints unless it is shown that no hinge occurs in the joint locations.



Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 70
Ductility classification for bolted joints

If the failure mode of the joint is the situated in the shear zone of the column web, the joint
is classified as a ductile, i.e. a class 1 joint.

If the failure mode is not in the shear zone, the classification is based on the following :



Classification by
ductility
Class
d
f
f
36 . 0 t
y
ub
s

Ductile

1
d
f
f
53 . 0 t d
f
f
36 . 0
y
ub
y
ub
s <


Intermediaire

2
d
f
f
53 . 0 t
y
ub
>

Non-ductile

3



with t the thickness of either the column flange
or the endplate
d the nominal diameter of the bolts
f
ub
the ultimate tensile strength of the bolt
f
y
the yield strength of the proper basic
component


Ductility classification for welded joints

If the failure mode of the joint is the situated in the shear zone of the column web, the joint
is classified as a ductile, i.e. a class 1 joint. If the failure mode is not in the shear zone,
the joint is classified as intermediaire for ductility, i.e. a class 2 joint.

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 71
Theoretical background for frame pinned connections

Introduction

In this appendix, we give information about the calculation rules for the Frame Pinned
connections. Four types of connections are supported :

Type 1 welded plate in beam, welded to column
Type 2 bolted plate in beam, welded to column
Type 3 bolted angle in beam and column
Type 4 short endplate welded to beam, bolted in column

For each type, the design shear resistance V
Rd
(taking into account the present normal
force N ) and the design compression/tension resistance N
Rd
are calculated.
The design shear resistance is calculated for the following failure modes :

- design shear resistance for the connection element
- design shear resistance of the beam
- design block shear resistance
- design shear resistance due to the bolt distribution in the beam web
- design shear resistance due to the bolt distribution in the column

The design compression/tension resistance is calculated for the following failure
modes :

- design compression/tension resistance for the connection element
- design compression/tension resistance of the beam
- design tension resistance due to the bolt distribution in the column

In the following chapter, we give an overview of the abbreviations, which are used in the
dialogs and the output.
In the next chapters, the theoretical background is given for the calculation of the various
design shear resistance and design compression/tension resistance, according to EC3-
ENV (Ref.[2]). For the other code regulations, we refer to chapter Connection analysis
according to Different Codes.

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 72
List of abbreviations

t Shear stress
Slip factor
Weld size parameter
o Weld size parameter
| Transformation parameter
Reduction factor
I Weld size parameter
o
1
Normal stress in weld part
t
1
Shear stress in weld part
t
2
Shear stress in weld part
o
D
Stress around point d in calculation of design shear resistance for
bolts in column
o
f,Ed
the longitudinal stress in the flange
o
M
Normal stress generated by moment M

M1
the partial safety factor
o
N
Normal stress generated by normal force N
|
w
Correlation factor in weld size calculation
A Area of beam
Area of element
A Parameter in design shear resistance for bolts in column
a Lever arm - Bolt centre - Weld size

Position of bolt centre with regard to underside of the plate (dir. x)
a distance to the nearer end of the member
a
1


length in block shear resistance
a
2
length in block shear resistance
a
3
length in block shear resistance
alfa,bw Alfa value for beam web
alfa,el Alfa value for element
A
net
Reduced area of the beam
Reduced area of the element
As Tensile area for the bolt
A
v
Shear area of the beam
A
v.net
Reduced shear area of the beam element
B Parameter in design shear resistance for bolts in column
b Width
Position of bolt centre with regard to underside of the plate (dir. y)
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 73
b
d
Length in calculation of design shear resistance for bolts in column
b
f
the column flange width
c Maximum horizontal distance between bolts and bolt centre
D Shear force on the plate
d Bolt diameter
Maximum horizontal distance between bolts and bolt centre
d the column web depth
d
0
Hole diameter
do Hole diameter
e Diagonal diameter of bolt head
e1 Edge distance
Fb,bw,Rd Bearing Resistance for beam web
Fb,el,Rd Bearing Resistance for element
Fp,Cd Design preloading force
Fs,Rd Design slip resistance of preloaded high-strength bolt
Ft,Sd Applied tensile force
f
u
Ultimate tensile strength of the element
f
ub
Tensile strength of the bolt
Fv,Rd Shear resistance per shear plane
fy Yield strength of the element
g weld size parameter
Gamma M0 Partial safety factor for resistance of cross-section to overall
yielding
Gamma M1 Partial safety factor for resistance to buckling
Gamma Mb Partial safety factor for resistance of bolts
Gamma Ms Partial safety factor for slip resistance
Gamma Mw Partial safety factor for resistance of welds
h Height
h the column height
h
d
Height in calculation of design shear resistance for bolts in column
I
p

2
i
r : Polar moment of inertia of the bolts with regard to the
boltcentre
I
pD
Polar moment of inertia of the bolts around point d in calculation of
design shear resistance for bolts in column
K Parameter in calculation of design shear resistance for bolts in
column
ks Value for slip resistance
l length of the weld part
L parameter in weld size
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 74
l
1
length of the weld part
L
1
Length for block shear resistance
l
2
length of the weld part
L
2
Length for block shear resistance
L
3
Length for block shear resistance
l
eff
equivalent length in T-Stub model
L
v


Length for block shear resistance
L
veff
Length for block shear resistance
M Present moment
m factor in T-Stub model
M
pl,1,Rd
Design plastic moment resistance for MODE 1 in T-Stub model
M
pl,2,Rd
Design plastic moment resistance for MODE 2 in T-Stub model
My Actual bending moment
N Present normal force
n Number of friction interfaces
Number of plates of number of bolt
N
Rd
Design tension/compression resistance
N
Sd
Internal tension/Compression force
p1 Bolt pitch
Pl Gap between columns flange and beams web
Q

Resulting forces acting on the extreme bolt of a plate:
( ) ( )
2
vM vr
2
vM vr
Q Q Q Q + + +
Q
hk
Horizontal force acting on the bolts in bolt-row k
Q
hn
Q
hM
Horizontal force acting on the extreme bolt of a plate
Q
vj
Vertical force acting on the bolts in bolt column j
Q
vM
Vertical force acting on the extreme bolt of a plate
Q
vr


Vertical force acting on the extreme bolt of a plate
R Shear force
r Radius
S Width across flats, diameter of bolt head
s
s
the plate height
t Element thickness
t Thickness
tf Flange thickness
t
f
the column flange thickness
tw Web thickness
t
w
the column web thickness
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 75
V
Rd
Design shear resistance
V
Sd
Internal shear force
Vz Actual shear force
W Elastic section modulus of beam
x1 Edge distance for bolts in connection element
x2 Edge distance for bolts in connection element
x
j
Maximum horizontal distance between bolts and d point
y1 Edge distance for bolts in connection element
y2 Edge distance for bolts in connection element
z
k
Maximum vertical distance between bolts and d point in design
shear resistance of column
Calculation of VRd and NRd

Calculation VRd and NRd for connection type 1








Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 76
Calculation design shear resistance VRd for connection element

The design shear resistance V
Rd
is given by

) V , V min( V
a
W
f
V
A
N
3
Af
V
2 Rd 1 Rd Rd
N
0 M
y
2 Rd
N
0 M
y
1 Rd
=
(

=
= o

=



with fy the yield strength of the element

M0
the partial safety factor

A h t n
W n t h / 6
N the present normal force
a b/2
o
N
the normal stress generated by normal
force N
n

the number of plates


Calculation design shear resistance VRd for beam

The design shear resistance V
Rd
is given by

0
M
y v
Rd
3
f A
V

=

With fy the yield strength of the beam

M0
the partial safety factor
r the radius of root fillet
A
v

the shear area of the beam
( )
f w f v
t r 2 t bt 2 A A + + =

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 77
Calculation design compression/tension resistance NRd for connection
element

The design compression/tension resistance N
Rd
is given by

0
M
y
Rd
Af
N

=

With fy the yield strength of the beam

M0
the partial safety factor
A the area of the element (n h t)
n

the number of plates

Calculation design compression/tension resistance NRd for beam

The design compression/tension resistance N
Rd
is given by

0
M
y
Rd
Af
N

=

with fy the yield strength of the beam element

M0
the partial safety factor
A


the area of the beam


Calculation design compression resistance NRd for column web

The design compression resistance N
Rd
is given by the minimum of the crushing
resistance R
y,Rd
, the crippling resistance R
a,Rd
and the buckling resistance R
b,Rd
of the
column web (see Ref.[2], 5.7.3., 5.7.4., 5.7.5)


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 78
( )
( )
Rd , b Rd , a Rd , y Rd
s
s
f
w
w
f
1 M
y w
Rd , a
2
y
Ed , f 0 M
w
f
f y
1 M
y w y s
Rd , y
R , R , R min N
2 . 0
d
s
d
s
t
t
3
t
t
Ef t 5 . 0
R
f
1
t
b
t 2 s
f t s s
R
=
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
o
=

+
=


R
b,Rd
is obtained by considering the web as a virtual compression member with an
effective breadth b
eff
and buckling length d.

s h b
2
s
a s h
2
1
b
s eff
s
s eff
+ s
+ + + =



with fy the yield strength of the beam element

M1
the partial safety factor
t
w
the column web thickness
s
s
the plate height
b
f
the column flange width
o
f,Ed
the longitudinal stress in the flange
t
f
the column flange thickness
d the column web depth
a distance to the nearer end of the member
h the column height

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 79
Calculation VRd and NRd for connection type 2


Calculation design shear resistance VRd for connection element
The design shear resistance V
Rd
is given by

) V , V min( V
a
W
f
V
A
N
3
f A
V
2 Rd 1 Rd Rd
N
0 M
y
2 Rd
N
0 M
y v
1 Rd
=
(

=
= o

=


The bolt holes are not taken into account when
A
f
f
A
u
y
net . v
>

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 80
When Av.net is less than this limit, an effective shear area of A
v
= (f
u
/f
y
) A
v.net
may be
assumed, else A
v
=A.


with fy the yield strength of the element

M0
the partial safety factor

A h t n
W n t h / 6
N the present normal force
a x1
o
N
the normal stress generated by normal
force N
n

the number of plates
A
v.net


the reduced shear area
0 w net , v
d nt A A =


Calculation design shear resistance VRd for beam

The design shear resistance V
Rd
is given by :

0
M
y 1 v
Rd
3
f A
V

=


The bolt holes are not taken into account when

v
u
y
net . v
A
f
f
A >
When Av.net is less than this limit, an effective shear area of A
v1
=(f
u
/f
y
) A
v.net
may be
assumed, else A
v1
=A
v
.

With f
y
the yield strength of the beam

M0
the partial safety factor
n the number of bolt in a section
A
v

the shear area of the beam
( )
f w f v
t r 2 t bt 2 A A + + =
A
v.net


the reduced shear area of the beam
element
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 81
0 w v net , v
d nt A A =
f
u


the ultimate tensile strength of the
element
Calculation design shear resistance VRd for bolts in beam

The extreme bolt of the plate is submitted to the following forces (see Ref.[12] IW E1 and
Ref. [13] p162-207):

Vertical forces :
n
R
Q
vr
=
p
vM
I
Mc
Q =
Horizontal forces :

n
N
Q
hn
=
p
hM
I
Md
Q =

a
c
b
d
ri


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 82
The resulting forces acting on this bolt is conditioning by F
v,Rd
(See 11.3.1) and F
b,RD,Plate
and

Beam
:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Beam , Rd , b Plate , Rd , b Rd , v
2
hM hn
2
vM vr
F , F min , F min Q Q Q Q Q = + + + =


Considering that, in the limit state, V
Rd
is acting, we get the following equation in V
Rd
:
0 Q
n
N
n I
d N a 2
V
I
d a
nI
ac 2
I
c a
n
1
V
2
2
2
p
Rd
2
p
2 2
p
2
p
2 2
2
2
Rd
= +
|
|
.
|

\
|


+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ +

+

with

a the position (x direction) of bolt centre with regard to
underside of the plate
b

the position (y direction) of the bolt centre with regard to
underside of the plate
d

the maximum vertical distance between bolts and bolt
centre
c the maximum horizontal distance between bolts and bolt
centre
e1 the end distance
p the pitch
I
p

2
i
r : the polar moment of inertia of the bolts with
regard to the bolt centre
n the number of bolts
R the shear force
N the normal force
M

the moment: R a


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 83
Calculation design block shear resistance for beam element VRd

The design value of effective resistance to block shear is determined by using the
following expression :

eff , v eff v,
M
eff , v y
Rd , eff
L t A with
3
A f
V
0
=

=

We determined the effective shear area A
v,eff
as follows:

2 1 v
a a h L =
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + =
y
u
0 3 1 v 3 1 v 3
f
f
d n a a L ; a a L min L

( )
0 1 1
d 5 ; a min L =

( )
y
u
0 2 2
f
f
d k a L =
with k=0.5 for a single bolts-row
k=2.5 for tow bolts-row

( )
3 2 1 v eff , v
L ; L L L min L + + =


a2
a3
L
v
a1

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 84
Calculation design block shear resistance VRd in connection element
(beam side)

eff , v eff v,
M
eff , v y
Rd , eff
L t n A with
3
A f
V
0
=

=

with n number of plate, cleat
t thickness of plate, cleat


The values a1,a2,a3, and Lv are defined as follows :
L
v
a3
a2
a1


Calculation design compression/tension resistance NRd for connection
element
The design compression N
Rd
is given by (see Ref.[2], 5.4.4.(1))

0 M
y
Rd
Af
N

=

The design tension N
Rd
is given by (see Ref.[2], 5.4.3.(1))

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
2 M
u net
0 M
y
Rd
f A 9 . 0
,
Af
min N




Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 85
with f
y
the yield strength of the element
f
u

the ultimate tensile strength of the
element

M0
the partial safety factor
A the area of the element (n h t)
A
net
the reduced area of the element
n

the number of plates

Calculation design compression/tension resistance NRd for beam

The design compression resistance N
Rd
is given by (see Ref.[2], 5.4.4.(1))

0
M
y
Rd
Af
N

=

The design tension N
Rd
is given by (see Ref.[2], 5.4.3.(1))

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
2 0
M
net
M
y
Rd
A 9 . 0
,
Af
min N

With f
y
the yield strength of the beam
f
u
the ultimate tensile strength of the beam

M0
the partial safety factor
A the area of the beam
A
net
the reduced area of the beam


Calculation design compression resistance NRd for column web
See chapter 'Calculation design compression resistance NRd for column web'
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 86
Calculation VRd and NRd for connection type 3





Calculation design shear resistance VRd for connection element

See chapter "Calculation design shear resistance VRd for connection element".

Calculation design shear resistance VRd for beam

See chapter "Calculation design shear resistance VRd for beam".
Calculation design shear resistance VRd for bolts in beam

See chapter "Calculation design shear resistance VRd for bolts in beam".
Calculation design block shear resistance for beam element VRd

See chapter "Calculation design block shear resistance for beam element VRd"


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 87
Calculation design block shear resistance VRd in connection element
(beam side)
See chapter "Calculation design block shear resistance VRd in connection element (beam
side)"

Calculation design block shear resistance VRd in connection element
(column side)

eff , v eff v,
M
eff , v y
Rd , eff
L t 2 A with
3
A f
V
0
=

=

with t thickness of cleat

The values a1,a2,a3, and Lv are defined as follows :


a2
a1
Lv
a3



Calculation design shear resistance VRd for bolts in column

The acting shear force C/2 is divided in a shear force V
0
acting in the bolt centre and a
moment M
0
rotating around point d on a distance h
d
/2 from the upper side (Ref. [13] p194-
197).

pD
j 0
0
vj
I
x M
n
V
Q = : Vertical force acting on the bolts in bolt-column j

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 88
pD
k 0
hk
I
z M
Q = : Horizontal force acting on the bolts in bolt-row k

=
+
x1
x2
a
C/2
Vo
Vo/n
Mo
D
hd
z1
z2
r
Qh
Qv
D=Sum Qhi
D
bd
b
sigma D
sigma D
r
s

d



By equilibrium, we find:
0 M and Q
2
C
d around vi
= =




+
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 89
In the example represented in the figure , we have :

= + =
= + =
i i hi i hi 2 2 2 v 1 1 1 v d
pD
0
0 2 v 2 1 v 1 vi
z k
2
C
z Q with z Q x n Q x n Q M
na
I
M
V Q n Q n Q

Supposing that :
( )
2
pD
na I
a
K

=
( )
j
x a K
n
1
A + =

k
Kz B =
we find :
( )|
.
|

\
|
+ =
j vj
x a K
n
1
2
C
Q
k hk
Kz
2
C
Q =
2 2
B A
2
C
Q + =
In the limit state, the shear force VRd is acting in the connection :

2 2
Rd
B A
Q 2
V
+
=

The resulting force Q acting on the bolts is conditioning by F
v,Rd
(See 0) and F
b,Rd,Angle and
Beam
. If a normal force N is acting, the following condition is valid:

1
F 4 . 1
n
N
F
Q
Rd , t Rd , v
s +

this means that:
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
Rd , t
Rd , v Rd , b
F n 4 . 1
N
1 F , F min Q with
Mb
s ub
Rd , t
A f 9 . 0
F


=

with n the umber of bolts
I
pD
the polar moment of inertia of the bolts around point
d

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 90
Calculation design compression/tension resistance NRd for connection
element
See chapter "Calculation design compression/tension resistance NRd for connection
element".
Calculation design compression/tension resistance NRd for beam
See chapter "Calculation design compression/tension resistance NRd for beam".
Calculation design compression resistance NRd for column web
See chapter 'Calculation design compression resistance NRd for column web'


Calculation design resistance NRd
Calculation design tension resistance NRd

As described in Ref. [1], Ref.[23], we can substitute a bolt joint by an equivalent T-Stub to
model the resistance of the column flange. The length of the considered T-stub is note l
eff
.
The problem consists first to calculate the equivalent length and than determine the failure
mode.

To calculate the equivalent length in the corner for the equivalent T-stub model, we
consider the bolt individually or as a part of a group of bolt-rows. Each of this case well be
calculate for circular pattern (note cp) and for non-circular pattern (note nc). We define in
the following table p as the pitch of the holes and parameters m and e as represented in
the figure.
Remark: if the play Pl s 0.4 t
cor
then m
cor
=a-t
cor
-0.8r, else see figure

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 91



BOLT-ROW
LOCATION
BOLT ROW CONSIDERED INDIVIDUALLY
Circular Pattern l
eff,cp
Non-circular Pattern l
eff,nc
INNER BOLT-
ROW
m 2t

e 25 . 1 m 4 +
END BOLT-
ROW
the smaller of:
m 2t
1
e 2 m+ t
the smaller of:
e 25 . 1 m 4 +
1
e e 625 . 0 m 2 + +
MODE 1 l
eff,1
=min(l
eff,nc
,l
eff,cp
)
MODE 2 l
eff,2
=l
eff,nc




BOLT-ROW
LOCATION
BOLT ROW CONSIDERED AS PART OF A GROUP OF BOLT-ROWS
Circular Pattern l
eff,cp
Non-circular Pattern l
eff,nc
INNER BOLT-
ROW
p 2 p
END BOLT-
ROW
the smaller of:
p m+ t
p e 2
1
+
the smaller of:
p 5 . 0 e 625 . 0 m 2 + +
p 5 . 0 e
1
+
MODE 1 El
eff,1
=min(El
eff,nc
, El
eff,cp
)
MODE 2 El
eff,2
=El
eff,nc


Remark: e
1
has no sense for column

As weve determined the equivalent T-stub model, we can determine the design tension
resistance of the connection by calculating the maximum resistance of each group
(element and column) and for each bolt-row.

BOLT-GROUP EACH BOLT INDIVIDUALLY

M
pl,1,Rd
0
M
y
2
1 , eff
Rd , 1 , pl
f t l 25 . 0
M


=


0
M
y
2
1 , eff
Rd , 1 , pl
f t l 25 . 0
M


=

M
pl,2,RD
0
M
y
2
2 , eff
Rd , 2 , pl
f t l 25 . 0
M


=


0
M
y
2
2 , eff
Rd , 2 , pl
f t l 25 . 0
M


=

B
t,Rd
Mb
s bolt , u
Rd , t Rd , t
A f 9 . 0
F B


= =
Mb
s bolt , u
Rd , t Rd , t
A f 9 . 0
F B


= =
r
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 92

FAILURE MODE 1
m
M 4
F
Rd , 1 , pl
Rd , T

=
m
M 4
F
Rd , 1 , pl
i , Rd , T

=

FAILURE MODE 2
n m
B n M 2
F
Rd , t Rd , 2 , pl
Rd , T
+
+
=


n m
B 2 n M 2
i , F
Rd , t Rd , 2 , pl
Rd , T
+
+
=

FAILURE MODE 3

=
i
Rd , t Rd , T
B F

Rd , t i , Rd , T
B 2 F =

Remark: n=min(e
Element
,e
Column
,1.25m)

From this above table we determine:

( )
Rd , T Group , Element , Rd , T
F min F =
( )
Rd , T Group , Column , Rd , T
F min F =
( )
( )

=
=
i , Rd , T Boltrow , Column , Rd , T
i , Rd , T Boltrow , Element , Rd , T
F min F
F min F


The previous relation lead to the determination of the design resistance tension for the
column flange, the column web and the connected element:


( )
( )
( )
0) (M connection pinned a in 0 because 1 where
f t l , l min
N
F , F min N
F , F min N
0
M
y wb Column , 2 , eff Column , 1 , eff
ColumnWeb , Rd
Group , Column , Rd , T Boltrow , Column , Rd , T BoltColumn , Rd
Group , Element , Rd , T Boltrow , Element , Rd , T t BoltElemen , Rd
= = | =


=
=
=





When a column minor axis configuration is used, the value for N
Rd,Comumn,Web
is calculated
based on the rules given in Ref.[21]. The normal force will carried by the bolts through the
column web. In this particular case, the system will calculate the punching and the
combined punching and bending resistance for each bolt row and for the complete bolt
pattern. Only the most critical design resistance is taken into account. The global failure is
not taken into account because no moment is transmitted.


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 93
Calculation design compression resistance NRd

When a column minor axis configuration is used, the value for N
Rd,Comumn,Web
is calculated
based on the rules given in Ref.[21]. The beam subjected to compression will transfer the
forces to the column web through the complete connection element (angle or end plate).
The total perimeter of the connection element determines the parameter b and c. The
global failure is not taken into account because no moment is transmitted.


Calculation VRd and NRd for connection type 4


Calculation design local shear resistance VRd for beam

In section AA, the following stresses are present :

A
V
A
N
Rd
N
= t
= o


with A h
Endplate
.t
beamweb
N the present normal force
a the bolt centre
o
N
the normal stress generated by normal
force N
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 94
t

the shear stress

In the limit state, we allow the following :

0
M y
2 2
N
f 3 = t + o

with fy the yield strength of the element

M0
the partial safety factor

The design shear resistance V
Rd
is the solution of the following equation :

0
f
A
3
V
2
M
2
y
2
2
2
0
N Rd
=

o +
Calculation design shear resistance VRd for bolts in column

The calculation of the design shear resistance for bolt in the column is based on the
following expression :


nQ V
Rd
=

where Q is limited by F
v,Rd
and F
b,Rd
if the connection is made of normal bolt, and by F
s,Rd
if
the connection is made of preloaded bolt.


If a normal force N is acting, the following condition is valid :


1
F 4 . 1
n
N
F
Q
Rd , t Rd , v
s +
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 95

This means that we have :
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
Rd , b
Rd , t
Rd , v Rd
F ,
F 4 . 1 n
N
1 F min V

with V
Rd
the limit shear force
n the number of bolts
N the normal force
F
v,Rd
the design shear resistance for normal bolt
F
b,Rd
the bearing resistance for bolt
F
s,Rd
the design slip resistance for preloaded bolts

Calculation design block shear resistance VRd in endplate

eff , v eff v,
M
eff , v y
Rd , eff
L t 2 A with
3
A f
V
0
=

=

with t thickness of endplate

The values a1,a2,a3, and Lv are defined as follows :


a2
a1
Lv
a3


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 96
Calculation design compression/tension resistance NRd for beam web

See chapter "
Calculation design compression/tension resistance NRd for connection element".

Remark: in this case A=t
wbeam
h
Endplate

Calculation design compression resistance NRd for column web
See chapter 'Calculation design compression resistance NRd for column web'

Calculation design tension resistance NRd
The calculation of the design tension resistance is made in the same way than for
connection type 3 but we must replace the figure.



Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 97
Calculation of weld sizes

To determine the weld size a in a connection, we use a iterative process with a as
parameter until the Von Mises rules is respected (Annexe M/EC3) :

( )
w w
2 1 1
M
u
1
M w
u 2 2 2
f
and
f
3

s o
|
s t + t + o
l2
L
l
g
h l1
a1=a2=a
D



First, we calculate the following parameter (Ref. [14] p529-532) :


( )
2 1
1 1
l a 414 . 1 l a 577 . 0
l l a 577 . 0 l a 707 . 0
g
+
+
=
2 1
1
l a 414 . 1 l a 577 . 0
l a 577 . 0
+

= o

pl 2
2
1
2
h l a 577 . 0 l a 117 . 0
l a 117 . 0
1
+

=
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 98
2 1
1
l a 14 . 1 l a 707 . 0
l a 707 . 0
+

= I

g Pl L + =

As this parameters are known, we can calculate the stress distribution in each weld part :

BETWEEN ELEMENT AND BEAM :

Weld Check 1:
1
2
1 1
l a 2
N
l a 2
M 6
1

I
+


= o = t and
1
2
l a
D

o
= t

Weld Check 2:
( )
2
1 1
l a 2 2
D 1

o
= t = o and
( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|

I
+


= t
2 2
2
l a 2
N 1
l a h
M 1


BETWEEN ELEMENT AND COLUMN :
W
M
l a 2 2
N
1 1
+

= t = o
l a 2
D
2

= t

with D the shear force on the plate
N the normal force
M the moment: L.D
W
the flexion module:
6
ah 2 2
2
Element

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 99
Theoretical background for GRID pinned connections

Introduction
The grid pinned connections are checked for critical shear force and normal force.
The following critical situations are considered :

- (1) V
Rd
: design shear resistance for the connection element
- (2) V
Rd
: design shear resistance of the beam
- (3a) V
Rd
: design block shear resistance for beam web
- (3b) V
Rd
: design block shear resistance for connection element (beam side)
- (3c) V
Rd
: design block shear resistance for connection element (column side)
- (3d) V
Rd
: design block shear resistance for endplate (beam side)
- (4) V
Rd
: design shear resistance due to the bolt distribution in the beam web
- (5) V
Rd
: design shear resistance due to the bolt distribution in the column
- (6) V
Rd
: design shear resistance at the notch

- (7) N
Rd
: design compression/tension resistance for the connection element
- (8) N
Rd
: design compression/tension resistance of the beam
- (9) N
Rd
: design tension resistance due to the bolt distribution in the column
- (10) N
Rd
: design compression resistance for column web

In the next chapters, the theoretical background is given for the calculation of the various
design shear resistance and design compression/tension resistance, according to EC3-
ENV (Ref.[2]). For the other code regulations, we refer to chapter Connection analysis
according to Different Codes.

The critical situations (1) (2) (3a) (3b) (3c) (3d) (4) (5) (7) (8) (9) (10) are described in
"Theoretical background for frame pinned connections".
For grid pinned connections, these critical situations remain valid, taking into account the
following modifications :
- critical situation (6) is added for notched elements see Chapter "VRd : Design shear
resistance at notch"
- critical situation (3a) is modified for notched elements see Chapter "Notched elements
: calculation design block shear resistance VRd"
- critical situation (10) is not valid for grid pinned
- critical situation (1) is modified for long cleat connections - see Chapter "Long cleat
connection V
Rd
: design shear resistance for the connection element"
- critical situation (5) is modified for long cleat connections see Chapter "Long cleat
connection V
Rd
: design shear resistance due to the bolt distribution in the column"
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 100
VRd : Design shear resistance at notch
a1
az
ad
h1
az
ad
Stresses
h1
Reduced
section

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 101
At the position of the notch ( at a distance a1), the geometrical properties of the reduced
section are calculated.
At the section, the normal force N is acting. (N positive is for compression). The design
shear VRd resistance is given by :
1 y
1 d Rd
M
N
v
Rd
I
a a V
A
N
A
V
= o
= o
= t

In the limit state, we allow the following :

( )
0
M y
2 2
M N
f 3 = t + o + o

with fy the yield strength of the element

M0
the partial safety factor

The design shear resistance V
Rd
is the solution of the following equation :

0
f
I
a a 2
V
A
3
I
a a
V
2
M
2
y
2
N
1 y
d 1 N
Rd
2
v
2
1 y
2
d
2
1 2
0
Rd
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

o +
|
|
.
|

\
|
o
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

with fy the yield strength of the element
member

M0
the partial safety factor
A the reduced section at notch
a
z
,a
d
the positions of center of gravity in notch
I
y1
moment of inertia in notch
A
v
shear area
= h
1
*t
w
For BS code, A
v
=h
1
*t
w
*0.9


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 102
Notched elements : calculation design block shear resistance
VRd

The design value of effective resistance to block shear is determined by using the
following expression :

eff , v eff v,
M
eff , v y
Rd , eff
L t A with
3
A f
V
0
=

=

We determined the effective shear area A
v,eff
as follows:

2 1 v
a a h L =
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + =
y
u
0 3 1 v 3 1 v 3
f
f
d n a a L ; a a L min L

( )
0 1 1
d 5 ; a min L =

( )
y
u
0 2 2
f
f
d k a L =
with k=0.5 for a single bolts-row
k=2.5 for tow bolts-row

( )
3 2 1 v eff , v
L ; L L L min L + + =


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 103
a2
a3
L
v
a1



a2
L
v
a1
a3



Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 104
Long cleat connection V
Rd
: design shear resistance for the
connection element
See Ref.[30].

When only 1 bolt is present at each cleat in the column web, the shear stress is adapted
as follows :

nht
e V 3
A
V
u Rd Rd
+ = t


The normal stress remains valid as follows :

W
M
A
N
M
N
= o
= o

with A h t n
W n t h / 6
N the present normal force
M the present moment : V
Rd
a
a
o
N
the normal stress generated by normal force
N
o
M
the normal stress generated by moment M
t the shear stress
n the number of plates
eu see figure

In the limit state, we allow the following :

( )
0
M y
2 2
M N
f 3 = t + o + o

with fy the yield strength of the element

M0
the partial safety factor



Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 105
The design shear resistance V
Rd
is the solution of the following equation :

0
f
W
a 2
V
Aht
e 9
t h 4
e 27
A
3
W
a
V
2
M
2
y
2 N
Rd
u
4
2
u
2 2
2
2
0
N Rd
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

o + |
.
|

\
| o
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +


eu
a
h



Long cleat connection V
Rd
: design shear resistance due to the
bolt distribution in the column
See Ref.[30].

The design shear resistance is given by :

( )
( ) 1 n n
1 n 6
f
f
h
e
n
1
Q
2 V
2
u
2
Rd
+

=
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=


|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
Rd , t
Rd , v Rd , b
F n 2 4 . 1
N
1 F , F min Q with
Mb
s ub
Rd , t
A f 9 . 0
F


=


with n the number of bolts in 1 cleat
e
u
, h see figure
N normal force
F
b,Rd
the bolt bearing resistance
F
v,Rd
the bolt shear resistance
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 106
Connection analysis according to Different Codes
Introduction
The algorithms and methods described in EC3 (Ref.[1], Ref.[32]) and EC3 Revised Annex
J (component method - Ref.[2], Ref.[23]) are used to calculate the limit states of the
connection. The capacities of the underlying steel parts are calculated by the formulas
given in the respective national codes (EC3-ENV, EC3-EN, DIN18800 T1 or BS 5950-
1:2000), depending on the national code setup. For other codes (NEN, CM, ONORM,
CSN, ), the default EC3-ENV capacities are used.
The frame bolted, frame welded, frame pinned and grid pinned connection types are
affected.
The concrete parts (for base plate connections) are not affected. The concrete parts are
designed according the EC definitions.

An overview of the used formulas for the specified steel parts is given. More information
about the used formulas can be found in :

for EC3-ENV Ref.[2]
Ref.[23]
for EC3-EN Ref.[32]
for DIN Ref.[25]
Ref.[26]
Ref.[11]
for BS Ref.[27]
Ref.[28]
Ref.[29]

For steel parts not specified in the following chapters, the limit capacities are calculated by
adapting the partial safety factors, as follows :

EC3-ENV partial safety
factor
EC3-EN in DIN replaced by in BS replaced by

M0

M1

Mb

Ms

M0

M1

M2

M3

M
1.0


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 107
Column web panel in shear

Related types :
Frame bolted
Frame welded


EC3-ENV
EC3-EN


0 M
vc wc , y
Rd , wp
3
A f 9 . 0
V

=

DIN

M
vc wc , k , y
Rd , wp
3
1 . 1 A f 9 . 0
V

=

BS


c c yc Rd , wp v
D t p 6 . 0 V P = =

Column web in compression

Related types :
Frame bolted
Frame welded


EC3-ENV
EC3-EN


1 M
wc , y wc wc , c , eff
wc Rd , wc , c
0 M
wc , y wc wc , c , eff
wc Rd , wc , c
f t b
k F
f t b
k F

e
s

e
=


DIN

M
wc , k , y wc wc , c , eff
wc Rd , wc , c
M
wc , k , y wc wc , c , eff
wc Rd , wc , c
1 . 1 f t b
k F
1 . 1 f t b
k F

e
s

e
=


BS


( )
( )
c c 1 1 Rd , wc , c c
yc c 2 1 Rd , wc , c c
p t n b F P
p t n b F P
+ s =
+ = =




Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 108
Column web in tension

Related types :
Frame bolted
Frame welded
Frame pinned



EC3-ENV
EC3-EN

0 M
wc , y wc wc , t , eff
Rd , wc , t
f t b
F

e
=

DIN
M
wc , k , y wc wc , t , eff
Rd , wc , t
1 . 1 f t b
F

e
=

BS


y w t Rd , wc , t t
p t L F P = = - for bolted type
( ) | |
y w c c f b Rd , wc , t t
p t r T 5 s 2 T F P + + + = = - for welded type




Beam flange and web in compression

Related types :
Frame bolted
Frame welded



EC3-ENV
EC3-EN

) t h (
M
F
fb b
Rd , c
Rd , fb , c

=

DIN

) t h (
M
F
fb b
Rd , c
Rd , fb , c

=

BS


b b yb Rd , fb , c c
B T p 4 . 1 F P = = - for bolted type
b b yb Rd , fb , c c
B T p 2 . 1 F P = = - for welded type



Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 109
Beam web in tension

Related types :
Frame bolted



EC3-ENV
EC3-EN

0 M
wb , y wb wb , t , eff
Rd , wb , t
f t b
F

=

DIN
M
wb , k , y wb wb , t , eff
Rd , wb , t
1 . 1 f t b
F

=

BS


y w t Rd , wb , t t
p t L F P = =


Bolts in tension

Related types :
Frame bolted
Frame pinned
Grid Pinned


EC3-ENV

Mb
s ub
Rd , t
A f 9 . 0
B

=

EC3-EN


2
,
9 . 0
M
s ub
Rd t
A f
F

=

DIN

( )
M
k , b , u
Rd , 2
M
k , b , y
Rd , 1
Rd , 2 s Rd , 1 Rd Rd , t
25 . 1
f
1 . 1
f
A , A min N B

= o

= o
o o = =


BS


t t
'
t
A p P =

For anchors, the tensile strengths (B
t,Rd
, N
R,d
and P
t
') are reduced by multiplying them with
a factor 0.85 (See Ref.[2], clause 6.5.5.(6)).

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 110
Plastic moment capacity of T stub

Related types :
Frame bolted
Frame pinned
Grid Pinned


EC3-ENV
EC3-EN

0 M
y eff
Rd , pl
f t l 25 . 0
M

=

DIN
M
k , y eff
p , pl Rd , pl
1 . 1 f t l 25 . 0
m M

= =

BS


4
p t L
M M
y eff
p Rd , pl
= =


Resistance to shear force / bolts in shear

Related types :
Frame bolted
Frame Pinned
Grid Pinned



EC3-ENV



nn * F nt 28 . 0 F V
Rd , v Rd , v Rd
+ =
Mb
s ub
Rd , v
A f 6 . 0
F


= for grade 4.6, 5.6, 8.8
Mb
s ub
Rd , v
A f 5 . 0
F


= for other grades

EC3-EN


nn * F nt 28 . 0 F V
Rd , v Rd , v Rd
+ =
2
,
6 . 0
M
s ub
Rd v
A f
F


= for grade 4.6, 5.6, 8.8
2
,
5 . 0
M
s ub
Rd v
A f
F


= for other grades

DIN

nn * F nt 25 . 0 F V
Rd , v Rd , v Rd
+ =
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 111
M
s k , b , u a
d , R , a Rd , v
A f
V F

o
= =

for grade 4.6 , o
a
=0.60
for grade 5.6 , o
a
=0.60
for grade 8.8 , o
a
=0.60
for grade 10.9 , o
a
=0.55

for other grades, o
a
=0.55




BS


nn * F nt 40 . 0 F V
Rd , v Rd , v Rd
+ =
s s s Rd , v
A . p P F = =
for grade 4.6 , p
s
=160 N/mm
for grade 8.8 , p
s
=375 N/mm
for grade 10.9 , p
s
=400 N/mm
for other grades, ps=0.4 f
ub



For anchors, the shear (F
v,Rd
, V
a,R,d
and P
s
) are reduced by multiplying them with a factor
0.85 (See Ref.[2], clause 6.5.5.(6)).

Bearing resistance for bolts/elements

Related types :
Frame bolted
Frame pinned
Grid Pinned


EC3-ENV
Mb
u
Rd , b
t d f 5 . 2
F

o
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= o 0 . 1 ;
f
f
;
4
1
d 3
1 p
;
d 3
1 e
min
u
ub
0 0


EC3-EN

2
1
,
M
u b
Rd b
t d f k
F

o
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 0 . 1 ; ;
4
1
3
1
;
3
1
min
0 0 u
ub
b
f
f
d
p
d
e
o
for edge bolts
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 5 . 2 ; 7 . 1
2
4 . 1 ; 7 . 1
2
8 . 2 min
0 0
1
d
p
d
e
k
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 112
for inner bolts
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 5 . 2 ; 7 . 1
2
4 . 1 min
0
1
d
p
k


DIN
M
k , y 1
d , R , l Rd , b
f d t
V F

o
= =


BS

bb p bb Rd , b
p t d P F = s
for grade 4.6 , p
bb
=460 N/mm
for grade 8.8 , p
bb
=1000 N/mm
for grade 10.9 , p
bb
=1300 N/mm
for other grades, p
bb
=0.7 (f
ub
+f
yb
)

bs p bs Rd , b
bs p bs Rd , b
p t e 5 . 0 P F
p t d P F
= s
= s

for steel grade S275 , p
bs
=460 N/mm
for steel grade S355 , p
bs
=550 N/mm
for steel grade S460 , p
bs
=670 N/mm
for other grades, p
bs
=0.67 (f
u
+f
y
)



Values for o1


4 . 2
d
e
; 2 . 1
d
e
L
3
L
2
= = 0 . 3
d
e
; 5 . 1
d
e
L
3
L
2
> >
0 . 3
d
e
2 . 1
L
1
s s 2 . 0
d
e
73 . 0
L
1
1
= o 3 . 0
d
e
1 . 1
L
1
1
= o
5 . 3
d
e
2 . 2
L
s s 51 . 0
d
e
72 . 0
L
1
1
= o 77 . 0
d
e
08 . 1
L
1
= o



Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 113
The design shear resistance for preloaded bolts

Related types :
Frame bolted
Frame pinned
Grid Pinned




EC3-ENV


s ub Cd , p
A f 7 . 0 F =
( )
Ms
Sd , t Cd , p s
Rd , s
F 8 . 0 F n k
F


=


EC3-EN

Factor A f F
s ub Cd p
* ) 7 . 0 (
,
=
( )
3
, ,
,
8 . 0
M
Sd t Cd p s
Rd s
F F n k
F


=

The Factor is defined in the National Annex settings and can be used to reduce
the level of preload in case preload is not explicitly used in the design
calculations.

DIN


[formula only for SLS
EC formula are used.]

BS


o s sL
s ub o
P k 9 . 0 P
A f 7 . 0 P
=
=




Column flange in bending

Related types :
Frame welded



EC3-ENV
EC3-EN

0 M
fb , y fb fc , b , eff
Rd , fc
f t b
F

=

DIN
M
fb , k , y fb fc , b , eff
Rd , fc
1 . 1 f t b
F

=

BS


yb b eff tc Rd , fc
p T B P F = =


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 114

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 115
Calculation design shear resistance VRd for beam / Connection
Element

Related types :
Frame pinned
Grid Pinned



EC3-ENV
EC3-EN

0 M
v y
Rd
3
A f
V

=

For net areas :

The bolt holes are not taken into account when

v
u
y
net . v
A
f
f
A >
When A
v.net
is less than this limit, an effective shear area of (f
u
/f
y
) A
v.net
may be
assumed.


DIN

for beam
M
vc kwc , y
Rd
3
A f
V

=

for connection element
M
v k , y
Rd
3 5 . 1
A f
V

=


BS


tD p 6 . 0 V P
y Rd v
= =

If Av.net is less than 0.85 A
v
/K
e
then

net . v e y Rd v
A K p 7 . 0 V P = =




Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 116
Block shear resistance

Related types :
Frame pinned
Grid Pinned



EC3-ENV



3
A f
V
0
M
eff , v y
Rd , eff

=
EC3-EN

3
5 . 0
0 2
,
M
nv y
M
nt u
Rd eff
A f
A f
V

=




DIN


-

BS


( ) | |
t t e v y Rd , eff r
kD L K L t p 6 . 0 V P + = =



Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 117
Design compression/tension resistance NRd for connection
element


Related types :
Frame pinned
Grid Pinned



EC3-ENV



Compression :

0 M
y
Rd
Af
N

=

Tension :

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
2 M
u net
0 M
y
Rd
f A 9 . 0
,
Af
min N


EC3-EN


Compression :

1 M
y
Rd
Af
N

=

Tension :

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2 1
9 . 0
, min
M
u net
M
y
Rd
f A
Af
N




DIN


Compression :

M
k , y
Rd
Af
N

=

Tension :

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
M
k , u net
M
k , y
Rd
25 . 1
f A
,
Af
min N



BS

Compression
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 118

A p N P
y Rd c
= =

Tension

e y Rd t
A p N P = =




Bolt interaction Shear/Tension


Related types :
Frame pinned
Grid Pinned



EC3-ENV
EC3-EN


1
F 4 . 1
n
N
F
Q
Rd , t Rd , v
s +

DIN


if 25 . 0
N
n
N
Rd
>
1
N
n
N
F
Q
2
Rd
2
Rd , v
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

else
1
F
Q
Rd , v
s



BS


4 . 1
P
n
N
P
Q
t s
s +



Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 119
Column web in compression


Related types :
Frame pinned



EC3-ENV
EC3-EN


( )
( )
Rd , b Rd , a Rd , y Rd
s
s
f
w
w
f
1 M
y w
Rd , a
2
y
Ed , f 0 M
w
f
f y
1 M
y w y s
Rd , y
R , R , R min N
2 . 0
d
s
d
s
t
t
3
t
t
Ef t 5 . 0
R
f
1
t
b
t 2 s
f t s s
R
=
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
o
=

+
=


R
b,Rd
is obtained by considering the web as a virtual compression member with
an effective breadth b
eff
and buckling length d.

s h b
2
s
a s h
2
1
b
s eff
s
s eff
+ s
+ + + =


DIN

if
k , y x
f 5 . 0 > o

( )
Rd , b Rd , y Rd
yk
M
d , R Rd , y
k , y
yk
M
d , R Rd , y
R , R min N
f l s
1
F R
else
f
x
5 . 0 25 . 1 f l s
1
F R
=

= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
o

= =


R
b,Rd
: cfr. EC3

BS


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 120
( )
( )
( )
Rd , b Rd , y Rd
bw
1
e
x Rd , b
y 1 bw Rd , y
R , R min N
P
d nk b
t 25
d 4 . 1
d 7 . 0
, 1 min P R
tp nk b P R
=
+
c
|
.
|

\
| + o
= =
+ = =



Weld size


Related types :
Frame pinned
Frame bolted
Frame welded
Grid Pinned



EC3-ENV



( )
w w
2 1 1
M
u
1
M w
u 2 2 2
f
and
f
3

s o
|
s t + t + o


EC3-EN


( )
2
M 2
2
//
2 2
and 3

o
|
t t o
u
M w
u
f f
w
s

s + +





DIN


2
//
2 2
M
yk
w
f

o t t o s + +



BS

25 . 1 K
1
a p K
F
a p
F
2
w
T
2
w
L
=
s
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|



for steel grade S275 , p
w
=220 N/mm
for steel grade S355 , p
w
=250 N/mm
for steel grade S460 , p
w
=280 N/mm
for other grades, p
w
=220 N/mm



Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 121
List of abbreviations


e reduction factor for shear
reduction factor for shear buckling
o

normal stress perpendicular to the throat of the weld


t

shear stress perpendicular to the throat of the weld


o
//
normal stress parallel to the axis of weld
t
//
shear stress parallel to the axis of weld
o
e
distance from the load to the nearer end of the member
o
f,Ed
longitudinal stress in flange

M
partial safety coefficient according to DIN (=1.1)

M0
partial safety coefficient according to EC3 (=1.0)

Mb
partial safety factor for bolts

Ms
partial safety factor for slip resistance
|
w
correlation factor for weld
o
w
weld factor (DIN)
o
x
normal stress in column
A gross cross-section area of the bolt
a distance to the nearer end of the member from the end of the stiff bearing
a weld throat size
A
e
effective net area
A
s
tensile stress area of bolt
A
t
tensile stress area of bolt
A
v
shear area, effective shear area
A
vc
shear area of the column
b
1
stiff bearing length based on 45 dispersion through the end plate from the
edge of the welds
b
1
stiff bearing length
B
b
beam flange breadth
b
e
distance to the nearer end of the member from the end of the stiff bearing
B
eff
effective width for bending of the flange
b
eff,b,fc
effective width for bending of the flange
b
eff,c,wc
effective width of column web in compression
b
eff,t,wb
effective width of beam web in tension
b
eff,t,wc
effective width of column web in tension
b
f
flange width
s 25 t
f

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 122
B
t,Rd
tension resistance in bolt
c bearing length
d bolt diameter
D section depth
d depth of the web
d
0
bore hole
D
c
column section depth
D
t
hole size
e bolt spacing, in load direction
e
1
end distance, in load direction
e
2
end distance, perpendicular to load direction
e
3
bolt spacing, perpendicular to load direction
F
c,fb,Rd
resistance of beam flange and web in compression
F
c,wc,Rd
resistance of column web in compression
F
L
longitudinal shear force parallel to axis of the weld
F
p,Cd
design preloading force
F
R,d
compression resistance in column web
F
s,Rd
design slip resistance of preloaded high-strength bolt
F
T
transverse force perpendicular to axis of the weld
F
t,Sd
applied tensile force (=NSd/n
tot
)
F
t,wb,Rd
resistance of beam web in tension
F
t,wc,Rd
resistance of column web in tension
f
u
ultimate tensile strength
f
u,b,k
tensile strength bolt
f
ub
tensile strength bolt
F
v,Rd
shear resistance of the bolt
f
y
characteristic yield strength according to EC3
f
y,b,k
yield strength bolt
f
y,fb
characteristic yield strength of the beam flange according to EC3
f
y,k
characteristic yield strength according to DIN
f
y,k,fb
characteristic yield strength of the beam flange according to DIN
f
y,k,wc
characteristic yield strength of the column web according to DIN
f
y,wc
characteristic yield strength of the column web according to EC3
h
b
beam height
k coefficient (=0.5 for single line of bolts, =2.5 for two lines of bolts)
k for rolled I or H section, = T+r
for welded I or H section = T
K
e
net area coefficient
k
s
value for slip resistance (=1.0 for holes with standard nominal
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 123
clearances)
l effective bearing length
= c +5 ( t + r )
l
eff
effective length of yield line in the equivalent T stub
L
eff
effective length of yield line in the equivalent T stub
L
t
effective tensile length of web assuming a maximum spread of 60 from
the bolts to the center of the web
L
t
length of the tension face
L
v
length of the shear face
M
c,Rd
moment resistance of beam
M
p
plastic moment capacity of the equivalent T stub
m
pl,p
plastic moment capacity of the equivalent T stub
M
pl,Rd
plastic moment capacity of the equivalent T stub
n number of friction interfaces (=1)
n number of bolts
N normal force
n = 5
except at the end of a member
= 2+0.6 b
e
/k
n
1
length obtained by a 1:2.5 dispersion through the column flange and root
radius
n
2
length obtained by a 45 dispersion through half the depth of the column
nn number of bolts not in tension zone
N
R,d
tension resistance in bolt
nt number of bolts in tension zone
p
1
bolt spacing, in load direction
p
bb
bearing strength of the bolt
P
bb
bearing capacity of the bolt
p
bs
bearing strength of connected element
P
bs
bearing capacity of connected element
P
bw
bearing capacity of the unstiffened web
p
c
compressive strength of column web
P
c
resistance of column web in compression
P
c
resistance of beam flange and web in compression
P
o
design preloading force
P
s
shear resistance of the bolt
P
sL
design slip resistance of preloaded high-strength bolt
P
t
resistance of column web in tension
P
t
tension resistance in bolt
p
t
tension strength of bolts
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 124
P
v
shear resistance of column web panel
P
v
shear resistance
p
w
design strength of fillet welds
P
x
buckling resistance of the unstiffened web
p
y
design strength according to BS
p
yb
design strength of the beam according to BS
p
yc
design strength of the column according to BS
Q resulting shear force acting on the bolts
r root radius
R
a,Rd
crippling resistance
R
b,Rd
buckling resistance
r
c
column root radius
R
y,Rd
crushing resistance
s
f
weld fillet leg length
s
s
length of stiff bearing
t element thickness
t thickness
T flange thickness
t web thickness
t flange thickness
T
b
beam flange thickness
T
b
beam flange thickness
t
c
column web thickness
T
c
column flange thickness
t
f
flange thickness
t
fb
beam flange thickness
t
fb
beam flange thickness
t
p
element thickness
t
w
thickness of column or beam web
t
w
web thickness
t
wc
column web thickness
V
a,R,d
shear resistance of the bolt
V
Rd
shear resistance
V
wp,Rd
shear resistance of column web panel
slip factor

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 125
Theoretical background for bolted diagonal connections
Introduction to the bolted diagonal connection

The design and check of a bolted connection, where the member is subjected to normal
force, are considered. The connection is made by bolts on a gusset plate, or by bolting the
member directly to the column member. The checks are according to EC3 Ref.[32]

The following checks are performed to establish the unity check of the connection :

- Member resistance
- Connection resistance
- Weld size calculation for gusset plate


Member resistance
Resistance of the gross section of diagonal

The design plastic resistance of the gross section is given by :

1
,
M
y
Rd pl
Af
N

=

with A the area of the diagonal element
fy the yield strength of the diagonal element
N
pl,Rd
the design plastic resistance

M1
the partial safety factor for resistance of cross-
section to overall yielding



Resistance of the net section of diagonal

The design ultimate resistance of the net section is given by :

2 M
u net
Rd , u
f A 9 . 0
N

=


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 126
with A
net
the net area of the diagonal element
See also chapter "Determination of Anet"
fu the ultimate tensile strength of the diagonal element
N
u,Rd
the design ultimate resistance

M2
the partial safety factor for resistance of net section

In the case of unsymmetrical connected diagonals (such as angles by one leg), the
eccentricity of the fasteners in end connections shall be taken into account.

Angle diagonal with 1 bolt


( )
2 M
u o 2
Rd , u
tf d 5 . 0 e 0 . 2
N

=




with e
2
the edge distance
fu the ultimate tensile strength of the diagonal element
N
u,Rd
the design ultimate resistance

M2
the partial safety factor for resistance of net section
t the material thickness
d
0
the bore hole


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 127
Angle diagonal with 2 bolts on 1 line


2 M
u net 2
Rd , u
f A
N

|
=



e1
p1
e
2
d0
t


with Anet the net area of the diagonal element :
for unequal-leg angle connected by its smaller leg,
Anet should be taken as equal to the net section
area of an equivalent equal-leg angle of leg size to
that of the smaller leg.
fu the ultimate tensile strength of the diagonal element
N
u,Rd
the design ultimate resistance

M2
the partial safety factor for resistance of net section
|
2
reduction factor (see table)
d
0
the bore hole



Pitch p
1
<= 2.5 d
0
>5.0 d
0

2 bolts : |
2
0.4 0.7
3 bolts or more : |
3
0.5 0.7

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 128
Angle diagonal with 3 bolts on 1 line


2 M
u net 3
Rd , u
f A
N

|
=

with A
net
the net area of the diagonal element :
for unequal-leg angle connected by its smaller leg,
Anet should be taken as equal to the net section
area of an equivalent equal-leg angle of leg size to
that of the smaller leg.
F
U
the ultimate tensile strength of the diagonal element
N
u,Rd
the design ultimate resistance

M2
the partial safety factor for resistance of net section
|
3
reduction factor (see table in chapter "Angle
diagonal with 2 bolts on 1 line")
d
0
the bore hole


Angle diagonal with Double Leg connection


2
,
9 . 0
M
u net
Rd u
f A
N

=

t d A A
net 0
2 =

with f
u
the ultimate tensile strength of the diagonal element
A the area of the diagonal element
A
net
the net area of the diagonal element

M2
the partial safety factor for resistance of net section
N
u,Rd
the design ultimate resistance
t the material thickness
d
0
the bore hole

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 129
Other sections and configurations

See Ref.[31] pp.4.9


2 1
1
2 1 n
2 M
u n
Rd , u
A A 3
A 3
A A A
f A 9 . 0
N
+
=
+ =

=



with A
1
the net area of the connected flange
See also chapter "Determination of Anet"
A
2
the area of the free flanges / webs
fu the ultimate tensile strength of the diagonal element
N
u,Rd
the design ultimate resistance

M2
the partial safety factor for resistance of net section


Resistance of the gross section of gusset plate

The design plastic resistance of the gross section is given by :

1
,
M
y
Rd pl
Af
N

=

with A the area of the gusset plate
fy the yield strength of the gusset plate
N
pl,Rd
the design plastic resistance

M1
the partial safety factor for resistance of cross-
section to overall yielding

In case of a double leg connection, the calculated resistance is multiplied by 2.

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 130
Resistance of the net section of gusset plate


The design ultimate resistance of the net section is given by :

2 M
u net
Rd , u
f A 9 . 0
N

=


with A
net
the net area of the gusset plate
See also chapter "Determination of Anet"
fu the ultimate tensile strength of the gusset plate
N
u,Rd
the design ultimate resistance

M2
the partial safety factor for resistance of net section

In case of a double leg connection, the calculated resistance is multiplied by 2.



Determination of Anet


For 2 rows of bolts in a non-staggered configuration, the A
net
is given by :

( )
0 0 2 2 2 net
d d e p e t A + + =


with A
net
the net area
t the material thickness
e
2
the edge distance
p
2
the spacing
d
0
the bore hole

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 131



For 2 rows of bolts in a staggered configuration , the A
net
is given by :

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
2
0 0 2 2 2 net
p 4
s
d d e p e t A

with A
net
the net area
t the material thickness
e
2
the edge distance
p
2
the spacing
d
0
the bore hole
s the staggered pitch



Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 132
Connection resistance

Shear resistance

The shear resistance per shear plane and per bolt is given by :

for bolt grade 4.6, 5.6 and 8.8 :

2
.
6 . 0
M
s ub
Lf Rd v
A f
F

| =

for bolt grade 4.8, 5.8 and 10.9 :

2
.
5 . 0
M
s ub
Lf Rd v
A f
F

| =

with A
s
the tensile stress area of bolt
f
ub
the ultimate tensile strength of bolt

M2
the partial safety factor for resistance of bolts
|
Lf
the reduction factor for long joints
F
v.Rd
the shear resistance
75 . 0
00 . 1
d 200
d 15 L
1
Lf
Lf
j
Lf
> |
s |

= |


with d the bolt diameter
L
j
the connection length



Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 133


Shear resistance for preloaded bolts

The design preloading force F
p,Cd
is given by

s ub Cd , p
A f 7 . 0 F =



with f
ub
the tensile strength of the bolt
A
s
the tensile stress area of the bolt


The design slip resistance of preloaded high-strength bolt F
s,Rd
is given by


Cd p
M
s
Rd s
F
n k
F
,
3
,


=



with n the number of friction interfaces
k
s
the value for slip resistance (=1.0 for holes
with standard nominal clearances)
the slip factor

M3
the partial safety factor for slip resistance


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 134
Bearing resistance

The bearing resistance for each part of the connection and per bolt, F
b.Rd
is given by
Ref.[32] Table 3.4.
The bearing resistance of single lap joints with 1 bolt is limited by

2
.
5 . 1

dt f
F
u
Rd b
s

If the edge distance e
2
is smaller than 1.5 d
0
or the spacing p
2
is smaller than 3.0 d
0
, the
bearing resistance should be reduced. This reduction is 2/3 when e
2
=1.2 d
0
or p
2
=2.4 d
0
.
For intermediate values (1.2 d
0
< e
2
s 1.5 d
0
and/or 2.4 d
0
< p
2
s 3.0 d
0
) the value of F
b.Rd

is determined by linear interpolation.


Checking the connection resistance

If no preloading is used, the connection is considered as category A bolted connections :


Rd . b Sd . v
Rd . v Sd . v
F F
F F
s
s


If preloading is used, the connection is considered as category C bolted connections :


Rd . b Sd . v
Rd . s Sd . v
F F
F F
s
s



with F
v.Sd
the design shear force per bolt for the ultimate
limit state

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 135
Weld size calculation for gusset plate
Calculation of weld length

The length of the weld size La is calculated according to Ref.[32] part 4.5.3.3..

The default throat thickness a is equal to plate thickness/2.

( )
Rd pl Rd u Rd
Rd w
Rd
a
w
u
d w
d vw Rd w
N N N
F
N
L
f
f
a f F
t
a
. .
.
2
.
. .
, min
3
2
=
=
=
=
=
|


with a the throat thickness
L
a
the weld size length
t the plate thickness
F
w;Rd
the weld design resistance per unit length
f
vw.d
the design shear strength of the weld
f
u
the ultimate tensile strength of the weld
|
w
the correlation factor

M3
the partial safety factor for resistance of welds
N
Rd
the design resistance
N
u,Rd
the design ultimate resistance
N
pl,Rd
the design plastic resistance





Steel grade Ultimate tensile strength
(N/mm)
|
W

FE 360 360 0.80
FE 430 430 0.85
FE 510 510 0.90

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 136
Basic Weld symbols
Weld symbols

The following weld symbols are used ( see Ref. [8] and Ref.[9]) :


(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)



Number Description
1 fillet weld
2 double fillet weld
3 bevel (HV) weld
4 square weld
5 plug weld
6 weld length at haunch


Remark : the weld symbol (6) is not defined in the codes. This symbol is used to represent
the weld length which is calculated according to chapter "Haunch with flange". On the
graphical representation, the symbol (6) or the symbol (3) can be used for representing
the weld size at the haunches. This can be set in the basic data.


The location of the weld is defined by the above welding symbol. The X stands for the
weld size, and Y stands for the weld symbol. The circle symbol in (2) is the weld-all-
around symbol.

The example given in (3) means : fillet weld with 6 mm weld size.


X Y X Y 6
(1) (2) (3)

Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 137
Bolt symbols
Bolt symbols

For some metric bolt diameters (M10, M12, M16, M20, M22, M24), the following symbols
are used (See Ref.[9]) :







The symbol for M20, is used as the default symbolic representation for all other diameters.


Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 138
References
List of references


[1] Eurocode 3 : Part 1.1.
Revised annex J : Joints in building frames
ENV 1993-1-1/pr A2

[2] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992, 1992

[3] P. Zoetemeijer
Bolted beam to column knee connections with haunched beams
Tests and computations
Report 6-81-23
Delft University of Technology, Stevin Laboratory, December 1981

[4] P. Zoetemeijer
Een rekenmethode voor het ontwerpen van geboute hoekverbindingen
met een kolomschot in de trekzone van de verbinding en een niet boven
de ligger uitstekende kopplaat.
Rapport 6-81-4
Staalcentrum Nederland, Staalbouwkundig Genootschap, Juni 1982

[5] Eurocode 3 : Part 1.1.
Annex L: Design of column bases
ENV 1993-1-1:1992

[6] Eurocode 2
Design of concrete structures
Part 1: General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1992-1-1:1991

[7] Y. Lescouarch
Les pieds de poteaux articuls en acier
CTICM, 1982

[8] Manual of Steel Construction
Load & Resistance Factor Design
Volume II : Connections
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 139
Part 8 : Bolts, Welds, and Connected Elements
AISC 1995

[9] U. Portmann
Symbole und Sinnbilder in Bauzeichnungen nach Normen, Richtlinien und
Regeln
Wiesbaden, Berlin : Bauverlag, 1979

[10] Sprint Contract RA351
Steel Moment Connections according to Eurocode 3
Simple Design aids for rigid and semi-rigid joints
1992-1996

[11] DIN18800 Teil 1
Stahlbauten : Bemessung und Konstruktion
November 1990

[12] J. Rudnitzky
Typisierte Verbindungen im Stahlhochbau. 2. Auflage
Stahlbau-Verlags-GmbH-Kln 1979

[13] H. Buchenau A.Tiele
Stahlhochbau 1
B.G. Teubner
Stuttgart 1981

[14] F. Mortelmans
Berekening van konstructies Deel 2
Staal Acco
Leuven, 1980

[15] Frame Design Including Joint Behaviour
Volume 1
ECSC Contracts n 7210-SA/212 and 7210-SA/320
January 1997

[16] F. Wald, A.M. Gresnigt, K. Weynand, J.P. Jaspart
Application of the component method to column bases
Proceedings of the COST C1 Conference
Lige, Sept.17-19, 1998

[17] F.C.T. Gomes, U. Kuhlmann, G. De Matteis, A. Mandara
Recent developments on classification of joints
Proceedings of the COST C1 Conference
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 140
Lige, Sept.17-19, 1998


[18] M. Steenhuis, N. Gresnigt, K. Weynand
Pre-design of semi-rigid joints in steel frames
COST C1 Workshop
Prague, October 1994

[19] M. Steenhuis, N. Gresnigt, K. Weynand
Flexibele verbindingen in raamwerken
Bouwen met Staal 126
September/Oktober 1995

[20] O. Oberegge, H.-P. Hockelmann, L. Dorsch
Bemessungshilfen fr profilorientiertes Konstruieren
3. Auflage 1997
Stahlbau-Verlagsgesellschaft mbH Kln

[21] M. Steenhuis, JP Jaspart, F. Gomes, T. Leino
Application of the component method to steel joints
Proceedings of the COST C1 Conference
Lige, Sept.17-19, 1998


[22] J.A. Packer, J. Wardenier, Y. Kurobane, D. Dutta, N. Yeomans
Design Guide for rectangular hollow sections (RHS) joints under
predominantly static loading
CIDECT
Kln, 1992, Verlag TUV Rheinland

[23] Eurocode 3
Part 1.1. Revised Annex J
Joints in building frames, edited
Approved draft : january 1997

[24] Rekenregels voor het ontwerpen van kolomvoetplaten en experimentele
verificatie
TNO report N BI-81-51

[25] Typisierte Anschlsse im Stahlhochbau
Band 1
DSTV - 2000

[26] Typisierte Anschlsse im Stahlhochbau
Scia Engineer Connections Frame & Grid Theoretical Background
Scia Group NV 141
Band 2
DSTV - 2000

[27] Joints in Steel Construction
Moment Connections
BCSA - 1997

[28] Joints in Simple Construction
Volume 1 : Design methods
BCSA - 1994

[29] BS 5950
Structural use of steelwork in building
Part 1 : Code of practice for design - Rolled and welded sections
2000

[30] Hotz R.
Oberkantenbndige Deckentrger-Unterzug-Anschlsse mit
verbesserter Wirtschaftlichkeit (II)
Stahlbau 64 (1995) Heft 2

[31] Maquoi R.
Elements de constructions mtalliques
Universit de Lige, 1988

[32] EN 1993-1-8:2005
Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-8 : Design of Joints
2005

[33] EN 1993-1-8:2005/AC:2009
Corrigendum to EN 1993-1-8:2005
Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-8 : Design of Joints
CEN, 2005