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( 1)

The Diamond In English


Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Introduction

Dedication
To those I owe everything after Allah, my father and mother, with all
my love and appreciation.

Thanks to Allah we could achieve our second edition of our modest
work hoping it will benefit you and guide you to master the grammatical
rules.

We just ask you to pray for all the people who have shared in
producing this work like this.

This work has been successfully achieved only with the support of
Allah, then comes our modest effort.
So
When you do anything, you should do your best first and ask for the
support of Allah.



Mr Hatem M. Kamal

( 2)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Contents
1- Grammar :-
41
Wish
2
tenses
43 Addition conjunctions 3 3 Present simple 1
46
Contrast conjunctions
4 5
Present continuous
2
48 Purpose conjunctions 5 7 Present perfect 3
49
Reason conjunctions
6 11
Present perfect continuous
4
50 Result conjunctions 7 13 Past simple 5
51
Time conjunctions
8 15
Past continuous
6
53 # Verbs + (to+inf) / (ing form) 17 Past perfect 7
14 # Used to + inf 20 Past perfect continuous 8
56 # Active-Passive 21 Future forms 9
60 # Relative clauses 23 Future continuous 10
63
# Reported speech
23
Future perfect
11
66 # Question tag 24 # Comparisons
69
# Deduction
28
# Necessity
71 # Reflexive Pronouns 31 # The definite article
73
# Do or Make
34
# Indefinite articles
75 # Countable & Uncountable nouns 35 # Yes or No question
78 # Appendix
Conjunctions
37 If 1

2- Confusing words :-
82
# Confusing words

3- Translation :-
91 # Translation
100
# Words

4- Prepositions :-
139 # Prepositions



( 3)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Present simple
# I usually write poetry in my free time.
# Hany often plays football once a week.
-: -:
- (I , we , you , they) .
- (s) (es) (he , she , it) .
-:
# Doesnt + = never +
# Dont + = never +
- Hany never plays football.
- Hany doesnt play football.
# Am / IS
# Are not + ) / (
- Hany isn't happy.
# Never + + +
- Never does Hany play football.
: -
# (Do / does) + + ?
- Does Ahmed play football well?
: -
# + (am / is / are) + P.P
- A project is carried out yearly.

: -
# scarcely # sometime # often # usually # always
# occasionally # every # frequently # rarely # seldom
# at this time of the day # never # regularly # generally
# once (a/per) week / day / year

: -
- . - .
- : -
- After I do the homework, I will sleep.
- ) - - - - .(

( 4)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
- (If) .

# (Once)
# (Once a / per week)
- Once I met Ahmed in the street.
- I see Ahmed once a week.
===============================================
) ( be + used to + v+ing

# Amr is accustomed to studying hard. # Amr is used to studying hard.
# Amr is in the habit of studying hard. # It is Amrs habit to study hard.
# Amr usually studies hard. # Studying hard is Amrs habit.

# Amr studies hard as usual.
-:
: -
1- (Be / get) + used to + ("v+ing" / noun)
2- (Be / get) + accustomed to + ("v+ing" / noun)
3- It is SBs habit + to + inf
4- + (am / is / are) + in the habit of + "v + ing"
5- + usually + .
6- (Noun / "v + ing") + is + SBs habit.


# + (am / is / are / get) + used to + ("v+ing" / noun) .
# Something + (am / is / are / was / were) used to + inf
for + "v+ing"
- I am used to being number one.
- An axe is used to cut wood.


# : -
- My parents live in London. They have lived there all their lives.
- Shaimaa isnt lazy. She works hard most of the time.
# : -
- Im living with my friends until I find a place of my own.




( 5)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Present continuous
# Im watching TV now.
# Doaa is visiting Cairo tomorrow.

-: -:
# (Am / Is / Are) + "v+ing"
-:
# (Am/Is)
# Are not + "v+ing"
- Lets go outside. It isnt raining anymore.
: -
# (Is / Am / Are) + + "v+ing" ?
- Is your English getting better?
: -
# + (am/is/are) + being + P.P
- My homework is being done now.

: -
# at present # still # Listen ! # Look ! # now
# at this moment # temporary # nowadays # currently

: -
- . - . - .
-

: -
# rise # increase # become # change # Get
# start # begin # improve # grow # fall
- My English is getting better.
- At first I didnt like my job, but I am beginning to enjoy it now.


- : -
# want # own # have got # have # smell # hear # See
# hate # love # like # belong # promise # know # possess
.
- I want a coffee. (Not) - I am wanting a coffee.

" (appendix) "


( 6)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
2-
# Permanent job ( )
- Mohamed works as a waiter. This is his permanent job.
# Temporary job ( )
- Hassan is temporarily working as a taxi driver.

-

: -
# A : what are you doing on Friday evening?
B : I am going to the theatre.
# Mohamed is marrying next Friday.


(Arrange , arrangement ) .


===============================================




















( 7)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Present perfect
# I have built a house with a big garden recently.
-: -:
# Have
# Has P.P
: -
# Have not
# Has not P.P
- I haven't seen Ahmed for ages.
: -
# Have +
# Has + P.P ?
- Have you seen Ahmed?
: -
# + (have / has) + been + P.P
- A house with a big garden has been built recently.
: -
# Since # Never # Ever # Yet # Just # Already
# Over # Up till now # So far # Recently # Lately # For
# Throughout

1- Already :- /
-

) : ( -
- Esraa has already dusted the table.
- Has Ola done shopping already? She was fast!
2- Just :- /
-

: -
- I have just bought a car.
- Have you just had lunch?
3- Yet :-
-

: -
- I haven't sent Wagih a letter yet.
- Have you seen Ahmed yet?
4- Ever :-
-

) ( : -
- Have you ever ridden a horse?
- This is the most interesting book I have ever read.

( 8)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
5- Never :- /
-

(Have / Has) : -
- No , I've never ridden a horse.
6- Recently / Lately :-
- : - ) (Lately
- We have visited our village (recently / lately).
- Have you visited your village (recently / lately)?
- We haven't visited our village lately.

7- So far :-
-

) ( : -
- I haven't read all my dad's books so far.
- What have you read so far?
- I have read 5 of them so far.
8- Over = throughout /
-

: -
- Egypt has changed (over / throughout) the years.
- Has Egypt changed (over / throughout) the years?
9- Since / for :- ( ever since = since )
- .
.
# since +
# in +
# since +
# when +

For + Since +
# For + :-
For 7 years / a year
# For + :-
For a season / 4 seasons
# For + :-
For 3 months / a month
# For + :-
For a day / 3 days
# For + :-
For a week / 5 weeks
# For + :-
For an hour / 8 hours
# Since + year :-
Since 2013
# Since + season :-
Since Spring
# Since + month :-
Since June
# Since + day :-
Since Saturday
Since yesterday
# Since + :-
Since the morning
# Since + :-
Since 11 O'clock


( 9)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
: -
- . - .
- . - . ( I have bought a car.)

1- It (is / has been) + + since +
- It's a week since I saw my girl friend.
2- How long + (is it / has it been) + since + ?
- How long is it since you saw your girl friend?
3- + last + + (" " )
- I last saw my girl friend a week ago.
4- The last time + + + was + ( / )
- The last time I saw my girl friend was last week.
5- + (have / has) + never + P.P + before.
- I've never driven a train before.
6- This is the first time + + " have / has " + ever + P.P
- This is the first time I have ever driven a train.
7- (It / This) + is the + + + (have / has) + ever + P.P
- This is the highest mountain I have ever seen.
8- + (have / has) + never + P.P + as + + as this.
+ than this.
- I've never seen a mountain (as high as this / higher than this).

- : -
- Esraa is on holiday. She has gone to Italy. # Have gone to
- Doaa is back in Egypt now. She has been to Italy. # Have been to
- Sara has been in Europe for ages. # Have been in
For + Since +
# For the last +
- for the last week.
# Since last ( week,day,year etc.. )
# For some time # Since then
# For all (sb's) life # Since +
# For ages # Since + ) (
# For a fortnight # Since lunch time
# For a long time # Since the age of + .
# For a (moment / while)
# Since the last +
- since the last visit.



( 10)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
2-
# have / has + p.p ( ) this (morning / week / year)
- I have read a nice book this morning.
- I have read a nice book this morning. It's 11 AM now.
# this (morning / week / year)
- I read a nice book this morning. It's 3 PM now.
- : -
- .
- .
























( 11)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Present perfect continuous
# I have been studying English for 11 years.

-: -:
# Has
# Have been + "v+ing"
-:
# Has not
# Have not been + "v+ing"
: -
# Has +
# Have + been + "v+ing" ?
- How long have you been studying English?
: -
# + (Have / Has) + been + P.P
- English has been studied for 7 years.
: - .

: -
# All + # For # Since # How long # For now

: -
- . "since , for"
- .
- Alis clothes are dirty. He has been painting his room.


- : -

- : -
# .
- I have run 6 k.m.
# .
) " " (
# ) ( : -
- (how much & how many & how many times)
: -
- How much of that book have you read?


( 12)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
- : -
# .
# : -
# do # rain # read # live # teach # learn # Work
- I have been working at this school for 10 years.
# ) ( .
- (how long) : -
- How long have you been reading that book?

-
#

(for)

: -
- I worked as a waiter for 4 years. Now I am a sales manager.

3-
# since +
- Saad has left school since 2010.
# in +
- Saad left school in 2010.
# since +
- Rasha has made great efforts since she was at school.
# when +
- Rasha made great efforts when she was at school.












( 13)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Past simple
# Walaa killed her mother-in-low last month and was sent to prison.
# Wael left school 2 months ago. # Ahmed didnt help me yesterday.
# Did Dai fast " " the other day? # Ahmed used not to sleep at noon.

: - : -
- (ed) (d) .
- . ) (
: -
# Didnt +
- I didn't see a play yesterday.
# Was
# Were not + ) / (
- Ahmed wasn't happy yesterday.
: -
# Did + + ?
- Did you have dinner last night?
: -
# + (was / were) + P.P
- The car was repaired by Amir.

: -
# past # previous # last # yesterday # ago
# in + # the other day # in the past # just now # once
# from + + to +

: -
- . - . (used to)
- : -
- When I was at school, I went to the library every week.




1-
# When + did + + inf ? = How long ago + did + + inf ?
- When did you buy this car? - 2 days ago.
- How long ago did you buy this car? - 2 days ago.


( 14)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
2-
# (Once)
# (Once a / per week)
- Once I met Ahmed in the street.
- I see Ahmed once a week.
=======================================
"used to"

# Amr used to study hard.
# Amr was in the habit of studying hard.
# Studying hard was Amrs habit.
# Amr stopped studying hard.
# It was Amrs habit to study hard.
# Amr got into the habit of studying hard.
# Amr no longer studies hard.


: - : -
1- used to + inf
2- It was SBs habit to + inf
3- + (was / were) + in the habit of + (v + ing)
4- + got into the habit of + (v + ing)
5- + no longer + .
6- (Noun / v + ing) + (was / were) + SBs habit.
-:
# Didnt use to + inf
- Ahmed didn't use to sleep at noon.
# Used not to + inf
- Ahmed used not to sleep at noon.
: -
# Did + + use to + inf ?
- Did Ahmed use to sleep at noon?


# (used to) : -
- : -
- This building is now a furniture shop. it used to be a cinema.
- .





( 15)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Past continuous
# Fawzia was washing the dishes at 8 last night.
# While I was walking home, I met my sister.

-: -:
# (Was / were) + "v+ing"
-:
# Was
# Were not + "v+ing"
- Ahmed wasn't doing his homework when I came.
: -
# (Was / were) + + "v+ing" ?
- Were you doing your homework when I came?
: -
# + (was / were) + being + P.P
- The homework was being done when I came.

: -
# while # as # just as # All +
# ) ( +
- I was playing football all day yesterday.

: -
- .
- ) ( .
# While
# Just as ) (
# As ) (

- While I was eating, Shaimaa was studying. ) (


1- while + "v + ing" ( "while" )
- While eating, Shaimaa was studying.
(while) .
2- When +
- When the teacher came, Ahmed was doing his homework.


( 16)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
3- During + ( / "v + ing")
- During lunch, Doaa came.
4- On + "v + ing"
- On coming, they were eating.
) (On+ "v+ing") = (When +






















( 17)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Past perfect
# I had mended my car.

-: -:
# Had + P.P
-:
# Had not + P.P
- I hadn't mended my car.
: -
# Had + + P.P ?
- Had you mended your car?
: -
# + Had been + P.P
- My car had been mended.
: -
# than # no sooner # as soon as # until # before # after

: -
- .


# After I had mended my car, I went for a drive.
# Before I went for a drive, I had mended my car.
# When I had mended my car, I went for a drive.
# I didnt go for a drive until I had mended my car.
# Having mended my car, I went for a drive.
# No sooner had I mended my car than I went for a drive.
# Hardly had I mended my car when I went for a drive.
# It wasnt until I had mended my car that I went for a drive.
# On mending my car, I went for a drive.

1-
# After
#As soon as







( 18)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
2-

# Before
# By the time

3-

# When

4-
until
#
till
5-

# Having + P.P ( )

6-
"v+ing"
# On ( )

7-

# It wasnt until + + that +
#It was only when + + that +

8-
# No sooner + Had + + P.P + than +
- No sooner had I eaten than my dad wanted me to type some letters.
9-
# Hardly
# Scarcely Had + + P.P + when +
- Hardly had I eaten when my dad wanted me to type some letters.
10-
# + had + no sooner + P.P + than +
- I had No sooner eaten than my dad wanted me to type some letters.
11-
hardly
# + had scarcely P.P + when +
- I had hardly eaten when my dad wanted me to type some letters.


1-
# + ( / )

- Before I go for a walk, I will finish the homework.
- I wont be happy until you tell me all about the story.

2-
# After + ( v+ing / ) / /
# Before + ( v+ing / ) / /
- After playing football, I watched TV. - After playing football, I will watch TV.



( 19)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
3-
# When
# As soon as
# Before
# After # .
- When I saw the lion, I was frightened.
- As soon as I heard the news, I cheered up. " "
- After I knew Omar had made an accident, I visited him.

4- ( )
# + because
(( ) )
- I didn't met my uncle because he had left early.
- I didn't hear the doorbell because I was listening to music.
























( 20)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Past perfect continuous

# I had been playing football for half an hour when my dad came.
# Adels hands were dirty, he had been painng for 2 hours.

-: -:
# Had + been + "v+ing"
-:
# Had not + been + "v+ing"
: -
# Had + + been + "v+ing" ?
- Had you been waiting here when Omar arrived?
: -
# all + # before # when # for # since

: -
- .

- I had been playing football for half an hour when my dad came.

- .
- Adels hands were dirty, he had been painng for 2 hours.

- .
- I had been painting for half an hour when my sister arrived.



#

: -
- I had done the homework twice when my dad came.









( 21)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Future forms

1- Will +
# I will be 17 years tomorrow. ) (
# Sara will travel abroad one day.
# I will buy some salt now.
# I will buy you a bicycle. This is a promise.
# I will help you with this equation.
# Will you lend me your car?
# Lookout or you will have an accident. /

2- (Am / Is / Are) + going to +
# I am going to start a project of my own. / /
# Ayman is going to win the race. He is practicing hard.
# I am going to be a professor.
# Lookout! You are going to fall off the donkey.
(plan to + inf / plan for + "v+ing" / intend / decide) # : -

3- Present continuous
# A : what are you doing on Friday evening?
B : I am going to the theatre.
# Mohamed is marrying next Friday.


(arrange / arrangement / prepare / take steps) # : -

4- Present simple
- : -
(The plane / The train / The bus / The ship / The exam / School day / Cinema / The class /
The shop / Museum / Theatre)
- The final match starts at six this evening.



# What time are you arriving? # What time does the train arrive?
# I am going to the cinema this evening? # The film begins at 8:15. (this evening)


( 22)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
# (will + inf) : -
# Think
# Believe
# Expect
# Predict will +
# Be sure
# Probable
# Possible
# Hope
- I think Sara will pass the exam.
- I'm sure Ahmed will come.
- It's probable that Ahmed will come.
(Going to) .
- I think Sara is going to pass the exam. she is studying hard.
- I think Sara is going to be sick. she has a high temperature.



1- (go / come / leave) :-
#

(going to)

.
- I'm coming tomorrow.

- .
- Mohamed is marrying next Friday.
: -
- (going to + inf)

: -
- Mohamed is going to marry next Friday.
.

- (will + inf) : -
- Mohamed is getting married next Friday. not (will get)




) )) (((



( 23)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Future continuous
# I will be studying from 9 to 12 this evening.

-: -:
# Will + Be + (v+ing)
: -
# From + + to + # All +
# At this time +
: -
- .

# Don't phone between 7 and 8 we will be having dinner.
# Let's wait for Amir to arrive and then we will have dinner.

# At 10 o'clock yesterday, Doaa was in her clinic, She was working.
# It's 10 o'clock now, Doaa is in her clinic, She is working.
# At 10 o'clock tomorrow, Doaa will be in her clinic, she will be working.

=========================================================

Future perfect
# I will have finished my exams by July.

-: -:
# Will + have + P.P
: -
# in + + time # before # by
: -
# + will + have + been + P.P
- My exams will have been finished by july.
: -
- .

# Amir and Amira have been married for 24 years.
# Next year they will have been married for 25 years.
# When their son was born, they had been married for 3 years.

( 24)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Comparisons
# Waad is richer than Dai, but Sara is the richest.




Short Adj.

Long Adj.
1- Comparative


( + er) + than

- Taller than
More + + than
Less + + than
- More interesting than
2- Superlative



The + ( + est)

- The longest
The most +
The least +
- The most interesting

3- Ahmed is as tall as Sayed.
: -
# As + ( / ) + as
- The apple is as heavy as the orange.
- An apple grows as slowly as an orange does.

: - as
# not ( / ) + as
so
- He is not so / as intelligent as his sister is.


(Comparative) (Superlative)
good Better than The best
bad Worse than The worst
little Less + The least +
many More + The most +
much More + The most +
Far ) ( Farther than ) ( The farthest
Far ) ( Further than ) ( The furthest
old Older than ) ( The oldest
old
Elder ) (

(than)
The eldest



( 25)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
- : -
2-
# The same + + as + ( / )
- Eslam is the same weight as Mohamed.
1-
# as + + as
- Eslam is as tall as Mohamed.
3-
# The same + ( )
" "
- Eslam and Mohamed are the same size.



Big size Wide width
Tall height Many number
High height Much quantity
Long length Heavy weight
Deep depth Far distance
Expensive price Strong strength
Old age Fast speed

5- Amr has much more money than Said.
: -
# far = "a lot" # a lot # much
# slightly = "a little" # a bit # a little

# A little ( + er)
(More + )
# A bit ( )
- Amir is a little richer than Ahmed.

# Much ( + er)
(More + )
# A lot ( )
- Sameh is much taller than Ahmed.



6- Esraa is the cleverer of two friends.
(The) (Than) .
( + er)
# The (more/less + ) of two +
( )
- I am the older of two brothers.




( 26)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
7- The harder you study, The higher marks you get.
( + er) ( + er)
# The (more/less + ) + , The (more/less + ) +
( ) ( )
- The more you work, The better salary you get.


- / best) (most ) much (very .
# most / best = very much = greatly
- This book is most interesting. I enjoyed it very much.
- Of all my friends I like Ashour best.

- (older) (Than) .
- I am the older of two brothers.

- (further) (farther) (more) (additional) : -
- Tell me if you hear any further news.

4- less + ( / ) + than = not (as / so) . As
- I spent less money than you. = - I didnt spend as much money as you.
- It was less crowded than usual. = - It wasnt so crowded as usual.

- (any) (no) : -
# no bigger # any longer
- This hotel is better than the other one, and it is no more expensive.
- I have waited long enough. I am not waiting any longer. (a little)
- I have waited long enough. I am not waiting even a little longer.

6- as + + as / so + + as :-
- : -
# as + + as )

(
# so + + as ) (
- Eslam is as big as Mohamed. - Eslam isnt as big as Mohamed.
- Is Eslam as big as Mohamed? - Eslam isnt so big as Mohamed.
-

: -
# twice as + + as # Three times as + + as ..etc.
- Petrol is twice as expensive as it was a few years ago.
- Their house is about three times as big as ours.


( 27)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
7 - than me = than I am. etc .
- You are taller than me. = - you are taller than I am.
- He isnt as clever as her. = - He isnt as clever as she is.

- : -
# + have + never + p.p + such (a/an) + +
- I have never bought such a cheap shirt.


# + have + never + p.p + + as + + as + ( / )
- I have never bought a shirt as cheap as this.


+ er
# + have + never + p.p + more + than + ( / )
- I have never bought a shirt cheaper than this.


+ est
# (This / It) + is + the most + + + (have / has) + ever + p.p
- This is the cheapest shirt I have ever bought.


- (superlative) : -
# (in) (superlative) : -
- What is the longest river in the world?
- I am the best in my class.
# (in) (superlative) : -
- Who is the youngest student in the class?
# (of) (superlative) : -
- What was the happiest day of your life?
- Yesterday was the hottest day of the year.









( 28)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Necessity , lack of necessity , prohibition



) (
# Its necessary for Ali to pay this tax.
# Ali must / has to pay this tax.
# It was necessary for Sara to sleep early last night.
# Sara had to sleep early.
# Sara will have to sleep early.
# Sara will be to sleep early.


) (
# It isnt necessary to come yourself.
# You neednt come yourself.
# You dont have to come yourself.
# It wasnt necessary to do the homework twice.
# You didnt have to do the homework twice.
# You neednt have done the homework twice.
# You wont have to do the homework twice.



) (
# Dont throw rubbish away here.
# You mustnt throw rubbish away here.
# You arent allowed to throw rubbish away here.
# Its banned / prohibited to throw rubbish away here.
# Its necessary not to throw rubbish away here.







( 29)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

Lack of necessity Necessity Tense
# Neednt + inf
# Dont have to + inf
# Dont need to + inf
# Havent got to + inf
# am/is/are not to + inf
# Must + inf
# Have to + inf
# Need to + inf
# Have got to + inf
# am / is / are to + inf

# Didnt have to + inf
# Didnt need to + inf
# Hadnt got to + inf
# was/were not to + inf
# Neednt have + p.p
# Had to + inf
# Needed to + inf
# Had got to + inf
# was / were to + inf

# Wont have to + inf
# Wont be to + inf
# Will have to + inf
# Will be to + inf


Interrogation Tense
- Must Sara sleep early?
- Do Sara have to sleep early?
- Do Sara need to sleep early?
- Has Sara got to sleep early?
- Is Sara to sleep early?
# Must + + inf ?
# Do + + have to + inf ?
# Do + + need to + inf ?
# Have / Has + + got to + inf ?
# am / is / are + + to + inf ?

- Did Sara have to sleep early?
- Did Sara need to sleep early?
- Had Sara got to sleep early?
- Was Sara to sleep early?
# Did + + have to + inf ?
# Did + + need to + inf ?
# Had + + got to + inf ?
# was / were + + to + inf ?

- Will Sara have to sleep early?
- Will Sara be to sleep early?
# Will + + have to + inf ?
# Will + + be to + inf ?



Necessity Lack of necessity prohibition
Necessary Not necessary Necessary not
Oblige Un necessary Oblige not
Force Optional Not allowed
Obligatory Its up to you Against the law
Have no choice If you dont like illegal
Compulsory
Needless Banned / forbidden
Have a choice Prohibited



( 30)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

- (mustnt) : -
# Shouldnt have + P.P
- You shouldn't have done this.
- : -
# Not necessary = Dont have to + inf
- It isn't necessary to come yourself. = - You don't have to come yourself.
# Necessary not = Must not + inf
- It is necessary not to come. = - You must not come.

- : -
# Must " "
- I must go to bed earlier.
# Have to ) / (
- I have to send a report to Head Office every week.


# : -
# Shouldnt + inf
- You shouldn't drink and drive.
# Should + inf
- He should see a doctor.
# Oughtnt to + inf
- You oughtn't to neglect your lessons.
# Ought to + inf
- You ought to go to the doctor.
# Had better not + inf
- You'd better not say anything.
# Had better + inf
- You'd better tell her everything.

# : -
# Should have + p.p = Why didnt
- I should have let her know what was happening but I forgot.
# Shouldnt have + p.p = Why did
- I shouldn't have shouted at you. I apologise.







( 31)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
The Definite article
((The))
(THE) : -
- .
# the sun # the earth # the moon
- Have you ever crossed the equator?
- Cairo is the capital of Egypt.
-

. - I watched a film. The film was interesting.


- . - The Nile is the longest river in the world.
- : -
- - The Red Sea
- - The Atlantic ocean
- - The Nile
- - The Saharah Desert
- ) ( - The Alps
- ) ( - The Great Lacks
- ) ( - The Bahamas island
- . # The Quran # The Bible ) (
- . # The mobile # The radio # The femto second
-
(play / listen / teach) .
# play the guitar # play the violin ) (
- . # The north of # The south of
- . # The morning # The future # The afternoon
-
.
# The innocent # The poor = the poor people
- The poor are always helped by rich people.
- . - The horse is a fast animal.
- . # The heart # The brain
- .
# The king # The president
(the) . - president Alsisi.
-
: -
# kingdom # Emirate # state
# union
# The A . R . E Arab Republic of Egypt.
# The U . S . A United States of America.
-
.
- I went to the school to see my son.
(the) : -
- My uncle was sent to prison last year.
- My son goes to school every day.
- : -
# The market # The office # The shop
# The cinema # The opera # The theatre
# The only # The first # The last


( 32)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

(THE) : -
-
.
(the) : -
# The Mohameds = Mohameds family
- . # Football # swimming # Hockey
- .
# English # physics
- Do you speak English?
: -
# The English class lasts an hour.
- .
# love # death # beauty
# jealousy
- Death is a fact.

: -
- The death of my grandfather.
-
.
# school # prison # hospital
- Students go to school.
- . - Doctors should be merciful.
- . # king Hatem # Queen Shaimaa # Princess Doaa
- .
# lunch # dinner # breakfast

: -
- The lunch we had.
- The supper we had.
- .
# summer # winter
(the) : -
- The spring of 1996.
-
.
# money # advice # experience
# wood # gold
: -
-The woods. ) (
- a gold ring.
-The money I found.
-Thank you for the advice you gave me.
- .
# northern # southern
- Alex lies northern Egypt.
- .
# room 126 ) (
# plaorm 5 ) ( # gate 15
# page 9
- our train leaves from plaorm 7.
- ( in a shop ) Have you got these shoes in size 43?
- (man) . - Man is sociable by nature.
- . # Everest mountain # Lake Nassir # Malta

( 33)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599


- ) (The : -
# The sun # The sky # The moon
( space ) (The) .
) space ( : -
- There are millions of stars in space.
- I tried to park my car, but the space was too small.

- (The radio) (television) (The) : -
) (
- I watch television a lot. - I listen to the radio a lot.
- We watched the news on television. - We heard the news on the radio.

# the television = the television set
- Can you turn off the television, please?
-
- I usually watch TV in the evening. # TV (the)
- I bought the TV advertised on the internet. # a / the TV

- Last night I went to bed late. # Go to bed = sleep
- I mended the bed myself. # a / the bed

- Life is enjoyable. ) ( # Life
- The old lead a quiet life. / # a life
- I read about the life of Sadat. # the life

# By sea


# By the sea = near the sea
# At sea = on the sea = sailing

# Go to work = go to the office


))) (((


( 34)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Indefinite articles
(A / An) +
- a +
a book - a man - a class - a university - a unit - a union
- an +
an idiot - an arm - an orange - an eye - an honest - an hour - an honor

(a / an) : -
-

.
- I saw a man.
- I have a car.
- .
# a clever boy
- Doaa is a good girl.
- .
# a doctor # a teacher
- Amir is an accountant.
- .
# a few # a lot # a little
# a pair # a couple # a dose
- .
- a jar of jam.
- a packet of biscuits.
- a tube of tooth paste.
- a piece
- a bit of information / advice / news.
- an item
- a bar of chocolate.

(a / an) : -
- .
# Books # Men # Boys
- Reading books is very important.
- .
# Money # Advice
- She doesn't earn very much money.
- .
# Lunch # Breakfast
: -
- a big lunch
- .
# Love # Death # Beauty
- Death is a fact.
- (man) . - Man is sociable by nature.

( 35)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Yes / No Questions
1- Do you usually walk in the morning? (Are)(Is)
- Are you used to walking in the morning?
- Are you in the habit of walking in the morning?
- Is it your habit to walk in the morning?
2- Can you climb this tree? (Are)(Do)
- Are you able to climb this tree?
- Are you capable of climbing this tree?
- Do you have the ability to climb this tree?
3- Will Amr probably travel abroad? (Is)
- Is it probable for Amr to travel abroad?
4- Can you swim? - Yes I can. (Are)(Do)
- Are you able to swim? - Yes I'm.
- Do you have the ability to swim? - Yes I do.
5- Could you tell me the time? (Have)
- Have you got the time?
6- Did Rami send you a letter a week ago? (Is)(Has)(Have)(Did)(were)
- Is it a week since Rami sent you a letter?
- Has a letter been sent to you for a week?
- Has Rami sent you a letter for a week?
- Have you been sent a letter for a week?
- Did Rami send you a letter a week ago?
- Were you sent a letter a week ago by Rami?
7- Do you have a car? - Yes I do / yes I have a car. (Have)
- Have you got a car? - Yes I have.
- Have you a car? - Yes I have a car.
8- Have you arranged for your visit to London next Saturday? (Are)
- Are you visiting London next Saturday?
9- Should you do this by yourself? (Are)(Had)(Is)(Ought)
- Are you supposed to do this by yourself?
- Had you better do this by yourself?
- Is it a good idea for you to do this by yourself?
- Ought you to do this by yourself?
10- Are you going to work for yourself? (Do)(planned)
- Do you intend to work for yourself?
- Have you planned/decided to work for yourself?
11- Salem is tall, isn't he? (is he ?)
- Salem isn't short , is he?


( 36)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
12- Rami made a fatal mistake, didn't he? (wasn't it ?)
- A fatal mistake was made by Rami, wasn't it?
13- Nothing wrong happened, did it? (didn't it ?)
- Everything correct happened, didn't it?
14- Do you like football? (Are)
- Are you keen on football?
15- Is this believable? (Do)(is)
- Do you believe this?
- Is this believed in?
16- Is this car yours? (Does)(Do)(Have)
- Does this car belong to you?
- Do you have this car?
- Have you got this car?
17- Are you interested in music? (Do)(keen)
- Do you have an interest in music?
- Are you keen on music?
18- Do you play chess well? (Is)(Are)
- Is chess well played by you?
- Are you a good chess player?
19- Is it necessary to leave now? (have to)(Must)
- Do you have to leave now?
- Must you leave now?
20- Do you really have a car? (Is)
- Is it a fact that you have a car?
21- Do you refuse to help me? (helping)
- Do you object to helping me?

# : -
Tense Auxiliary verb
Do / Does
Did
Have / Has + P.P
Had + P.P
Am / Is / Are + ing
Was / Were + ing
Will / Can + inf
) . (

( 37)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
" if "


- If you boil water, it turns into steam.
- If you have time, help me, please.
- If Ahmed had money, he would buy a car.
- If I had studied hard, I would have passed.


- (if) : -
- : -
- .
- .
- : -
- .
- (probable / possible) .


- : -
- .
-

.

- .


If




Will + inf
" "



" "



" "


Can +inf ) (
(May/might) + inf ) (
Must + inf ) (
Should + inf ) (
Inf ) (
Its + + to + inf


" "
Would + inf
Could + inf
Might + inf

Would have + p.p
Could have + p.p
Might have + p.p

(If)

( 38)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
- : -
- : -
# : - (due to / because / since / as) .
# : - (so / therefore / thats why) .
# He was late for school because he missed the bus. (if)
- If he didn't miss the bus, he wouldn't have been late for school.
- : -
- : - .
- : -

.
- : -

.


- : -

# If
# As long as
# Provided ( that )
# Providing that you read a lot, you will be cultured.
# In the event that
# On condition that

- : -
1-
# Unless + = if + # unless = except if
- Unless you read a lot, you wont be cultured. " "

2-
# In case of + ( / v+ing)
# In the event of + ( / v+ing)
- In case of reading a lot, you will be cultured. " / "
- In the event of reading a lot, you will be cultured. " / "

3-
# Without + ( / v+ing)
# But for + ( / v+ing)
- Without reading a lot, you wont be cultured. " / "
- But for reading a lot, you wont be cultured. " / "

(if)

( 39)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
- : -
will +
# Should + +
would +
- Should Hend have time, she will visit her village.
- Should Hend have time, she would visit her village.

- : -
# Were + + to + would +
- were Hend to Have time, she would visit her village.
# (was / were) : -

# Were + / would +

# If Ahmed was a teacher, he would have an answer. (were)
- Were Ahmed a teacher, he would have an answer.

- : -
# Had + + ( ) would + " "
- Had Hend time, She would visit her village.
# Had + + P.P would have + P.P " "
- Had Hend had time, she would have visited her village.


- (in case) (If) / : -
- I will take an umbrella if it rains.
= (Only if there's rain, I'll take an umbrella; otherwise, I won't.)
- I will take an umbrella in case it rains. /


= (Whether or not there's rain, I'll take an umbrella.)

2- in case :-
# + in case +



Should +
- I will stay at home tonight in case Sameh visits me.


( 40)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
3- ) (
# Must + otherwise will +
# Don't + or won't +
# Necessary to + or else " "
- You must work hard or you won't get high marks.
- You must work hard otherwise you won't get high marks.

4- If it :-
were not for + would + ( )
# If it
hadn't been for + would have + p.p ( )
- If it weren't for water, nothing could live.
- Were it not for water, nothing could live.
- If it hadn't been for your help, I would have failed the exam.


















( 41)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Wish = "if only"
# I wish to have a car one day. # I wish I could have a car one day.
# I wish I had a car now. # I wish he would get better soon.
# I wish I had had a car when I was in Alexandria.


# : - )

(
# Wish could + inf
# If only would + inf

- I wish I could have a car one day.
- Ali wishes his brother would be a doctor one day.
- (wish)

: -
# Later # Tomorrow # One day # In the future # Soon
# In + + time # In + # Next + # The following

# (If) = (Wish) ( )


# : - )

(
# Wish / If only ()

- I wish I had a car now.
- I don't have a villa. I wish I had a villa.
- (wish)

: -
# Now


# : - )

" ( "
# Wish / If only ()

- I wish I had had a car when I was in Alexandria.
- I wish I had worked hard last year.



I/We


( 42)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599


- (will) (wish) .
2- If only = wish ( )
- (if only) (wish) (If) : -
- If only I had had money, I would have bought a digital camera.
- I wish I had had money last week, I would have bought a digital camera.
- : -
# Regret
# Sorry
#

=
# If only
# Wish
# Should
# Supposed
- I wish I had worked hard last year. (Wish)
- I should have worked hard last year. (Should)
- I didn't work hard last year. ) (
- I regret not working hard last year. (regret)
- I'm sorry for not working hard last year. (sorry)

- (wish) (could) (would) : -
- Ali wishes his brother would be a doctor one day.
- Ali wishes he could be a doctor one day.

6- could
# can't + inf wish would inf
# I can't speak French. I wish I could do that.

))) (((









( 43)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Addition conjunctions
# Both Ali and I are good at English.
# Not only Ali but also I am good at English.
# Ali as well as I is good at English.
# Ali is good at English and so am I.


1- (Both .. and .. ) ....... ....
1
1- both + + and + ....... ....
- Both Ahmed and Wagih are good at English.
2- both + + and + ....... ....
- I met both Medo and Alaa yesterday.
3- both + + and + ....... ....
- My brother both did the homework and played football.



2- " Not only .. but also .. " .... ....
2
- : -

1- Not only + + but also + .... ....
- Not only I but also Esraa is good at English.
2- Not only + + + + But also +
- Not only did Soha clean the house but also went shopping.
- Not only did Soha clean the house but she also went shopping.
- Not only did Soha clean the house but she went shopping as well.
- As well as cleaning the house, she went shopping.
- : -
1- Not only + + but also + .... ...
- I met not only Medo but also Alaa yesterday.
2- Not only + + but also + .... ...
- My brother not only did the homework but also played football.





3- + as well as +
3
- I as well as Ali have a lot of money.



( 44)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

4- + and so + +
- Ali is good at English and so am I.


5- + and neither + + ()
- I don't like football and neither does Ola.

6-
# As well as
# In addition to (v + ing / ) ( / )
# Besides

- In addition to having a flat in Cairo, Saber has a villa in Alex.
- As well as having a flat in Cairo, Saber has a villa in Alex.

7-
# Other than
# Apart from (v + ing / ) ( / )
- I have 5 sisters other than 2 brothers.


8- + (in addition / moreover) +
- Ali has a flat in Cairo in addition he owns a villa in Alex.
- Ali has a flat in Cairo moreover he owns a villa in Alex.

9- ( Neither.. nor .. ) .......... .........
9
- : -
1- Neither + + nor + ( )
- Neither Amir nor his brother plays football.

2- Neither + + + + nor + + +
- Neither did Saad do shopping, nor did he clean the house.
- Neither did Saad do shopping, nor cleaned the house.
- : -
1- Neither + + nor +
- I neither visited Badr nor phoned him.

2- Neither + + nor +
- I phoned neither Samir nor Salwa.

( 45)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599



1- Ali is good at English. I'm good at English too. (and so)
- Ali is good at English and so am I.
2- I don't like football. Ola doesn't like football either. (and neither)
- I don't like football and neither does Ola.
3- ( either.. or .. ) ......... ........

- : -
1- Either + + or + ( )
- Either Ali or his brothers have sent you an invitation card.

- : -
1- either + + or +
- Tonight, I will either visit my uncle or go to the cinema.

2- either + + or +
- I will either play football or volleyball.

















( 46)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

Contrast conjunctions

# Ali made a mistake, but he wasnt punished.
# Although Ali made a mistake, he wasnt punished.
# Despite making a mistake, Ali wasnt punished.
# However mistaken Ali was, he wasnt punished.
# Mistaken as Ali was, he wasnt punished.
# Whatever a mistake Ali made, he wasnt punished.
# Ali made a mistake despite that, he wasnt punished.
# Despite the fact that Ali made a mistake, he wasnt punished.
# In spite of the fact that Ali made a mistake, he wasnt punished.



But ) (
Despite that
1- How ever
Yet
- Ali is clever but he can't answer an easy question.
2-
# Although
# Though
# Even though
# Even if
- Although Ali is clever, he can't answer an easy question.
3-
# Despite
# In spite of / For all (v+ing )
# Regardless of ( )
# Not with standing
- Despite Ali's cleverness, he can't answer an easy question.

"verb to Be"
4- However +
"

"
- However clever Ali is, he can't answer an easy question.


( 47)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

5-
#
# as + +
- Clever as Ali is, he can't answer an easy question.

6- Whatever + + +
- Whatever cleverness Ali has, he can't answer an easy question.
# (whatever) ) ( : -
# Whatever + + +
- Whatever you say, I don't believe you.

7- + despite that +
- Ali made a mistake despite that, he wasnt punished.

8- Despite the fact that + +
- Despite the fact that Ali made a mistake, he wasnt punished.

(although) (because)
# We went out although it was raining.
# We didnt go out because it was raining.

(in spite of) (because of)
# We went out in spite of the rain.
# We didnt go out because of the rain.

(Although) (Despite / in spite of)
# Although the traffic was bad, we arrived on time.
# In spite of / despite the bad traffic, we arrived on time.

1- Despite = in spite of
# Despite making a mistake, Ali wasnt punished.
# In spite of making a mistake, Ali wasnt punished.

- (Even though) (Although) : -
# Even though I was really tired, I couldnt sleep.



( 48)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Purpose conjunctions
# I went to the beach to enjoy myself.
# I went to the beach so that I could enjoy myself.
# Dai studied hard in order not to fail the exam.
# Dai studied hard lest she should fail the exam.
# Dai studied hard for fear of failing the exam.
# Dai studied hard because she didnt want to fail the exam.



1- to _s. ; .,, ; _.. ; ,.
# in order to
so as to
- I read a lot to increase my knowledge.
- I read a lot in order to increase my knowledge.

2- so that _s. ; .,, ; _..
# with the aim that can +
in the hope that could +
in order that
- I read a lot so that I can increase my knowledge.

3- lest : _s. | .,..
# shall +
for fear that should +
- Hani got up early for fear that he should miss the bus.

4-
# + for fear of + ("v+ing" / )
- Hani got up early for fear of missing the bus.

5-
# + with the aim of + ("v+ing" / )
- Hani got up early with the aim of not missing the bus.



( 49)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599


- (because) : -
# because + + want to +
- Dai studied hard because she didnt want to fail the exam.
- (to / in order to / so as to)
: -
- Tamer cleans the garden in order to be given money.
========================= =====================
Reason conjunctions
# I missed the exam because I was absent.
# I missed the exam because of being absent.
my absence.

1- as
# because + ( )
since
- Ahmed lost his money as he was negligent ) ( .
- Ahmed lost his money because he was negligent ) ( .
2-
# Being + (" " / )
- Being careless, I lost my money.
- Being your doctor, I advise you to stop smoking.
3-
# Because of
# Due to
# Thanks to
# Owing to " v+ing "
# Through
# On account of
# For
# As a result of
- The match was cancelled due to the bad weather.
- The match was cancelled due to the weather being bad.
- The match was cancelled because of the bad weather.



( 50)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Result conjunctions
# Doaa lost her bag so she was angry.



So _:.., .., .... .,.
Therefore
Thats why
# Consequently
Accordingly
As a result
For this reason
Thus
- Amir made a mistake so he was punished.



1- , + + therefore +
- Doaa lost her bag, she therefore was angry.

2- Too + ( / ) + to + ( )
- The exam was too difficult to pass.

3- So + ( / ) + that + ( )
- The exam was so difficult that I didnt pass it .

4- Such ( a / an ) + / + that + ( )
- It was such a difficult exam that I didnt pass it.

5- ( / ) + enough + (to / not to) +
- The exam was difficult enough not to pass it.








( 51)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

Time conjunctions
# Shaimaa cooked the meal. then, she watched TV.
# After Shaimaa had cooked the meal, She watched TV.
# Before Shaimaa watched TV, She had cooked the meal.
# When Shaimaa had cooked the meal, She watched TV.
# Having cooked the meal, Shaimaa watched TV.
#On cooking the meal, Shaimaa watched TV.
# Shaimaa didnt watch TV until/till she had cooked the meal.
# Hardly had Shaimaa cooked the meal when she watched TV.
# No sooner had Shaimaa cooked the meal than she watched TV.
# It wasnt until/it was only when Shaimaa had cooked the meal that she watched TV.



# then
# ) .(




1-
#
#

- I won't sell my old car until I have bought a
new one.
2-

# + because

- I didn't met my uncle because he had left early.
- I didn't hear the doorbell because I was listening
to music.

3-
V+ing
# After ( ) / /
- After playing football I'll go home.

V+ing
# Before ( ) / /
- Before watching TV, Shaimaa had cooked the meal.





( 52)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
4-
# When
# As soon as
# Before
# After # .
- When I saw the lion, I was frightened.
- As soon as I heard the news, I cheered up. " "
- After I knew Omar had made an accident, I visited him.

5-
# ( ) before + (v+ing) ( )
- Hany didn't hand the exam before revising it 3 mes.

























( 53)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Verbs + (to + )

( to + inf ) : -
/ intend " " afford
learn agree
long allow
manage appear
mean arrange
neglect attempt
offer choose
order / claim
plan dare
pretend decide
promise demand
refuse deserve
seem enable
teach encourage
tend expect
threaten forget
try hate
would like hesitate
want hope
- Fawzia agreed to give me her mobile.
- Shaimaa wants to be a doctor.
- I decided to go home as soon as possible.

+ to + inf ) : ( -
order advise
persuade allow
remind cause
teach encourage
tell force
warn invite
- She asked him to send her a text message.
- I advise you to sleep early.

)) ((


( 54)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
# ) inf + ( v+ing ) + ( : -
# see
# hear + ("v+ing" ) / ((inf) )
# watch
- I saw Amr play football. = I saw him from the beginning till the end.
- I saw Amr playing football.

= I attended part of the match.



Verbs + "v + ing"
( v + ing ) : -
cant help admit
can't stand avoid
come be + used to
lead to contribute to
look forward to / delay
mind deny
postpone dislike
put off enjoy
recommend / fancy
regret feel like
risk finish
spend go
stop imagine
suggest justify

# (take up / spend / waste) + + "v+ing"
- He suggested playing tennis.
- We delayed launching the product because of technical problems.
- I can't help playing football. - I can't stand waiting.
# ( v + ing ) / ( to + inf ) : -
- ( v + ing ) / ( to + inf ) : -
# start (to + inf)
# begin
# continue v+ing

to do
- He continued doing the homework.

( 55)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

- ( v + ing ) / ( to + inf ) : -
# prefer
# like (to + inf)
# hate ( )
# love v+ing

- I prefer to eat rice. ) / (
- I prefer eating rice. ) (

- ( v + ing ) / ( to + inf ) : -
# Regret
# Stop (to + inf)
# Remember ( )
# Forget v+ing
# Try

1- regret :- ()
- I regret to lend Ali my car. ) " ("
- I regret lending Ali my car. ) " ("

2- Remember :- ()
- I remember to phone Rami. ) " ("
- I remember phoning Rami. ) " ("

3- Forget :- ()
- I forgot to buy a present for my wife. ) " ("
- I forgot buying a present for my wife. ) " ("

4- Stop :- ()
- I stopped to eat. ) " ("
- I stopped eating. ) " ("

5- Try :- ()
- I tried to climb the mountain. ) (
- I tried climbing the mountain. ) (






( 56)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Active - Passive
# The room is cleaned every day by my mother.
# The room was cleaned yesterday by my mother.
# The room is being cleaned at the moment.
# The room looks nice. It has been cleaned.
# The room should be cleaned now.

# : -
# + ( to be ) + P.P
/ / /
Am
was
being been be
Is
were
Are


: : -
# Put in the passive form :-
1- Dr/ Shaimaa made us hate meat.
- We were made to hate meat by Dr/ Shaimaa.
2- People believe that Taha lost his hearing at a young age.
- Its believed that Taha lost his hearing at a young age.
- Taha is believed to have lost his hearing at a young age.
3- I hate people laughing at me.
- I hate being laughed at.
4- Salah used to help us do homework.
- We used to be helped do homework by Salah.
5- Dont break these laws.
- These laws mustnt be broken.
- Dont let these laws be broken.
6- Are you going to lend me your book?
- Is your book going to be lent to me?
7- Fawzy let me use his mobile.
- I was let use Fawzys mobile.
- I was allowed to use Fawzys mobile.


( 57)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
8- Ramy lets his friends exploit him.
- Ramy lets himself be exploited.
9- We need to demolish () this house.
- This house needs to be demolished.
- This house needs demolishing.
10- You can do the sums without anyone helping you.
- The sums can be done without anyone helping you.
- You can do the sums without being helped.
: : -

1-
made
# + (to be) watched to +
heard
seen
# make
# see +
# hear
# watch
) (

2-
# It + (to be) + P.P ) ( + that +
# + (to be) + P.P ) ( + to
have + P.P
be + v+ing

# + + that + +

) (
# ) " " " have + P.P " "be + v+ing" ( (to)
/
have + P.P /
be + (v+ing) /
# People believe that Taha lost his hearing at a young age.
- Taha is believed to have lost his hearing at a young age.
# He says that Ahmed is moving today.
- Ahmed is said to be moving today.


3-
# + + being + P.P
# + + + (v+ing) +

- .
- I hate people laughing at me.
) (

( 58)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599


4-
# + + to + be + P.P # + + to + +
) (

5-
# + (must / mustnt) + be + P.P
# (dont) let + + P.P
# ()/(dont + )
) (

6-
be
# + being P.P
been
) (

7-
# + be + let + + # + let + + +
) (

8-
# + let + ) ( + be + P.P # + let + + + " "
) (

9-
(v+ing)
# + need to be + P.P
# + need to + +


1-
# I believe what has been said.
- What has been said is believed.
2-
# My brother did the homework for me.
- The homework was done for me.
- I (had/got) the homework done.
3-
# + ( "to have" / get ) + + P.P ( ) ( )
- I (had / got) the homework done.
# My brother did the exercises for me.
- I had the exercises done.



( 59)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

(have) : -

(Have)
(Have / has)
had
(Am / is / are) having
(Was / were) having
had
Will have

- : -

#
# being + p.p
#
#
# v+ing
#
-The homework started being done an hour
ago.
# I started doing homework an hour ago.

- (get) (be) .
- There was a fight but no one got hurt. = "no one was hurt."

# (get) : -
Burn - confuse - marry - divorce - kill - lose - catch - injure - arrest . .
(be) (get) .

- : -
# give # lend # send # tell # teach # show # pay # offer # ask

# Somebody gave the police the information.
- The police were given the information.
- The information was given to the police.





( 60)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Relative clauses
Who
1- People that
Whom
- Ehab who beat the thief is a strong man. "who "
- The thief whom Ehab beat is very weak.
- Is that the student who you told me about? "who "

Which
2- Things That
- This is the shirt which I bought for my brother.
- I killed the dog which bit my son.
- This is the house which he rented to me.

3- Possession :-
# Whose. ( his / her / their / its / s )
# + whose + ( )
(the / a / an)
- Have you met The man whose house was robbed and burnt?

4- Place :-
# Where + /
- I went to the village where I was born.


# (which) (where) .
- I went to the village which I was born in.
- I went to the village in which I was born.

5- Time :-
# When +
- Sunday is the day when Mohammed married Sara.


# (which) (when) .
# Sunday is the day which Mohammed married Sara on.
# Sunday is the day on which Mohammed married Sara.



( 61)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599


- (that) (who / which) : -
- (the longest / the best) .
- Mr/Ahmed is the best teacher that we have ever seen.
- (the only / the last / the first) .
- He is the last boy that entered the room.
- (all) .
- I lost all the money that I had.
- (its / it was / any) .
- It is Adison that invented the light bulb.

- (whom) (who / that)

.
- This is Ahmed with whom I usually play chess.
- (which) (that)

.
- Is this the computer on which you type your reports?
- ( v + ing ) .
- The disturbances ) ( taking place in Egypt hinder ) ( economy.
- The disturbances which takes place in Egypt hinder economy.
- (P.P) .
- The story written by Amira was wonderful.
- The story which was written by Amira was wonderful.
- ) to + ( the only / the first / the last) ( .
- Sara was the last one to arrive at school.
- Sara was the last one who arrived at school.
7- What = the thing that.
- What made me happy was that I passed the exam.
- The thing that made me happy was that I passed the exam.
- (who) (which) : -
# team
# gang
# band
# family who ) (
# crew which ) (
# army
# staff
# class
- The team which won the cup is honored .
- The gang who robbed the bank were all arrested.



( 62)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

9-
# which
# who have + = with +
# The book with a green cover is written by Al-akad. ( Which )
- The book which has a green cover is written by Al-akad.
10-
# Who + wear + = in + = wearing +
# The boy in a green t-shirt is my brother. ( Who / wearing )
- The boy who wears a green t-shirt is my brother.
- The boy wearing a green t-shirt is my brother.
- (glasses) : -
# Ahmed is a tall man with glasses. (who)
- Ahmed is a tall man who wears glasses.
- (which) : -
# Ahmed helped an old man. That was kind of him. ( which )
- Ahmed helped an old man which was kind of him.

12-
Whom
# ( / All / most ) + of Which
- I have 10 children. three of whom are doctors.
- They asked me a lot of questions, most of which I couldnt answer.

(whom / which) : -
# None of # Neither of # Any of # Either of # Some of
# Many of # Much of # (A) few of # Both of # Half of
# Each of # One of # Two of

- Dai tried on three jackets, none of which fitted her.
- Two men, neither of whom I had seen before, came to the office.







( 63)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Reported Speech
1- Order :-
# +
# Dont + +
- Study your lessons. - Don't play in the street.
# : -
- (say) (tell) .
- (to) (not to) .
- .

: -
# Mr/ Hatem said, "revise your lessons daily."
- Mr/ Hatem told me to revise my lessons daily.
# Father said, "don't play in the street, Mohammed."
- Father told Mohammed not to play in the street.

2- Request :-
# (can / could / will / would) + you + inf
# Please + inf
- Please help me do my homework.
- Can you do me a favour?
# : -
- (say) (ask) .
- (to) (not to) .
- .

: -
# Hassan said, "can you do me a favour?"
- Hassan asked me to do him a favour.

# Ahmed said, "can you help me?"
- Ahmed asked me to help him.

3- Statement :-
# I have a car of my own.
# : -
- (say) .

( 64)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
- (say to) (tell) .
- (that) .
- .
- ) (

: -
In direct Direct


/
" "


Could - might - would - should Can - may - will - shall
Had to Must = have to
Must have + p.p Must

: -
# Dai said, "I have a car of my own."
- Dai said that she had a car of her own.

4- Question :-

# why are you late?
# : -
- (say) (ask) , (want to know) , (wonder) .
- ) ( : -
- (if / whether) .
- .
-


.
- .

: -

# The teacher said, "why are you late? did you miss the bus?"
- The teacher asked why I was late and if I had missed the bus.

# Ahmed said, "Are you happy?"
- Ahmed asked if I was happy.

( 65)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599


- : -
- . # The teacher said that hot air rises.
- (if / wish) .
# Maha said, "if you worked harder, you would make more money."
- Maha said that if I worked harder, I would make more money.
- .
# Ola said, "while I was doing the homework, I slept."
- Ola said that while she was doing the homework she slept.
# Adel said, "when I leave school, I will start a project."
- Adel said that when he left school, he would start a project.
- : -
# just # now # a short time # at once # just now # a moment ago
# immediately
# Shaimaa said now, "I will study."
- Shaimaa said now that she will study.
- (I) : -
# I said, "you did me a lot of favours."
- I said that you had done me a lot of favours.
- . (and that) : -
# Shaimaa said to me, "I can't answer the question. It's very difficult."
- Shaimaa told me that she couldn't answer that question and that it was very difficult .
- : -

Indirect Direct
That This
Those These
There Here
Then Now
That day Today
That night Tonight
The day before Yesterday
The week before Last (week)
A month before A month ago
At that moment At the moment
The next day Tomorrow
The week after Next (week)



( 66)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Question tag

# Shaimaa plays football badly, doesn't she?







.
# : -
Everyone - Everybody - Every person - Someone
Somebody - No one - Nobody - No person - neither
Every + or No +
- No one did the homework, did they?
# : -
No one - Nobody - No person - Scarcely
Rarely - Seldom - Hardly - Little - No longer
Never - Nothing - Few ... .
- No one did the homework, did they?
: -
# Little information is known about that boy, is it?
# A little information is known about that boy, isnt it?
( little / few ) )

(
( a little / a few )




1- I'm a doctor, aren't I / am I not ?
# (are) ( I ) .
# I am not a teacher, am I?


) (

( I - He - She - It - They - You - We )
(there)


Did Do - Does

They


( 67)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
2- Let's wait here under the shade, shall we / shan't we?
3- Let me use your mobile, will you?
4- Listen to me first, will you / won't you?
5- Don't make noise, will you / can you?
6-
- You'd better study hard, hadn't you?
- You'd rather leave now, wouldn't you?




7-
- Mona's bought a new flat, hasn't she?
- Doaa's left at home alone, isn't she?




8-
- I think Abeer is intelligent, isn't she?
- You think Abeer is intelligent, don't you?
- (think / believe / consider / expect) : -
- ) (
( I / we ) .
- ) ( . ) (
9- If you were there, things would change, wouldn't they?
- .
) (
10- This is my brother over there, isn't it?
- : - (that / this / everything / nothing / something)
) it ( .
11- You daren't walk in front of this place, dare you?
daren't dare +
needn't need +

'd + ( rather / ) = would + ( rather / )
'd + ( p.p / better ) = had + ( p.p / better )
's + ( p.p / v+ing / / ) = is + ( p.p / v+ing / / )
's + (p.p) = has + p.p

( 68)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
12-
- You had to do that, didn't you?
- I used to eat meat, didn't I?
Had to / Used to Didn't +
Have to Don't +
Has to Doesn't +
- : -
- : - (Yes)
- : - (No)
# Hatem is angry, isn't he? - yes he is.
14- Soha has a modern mobile, doesn't she?
does she not?

15- He is too tired to work, is he?
# ) + to + too + ( .
16-
- Everyone speaks English fluently, don't they?
- Neither of them plays chess, do they?

17- He had a car, hadn't he?
didn't he?
18-
- He hurt his knee while he was laying, didn't he?
- If you have money, use it wisely, will you?
- .

- (not) : -
- Soha has a modern mobile, doesn't she?
- Soha has a modern mobile, does she not

- : -
- Do they have a car? - Have they got a car?
- Have they a car?
(verb to Have)
) .(


( 69)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Deduction
1- Near Certainty :-
# : -
# Sure # certain # surely # certainly
# definite # definitely # impossible

Near Certainty


Can't have + p.p Can't + inf Must have + p.p Must + inf

# I'm certain Dalia passed the exam. (must)
- Dalia must have passed the exam.
# It's definite Rami doesn't have a car. (can't)
- Rami can't have a car.
# It's impossible Tamer did this crime. (can't)
- Tamer can't have done this crime.


2- Un certainly :-
# : -
# not sure # probable # think # probably
# likely # perhaps # un certain

Un certainly

May have + p.p May + inf

# I am not sure Amir married last week. (may)
- Amir may have married last week.





( 70)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
3- Very un certainly :-
# : -
# don't know # un likely # possible # possibly
# don't think # have no idea
Very un certainly

Might have + p.p Might + inf

# It's possible that Ahmed killed his mother-in-low. (Might)
- Ahmed might have killed his mother-in-low.




# must
can't
# may
# might



be + p.p
have + p.p
have been + p.p
be + v + ing
have been + v + ing

) (
) (
) (
) (












- (could) ) might (may / : -
# Could = may # Could = might
- Ahmed might have killed his mother-in-low.
- Ahmed could have killed his mother-in-low.
- (must) : -
1- Must ) ( (neednt / dont have to)
- You must do your homework now.
- You dont have to do your homework now.
2- Must ) ( (can't)
- Dalia must have passed the exam.
- Dalia can't have passed the exam.
3- Mustnt ) / (
- You mustn't wait here.






( 71)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Reflexive pronouns


1 I Me My Mine Myself
2 He Him His His Himself
3 She Her Her Hers Herself
4 It It Its Itself
5 They Them Their Theirs Themselves
6 We Us Our Ours Ourselves
7 You You Your Yours Yourself / Yourselves
8 One Oneself

- : - (Reflexive pronouns)

# : -
- : -
- You should blame yourself not me.
- You should make yourself a good name.
- : - (emphasis)
- Omar himself arrested the thief.
- The minister himself cleaned the bathroom.
- The film itself wasn't very good, but I liked the music.
- : -

do whatever you want # Please yourself
have a good time # Enjoy myself
be polite # Behave yourself
behave as if it was your house # Make yourself at home
speak loudly # Make yourself heard
without help # By myself
take food and drink as you like # Help yourself
# Cut / introduce / kill / look / teach / dry yourself




( 72)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

# : -
- : -
# behind # near # by = beside # at # on # in
# below # between # above # in front of # opposite # next to
) ( # under
- Shady sat and put his bag by him.
: -
- Shady is used to travelling by himself.
- You should depend on yourself.


- : -
# Lose # Stand up # Sit down # Shave # Get up # Die
# Wash # Relax # Marry # Burn # Grow # Divorce
# Dress # Wake up


1- by myself = without help = with nones help = on my own = a lone ) (
- Do I have to do the homework (on my own / by myself)?

2- of my own = belongs to me
- I have a car of my own.

3- ( each other / one another ) :-
# each other ) (
# one another ) (
- Ahmed and Mohammed work with each other.
- Ahmed, Mohammed and Mahmoud work with one another.

4- ( ) + of + = + ( )
# A friend of mine = my friend
# We went there with some friends of ours. (our friends)
- We went there with some of our friends.
# It was a good idea of yours to go to the cinema. (Your idea )
- Your idea to go to the cinema was good.



( 73)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Do or Make

1- Do :-
- (Do) : -
# Do a crossword # Do the ironing # Do the laundry # Do the washing
- (Do) : -
# Do your work # Do homework # Do housework # Do your job
: -

.

- (Do) : -
# (Do) .
.

: -
"something, nothing, anything, everything, etc."
- I'm not doing anything today. - He does everything for his mother.

"Do"
Do the paperwork Do services Do designing Do good
Do the shopping Do some letter-writing Do equation Do 50 miles per hour
Do the vacuuming Do exercise Do a course
Do time Do some studying Do harm Do a crossword
Do well Do some writing Do heart parts Do a favour
Do work Do something Do homework Do a project
Do your best Do sport Do housework Do a report
Do your duty Do the accounts Do nothing Do a test
Do your hair Do an assignment ) / (
Do your job Do the dishes # Do the cleaning Do an exam
Do your makeup Do the ironing Do repairs Do badly
# Do your nails Do research Do business
Do the math Do the maximum Do chores
Do post-graduate studies Do damage


Do the cleaning Do the minimum Do the laundry




( 74)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
2- Make :-
- (Make) : -
# Make a dress # Make food # Make a cup of (tea / coffee)

- (Make) : -
# Make a meal. (breakfast / lunch / dinner)
: - .


"Make"
# Make a difference to # Make an effort # Make a decision # Make amends
# Make a comment # Make an enquiry # Make a choice # Make arrangements
# Make a move # Make pilgrimage # Make friends # Make a fortune
# Make a noise # Make a mistake # Make an excuse # Make a fuss
# Make money # Make a mess # Make love # Make a journey
# Make your mind up # Make a fool of yourself
# Make a promise # Make a profit # Make a phone call # Make a payment
# Make food # Make peace # Make a change # Make a loss
# Make time # Make a plan # Make savings
# Make a demand # Make an exception # Make an offer # Make an attempt
# Make a point # Make war # Make a decision # Make a bed
# Make way # Make a speech # Make a visit
# Make believe # Make a sound # Make a complaint
# Make designs # Make a dress # Make a remark # Make a suggestion












( 75)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Countable & Uncountable nouns

Countable nouns Uncountable nouns
: -

- (a/an) .
: -
dog man book
- : -
some a few many
several lots of a lot of
a number of
: -
children men books
buses houses people
crises oases countries
dogs mice women
lions


: -

- (a/an)
.
: -
some a little much
plenty of lots of a lot of

a great deal of

: -
oil news money
gold milk furniture
sand juice tin
advice baggage luggage
information



- : -
# valuables # surroundings # goods # clothes # police # people
# cattle ) ( .. . # customs ) (
- Several police were injured during the rioting.
- (s) : -
# maths # athletics # gymnastics # physics # politics # news
# measles ) ( # economics # phonetics ) (
# ethics ) ( . . # diabetes ) ( # statistics ) (
- The good news is that tomorrow will be fine and sunny.
- (a pair of) : -
# pyjamas # pants ) ( # trousers # shoes # socks # gloves # glasses
# slippers ) ( # scales ) ( # scissors ) ( # tongs ) (
- These scissors don't cut well. I need to sharpen them.



( 76)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599


- : -

) ( Chicken
Cloth
) ( Coffee
/ Experience
) ( Fish
Glass
Hair
Material
Paper
) ( Rock
/ ) ( Stone
Tea
Time
/ / Tin
- Fish is my favourite dish.
- There are a lot of empty glasses on the table.



- My shoes are very tight.


- This pair of shoes is mine.

( (a pair of) )
- : -
) ) / ( (
# team
# gang
# band
# family who + ) (
# crew which + ) (
# army
# class

- The team which won the cup is honoured.
- The team who won the cup are very good.



( 77)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599


- : -
# a piece of
# a bit of news - information - advice .
# an item of

# a bottle of water - milk - oil - juice .
# a bar of chocolate - soap ) ( . .
# a jar of jam - honey .. .
# a packet of tea - coffee - biscuits - paper .
# a sheet of paper .
# a lump of sugar .
# a bag of rice - sugar - salt .. .
# a reel of string ) ( .
# a kilo of meat .
# a loaf of bread. " "
# a tube of toothpaste. " "

7-
# How much +
- How much work have you got to do?
# How many +
- How many eggs do we need?

- (some) ) / / ( : -
- Can you lend me some money?
- I got some nice presents for Christmas this year.
9-
# a few = not many ) (
# few ) (
# a little = not much ) (
# little ) (
- (only) (a few / a little)
-

) / / / / ( .
- 10 pounds is enough for you a day.
- Three one-pound coins are on the table.


( 78)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Appendix

been was /were Be
beaten beat / Beat
bent bent / Bend
bet bet Bet
bitten bit / Bite
dealt dealt / / Deal
dug dug / / Dig
eaten ate Eat
fed fed / / Feed
felt felt Feel
fought fought / / Fight
flown flew Fly
forbidden forbade / / Forbid
forecast forecast Forecast
founded founded / Found
frozen froze Freeze
ground ground Grind
hung hung / Hang
heard heard Hear
hidden hid / Hide
hit hit / / Hit
held held / Hold
hurt hurt Hurt
kept kept / Keep
laid laid Lay
let let Let
lain lay Lie
lit lit / Light
lost lost Lose
meant meant / / Mean
put put Put
read read Read
rung rang / Ring
risen rose / Rise
run ran / / Run
sought sought / / Seek
set set / / Set


( 79)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
sewn / sewed sewed Sew
shaken shook Shake
shone shone / / Shine
shot shot Shoot
shown showed / Show
shut shut / Shut
sunk sank Sink
sat sat Sit
spread spread Spread
sprung sprang Spring
stood stood / / Stand
stolen stole Steal
stuck stuck / / Stick
stung stung / Sting
stunk stank / Stink
struck struck / / Strike
sworn swore / Swear
swung swung / Swing
taken took Take
taught taught

Teach
torn tore / / Tear
thought thought Think
thrown threw / Throw
understood understood Understand
woken woke Wake
worn wore Wear
won won / Win
written wrote Write


burnt / burned burnt / burned Burn
dreamt / dreamed dreamt / dreamed Dream
forecast / forcasted forecast / forcasted Forecast
leant / leaned leant / leaned / Lean
learnt / learned learnt / learned Learn
smelt / smelled smelt / smelled Smell
spelt / spelled spelt / spelled Spell
spilt / spilled spilt / spilled / Spill
spoilt / spoiled spoilt / spoiled / / Spoil
) / (

( 80)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

They We You It She He I
I'm 'm = am
It's She's He's 's = (is / has)
They're We're You're 're = are
They've We've You've I've 've = have
They'll We'll You'll It'll She'll He'll I'll 'll = (will / shall)
They'd We'd You'd She'd He'd I'd 'd = (would / had)


- : -
# possess # own # have got # have
- I have a car. not ( I'm having a car. )
- : -
# sound # taste # appear # smell # seem # hear # see
- It tastes strange. not ( It is tasting strange. )
- : -
# love # need # remember # suppose # like # want
# understand # forget # mean # realize # know # belong
# owe # need # deny # agree # hate # believe
- I'm afraid I disagree with you. not (I'm disagreeing with you.)



# feel # see # have # think # look

1- I have a car. ) (
- (have) : -
- We are having launch now.

2- I see what you mean. ) (
- (see) : -
- I'm seeing (meeting) the doctor tomorrow.

3- I think we should leave immediately. ) (
- (think) (believe / have an opinion) : -
- He's thinking hard about the problem.




( 81)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
4- He feels he should get another chance. ) (
- (feel) (have an opinion)
: -
- I'm feeling awful this afternoon.

5- It looks impossible! ) (
- (look) (seem) (stare at) : -
- I'm looking at that strange man.
































( 82)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Confusing words

Abroad = over seas
/ A board = on board

/

Already
All ready


Citizens accept the fact that they must pay taxes. Accept
No one is excepted from paying taxes. / Except = but


How does the crime rate affect hiring levels
by local police forces?
)

( Affect (v)
What effect did the loss have on the team? Effect on (n)


/ Altar
/ Alter

Angel
) ( Angle


/ / Block = obstacle
Block

Bear / bore / born
Bear / bore / borne


A horse is standing beside an automobile. / Beside
Gasoline engines pollute the air; besides, I like horses. Besides


/ Capital
Capitol

Charity (U) ) (
Charity (C) ) (


The hunters managed to capture the lion. / Capture
The landscapes of sunset captivate beauty-lovers
painters.
/ Captivate


Clearance
Clearness

/ Crash
/ Clash


Drought
Draught

/ Dairy
Diary


( 83)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Solar-powered cars are charged by the sun. Charge "v"
How much do you charge for a haircut? / Charge "v"
A charge of 5 L.E for the service. / Charge "n"
He may face criminal charges. Charge "n"


/ Experience
Experiment

/ / Firm (adj)
Firm (n)


Enclose = surrounded by
Enclose = put within

improve
" " improvise


The oil will be exhausted in the near future. / Exhaust (v)
Don't exhaust yourself. Exhaust (v)
Car exhaust is very harmful. Exhaust (n)


The iced dessert was the perfect complement to
the light summer meal.
/ / Complement
Be sure to compliment the chef. / Compliment


Chocolate ice cream is my favorite dessert. Dessert
If you live in a desert, it is a good idea to own a camel. / Desert


) ( Farther than
) ( Further than

/ / Issue (n)
) / ( ) ( Issue (v)


Machine / wire / current Electric
Goods / engineer / fault / storms Electrical


I have bought an electric kettle. Electric
I have an electronic dictionary. Electronic


A car has stopped in front of the bus. " " In front of
The driver sits (in / at) the front of the bus.

" "
In / at the front of


( 84)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

/ Lest
List
/ Last
Lost
Least

Landmark
Landfills
Landscape
Landlord
Landlady
) ( Landmine


) ( Covered in
) ( Covered with

Insulate
/ ) ( Isolate


Dont lie to your mother. Lie - lied - lied
Egypt lies in north Africa. Lie = is located
/ Lie - lay - lain
Lay the book down. / Lay - laid - laid


It's full of burrs ) ( . " " It's
Its tail is full of burrs. Its


I'll discuss the matter with you later. Later
I prefer the latter. / Latter = the other


He loosed the dog from its lead. / / Loose
Here are your mittens; don't lose them. / Lose


What make is your car ? Make (n)
He made a fatal mistake. / Make (v)


Many sweets
Much sweet

/ Personal


Personnel


A number of boys are absent today. " " A number of
The number of students has greatly reduced. " " The number of


( 85)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Waist

Waste
Wander
Wonder

) ( Transmit
) / ( Transport
/ ) ( Transplant
Transfuse
/ Transfer


Most of the ice cream is vanilla. / Most
I almost ordered chocolate ice cream this time.

Almost


The golden rule is a practical principle. / Principle
The principal is the substitute teacher. / / Principal


This city is very quiet. ) ( Quiet
She is quite tall for her age. ) ( Quite + Adj
My father quit smoking 3 years ago. / / Quit


Plant
Planet

Piece
Peace
Peas


Rise / rose / risen / / Rise ) (
Arise / arose / arisen / / Arise ) (
Raise / raised / raised / / Raise +
Arouse / aroused / aroused / Arouse +


Traffic (n)

Human trafficking
Traffic (v)

Scar ) (
Scared
Sacred


They are going to build a new road around the city centre. Road
What is the shortest route from here to the station? " " Route


We will stay at Hilton Hotel. " " Stay at
Why don't we stay in and watch TV ? Stay in



( 86)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

Stationery The stationery shop is over there.
Stationary / He crashed into the back of a stationary vehicle.


The guests planned to stay for a while. / ) ( A while
The guests planned to stay awhile. / ) ( Awhile


Gold is worth keeping. / / Worth (adj)
Gold is worthy to keep.

Worthy + to + inf
Worthy (adj)
His English is worse than mine. Worse


conscientious / My mother is conscientious and dedicated.
conscious

He always makes conscious decisions.




)

( Politics
/ / Policy

Costumes
Customs ) (
Customs



Hassan stole my bag. "

" steal + (sth)


A gang robbed the bank. rob + place
A thief robbed me of my money. rob + (sb) + of + (sth)


Our voyage to the island took 18 hours. voyage
The school journey was very enjoyable. journey
I went there in a business trip. trip
I will go in a picnic among the fields. picnic
When is the next flight to London? flight


Egypt lies on the north coast of Africa. ) ( Coast
We played on the beach. ) ( Beach
We had a walk along the shore. Shore
The bank of Suez Canal. ) / ( Bank



( 87)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

Healthy

Sane

) / ( Crew
) / ( Staff


The lamp is attached to the ceiling. ) ( Attached to
All the events are connected with each other.
)
(
Connected with


You have to be strong to be a weight lifter. )

( Strong
The president made a powerful speech.
) (
" ) / ( "
Powerful


The lady drowned in the river. ) ( Drown
The ship sank in the ocean. / ) ( Sink
I learnt how to dive last year. ) ( Dive


All people including my family were sad. Include
This glass contains water. ) ( Contain
This book consists of 9 units. ) ( Consist of
I sent him his book and enclosed a photo with it. Enclose


- ) ( Announcement
) / ( ) / / ( Advertisement
) ( commercials

I have a picture of my birthplace in my mind. ) ( Mind
You should wear a helmet to avoid brain damage. ) ( Brain

I'd like to listen to some music. / Listen
We heard so much noise last night. Hear

People usually rere at the age of 60. Retire
Sami has given up trying to fix his bike. Give up


The ship was back in port after a week at sea. / Port
Harbors are protected from the sea by land or walls. / / Harbor


( 88)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

( tree / man / skyscrapers / tower ) Tall
(mountain / fence / hill ) / High


Eleven people were treated for minor injuries. Treat
The treatment he had cured him of cancer. / Cure
The wound on my arm has healed. ) / / ( Heal


We study different subjects like Arabic and English. Like = such as
My dad works as a doctor. / As


) / ( Weather
) / ( Climate

Interpreter
Translator


I have an image in my mind of a cottage by these. ) / ( Image
I can take beautiful pictures with this camera. ) /

( Picture


) ( Servant
) ( Slave

Dog
Hound


Job (C)
) ( Work (U)
Career
" ) / "( ) ( Profession
/ Craft


) / ( Remote
) ( Distant
) ( Far away

The underground
Subway
Tube
Metro


) ( Soul
) / / ( spirit


) ( Habit
) ( Custom


( 89)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
He usually wears a brown t-shirt. ) ( Wear +
Put on your clothes. ) ( Put on +
- (glasses / hat / helmet) : - (wear)

A pair of shoes.
) (
/ / /
pair of
A couple of computers. ) ( Couple of


This block consists of 5 storeys. " ) "( Storey
Our flat is on the fifth floor.

" "
Floor


Being unqualified, his job opportunities were limited. )

( Unqualified
He was disqualied from driving for 3 years. / Disqualified

) ( Below
) ( Under

Vapor
Steam

There is only enough water for a couple of days ,
so we must conserve what we have.


Conserve
How did people preserve food when there were
no refrigerators ?
Preserve


Rising unemployment in the area is bad for the
whole community.


Community
In a civilized society , everyone should have
access to health care and education.
Society


" " Light house
) / ( Beacon

International
Global


/ Landscape
Scenery
) ( View
) ( / Scene
) / ( vision


( 90)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

My daughter has got a degree in philosophy. / Degree
Very few students passed the exam with grade A. / grade


They had to abandon their lands to the
invading forces.


Abandon
You ought to give up smoking. / Give up


) ( " / / " Hire
) ( " / / " / Rent


) / ( Fortune
) " " ( Wealth



























( 91)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Translation
# translate into English :-
- .
- My friends visited me on my birthday and gave me valuable presents.
- .
- Education is Egypt's national project and its way to welfare and prosperity.
- .
- It's difficult to get a good job without mastering English.
- .
- Terrorism affects the economy of the world negatively.
- .
- I enjoyed my visit to Alexandria last week.
- .
- Every citizen should work hard to increase production for Egypt's renaissance.
- .
- Like man, wild animals look after their young and protect them from any danger.
- .
- Children are more adaptable to any changes than the old.
- .
- Climatic conditions have a direct effect on the animals' shape and its life style (nature).
- .
- The Cairo international book fair is considered a cultural festival (which is) held yearly
and several people visit it.
- .
- Animals are self dependent in finding their food as no one care for them.
- .
- By instinct, animals look after their young and protect them from any danger like man
(as man does).
- .
- Travelling has several benefits as man gain useful experiences and acquaint deferent
cultures.
- .
- Developing countries suffer from a lot of problems like illiteracy, poverty and ignorance.
- .
- My ambition is to travel abroad and to make a big wealth.
- .
- The Egyptian youth have proved their abilities on change.


( 92)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
- .
- The coming years will witness a remarkable growth in shopping on the internet.
- .
- To keep/protect the environment people should stop using plastic bags.
- .
- Egypt restored not only its land but also its dignity thanks to October glorious victory.
-
.
- The Arab league should play a more effective role to put an end to the inner disputes
amongst the Arab peoples and to the Israeli aggression on Palestine.
- .
- We should train our children in discipline, keeping promises and self dependence.
- .
- You should choose the job that suits your skills to achieve your ambitions through it.
- .
- You should be aware of the consequences of your decisions before making / taking
them so as not to regret later.
- .
- The ambition of many people is to find a job with a good salary, while others look
forward to running their own businesses.
- .
- Taming wild animals requires special skills that not many people have.
- .
- You must work hard day and night if you want to get promoted in your job and achieve
your ambition.
- .
- Some people prefer the government jobs, while others prefer working for themselves.
- .
- The more you practice sport, the fitter you are.
- .
- We should keep ourselves healthy and avoid catching diseases in order to be able to
work and produce.
- .
- It seems that the elections of presidency will witness an intense rivalry to reach (get to)
Egypt's throne.
- .
- The state of democratic values will not encounter the danger of collapse.


( 93)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
- .
- The Cairo metro is considered a giant investment project that contributes to solving the
problem of traffic congestion in Cairo.
- .
- Space exploration has helped to reveal a lot of universe secrets.
- .
- Sport trims the soul and calls for peace not for bloodshed and killing the innocent.
- .
- There is a breakthrough in the field of information technology, which made the world
become a global village.
- .
- Good readiness before doing any work enables you to achieve it easily.
- .
- The more fluently you speak English, the easier you get a good job.
- .
- The extravagance in using water is a bad habit that we should get rid of.
- .
- Through the global economy, a financial crisis can storm a number of countries.
- .
- Media campaigns contribute to spreading awareness among the citizens concerning
family planning.
- .
- The civilization is based on stability and flourishes in peace times while war destroys
everything.
- .
- The Egyptian government does its best to improve the relations with The Nile Basin
countries.
- .
- Suez canal is considered one of the most important sources of our national income.
- .
- The state encourages investment for a better life for the coming generations.
- .
- You should exploit your free time to do useful things.
- .
- It's believed that peace will prevail in a few years' time.
- .
- With hard work and patience you can achieve your goals.


( 94)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
- .
- Satisfaction is a treasure that never vanishes.
- .
- The ancient Egyptians preceded the other nations in mummifying their kings and
queens.
- .
- Rationalizing consumption is a must to face the decrease in production (shortage of
production).
- .
- The exerted efforts to end the constitution won't succeed without the unity among all
sects of people .
-

.
- Road accidents cause a lot of fatal loses in both lives and money yearly and the
government is asleep.
- .
- Indifference leads to carelessness, laziness and finally failure.
- .
- A friend in need is a friend in deed.
- .
- Never put off till tomorrow what can be done today.
- .
- Security and economy are two faces of one coin which forms any country .
- .
- Bearing responsibility makes you able to face difficulties and challenges properly.
- .
- Self sufficiency is based on hard work and the increase in production.
- .
- We need justice in distribution and to apply the concept of citizenship correctly.
- .
- Disputes and crises arent solved without negotiation and compromise.
- .
- Reading widens your horizons and increases your culture.
-
- Have you ever donated your blood?
- .
- Once your deeds go with your words then you are a trustee person.


( 95)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
-
.
- Citizenship simply means that all the Egyptians whether Muslims or Christians are equal
in rights and duties and that there is no ethnic discrimination among them.
- .
- Volcanoes, earthquakes and torrents are natural disasters.
- .
- Public libraries are established in a lot of districts to encourage the citizens to read.
- .
- Any city in the world is distinguished by a special style that makes it differ from the
others.
- .
- Imposing any new taxes mustnt have any effect on people with limited income.
- .
- Building modern Egypt depends mainly on the efforts exerted by its sons without
exception or discrimination.
- .
- We hope that security and safety will prevail all over Egypt again.
- .
- May Allah protect Egypt and its people, keep them in your prayers .
-
- Organic and inorganic farming have advantages and disadvantages so which one do you
prefer?
- .
- Some people think that genetically modified food has bad effects on man's health but
up till now this hasnt been proved.
- .
- The Red Sea coasts are famous for its very beautiful coral reefs which attract tourists to
enjoy seeing them.
- .
- It's our responsibility all to build our country on strong bases that (which) arent
affected by the change of governments or individuals.
- .
- There are calls for civil disobedience protesting about the deteriorating economic and
political position.
-
.
- The climate plays a big role in designing buildings in addition to the technology which
has made a great breakthrough / leap in architecture.



( 96)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
- .
- There is a continuous conflict between man and nature in which man sometimes
triumphs but some other times the nature seems merciless.
- .
- You are responsible for your sayings as well as your deeds so you should be aware of
what you do or say as it's no use regretting.
-
.
- The educational policy in Egypt needs a radical reform so that the education can achieve
its desired aims by reaching a comprehensive renaissance in all fields.
-
.
- Egotism is a nasty trait so all of us should avoid it for its bad effects on the whole
society. an egotist should be boycotted as he thinks of nothing or no one but himself and
his desires and interests.
- .
- With the return of Sinai, Egypt restored its position and dignity after a glorious war and
peace based on justice and equality.
- .
- I prefer reading stories to watching films.
-
.
- Many of the homeland's enemies try to light the fuse of sectarian discord among the
brackets of the people to break the tissue of the national unity but vainly do they try and
Egypt will remain one cohered structure.
- .
- The youth are the pillar of the nation and its civilization makers so we should protect
them from deviation and addiction and improve their up-bringing (bring them up well).
- .
- Money is a means not an end, as it does not bring happiness, despite its importance.
- .
- Wherever I go I feel so homesick to Egypt that I can't keep away from it for so long
whatever the temptations are.
-
.
- We all hope that the new year will bring Egypt all good and protect its people from
discords and disturbances which threaten security and spread crime and havoc.
- .
- Without experimenting, scientists wouldnt be able to prove their theories and reach
practical results.




( 97)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
- .
- You Should control your reactions and not feel angry about any simple thing as the
strong person is that who controls (holds) himself during anger.
-
.
- Imposing any new taxes mustnt have any effect on people with limited income
whatever the economy contracted or the monetary spare declined.
- .
- Achievements arent made by only enthusiasm but also by good planning and
continuous work.
- .
- Our national heritage is a priceless wealth but there are people who destroy it unaware
of its importance.
- .
- All citizens should contribute to restoring security and putting the bases of true
democracy.
- .
- Financial crisis have spread all over the world so much that many people are worried
about the future of the world.
- .
- Many people prefer reading fictional stories as they are distinguished by suspense and
excitement.
- .
- Rationalizing consumption has become an urgent necessity to face the shortage of
production and the budget.
- .
- Cleanliness is a civilized behavior (behaviour).
- .
- All Muslims all over the world dream of making pilgrimage and enjoying staying in the
holy lands.
- .
- The total solar eclipse is a natural phenomenon that (which) is rarely seen so people
care about watching it.
- .
- The more practical experiments you do, the more confident of your theories and
researches you are.
- .
- The world cup is an international competition held every 4 years and parcipants from
the five continents participate in it.

( 98)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

- .
- There will be no stability as long as the demonstrations, strikes and sittings in are
continuous (occur continuously).
-
.
- The glorious victory of October will remain in the memory of all Egyptians and be a
witness to the greatness of the Egyptian soldier and his sacrifice for the dignity of his
country and restoring its usurped land.
-
.
- The High Dam is considered one of the greatest projects that Egypt carried out as it
provides us with electricity and protects Egypt from the danger of floods and drought.
- .
- A lot of students resort to use stimulants to help them stay up late and this is a fatal
mistake.
-
.
- The Egyptian national team made a record as they won The African nations' cup for
seven times in their history and this is an achievement which is considered for this
generation of players.
- .
- Criminals should be punished to protect the society from their danger.
-
.
- Working in politics needs a lot of flexibility lest there should be a clash among the
different parties which affects the country badly.
- .
- Never feel desperate. always look ahead and do your best to compensate/make up for
what you have lost or missed.
- .
- Folk stories often teach us something about life.
- .
- Any country can't do without the computer as it's part and parcel of the modern life.
- .
- The government is trying to solve traffic problems by constructing new roads and
flyovers.


( 99)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
- .
- We should raise our hands to Allah and ask him to guide our steps and not to let us go
astray in our lives.
-
.
- Your life is always full of challenges, so it's best to decide living happy in spite of all the
challenges.
-
.
-There must be a wise management that can change failure and negligence to
commitment and success in addition to eradicating the corruption spreading all over the
republic.
-
.
- Manual work requires a skill gained by practice while intelligence is considered one of
the most important success factors in the academic professions.
-

.
- It's necessary to find crucial solutions to the problem of vendors which is disturbing the
Egyptian street as they are a main reason for the traffic jam in most of our streets in
addition to being part and parcel of the crime spreading everywhere lately.
-
.
- By talk, disputes are settled and an end to the enmity / hostility between the conflicting
parties is put , while violence brings nothing but destruction / ruin and havoc.
-
.
- Egypt's water security is in danger, so any government running the country should
tackle this extremely important file positively.
-
.
- One advantage of inorganic farming is its contributing to solving the problem of
starvation that many people especially in the African countries are exposed to.





( 100)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599



wealth 15 valuable 1
ability
16
national
2 youth prosperity
/ witness
17
welfare
/ remarkable master 3
growth terrorism
4 dignity
19
economy
glorious negative
victory citizen
6 Thanks to production
The Arab League
20
renaissance
Effective role " " adaptable 8
" " Inner Climatic conditions
9 disputes direct
amongst / Life style
aggression fair
10 discipline
21
festival
fulfill several
Keep promises Self dependent
11
consequences
23
/ Care for
aware instinct 12
taming
25
/ benefit
13
require experiences
get promoted 26 acquaint
Catch diseases
29
culture
produce Developing countries
14
elections
30
Suffer " from"
presidency illiteracy
/ / intense poverty
rivalry ignorance
throne ambition
15
The state 31 Abroad


( 101)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

improve
42
The state
31 The Nile Basin encounter
national income
43
collapse
sources Is considered
32
encourage
44
giant
generation investment
exploit 45 contribute to + v+ing
/ prevail 46 traffic congestion
/ patience 47 universe
33
/ satisfaction
48
reveal
vanish bloodshed
34
/ precede
49
Innocent
nation / The soul
mummifying / " " trim
rationalizing
50
call for
consumption breakthrough
35
shortage / decrease global
exert
51
readiness
36
effort enable
constitution / fluent 37
unity extravagance
38 sects habit
fatal 52 get rid of
Indifference
53
" " financial
39 carelessness crisis
negligence storm
sloth media campaigns
40
put off = delay 55 awareness
difficulties
57
citizen
responsibility concern
challenges family planning
properly civilization
41
bear based on
self sufficiency 58 stability
justice 59 flourish


( 102)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

inorganic
72
apply
59
advantages concept
disadvantages citizenship
modify
73
distribution
genetically Negotiation
60
up till now compromise
coral reefs
74
widen
61
attract horizons
/ / bases
75
donate 62
individual deeds
63
protest about
76
go with
civil disobedience cope with
" " political catch up with
position trustee person
deterioration Christians
64
climate
78
equal
role Rights and duties
breakthrough ethnic
architecture discrimination
leap volcanoes
65
conflict
79
earthquakes
triumph torrents
seem floods
merciless Hurricanes
regret 80 Natural disasters
reform
81
establish
66
comprehensive districts
policy distinguished by
67
radical Differ from
overall imposing
68 aims taxes
desire limited
nasty
82
exception 69
egotism organic 72

( 103)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599


anger 91 egotist
82
/ contract
92
trait
monetary society
/ spare /

boycott
/ declined justice
83
enthusiasm
93
equality
zeal light
85
heritage
94
fuse
priceless sectarian
unaware discord
distinguished
97
brackets
fictional tissue
suspense vainly
excitement remain
budget 98 cohered
cleanliness
99
/ structure
behavior/behaviour pillar
86
Pilgrimage
100
deviation
Holy addiction
solar eclipse
101
bring up
phenomenon means
87
practical
102
/ an end
theory temptations
88
research homesickness
participants
103
crime
89
competition havoc
sit in
104
criminal
sitting in discords
occur = take place threaten
strike disturbances
demonstrations experimenting
90 stability theory
remain
105
practical
greatness reaction 91


( 104)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599


/ Pray
115
soldier
105
Raise sacrifice
Guide dignity
Astray usurped
challenge
116
carry out
106 In spite of provide
management
117
drought
negligence / resort
107
commitment stimulants
republic stay up late
manual work
118
fatal
factor flexibility 109
crucial
119
lest
110
vendor clash
/ disturb / desperate
111 part and parcel compensate
enmity / hostility
120
make up for
ruin folk 112
havoc do without
113 tackle = deal with 121 part and parcel
inorganic farming
122
modern life
starvation government
114 famine construct
expose to flyovers









( 105)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

acre abandon
across abbey
act on abbreviation
/ acute abnormal
adapt to / abolish
addiction abolition
addition abortion
/

adequate abruptly
/ adherence absent

/ adjacent

absolutely
/ adjust / absorb
adjustment / absorption
admission abstract
admit absurd

/ adolescent / abundant
adopt accent
adult acceptable
adventure acceptance
/

adverse access
advocate accessible
aesthetic accident
affection / accommodate
/ /

affinity accommodation
affluent = wealthy accompany
afford / accomplishment
aggregate / accord
aggression according to
/ aging accordingly
/ agony account
agriculture accumulation
aim = end = goal accuracy
air lines office accurate
/ / aliens accurately
align accusation
/ allegation accuse
alliance

accused
allocation acid
ally acknowledgement
altar

acquaintance
/ alter acquisition

( 106)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

artificial / alteration
ascertain alternative
ash

altogether
ashamed altruism
aspect amateur
aspiration ambassador
/ assassinate ambiguity
/ assault ambiguous
assemble ambitious
assertive

amend

assess amuse
/ assessment amusement
/ assignment ancestor
/ associate anniversary
/ / association / annoyance
assume annual
assumption anonymous
/ assurance antibody
/ assure

/ anticipation
astonish / anxious
/ asylum appalling

attachment append
/ attain

appendix
/ attainment appetite
attempt

applicant
attentive appraisal
/ attitude appreciate
/ attribute appreciation
auction = sale / approach
/ authorise / appropriate
/ authority

approximately

autonomous aquarium
autonomy / arbitrary
/

available arbitration
/ avarice archaeological
/ avenue architect
average architecture
aviation arise

avoidance

armed
/ await armor / armour

( 107)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

awareness / / arouse
awful articulate
bile / awkward
bilingual

/ axioms
birth control axis

bitter ) ( bachelor
/ blackmail / back
bleak / backbone
bleed backing

blessing

backward
blizzard bacteria
/ blow bad-tempered
/ bonus bail

booklet / balance
boom balanced
boost / ballot
borders

/ bankrupt
borough bankruptcy
bother barbarism
bounce barely
boundaries / bargain
/ / bow " / " bark
/ brainy = brilliant at barrages
branch barrel
brand barrier
/

breach barter
breakdown / base
breast basic
breed basis
breeze batch
bribe battle
bribery bay
brick beam
bride / / beg
/ brief / behalf
brigade behave
bring up = raise

belief

brochure belt
broker beneath
bruise beneficial

( 108)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

budget bet
bulk /

betray
bullet beyond
bulletin bias
/ charge bump
charity bunch
/ charm / bundle
/ charming / burden
chart bureau
/ charter bureaucracy
cheating burial
/ cheer burst
chemist bury
chimney cab = taxi
Christian / cabinet
) ( chronic campaign
circulation cancer
circumstance

candidate
cite / cap
citizen capability
/ citizenship / capital
civil servant capitalism
civilian / / captivate
/ civility car rental agency
civilization caravan
claim cargo
clarify carnivore
clarity carriage
clash cattle
classification / cause
classify / caution
/ clause

cautious
) /( claws / cavity
/ cliff ceiling
/ cling cellar
cloning cemetery
closure census
clumsy / ) ( chain
coach chairman
coal chalk

( 109)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

coalition chancellor
coastal chaos
/ cocky chapel
coexistence chapter
/ coherence / /

characteristic
coherent characterization
complicate / coincide

complicated /

coincidence
/ comply collaborate
/

component collaboration
/ compose / collapse
composer / " " collar
/ composition colleague

compound / collusion
comprehensive / colonel
/ / comprise colonial
/ / compromise colony
/ compulsory / colossal
conceit / colourless
/ conceive comb

concentrate / combat
concept combination
concern / command
/ concerning commander
concession commemorate

/ conclude commentary
conclusion

commentator
/ concrete commerce
conduct commercial
conductor committee
confer commodity
conference /

common
confess = admit community
confidential / compact
configuration companion
conflict comparison
conform compartment
/ confrontation / compassion
/ / confusion compatible
congratulate

/ compel

( 110)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

congratulation compensate
congregation compensation
/ / conquer / competence

/ conqueror / competent
conscience / / compile
conscious complaint
/ consciousness complement
/ consensus

complementary
contrary / consent
contribute to + ing / consequence
contribution / conservation
/ controversy / consistent
/ convalescence console
conventional / consonant
conversation / / conspicuous
conviction conspiracy
convince constable
convincing constant
cooperate ) ( constipation
cooperation constituency
coordinate constituent
cop / ) ( constitute
/ cope constitution
copyright constitutional
/

/ core constraint
corporation consulate
) ( corporation " " consultant
corps consumption
corpse contamination
correlate / contemplate
correlation contempt
/ corridor contemptuous
corrosion content
corruption context

costly / contract
/ costume contraction
/ cough / contractor
counsellor contractual
counterpart / contradict
countryside contradiction

( 111)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

/ dash / county
database coup

datum courtesy
dawn courtyard
deadline / covenant
deaf coverage
deafen coward
/ debate / crawl
debt

creation
debtor creature
" " decade credibility
/ decay credible
deceit creditor
/ decent creed
decision-making / creep
decisive crisis
/ declaration criterion
/ declare critic
/ decompose / critical
/ decorate /

crook
decree / crown
dedicate crucial
/ deed crude
/ defeat cruise
defect / crush
defend cultivation
defense / cumbersome
/ defer / cure
/ deficiency curiosity
/ deficient curious
deficit curriculum
/

define / curse
/ definite curtain
/ degenerate curve
/ dejection " " custom
delegation / customs

deliberate cutting off


delicate cylinder
demerits damp
demolish / / dare

( 112)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

/ diffuse demonstration
dignity denial

/ dilemma / denote

disabled denounce
/ disadvantages dense
disapprove density
disarm dentist
disarmament department
disaster departure
discard dependence
/ discern / dependency
/ disciplinary depict
/ discipline deplore
discomfort / deposit
/

discontent

depressed
discord depression
discount deprivation
discouragement deprive
discrimination / descendants
disguise deserted

disgusting deserve
dishonest desirable
dismissal / despair
dispense with desperate
/ displace / despite
displeasure / destination
disposal destiny
/ dispute / detain
/ disregard deter
disrupt deteriorate
/ disruption / determination
dissatisfaction deviate
dissatisfy deviation
dissident devil = Satan
/ dissipate / devise
dissolve

devote
dissuade diagnose
distant diagnosis
distinction diamond

) ( distinguishable diarrhea

( 113)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

economics

) ( distinguished
economist distortion
economy / distract
edifice distress
edition distribution

editor / district
effective disturb
effectiveness disturbance
efficiency divisions
/ efficient / divorce
effort do without
ego / doctrine
/ egotism documentation
egotist dome
elaborate / domestic
elections / dominate
elegant domination
element donate
/ elementary /

donation
elevate donor
elevator = lift dose
/ embarrass draft
/

embarrassed / drain
embassy / drastic
embody draught
embrace / dreadful
embryo drift
emergency drill
/ emigrant drought
emission drown
/ emotion drug store
emperor drugs
emphasis drunk
/ enclose dry cleaner
encyclopedia duly
endless dwelling
/ enhance ) ( / ) ( earnest
/

enlighten earthquake
enrich echo
enslave

economically

( 114)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

exactly ensure
exaggerate enterprise
/ excavation entertainment
/ exceed enthusiasm
excess enthusiast
/ excessive enthusiastic
exclude entire
exclusion entity
exclusive enumerate
execution envious
exemption envy
exert epidemics
/ / exhaust / equate
exhibition equation
/

exile equilibrium
existence

equitable
expand equity

expansion

equivalent
expect / era
expedition eradicate
expel / erect
expenditure erode
expense erosion
expiry / err
explicit escapism
explicitly essay
explosives / essence
expose essential
express / estimate
expression ethical
extend ethics
extensively ethnic
/ extent evaluation
external eventually
extinct everlasting
/ extinguish evidence
) ( extract = pull out / evil
extraordinary / evoke
/ extravagance evolution
/ fabric exact

( 115)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

/ fence

facilitate

ferry factor
fertile / factual
fertility / / fade

/ fertilizers failure
fervour / faint
fetch / fair
fever fairy
/ fidelity faith
fierce

faithful
/ figure

/ fallacy
filament fame
finance familiar
financial family planning
financial spare

fanatic
fine

fanatical
finger

fanaticism
finite / fancy
fireplace fantasy
/ / firm fare
firmly farther
fiscal / fascinate
/

fixed fasten
flame / fate
flatten fatigue
flavour fatty
fleet fault
flexibility / favourable
flick / feasible
float / feast
/ flock feather
flourish feature
fluctuate federal
/ fluent federation
/ fluid feeble

/ flush / fees
/ focus fellow
fog fellowship
folk feminine

fond feminist

( 116)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

/

fundamentally foolish
/ funding / footpath
/ funeral footstep
furthermore for instance
fury force
fuse forceful
fusion forecast
fuss forehead
/ / gaiety formal
gang formidable
gangster formula
gap formulate
/ garment

/ forthcoming
gas station

fortified
gasoline fortnight
/ / gasp fortunate
gate fortunately
gather fortune
general mobilization / forum
generalization fossil
generate foster
/ generation foundation
generous founder
/ genuine / fountain
geometric fraction
germicide fragile
/ / gesture fragment
glance / frame
/ glare franchise
global warming frankly
glorious / fraternal
go off = explode / / fraud
/ goodness / frequency
gossip frequent
graceful / friction

gradually friendliness
/ / grant frontier
grasp frustrate
/ gratitude / fulfill
/ gravity / fundamental

( 117)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

homesick / / greed
homogeneous groom
/ honest guarantee
horizon / guardian
hospitality / guidance
hostage guild
hostility / guilt
housing

guilty
hover " " habit
humanity habitat

humble ham
/ / humor / humour / handicap
/ hypocrisy handling
/ hypothesis / handy
ideal / / hardship
identification / harmony
identify hatred
/ idle / havoc
ignorance hay
illuminate ) ( heal
illusion health insurance
imitate heir
immature hell
immense herb
immigration herbal
imminent herbicide
immoral herd
immune hereafter
/ immunity " " heredity = genetics
impose heritage
impression hesitate
imprison / highlight
/

in vain high-pitched
inability hijack
inadequate hinder
inappropriate hindrance
incapable / hint
incentive

holy
incessant /

homeless
incidence homemade

( 118)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

/ innate incident
inner

/ incidental
innocence ) ( incisor
innocent / incompatible
innovation / inconsistent
innovative / incorporate
input incorrect
inquest / incurable
inquire

indeed
/ inquiry / independence
inquisitive / / indicate
insane indicator
insect indifference
/ insert indoors
/

insight / indulge
/ insist inequality
insistence inevitable
inspect

inevitably
/ inspection infer
inspector inference
inspiration inferior
inspire infinite
/ instant inflation
/ instinct influence
institute influential
institution /

inform
instruct informal

instructor infrastructure
/ / instrument ingredients
insufficient inhabitant
insult

inherent
insurance inherit
insure inheritance
intact inhibit
intake inhibition
/ integrate initiative
integrity inject
/ intellect injustice
intellectual ink
/ intelligence inn

( 119)
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Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

irony intelligent
irrelevant / intelligible
isolate intend
isolation intense
issue intensify
ivory intensity
jail intensive

jaw / intent on
jealous intention
jealousy

/ intentional
/ jerk interact
Jew interaction
jewel

interactive
jewellery interest
) ( jockey interfere
joint interference in

jointly interim
joke internal
/ journal intersect
journalist intervene
journey intervention
joy intimacy
judge intimate
/ judgment intrinsic
judicial / intuition
juice / intuitive
/

juicy / invade
/ junction / invaluable
jungle / invariably

/ junior / invasion

jury inverse

just invest
/ justice investigate
/

justification investment
justify

/ investor
kidnap invincible
kidney invisible
killing involve
/ kneel

involved
knife involvement

( 120)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

legend knight
legislate / knit
legislation / / knitting
legislative / knock
legislature / / knot
legitimate knowledge
leisure knowledgeable
/ lend known

lender / / label
length labour
lengthen labourer
lessen lack
lesser

lacking
level ladder
lever lamb
/ lewd / lame
liability landlady

liable to / landlord
liaison landscape
liar lane
/

liberal large-scale
liberate laughter
liberation / launch
liberty laundry shop
/ license lawn
lie lawyer
life insurance layer
lifespan / layout
lifestyle lazy
lifetime / / lead
/ / lift / / leaflet
/ lighten / league
lighting / leak
lightning leap
likelihood / lease
/ likeness leather
likewise lecture
limb

lecturer
limestone legacy
limit / legal

( 121)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

lunchtime limitation
lung limited
/ luxury line
machinery linear
/ / madden linen
/ magical lipstick
/ magician liquid
magistrate liquidation
/ magnificent literacy
/ / magnitude

literally
/ maid literary
/ mainstay literature
mainstream litigation
/ maintain liver
/ maintenance lives = souls
/ / majesty / / living
/ major

load
majority loaf
manage loan
management lobby
managerial local
/ mandatory locality
manifest

locally
/ manifestation locate
manipulate / location
manipulation

locomotion
manpower locomotive
/ manufacture locust
manufacturing logic
/

manure logical
manuscripts long-term
marble loose
margin lorry
marginal / / lounge
marine

loyal
marked / loyalty
marker luck
marsh lucky
/ / marvellous / luggage
marvels / lump

( 122)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

middle-class mass
/ mighty / massive
migrate match
migration / mate
mild material

militant maternal
/ military / / matter
mill mature
mine / / maturity
miner maximum
mineral means
minimal meantime
minimise meanwhile
minimum / measure
mining measurement
minor mechanism
minority media
/ minus melt
miracle membership
mirror / memorable
/ miserable memorandum
/ misery memorial
mishap mental
/ mislead mentally
/ missile

mention
/ missing mercenary
/

mission merchant
missive merciless
mist mercy
mistake mere
misunderstand merely
mixture merge
/ mob / merger
/ mobile merits
/ mobility

/ merry
/ mobilize mess
model message
/ moderate messenger
/ moderation / method
modern methodology

( 123)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

Muslim modest
/ mutation modesty
mutter modification

mutual modify
mysterious moist
/ mystery moisture
myth monastery
/ narrate monetary
/ narrative monitoring
/ narrow monk
nasty monopolize
/ nation monopoly
nationalism / monument
/ nationalist mood
/ nationalistic / moor
nationality moral
/ native morale
nature / morality
naval

morally
navy moreover
/ neat mortality
/ neatly / mortgage
necessity motherhood
negative / / motherly
neglect motion
negligence / / motivate
negotiate / motivation
negotiation / motive

neighbouring mount
nephew mourning
nerve moving
nervous multimedia
neutral / multiple
nevertheless multiplication
newcomer / multiply

nicely / municipal
niece / murder
nightmare murderer
Nile basin murmur
/ / noble muscle

( 124)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

/ / obsolete nobleman
/ obstacle / nod
obstinate noise
/ obstruct noisy
obtain / / nominal
obvious nominate
obviously nomination
occasion nonetheless
occupation nonsense

occupied norm
occupy / notable
odour notably
/ offence / notation
/ offend / noted
/ offender / notice
offensive / noticeable
/ official / / notion
offset notorious
/ old-fashioned nourishment
/ omission nuisance
/ omit / / null

on purpose / numerous
openly nun
/ / opinion nursery
/ opponent nursing
opportunist nutrients
opportunity nutrition
oppose oar

/ opposite obedience
opposition /

obedient
/ oppress obey
optical object
optimism objection
optimistic / objective
optional / obligation
/ oracle / / oblige
oral /

obscure
/ ordinary

observation
organ / observe
organic observer

( 125)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

/ parade organisation
paragraph organisational
/ /

parallel organise

/ pardon / organism
parliament / oriental
parliamentary

orientate
/ partake / orientation
/ / partial / origin

/ / partiality original

partially / originate

participant / ornament
/ participate

ornate
particle oscillate
particular oust

particularly / outbreak
partner outer
/ partnership

/ outline
/ parturition / outlook
/ / passion outskirts
passionate oven
passive overcome
pastry / overflow
/ pasture / overlook
patent / overnight
/ path / overtake
/ / patience / overthrow
/ patient overturn
patriot (n) overview
patriotic (adj) overwhelm
patrol overwhelming
patron ) ( owe
/ pattern owing to

payment owl
peace ownership
peaceful palace
peak / pale
pearl panel
peasant / / panic
/ peculiar papal
/

pedestrian / parachute

( 126)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

photography / peer
phrase / penalty
/ / physical pendulum
physician

/ / penetrate
pig peninsula
pigeon / pension
pile

pensioner
/ pilgrimage people's assembly
/ pill pepper
/ / pillar percentage
/ / pioneer / perception
piracy / perfect
/ pity perform
placement performance
/ / plain performer

/ plaintiff period
/ plant permanent
platform / permission
plausible / permit
playwright perpendicular
/

plea perpetrate
/ plead perpetual
pleasant / persist
pleased persistence
pleasure

persistent

/ pledge personal
/ plenty personality
/ plot

personally
/ plough personnel
plumber's persuade
/ plunge persuasion
poem / pertain
poet pertinent
poetry pervade

poison / pest
pole /

pet
/ polite / phase
politician phenomenon
/ politics philosophical
pollute philosophy

( 127)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

preoccupation pollution
/ prepare pool
prerequisite popularity
/ prescribe population
/ prescription portfolio
presence / / portion
present portrait
/ presentation portray
/ preservation position
/ preserve positive
presidency / post
president postcard
presidential postpone
press

/ postulate
pressure /

potential
presume pottery

pretence / pour
pretend poverty
pretty practical
/ prevail / practise
prevalence

/ practitioner
prevention pragmatic

previously praise (sb) for


prey / preach
/ prickly / precaution
pride precede
primitive precedent
principal precious

principally / precipitate
principle / precise
priority / precision
privacy predator
private predecessor
privately predict
privatisation /

predictable
/ privilege prediction
probability / / predominant

probable

pregnancy
procedures pregnant
process / premium

( 128)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

protest processing
proud of proclaim
prove produce
provided

producer
/

province productivity
/ provincial profession
provision / professional

provisional / profit
/ provoke profitability
/ / prudent

profitable
pub profound
publisher progress
publishing / progressive
/ pulse / prohibit
/ pump / prohibition
punch projection
/ punctual / prominent
punish / promise
punishment / promote
puppet / promotion
/ purchase / prompt
/ purchaser / proof
/ pure propaganda
purely / propensity
/ / purpose / proper
/ / pursue prophecy
/ / pursuit proportion

/ push / proportional
put off = delay proposal
/ putrid propose
/ puzzle proposition
qualifications proprietor

qualified / prosecute
/ qualify

/ prosecution
/ quality prospect
/ quantitative

prospective
quantity prosper
/ ) ( quantum / prosperity
/ / quarrel protect
/ quarrelsome protection

( 129)
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Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

recipient / quarter
/ recognize quench the thirst
/ recognition / / query
/ recommend / / quest
/ recommendation / questionnaire
/ reconcile queue
) ( reconciliation / quit
/ reconsider quotation
reconstruction " " quote
recording racial
/ recovery racism
recreation / radiant
/ /

recruit radiation
/ recruitment radical
/ recuperation rage
recycle / raid
redden random
/ reduce / rape
reduction rapid
/ redundancy rare
/ redundant rarity
refer rating

referee ratio
/ reference / rational
referendum rationalization
referral reaction
reflect

) ( reactor
reflection / readily
/ reform realism

reformer / realistic
refuge / reality
refugee reasonable at

refusal / reasoning
refute reassure
/ regain

rebel
/ regard / / rebellion
regardless of recall
regime receipt
regiment / recession
/ region / recipe

( 130)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

repay regional
repayment / registration
replace rehabilitation
replacement rehearsal
/ represent / reign
representation / reinforce

representative / reject
/ / repress

rejection
reprimand rejoice
/ / reproach / relate
reproduce related
reproduction / relation
republic / relationship
republican relative
/ reputation

relatively
request relax
required relaxation
/ requirement / release
researcher relevance
resemble relevant
/ resent / reliable
resentment reliance
/ reservation / relief
reserve religious
/ reservoir / relinquish
/ reside

reluctance
resident rely on = count on
residential / remain
residue remainder
resign remaining
resignation remark
resist / remarkable
resistance remedy
resolute remember
resolution

remind
resolve removal
/ resort remove
resource renaissance
/ respect rent

respectable repair

( 131)
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Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

rigour respectively
/ ring / respond
/ riot /

respondent
ripe / response
ripen responsible
/ risk restrain
/ ritual / restraint
/

rivalry restriction
romantic resume
root retention
root = instill retire
/ / rot

retired
rotate

retirement
rotation / retreat

/ rotten retrieve
/ roughly reveal
round

/ revelation
route / revenge
routine revenue

royal reverberate

royalty / reverse
/ rubbish revert
/ rudimentary review
ruin / revise
rumor / rumour /

revision
rural revival
/ rush revive
/ rust revolution
/ ruthless revolutionary
/ sabotage Revolver /gun /pistol

sacred / reward

/ / sacrifice rhythm
sadden rib
/ saddle ribbon
safeguard rid
/ sail ridicule = mock
saint ridiculous
sainthood / rifle
sake rights and duties
salary / rigid

( 132)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

selective salesman
selfish / salvation
selfishness / sample
semi-final / sanction
/ seminar / sanctuary
senate / satisfaction
senior

satisfactory
/ sensation saturate
/ / sense / sausage
/ senseless / saw
/ sensible /

/ saying
/ sensitive / scandal
sensitivity scar
/ sensual scarce

/ sentence to

scarcely

/ / separate scared
separately / scatter

/ separation / scenario
/ sequence / scene
) ( sergeant / / scenery
/ serial scent
series / / scope
seriously / scorn
/ sermon / scramble
session / / scrap
settle / scream
/ / settlement / script
severe seasonal
sew secrecy
/ shade sectarian
/ shadow section
/ / shake sector
shallow sects
/ / shame = disgrace / secular

shared / / secure

shareholder sediment
sharp seemingly
/

sharpen / seize
/ shave

/ seizure
/ shed

seldom

( 133)
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Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

skull / / shell
slam shelter
slap shield
slaughter / shift
/ slave

/ shine
/ slavery / / shiver

/ sleeve shock
/ slice of "meat" / shore
slide shortage
slight short-term
slim / / shot
slime shoulder
/ / slip / shower

slippery / shrink
slogan shy

/ slope siege
slot / sigh
/ slum

sign
slump signal
smart signature
/ / smash significance
/ / smooth significant
/ smoothly / signify
/ sneeze silence
social silly
socialism silver
socialist similarity

socially simplicity
society simply
socket simultaneous
sofa

simultaneously
soil / / sin
solar /

sincere
solemn / sincerely
solicitor situate
/ / solidarity / skeleton
solitary sketch
/ solo = alone skilful
solution skipper
solve / skirt

( 134)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

stability

solvent
/ stable / / sophisticated
/ stadium / sorcery
staff

/ / sore
" " stain / / sorrow
stamps soul
stance / sound
/ / startle sovereign
starvation = famine sovereignty
starve spare
state / species
statement

specific
/ stationary specifications
" " stationery shop specify
statistical / specimen
/ statistics / spectacle
/ statutory spectacular
steadily / spectator
steer speculate
/ stereotype

speculator
/ stiff / speech
/ stimulate / spelling
/ / stimulation spinster
/ stimulus spirit
/ stipulate spiritual
/ stipulation / splendid = luxury
/ stitch

spokesman
/ stove / sponge
straighten / sponsor
/ straightforward / sponsorship
strain / / spontaneous
strategy / spouse
/ straw / /

spray
/ / strengthen / spread
/ / stress / spy
/ / stretch squad
strict = firm / squadron
/ strike square
/ structural / squeeze
structure / stab

( 135)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

surplus / struggle
/ surrender stubborn

surrounding

/ stumble
/ survive

stunning
/ survivor stuntman
/ suspect subdivision

suspend / subjective
suspense / / submission
suspicion / subordinate
suspicious / subscription
/ swallow / / subside
/ swap / subsidiary
symbolic / subsidy
/ symmetry substance
sympathetic / / substantive
/ / symptom suburb
) ( syndrome / /

subversion

synopsis (n) / succession


synthetic

successive
/

systematic / successor
/ / tackle

sudden
/ takeover suffice
/ tale sufficiency
talent / suicide
talented

/ sum

/ tame

summarize
/ tangible

summary
tank summon
tape /

superb
target / superficial
/ tariff

superintendent
task superstition
tax supervision
taxation

supervisor
taxpayer / supplement

teenage / support

teenager / / suppress
temper surgeon
tempest = storm surgery

temporary surgical

( 136)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

trade / tempt
trader

temptations
) ( traditions

/ tenant
/ tragedy / tendency
tragic

/ tender
trail

/ tense

trainee terminate

trainer terms
/ training

/ /

terrify
/ trait / / terror
traitor terrorist
tranquil / textile
transact / / texture
transaction theft
/ transcription theorem
transfer / theoretical
transform theorist
/ transformation theory
transition therapist
translate /

therapy
translation thermal

translator / thesis
/ transmission thick
/ transmit threat
transparency / / thrill
transparent throne
transport thunder
/ trap

/ tighten
travel agency

tightly
traveller tissue
/ tray to my surprise
treason tolerance
treasure

tolerant
treasurer tolerate
/ treasury / / torture
treat / tournament
treatment / towel
treaty toxic
/ tremble / track
/ / tremendous tract

( 137)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

/ union trench
/ unique / / trend
unjust / trial
unknown tribe
/ unlawful tribunal

unlikely / tribute
unnatural trick
unnecessary triumph
/

unpleasant / trivial
unprecedented troop
unreasonable / trophy
unrest tropical

unsteady truce
unsuccessful truck
untidy / trunk
/ urban / trust
urgency / trustee
/

urgent truth

usurped tunnel
utility " " tusk
/ utilize ugly
utter

/ ulcer
/ vacation ultimate
vaccination unacceptable
/ vaccine uncertain

vain unconscious
/ / valid

underdeveloped
valuation undergo
variable / underlying

/ variant / undermine
variation undertake

varied undesirable

various unemployment
/ vast uneven
" " vegetarian /

unexpected
vehicle unfair
veil unfamiliar
vendor unfortunately
venture unfriendly

/ verdict unify

( 138)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

waste verify

wasteful

veteran
weaken veto
weakness vicar
wealth vice-president
weary vicious
/ weave victim
weep victory
weird viewpoint
whim / vigorous
/ whisper / violation
wicked violence
widen violent
widespread violin
widow / virgin
widower virtue
wildly virus
/ willing viscous
/ willingness / visible
witch vision
withdraw visual
withdrawal vital
/ witness vitamin
/ wonder / / vivid
wording vocational
workforce voicing opinion
working-class / voluntary
/ worship / volunteer
worthwhile / vote
/ worthy voter
) ( wrap / voucher
wrapper / vow / swear
/ wreck / / vulgar
/ wrongdoing waiter
yard wander
/ yield wardrobe
youngster warehouse
zeal / / warmth
Zionist warning = cautionary
zoology

warrior

( 139)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Prepositions
# (in) : -
- -:
- The sun rises in the morning.
- My father was born in 1977.
- in October / in 1982 / in winter / in the 19th century / in the twentieth century /
in the evening(s) / in the 1990s / in the middle ages.
- -:
- I have lived in Syria for three years.
- ) ( -:
- My brother will be here in a year. - They will get married in seven months .
# (at) : -
- -:
- Adnan gets up at 7:00 oclock. - I have my breakfast at eight o'clock .
- -:
- We visit each other at night. - Cocks crow at down .
# (on) : -
- : -
- I will be at home on Friday. - Man walked on the moon on 21 July 1969.
- ) ( -:
- Put the flowers on the table.
# (by) : -
- ) ( -:
- The football match was watched by thousands of people.
- ) ( -:
- They stood by the table. - Come and sit by me.
- ) ( -:
- By October we shall have finished painting the house.

# (in front of) : -
- ) ( : -
- Dont sit in front of the television.
# (next to) : -
- ) ( : -
- Sami always sits next to me.
- Next to English I think my favorite subject is history.

( 140)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
# (with) : -
- -:
- I opened the door with the key.
- ) ( -:
- I will go with you.
- ) ( : -
- The child with blue eyes is my brother.
# (from) : -
- ) ( : -
- He studies from six till eight oclock.
# (to) : -
- ) ( -:
- My father goes to work by bus.
- -:
- I traveled from Amman to Syria.
- Samia usually works from 7 oclock to 10 oclock.
- ) ( -:
- It is ten to four. ) (
- ) ( -:
- He went to Amman to meet his friend.

# (for) : -
- ) ( : -
- There is a letter for you.
- ) ( -:
- I have lived in Cairo for three years.
- ) ( -:
- I bought this car for 13000 U.S.D.
# (about) : -
- ) ( : -
- They are talking about you.
- ) ( -:
- I saw Khalid about two hours ago.
# (of) : -
- -:
- The results of the exam were good. - The roof of the cave had collapsed.
- ) ( -:
- She is dressing a coat of many colors.

( 141)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
- -:
- Half of the cake was eaten before lunch.



))) (((
With
acquaint with

/ familiar with
agree with fed up with
angry with (sb) ) ( fight with
annoyed with fill with
argue with friendly with
begin with furious with
busy with furnish with
charged with get bored with
collide with ill with
compare with interfere with
compete with loaded with


concerned with mix with
consult with pleased with (sb)
content with polite with
cooperate with popular with
correspond with Provide (sb) with (sth)
covered with satisfied with
crowded with shake with
deal with supply with
Deal with ) ( sympathize with
delighted with tremble with
difficulty with with black hair
disappointed with with pleasure
dispense with with the help of
endowed with write with (Sth) ) (
exchange with ) ( wrong with


))) (((


( 142)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
At
at the crossroad (...) at the age of (...)
at the invitation of aim at
at work amazed at
bad at angry at
bark at angry at (Sth)
brilliant at " " arrive at
" " buy at astonished at
) ( call at at (the) university
clever at at 2 o'clock
expert at at a glance
fire at

at a guess
gaze at at a high price
good at / / at a loss
hopeless at at a temperature of
joke at at any rate
laugh at at breakfast
pleased at (sth) at dawn
point at

at fault
quick at at first sight
sad at at least
shocked at at leisure
shout at

/ at length
skilful at

at liberty
skilful at / at most
slow at at noon
smile at / at once
stare at at present
successful at at random

surprised at at sea
throw at at sunrise
wonderful at at the cinema

By
by and large by 10 oclock
/ by birth by 10 per cent
by bus by accident
by cheque by Ahmed
by far / by all accounts
by force by and by

( 143)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

By
by taxi by hand
by telephone /

by heart
by the day by luck
By the sea by means of
By the way by mistake
) ( catch by by nightfall
/ one by one by October
side by side

by order
step by step

by sea

In
in danger .... have trouble in +
in demand a decrease in
in detail an increase in
in doubt " " arrive in
/

in exchange for believe in


in fact breathe in

in favor of come in

in flames deal in
in front of difficulty in
in fun employ in
in general expert in
in Germany fail in
/ in hand fill in
in honor of / get in
in Italian

in a hurry
in love with

in a loud/ low voice


in memory of / in a nutshell
in need of / in a queue
in oils in a row
/ in order to in Africa
in other words in aid of
/ in pain / in and out
in pairs in bed

in person in charge of
in prison in confidence
/ in progress

in control of

( 144)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

In
participate in in reality
persist in

in ruins
result in

In search of
rich in

in the flesh
succeed in in the morning
take in in the newspaper
take part in

in theory

they Have things in common

in use
trade in in vain
trust in

interested in
weak in

involved in
) ( write in (ink) keep in touch with

On
live on act on
oblige on an attack on
on arrival an expert on
/ on (the) air bank on
on a diet base on
on a tour ) ( ) ( blame (sth) on (sb)
on a trip ) ( call on (sb)
on an expedition come on
on and off comment on
on and on concentrate on
/ on approval congratulate on
on average count on
) ( on bail depend on
on behalf of

dependent on
on birthday / economize on
/ on board experiment on
on business feed on
/ on call go on
on condition that impress on
on credit insist on
/ on duty /

intent on

on edge keen on

on fire keep on

( 145)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599


On
on the horse on foot
on the news on Friday
on the outskirt on good terms
on the pavement on horseback
on the television on impulse

on the whole

on loan
on time on my way to
operate on

on no condition
put on on parade
rely on

on purpose
) ( reply on

on sale
revenge on on schedule
spend on on sight
take pity on (sb) on the beach
wait on on the bus
/ waste on on the contrary
/ work on on the floor

From
" " hear from (sb) borrow from
keep away from / deviate from
) ( obtain from ) / ( die from

prevent from differ from


profit from

different from
protect from discourage from
receive (sth) from / dismiss from
recover from ) ( dissuade (sb) from
rescue from distinguish from
resign from escape from

result from from 2 o'clock


separate from from Ahmed


stop from from London
suffer from

from now on

)) ((

( 146)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Of
guilty of a supply of
hear of

accused of
ignorant of afraid of
Independent of ashamed of
jealous of aware of
made of boast of
make fun of by means of
panic of capable of
proud of complain of
remind of compose of
/ repent of consist of
rob (SB) of (STH) cure (sb) of (sth)
scared of ) ( deprive (sb) of
sure of despair of

suspicious of ) / ( die of
take care of dispose of
terrified of dream of
the aim of fear of
the cause of

fond of
the city of Zagazig frightened of
think of get out of
/ / tired / sick of get rid of

For
feel pity for a cure for

fit for a treatment for


for a while

anxious for
for ages apologize for
for fun apply for

for granted ask for


for rent blame (sb) for (sth)
for sale care for (sb)
for ten miles easy for
for the time being enough for
for two years exchange for
for your sake excuse for
get ready for famous for


( 147)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

For
prepare for go for
provide (sth) for (sb) good for

ready for Grateful to (sb) for (sth)


reason for hope for
remedy for in return for
responsible for inclined for
search for

late for
spend for leave for
suitable for long for
supply (sth) for (sb) look for
) ( thank (sb) for look for
wait for pay for

Out
out of luck die out
out of place out of condition
out of print out of date

out of reach out of doors


out of season out of hand
/ out of the ordinary

out of sight

out of use out of step


pick out out of stock

About
dream about ) ( angry about
excited about ) ( annoyed about
happy about anxious about
hear about ask about
Inform about care about
Inquire about certain about
tell about ) / ( complain about
think about concerned about
worried about doubtful about

)) ((

( 148)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
Into
crash into a research into
/ divided into break into
drive into bump into
/ run into burst into
/ split into change into
turn / make into convert into


To

liable to

according to
lie to

accustomed to
listen to add to
look forward to

amounting to
married to an answer to
native to apply to
obedient to attribute to
object to belong to
occur to close to
oppose to " " compare (sth) to (sth)
) ( ) ( Prefer (sth) to (sth) ) ( complain to
/ related to contrary to
) ( reply to damage to

resistant to eager to
similar to engaged to
solution to

equal to
) / ( subscribe to

exposed to
superior to

faithful to
surrender to
grateful to (sb) for (sth)

thankful to (sb) for (sth)
in accordance to
useful to in order to
vital to instruct to
willing to " " " " introduce (sb) to (sb)
with reference to lead to


))) (((

( 149)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599
To + ing
look forward to Be accustomed to
object to Be used to
prefer (sth) to (sth) contribute to
/ take / stick to devote to


right about against the law
/ struggle against branch into
translate into care about (sth)
under age / convert into

under arrest divide into


/ under discussion doubtful about (sth)
/

under the weather fight against


/ uneasy about off duty
vote against off limits
within minutes out of the blue

/ without fail rebel against















The Diamond
Second edition
Mr / Hatem Kamal

( 150)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

.

buy + + at + ) ( able to + inf
by all means = certainly adapt to = get on with
by means of = by using / admire (sb) for (sth)
by myself = alone agree (on/about)
by virtue of = thanks to aim to + inf = aim at + "v+ing"
/ call for apart from = except for
call on apply for + " / / "
Capable of + ing apply to + " / "
" " care about argue about
" " care for = look after argue against
/ catch up with argue for
collaborate with ) ( argue with
complain about + ( / ) ) ( arrive at
complain of + () ) ( arrive in
complain to + () at the age of + ) (
consult about aware of
contribute to + v+ing /

bad for = damaging to


cooperate with /

bad for = harmful to


/ cope with = go with benefit from

) ( covered in blame (sb) for (sth)


) ( covered with blame (sth) on (sb)


cure (sb) of (disease) " / " " " break down
/ cut down trees break into
dangerous to ) / ( break out
" /" " " deal with / break up
/ have a good command of difficult to + inf
hurry up difficulty in + "v+ing"
in charge of = take over dispense with
in exchange for /in return to do report on

in recognition of do with out



( 151)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

in the age of Morsy dressed up
in the end = at last / drop off
in time effect on
increase by enquire about
increase in expert (in /on)
inform (of/about) famous for (sth) to (sb)
insist on = persist in fill in
/ keep up with / fluent in
kind to focus on
knock (on/at) / follow in
lead to + "v+ing" fond of = crazy about
lie to for example
look down on (sth/sb) for instance
look like = take after frustrated with
look up to (sth/sb) full of = filled with
made by furious with

) (
made from gaze at = stare at
made in get at = mean

) (
made of give back = bring back
Make fun of = take in / ) ( go off
make into go on = keep on
make out of grow into
/ / make up grow up
/ make up = compose hang on

make up for hang up


/ / put up = raise make/pay a visit
put up with = bear manage to
put within = enclose of (SB's) own / belong to
reason for + () on my own = alone
reason why +() on the contrary
reasonable at

on time
rob (sb) of + () out of the blue

( 152)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599

run away over come
) ( run on over flow = flood
run out / own up = admit
run out of = use up own up to + "v+ing"
saddle (sb) with (sth) participate in = take part in
scared of pay + + for +
search for pay attention to
see off pile up
set off play trick on
show off plot against
/ sick of = bored with point at
speak to / Point out
spend + + on + point to
stamp out popular with
stay up late prevent from
steal + () prey on
step down protest about = object to+ ing
succeed in provide (sb) with (sth)
successful (at/in) provide (sth) for (sb)
supply with put (sb) away
suspect in

put (sb) forward


sympathize with put (sth) off
take (sth) in put out a fire
/ take (sth) off = remove put out a fire
threaten (sb) with (gun) " " take care of
to a great extent take charge = responsible for
) ( train (sb) in take notes = write down
treatment for = cure for take off = fly
" " try on take off = imitate
under take take on = employ
up use take to = like
wait on = serve take turns to
warn (sb) of ) / ( take up
was educated at + () terrified of

( 153)
The Diamond In English
Mr / Hatem Kamal 01002622599


was graduated from + + in+ ( / )
thank (sb) for (sth)
win prize for the fire went out
/ within = in threaten (sb) to + inf


1- For :-
# a cheque for 150$ # a need for # a demand for # a reason for
- Ellen gave the landlady a cheque for 80.

2- Of :-
# an advantage of # a cause of
- The advantage of living alone is that you can do what you like.
(there is) : -
- There is many advantages (in / to) living alone.

3- In :-
# an increase in # a decrease in # a rise in # a fall in
- I expect an increase in my salary next month.

4- to :-
# a damage to
# a solution to (problem)
# an answer to (question)
# a reaction to
# an invitation to
# a key to (door / flat)
# a reply to (letter)
# an attitude (to / towards)
- The damage to a car after an accident is easily seen.

5- with :-
# a (relationship / connection / contact) with
- Do you have a good relationship with your parents.
(between) : -
# a (relationship / connection / contact / difference) between
- The police believe that there is a connection between the two crimes.


Noun + Preposition