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2007 Mississippi Curriculum Framework

Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration


Technology
(Program CIP: 47.0201 Heating, Air Conditioning, Ventilation and Refrigeration Maintenance
Technology/Technician)

Direct inquiries to
Debra West
Director for Career and Technical Education
State Board for Community and Junior Colleges
3825 Ridgewood Road
Jackson, MS 39211
(601) 432-6518
dwest@sbcjc.cc.ms.us

Jo Ann Watts
Instructional Design Specialist
Research and Curriculum Unit
P. O. Drawer DX
Mississippi State, MS 39762
(662) 325-2510
jaw1@ra.msstate.edu
Additional copies
Research and Curriculum Unit for Workforce Development
Vocational and Technical Education
Attention: Reference Room and Media Center Coordinator
P. O. Drawer DX
Mississippi State, MS 39762
http://cia.rcu.msstate.edu/curriculum/download.asp
(662) 325-2510
Published by
Office of Vocational Education and Workforce Development
Mississippi Department of Education
Jackson, MS 39205

Research and Curriculum Unit for Workforce Development
Vocational and Technical Education
Mississippi State University
Mississippi State, MS 39762

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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
The Mississippi Department of Education, Office of Vocational Education and Workforce
Development does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, age,
or disability in the provision of educational programs and services or employment opportunities
and benefits. The following office has been designated to handle inquiries and complaints
regarding the non-discrimination policies of the Mississippi Department of Education: Director,
Office of Human Resources, Mississippi Department of Education, 359 North West Street, Suite
359, Jackson, Mississippi, 39201, (601) 359-3511.
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Acknowledgments

Writing Team Wesley Carson, Hinds Community College, Raymond, MS
Darel Daniels. Copiah-Lincoln Community College,
Wesson, MS
Lester Miles, Mississippi Delta Community College,
Moorhead, MS
Whit S. Perry, Northwest Community College, Sentatobia,
MS
Bob Savino, Copiah-Lincoln Community College, Natchez,
MS
Michael Warren, Jones County Junior College, Ellisville,
MS
William Wilson, East Central Community College, Decatur,
MS

RCU Staff Jo Ann Watts Instructional Design Specialist

Professional Curriculum
Advisory Team
Mississippi Construction Education Foundation, Ridgeland,
MS


Standards in this document are based on information from the following organizations:

Contren Learning Series Best
Practices

Reprinted with permission from Contren Learning Series,
Copyright 2002, National Center for Construction
Education and Research, (352) 334-0920,
http://www.nccer.org/index.asp

Related Academic Standards CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC. (1994). Tests of adult basic
education, Forms 7 and 8. Monterey, CA: Author.
Reproduced with permission of CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC.
TABE is a registered trademark of The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc. Copyright 1994 by CTB/McGraw-
Hill LLC. Reproduction of this material is permitted for
educational purposes only.

21
st
Century Skills

Reproduced with permission of the Partnership for 21
st

Century Skills. Further information may be found at
www.21stcenturyskills.org
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Preface

Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Research Synopsis

Articles, books, Web sites, and other materials listed at the end of each course were considered
during the revision process. Modern Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, Electricity and
Controls, Warm Air Heating for Climate Control, and the RSES Journal: Heating, Ventilation,
Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration were especially useful in providing insight into trends and
issues in the field. These references are suggested for use by instructors and students during the
study of the topics outlined.

Industry advisory team members from colleges throughout the state were asked to give input
related to changes to be made to the curriculum framework. Specific comments related to soft
skills needed in this program included punctuality, communication skills, appearance, problem
solving skills, and initiative. Occupation-specific skills stated included electrical knowledge and
troubleshooting. Safety practices emphasized included personal safety, as well as fire, electrical,
and chemical safety.

Instructors from colleges throughout the state were also asked to give input on changes to be
made to the curriculum framework. Specific comments related to this program included
statements from Advisory Committee members including this is a good program which covers
the needs of industry. Changes suggested for the curriculum included providing math skills
necessary to complete the work and stressing employability skills.

Curriculum
The following national standards were referenced in each course of the curriculum:
CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC Tests of Adult Basic Education, Forms 7 and 8 Academic Standards
21
st
Century Skills
Contren Best Practices

Industry and instructor comments, along with current research, were considered by the
curriculum revision team during the revision process; changes were made as needed and
appropriate. Many of the skills and topics noted in the research were already included in the
curriculum framework. Specific changes made to the curriculum at the April 6-7, 2006
curriculum revision meeting included:
Competencies and objectives were reviewed to ensure accuracy and appropriateness.
The competency wording was strengthened using Blooms Taxonomy list.
The Recommended Tools and Equipment list was reviewed.

Assessment
Students will be assessed using the Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and
Refrigeration MS-CPAS2 Test.

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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Professional Learning
It is suggested that instructors participate in professional learning related to the following
concepts:
Computer skills for college credit To learn more about computer skills instruction such as
keyboarding, word processing, PowerPoint, etc., please go to
http://msvcc.blackboard.com/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp.
Computer skills for CEU credit To learn more about computer skills instruction such as
keyboarding, word processing, PowerPoint, etc., please go to
https://cia.rcu.msstate.edu/OnlinePD/.
Keyboarding skills To learn to keyboard, please go to http://www.learn2type.com/ for a
free typing tutor.
Blackboard

training To learn more about Blackboard

training, please go to
https://cia.rcu.msstate.edu/OnlinePD/.
Contren Learning Series Certification To learn more about Contren Learning Series
Certification, please contact Mike Barkett at mike@mcef.net.
For the latest in online and yearly Connect training provided by the RCU, please go to
http://info.rcu.msstate.edu/.


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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Foreword

As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices
and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory
management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do
business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate effectively; think
creatively, solve problems, and make decisions; and interact with each other and the technologies
in the workplace. Vocational-technical programs must also adopt these practices in order to
provide graduates who can enter and advance in the changing work world.

The curriculum framework in this document reflects these changes in the workplace and a
number of other factors that impact on local vocational-technical programs. Federal and state
legislation calls for articulation between high school and community college programs,
integration of academic and vocational skills, and the development of sequential courses of study
that provide students with the optimum educational path for achieving successful employment.
National skills standards, developed by industry groups and sponsored by the U. S. Department
of Education and Labor, provide vocational educators with the expectations of employers across
the United States. All of these factors are reflected in the framework found in this document.

Referenced throughout the courses of the curriculum are the 21
st
Century Skills, which were
developed by the Partnership for 21
st
Century Skills, a group of business and education
organizations concerned about the gap between the knowledge and skills learned in school and
those needed in communities and the workplace. A portion of the 21
st
Century Skills addresses
learning skills needed in the 21
st
century, including information and communication skills,
thinking and problem-solving skills, and interpersonal and self-directional skills. The need for
these types of skills has been recognized for some time and the 21
st
Century Skills are adapted in
part from the 1991 report from the U. S. Secretary of Labors Commission on Achieving
Necessary Skills (SCANS). Another important aspect of learning and working in the 21
st
century
involves technology skills, and the International Society for Technology in Education,
developers of the National Educational Technology Standards (NETS), were strategic partners in
the Partnership for 21
st
Century Skills.

Each postsecondary program of instruction consists of a program description and a suggested
sequence of courses which focus on the development of occupational competencies. Each
vocational-technical course in this sequence has been written using a common format which
includes the following components:

Course Name A common name that will be used by all community/junior colleges in
reporting students.

Course Abbreviation A common abbreviation that will be used by all community/junior
colleges in reporting students.

Classification Courses may be classified as:
o Vocational-technical core A required vocational-technical course for all
students.
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
o Area of concentration (AOC) core A course required in an area of concentration
of a cluster of programs.
o Vocational-technical elective An elective vocational-technical course.
o Related academic course An academic course which provides academic skills
and knowledge directly related to the program area.
o Academic core An academic course which is required as part of the
requirements for an Associate degree.

Description A short narrative which includes the major purpose(s) of the course and the
recommended number of hours of lecture and laboratory activities to be conducted each
week during a regular semester.

Prerequisites A listing of any courses that must be taken prior to or on enrollment in the
course.

Corequisites A listing of courses that may be taken while enrolled in the course.

Competencies and Suggested Objectives A listing of the competencies (major concepts and
performances) and of the suggested student objectives that will enable students to
demonstrate mastery of these competencies.

The following guidelines were used in developing the program(s) in this document and should be
considered in compiling and revising course syllabi and daily lesson plans at the local level:

The content of the courses in this document reflects approximately 75 percent of the time
allocated to each course. The remaining 25 percent of each course should be developed at the
local district level and may reflect:
o Additional competencies and objectives within the course related to topics not
found in the State framework, including activities related to specific needs of
industries in the community college district.
o Activities which develop a higher level of mastery on the existing competencies
and suggested objectives.
o Activities and instruction related to new technologies and concepts that were not
prevalent at the time the current framework was developed/revised.
o Activities which implement components of the Mississippi Tech Prep initiative,
including integration of academic and vocational-technical skills and coursework,
school-to-work transition activities, and articulation of secondary and
postsecondary vocational-technical programs.
o Individualized learning activities, including worksite learning activities, to better
prepare individuals in the courses for their chosen occupational area.

Sequencing of the course within a program is left to the discretion of the local district.
Naturally, foundation courses related to topics such as safety, tool and equipment usage, and
other fundamental skills should be taught first. Other courses related to specific skill areas
and related academics, however, may be sequenced to take advantage of seasonal and
climatic conditions, resources located outside of the school, and other factors.
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Programs that offer an Associate of Applied Science degree must include a minimum 15
semester credit hour academic core. Specific courses to be taken within this core are to be
determined by the local district. Minimum academic core courses are as follows:
o 3 semester credit hours Math/Science Elective
o 3 semester credit hours Written Communications Elective
o 3 semester credit hours Oral Communications Elective
o 3 semester credit hours Humanities/Fine Arts Elective
o 3 semester credit hours Social/Behavioral Science Elective

It is recommended that courses in the academic core be spaced out over the entire length of
the program, so that students complete some academic and vocational-technical courses each
semester. Each community/junior college has the discretion to select the actual courses that
are required to meet this academic core requirement.

In instances where secondary programs are directly related to community and junior college
programs, competencies and suggested objectives from the high school programs are listed as
Baseline Competencies. These competencies and objectives reflect skills and knowledge that
are directly related to the community and junior college vocational-technical program. In
adopting the curriculum framework, each community and junior college is asked to give
assurances that:
o Students who can demonstrate mastery of the Baseline Competencies do not
receive duplicate instruction, and
o Students who cannot demonstrate mastery of this content will be given the
opportunity to do so.

The roles of the Baseline Competencies are to:
o Assist community/junior college personnel in developing articulation agreements
with high schools, and
o Ensure that all community and junior college courses provide a higher level of
instruction than their secondary counterparts.

The Baseline Competencies may be taught as special Introduction courses for 3-6 semester
hours of institutional credit which will not count toward Associate degree
requirements.community and junior colleges may choose to integrate the Baseline
Competencies into ongoing courses in lieu of offering the Introduction courses or may
offer the competencies through special projects or individualized instruction methods.

Technical elective courses have been included to allow community colleges and students to
customize programs to meet the needs of industries and employers in their area.

In order to provide flexibility within the districts, individual courses within a framework may be
customized by:
Adding new competencies and suggested objectives.
Revising or extending the suggested objectives for individual competencies.
Integrating baseline competencies from associated high school programs.
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Adjusting the semester credit hours of a course to be up 1 hour or down 1 hour (after
informing the State Board for Community and Junior Colleges [SBCJC] of the change).

In addition, the curriculum framework as a whole may be customized by:
Resequencing courses within the suggested course sequence.
Developing and adding a new course which meets specific needs of industries and other
clients in the community or junior college district (with SBCJC approval).
Utilizing the technical elective options in many of the curricula to customize programs.
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Table of Contents
Acknowledgments............................................................................................................................3
Preface..............................................................................................................................................4
Foreword..........................................................................................................................................6
Program Description......................................................................................................................11
Suggested Course Sequences.........................................................................................................13
Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology Courses .........................17
Basic Compression Refrigeration ..............................................................................................17
Tools and Piping ........................................................................................................................23
Controls......................................................................................................................................29
Refrigeration System Components ............................................................................................35
Electricity for Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration................................41
Professional Service Procedures................................................................................................48
Commercial Refrigeration .........................................................................................................52
Air Conditioning I......................................................................................................................58
Air Conditioning II ....................................................................................................................64
Refrigerant, Retrofit, and Regulations.......................................................................................71
Heating Systems.........................................................................................................................75
Heat Load and Air Properties ....................................................................................................83
Special Project in Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology......91
Supervised Work Experience in Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration
Technology ......................................................................................................................92
Work-Based Learning I, II, III, IV, V, and VI...........................................................................93
Recommended Tools and Equipment ............................................................................................94
Assessment.....................................................................................................................................97
Baseline Competencies ..................................................................................................................98
Appendix A: Contren Best Practices for Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and
Refrigeration ............................................................................................................................103
Appendix B: Related Academic Standards..................................................................................117
Appendix C: 21
st
Century Skills ..................................................................................................118

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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Program Description

Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology is a postsecondary
instructional program that prepares individuals to work in engineering departments or private
firms installing, maintaining, and operating small or medium air conditioning, heating, and
refrigeration systems. Instruction prepares individuals to work in a commercial setting
performing special tasks relating to designing ductwork, assembly, installation, servicing,
operation, and maintenance of heating, cooling, and refrigeration systems according to the
standards of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers
Inc., Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA), Air Conditioning Refrigeration Institute
(ARI), and others. Included are air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration devices; equipment,
techniques, and systems; and maintenance and operation of these systems.

Industry standards referenced are from the Best Practices for Contren Learning Series, National
Center for Construction Education and Research.

PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology is an articulated technical
program designed to provide its students with technical skills. Entry into the program is based
upon mastery of skills which are taught in secondary Heating and Air Conditioning programs.
Students who do not possess such skills must do so in order to graduate from the program. The
technical program consists of baseline competencies skills which may be obtained in a secondary
program or at the community/junior college and technical skills and academics which must be
obtained at the community/junior college level.

The curriculum for Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology is
based upon data as collected from curricula guides, input from the business, national standards,
and a revision team. The listing of tasks within these documents served as baseline data for the
development of this curriculum. The task list used in this curriculum is based upon the following
assumptions:

1. In all areas, appropriate theory, safety, and support instruction will be provided for each
task. It is essential that all instruction include use of the appropriate equipment needed to
accomplish certain tasks. It is also assumed that each student has received instruction to
locate and use current reference materials from publications which present
manufacturers recommended or required specifications and procedures for doing the
various tasks.
2. The individual program should have written and detailed evaluation standards for each
task covered in the curriculum. Learning progress of students should be monitored and
evaluated against these stated standards. A system should be in place which informs all
students of their progress throughout the program.
3. It is recognized that individual courses will differ across the technical programs. The
development of appropriate learning activities and tests will be the responsibility of the
individual program.
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
4. These standards require that tasks contained in the list be included in the program to
validate that the program is meeting the needs of the business.
5. Students will be responsible for acquiring necessary certifications as required for
employment in the HVACR industry.

The curriculum for Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology is
designed to serve as the core curriculum for approximately 75 percent of each course at the
postsecondary level. The remaining 25 percent of each course is to be added at the local level
based upon needs of students and area employers.

The technical program in Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
requires a minimum of 66 semester credit hours (sch) beyond the baseline competencies. Fifteen
semester credit hours of academic core courses are included in this minimum.

A vocational certificate in Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
requires a minimum of 54 semester credit hours (sch) beyond the baseline competencies.


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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Suggested Course Sequence*
Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology

Baseline Competencies for Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration
Technology**

ASSOCIATE DEGREE

FIRST YEAR

5 sch Basic Compression Refrigeration
(ACT 1125)
3 sch Electricity for Heating, Ventilation,
Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration
(ACT 1713)
3 sch Technical Elective***
3 sch Tools and Piping (ACT 1133)
3 sch Written Communications Elective
_______
17 sch
3 ch Refrigeration System Components
(ACT 1313)
3 sch Professional Service Procedures
(ACT 1813)
3 sch Controls (ACT 1213)
3 sch Technical Elective***
3 sch Math/Science Elective
_______
15 sch



SECOND YEAR

4 sch Air Conditioning I (ACT 2414)
3 sch Heating Systems (ACT 2513)
4 sch Heat Load and Air Properties (ACT
2624)
3 sch Oral Communications Elective
3 sch Humanities/Fine Arts Elective
_______
17 sch
4 sch Air Conditioning II (ACT 2424)
4 sch Commercial Refrigeration (ACT
2324)
3 sch Refrigerant, Retrofit, and
Regulations (ACT 2433)
3 sch Social/Behavioral Science
3 sch Technical Elective***
_______
17 sch

* Students who lack entry level skills in math, English, science, etc. will be provided
related studies.

** Baseline competencies are taken from the high school Heating and Air Conditioning
program. Students who can document mastery of these competencies should not receive
duplicate instruction. Students who cannot demonstrate mastery will be required to do so.

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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
TECHNICAL ELECTIVES***

3 sch Industrial Maintenance Blueprint Reading (IMM 1132)
3 sch Business Accounting (BOT 1433)
3 sch Fundamentals of Microcomputer Applications (CPT 1113) or any Computer
Applications elective
4 sch Fundamentals of Drafting (DDT 1114)
2 sch Fundamentals of Electronics (EET 1192)
3 sch Programmable Logic Controllers (ELT 2613)
3 sch Blueprint Reading (MST 1413)
3 sch Welding elective
1-3 sch Special Project in Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
[ACT 291(1-3)]
1-6 sch Supervised Work Experience in Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and
Refrigeration Technology [ACT 292(1-6)]
1-3 sch Work-Based Learning I, II, III, IV, V, VI [WBL 191(1-3), WBL 192(1-3), WBL 193(1-
3), WBL 291(1-3), WBL 292(1-3), WBL 293(1-3)]
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Suggested Course Sequence*
Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology

Baseline Competencies for Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration
Technology**

Vocational Certificate

FIRST YEAR

5 sch Basic Compression Refrigeration
(ACT 1125)
3 sch Electricity for Heating, Ventilation,
Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration
(ACT 1713)
3 sch Technical Elective***
3 sch Tools and Piping (ACT 1133)
______
14 sch
3 sch Refrigeration System Components
(ACT 1313)
3 sch Professional Service Procedures
(ACT 1813)
3 sch Controls (ACT 1213)
3 sch Technical Elective***
_______
12 sch



SECOND YEAR

4 sch Air Conditioning I (ACT 2414)
3 sch Heating Systems (ACT 2513)
4 sch Heat Load and Air Properties (ACT
2624)
3 sch Technical Elective***
_______
14 sch
4 sch Air Conditioning II (ACT 2424)
4 sch Commercial Refrigeration (ACT
2324)
3 sch Refrigerant, Retrofit, and
Regulations (ACT 2433)
3 sch Technical Elective***
_______
14 sch

* Students who lack entry level skills in math, English, science, etc. will be provided
related studies.

** Baseline competencies are taken from the high school Heating and Air Conditioning
program. Students who can document mastery of these competencies should not receive
duplicate instruction. Students who cannot demonstrate mastery will be required to do so.

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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
TECHNICAL ELECTIVES***

3 sch Industrial Maintenance Blueprint Reading (IMM 1132)
3 sch Business Accounting (BOT 1433)
3 sch Fundamentals of Microcomputer Applications (CPT 1113) or any Computer
Applications elective
4 sch Fundamentals of Drafting (DDT 1114)
2 sch Fundamentals of Electronics (EET 1192)
3 sch Programmable Logic Controllers (ELT 2613)
3 sch Blueprint Reading (MST 1413)
3 sch Welding elective
1-3 sch Special Project in Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
[ACT 291(1-3)]
1-6 sch Supervised Work Experience in Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and
Refrigeration Technology [ACT 292(1-6)]
1-3 sch Work-Based Learning I, II, III, IV, V, VI [WBL 191(1-3), WBL 192(1-3), WBL 193(1-
3), WBL 291(1-3), WBL 292(1-3), WBL 293(1-3)]
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Courses

Course Name: Basic Compression Refrigeration

Course Abbreviation: ACT 1125

Classification: Vocational-Technical Core

Description: An introduction to the field of refrigeration and air conditioning. Emphasis is
placed on principles of safety, first aid, thermodynamics, heat transfer, recovery, and lubricants.
(5 sch: 2 hr. lecture, 6 hr. lab)

Prerequisite: None

Competencies and Suggested Objectives
1. Describe basic refrigeration and air conditioning.
a. Explain the history of air conditioning and refrigeration.
b. Explain the differences between air conditioning and refrigeration.
c. Explain the four major components of the vapor compression refrigeration system.
d. Determine career opportunities in the heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration
industry.
e. Describe the role of the various trade associations.
2. Explain/describe the principles of thermodynamics and heat transfer.
a. Define matter and heat.
b. Explain the direction and rate of heat flow.
c. Describe the three methods of heat transfer.
d. Identify the reference points of temperature.
e. Demonstrate the relationship of pressures and fluids at saturation temperatures.
f. Explain compound gauges.
g. Compare micron to moisture and evacuation levels.
h. Describe the Temperature/Enthalpy (T-H) Diagram.
i. Convert cooling capacity from tons of refrigeration to kW and Btu/h to kW.
3. Demonstrate and describe the elements of EPA and OSHA safety regulations and first aid.
a. Discuss OSHA and EPA standards and regulations.
b. Identify, handle, use, and dispose of hardware material and gases.
c. Discuss and demonstrate the procedures specified on the Material Safety Data Sheet
(MSDS).
d. Explain use of hazardous material transport manifest.
e. Discuss and demonstrate first responder procedures.
4. Describe and perform basic elements of refrigerant recovery and recycling.
a. Define terms associated with refrigerant recovery.
b. Describe and apply the safety procedures needed.
c. Describe environmental issues regarding refrigerant, including legislation, protocol,
laws, and regulations.
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
d. Perform refrigerant recovery and recycling.
5. Identify/explain the functions and types of lubricants and perform basic service activities.
a. Demonstrate handling of POEs.
b. Demonstrate how to draw an oil sample from the system.
c. Use an acid test kit for mineral oil and AB.

STANDARDS

Contren Learning Series Best Practices

CONTREN CORE

BASIC SAFETY

SAF1 Identify the responsibilities and personal characteristics of a professional craftsperson.
SAF2 Explain the role that safety plays in the construction crafts.
SAF3 Describe what job-site safety means.
SAF4 Explain the appropriate safety precautions around common job-site hazards.
SAF5 Demonstrate the use and care of appropriate personal protective equipment.
SAF5 Follow safe procedures for lifting heavy objects.
SAF6 Describe safe behavior on and around ladders and scaffolds.
SAF7 Explain the importance of the HazCom (Hazard Communication Standard) requirement
and MSDSs (Material Safety Data Sheets).
SAF8 Describe fire prevention and fire fighting techniques.
SAF9 Define safe work procedures around electrical hazards.

INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTION MATH

MAT1 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, with and without a calculator.
MAT2 Use a standard ruler and a metric ruler to measure.
MAT3 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions.
MAT4 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals, with and without a calculator.
MAT5 Convert decimals to percents and percents to decimals.
MAT6 Convert fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.
MAT7 Explain what the metric system is and how it is important in the construction trade.
MAT8 Recognize and use metric units of length, weight, volume, and temperature.
MAT9 Recognize some of the basic shapes used in the construction industry and apply basic
geometry to measure them.

Level I

INTRODUCTION TO HVAC

INT1 Explain the basic principles of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
INT2 Identify career opportunities available to people in the HVAC trade.
INT3 Explain the purpose and objectives of an apprentice training program.
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
INT4 Describe how certified apprentice training can start in high school.
INT5 Describe what the Clean Air Act means to the HVAC trade

TRADE MATHEMATICS

TMA1 Identify similar units of measurement in both the inch-pound (English) and metric
systems and know which units are larger.
TMA2 Convert measured values in the inch-pound system to equivalent metric values and vice
versa.
TMA3 Express numbers as powers of ten.
TMA4 Determine the powers and roots of numbers.
TMA5 Solve basic algebraic equations.
TMA6 Recognize various geometric figures.
TMA7 Use the Pythagorean theorem to make calculations involving right triangles.
TMA8 Convert decimal feet to feet and inches and vice versa.

INTRODUCTION TO COOLING

ITC1 Explain how heat transfer occurs in a cooling system, demonstrating an understanding of
the terms and concepts used in the refrigeration cycle.
ITC2 Calculate the temperature and pressure relationships at key points in the refrigeration
cycle.
ITC3 Under supervision, use temperature-and pressure-measuring instruments to make
readings at key points in the refrigeration cycle.
ITC4 Identify commonly used refrigerants and demonstrate the procedures for handling these
refrigerants.
ITC5 Identify the major components of a cooling system and explain how each type works.
ITC6 Identify the major accessories available for cooling systems and explain how each type
works.
ITC7 Identify the control devices used in cooling systems and explain how each type works.
ITC8 State the correct methods to be used when piping a refrigeration system.

Related Academic Standards

R1 Interpret Graphic Information (forms, maps, reference sources)
R2 Words in Context (same and opposite meaning)
R3 Recall Information (details, sequence)
R4 Construct Meaning (main idea, summary/paraphrase, compare/contrast, cause/effect)
R5 Evaluate/Extend Meaning (fact/opinion, predict outcomes, point of view)
M1 Addition of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M2 Subtraction of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M3 Multiplication of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M4 Division of Whole Numbers (no remainder, remainder)
M5 Decimals (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M6 Fractions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M7 Integers (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
20
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
A2 Number Theory (ratio, proportion)
A3 Data Interpretation (graph, table, chart, diagram)
A4 Pre-Algebra and Algebra (equations, inequality)
A5 Measurement (money, time, temperature, length, area, volume)
A6 Geometry (angles, Pythagorean theory)
A7 Computation in Context (whole numbers, decimals, fractions, algebraic operations)
A8 Estimation (rounding, estimation)
L1 Usage (pronoun, tense, subject/verb agreement, adjective, adverb)
L2 Sentence Formation (fragments, run-on, clarity)
L3 Paragraph Development (topic sentence, supporting sentence, sequence)
L4 Capitalization (proper noun, titles)
L5 Punctuation (comma, semicolon)
L6 Writing Conventions (quotation marks, apostrophe, parts of a letter)
S1 Vowel (short, long)
S2 Consonant (variant spelling, silent letter)
S3 Structural Unit (root, suffix)

Copyright 1994 by CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC

21
st
Century Skills

CS2 Financial, Economic, and Business Literacy
CS4 Information and Communication Skills
CS5 Thinking and Problem-Solving Skills
CS6 Interpersonal and Self-Directional Skills

SUGGESTED REFERENCES

General Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Books

Althouse, A., Turnquist, C., & Bracciano, A. (2000). Modern refrigeration and air conditioning.
Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox.

Jeffus, L., & Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute. (2004). Refrigeration and air
conditioning. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004) Core curriculum. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level I. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level II. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

21
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level III. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level IV. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Swenson, D. (2004). Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. Homewood, IL: American
Technical.

Whitman, B., Johnson, B., & Tomczyk, J. (2005). Refrigeration & air conditioning technology
[Text, Student Guide/Lab Manual, and Instructors Guide]. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson
Delmar Learning.

Trade Publications

Commercial Building Products. Commercial Building Products ConSource LLC. Retrieved June
19, 2006, from http://www.cbpmagazine.com/

Contractor Excellence. Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.acca.org/

HVAC & Refrigeration. Insider Newspapers, Inc. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.insidernewspapers.com/

RETA Breeze. Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006,
from http://www.reta.com/

RSES Journal: Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration. RSES. Retrieved June
20, 2006, from www.rsesjournal.com

Web Sites

Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.acca.org

Commercial Building Products. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.cbmagazine.com

The Educational Standards Corporation. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.escoinst.com

Insider Newspapers. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.insidernewspapers.com

Mainstream Engineering. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.mainstream-
engr.com/home/

Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.reta.com
22
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
RHVAC Tools. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.rhvactools.com

Wrightsoft. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.wrightsoft.com/



23
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Course Name: Tools and Piping

Course Abbreviation: ACT 1133

Classification: Vocational-Technical Core

Description: Various tools and pipe connecting techniques. Covers tools and test equipment
required in heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration. (3 sch: 2 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab)

Prerequisite: None

Competencies and Suggested Objectives
1. Safely use brazing equipment.
a. Define terms associated with brazing.
b. Demonstrate the use and care of the air-acetylene torch.
c. Demonstrate the use and care of the oxyacetylene torch.
d. Identify appropriate tips for brazing and soldering tubing.
e. Identify the types of solder and fluxes with appropriate uses.
2. Identify types of tubing and fittings and safely make various flares.
a. Define terms associated with tubing and fittings.
b. Describe the different types of tubing and fittings.
c. Construct a compression flare.
3. Utilize various joining methods.
a. Identify the primary differences and uses of black iron and galvanized iron pipe.
b. Construct various connections using black iron and galvanized pipe.
c. Connect various sizes of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe using appropriate fittings.
d. Demonstrate joining techniques of polybutylene pipe.
e. Braze various materials using brazing alloys and fluxes.
4. Identify and safely use the required power tools.
5. Safely use the required hand tools and accessories.

STANDARDS

Contren Learning Series Best Practices

CONTREN CORE

BASIC SAFETY

SAF1 Identify the responsibilities and personal characteristics of a professional craftsperson.
SAF2 Explain the role that safety plays in the construction crafts.
SAF3 Describe what job-site safety means.
SAF4 Explain the appropriate safety precautions around common job-site hazards.
SAF5 Demonstrate the use and care of appropriate personal protective equipment.
SAF5 Follow safe procedures for lifting heavy objects.
SAF6 Describe safe behavior on and around ladders and scaffolds.
24
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
SAF7 Explain the importance of the HazCom (Hazard Communication Standard) requirement
and MSDSs (Material Safety Data Sheets).
SAF8 Describe fire prevention and fire fighting techniques.
SAF9 Define safe work procedures around electrical hazards.

INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTION MATH

MAT1 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, with and without a calculator.
MAT2 Use a standard ruler and a metric ruler to measure.
MAT3 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions.
MAT4 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals, with and without a calculator.
MAT5 Convert decimals to percents and percents to decimals.
MAT6 Convert fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.
MAT7 Explain what the metric system is and how it is important in the construction trade.
MAT8 Recognize and use metric units of length, weight, volume, and temperature.
MAT9 Recognize some of the basic shapes used in the construction industry and apply basic
geometry to measure them.

INTRODUCTION TO HAND TOOLS

HTO1 Recognize and identify some of the basic hand tools used in the construction trade.
HTO2 Use these tools safely.
HTO3 Describe the basic procedures for taking care of these tools.

INTRODUCTION TO POWER TOOLS

PTO1 Identify commonly used power tools of the construction trade.
PTO2 Use power tools safely.
PTO3 Explain how to maintain power tools properly.

Level I

TRADE MATHEMATICS

TMA1 Identify similar units of measurement in both the inch-pound (English) and metric
systems and know which units are larger.
TMA2 Convert measured values in the inch-pound system to equivalent metric values and vice
versa.
TMA3 Express numbers as powers of ten.
TMA4 Determine the powers and roots of numbers.
TMA5 Solve basic algebraic equations.
TMA6 Recognize various geometric figures.
TMA7 Use the Pythagorean theorem to make calculations involving right triangles.
TMA8 Convert decimal feet to feet and inches and vice versa.

25
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
TOOLS OF THE TRADE

TOT1 Identify and state the use of the following tools:
Pipe wrenches
Torque wrenches
Tinners and soft-faced hammers
Hand cutting snips
Hand and power hacksaws
Drill press
Measuring tools
TOT2 Describe the general procedures for maintenance of most hand and power tools.
TOT3 Describe or demonstrate the general safety precautions that must be followed when using
most hand and power tools.

COPPER AND PLASTIC PIPING PRACTICES

CPP1 State the precautions that must be taken when installing refrigerant piping.
CPP2 Select the right tubing for the job.
CPP3 Cut and bend tubing
CPP4 Safely join tubing by using flare and compression fittings.
CPP5 Determine the kinds of hangers and supports needed for refrigerant piping.
CPP6 State the basic requirements for pressure testing a system once it has been installed.

SOLDERING AND BRAZING

SBR1 Assemble and operate the tools used for soldering.
SBR2 Prepare tubing and fittings for soldering.
SBR3 Identify the purposes and uses of solder and solder fluxes.
SBR4 Solder copper tubing and fittings.
SBR5 Assemble and operate the tools used for brazing.
SBR6 Prepare tubing and fittings for brazing.
SBR7 Identify the purposes and uses of filler metals and fluxes used for brazing.
SBR8 Braze copper tubing and fittings.
SBR9 Identify the inert gases that can safely be used to purge tubing when brazing.

FERROUS METAL PIPING PRACTICES

FMP1 Identify the types of ferrous metal pipes.
FMP2 Measure the sizes of ferrous metal pipes.
FMP3 Identify the common malleable iron fittings.
FMP4 Cut, ream, and thread ferrous metal pipe.
FMP5 Join lengths of threaded pipe together and install fittings.
FMP6 Describe the main points to consider when installing pipe runs.
FMP7 Describe the method used to join grooved piping.

26
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Level II

MAINTENANCE SKILLS FOR THE SERVICE TECHNICIAN

MSS1 Identify the types of threaded and non-threaded fasteners and explain their use.
MSS2 Install threaded and non-threaded fasteners.
MSS3 Identify the types of gaskets, packings, and seals and explain their use.
MSS4 Remove and install gaskets, packings, and seals.
MSS5 Identify the types of lubricants and explain their use.
MSS6 Use lubrication equipment to lubricate motor bearings.
MSS7 Identify the types of belt drives and explain their use.
MSS8 Demonstrate and/or explain procedures used to install or adjust a belt drive.
MSS9 Identify the types of couplings and explain their use.
MSS10 Demonstrate and/or explain procedures used to remove, install, and align couplings.
MSS11 Identify the types of bearings and explain their use.
MSS12 Explain causes of bearing failures.
MSS13 Demonstrate and/or explain procedures used to remove and install bearings.
MSS14 Perform basic preventive maintenance inspection and cleaning procedures.
MSS15 List work and personal habits that contribute to good customer relations.
MSS16 Identify steps in the handling of a typical service call that will contribute to good
customer relations.
MSS17 Legibly fill out forms used for installation and service calls.

Related Academic Standards

R1 Interpret Graphic Information (forms, maps, reference sources)
R2 Words in Context (same and opposite meaning)
R3 Recall Information (details, sequence)
R4 Construct Meaning (main idea, summary/paraphrase, compare/contrast, cause/effect)
R5 Evaluate/Extend Meaning (fact/opinion, predict outcomes, point of view)
M1 Addition of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M2 Subtraction of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M3 Multiplication of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M4 Division of Whole Numbers (no remainder, remainder)
M5 Decimals (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M6 Fractions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M7 Integers (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
A2 Number Theory (ratio, proportion)
A3 Data Interpretation (graph, table, chart, diagram)
A4 Pre-Algebra and Algebra (equations, inequality)
A5 Measurement (money, time, temperature, length, area, volume)
A6 Geometry (angles, Pythagorean theory)
A7 Computation in Context (whole numbers, decimals, fractions, algebraic operations)
A8 Estimation (rounding, estimation)
L1 Usage (pronoun, tense, subject/verb agreement, adjective, adverb)
L2 Sentence Formation (fragments, run-on, clarity)
27
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
L3 Paragraph Development (topic sentence, supporting sentence, sequence)
L4 Capitalization (proper noun, titles)
L5 Punctuation (comma, semicolon)
L6 Writing Conventions (quotation marks, apostrophe, parts of a letter)
S1 Vowel (short, long)
S2 Consonant (variant spelling, silent letter)
S3 Structural Unit (root, suffix)

Copyright 1994 by CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC

21
st
Century Skills

CS2 Financial, Economic, and Business Literacy
CS4 Information and Communication Skills
CS5 Thinking and Problem-Solving Skills
CS6 Interpersonal and Self-Directional Skills

SUGGESTED REFERENCES

General Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Books

Althouse, A., Turnquist, C., & Bracciano, A. (2000). Modern refrigeration and air conditioning.
Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox.

Jeffus, L., & Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute. (2004). Refrigeration and air
conditioning. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004) Core curriculum. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level I. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level II. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level III. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level IV. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Swenson, D. (2004). Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. Homewood, IL: American
Technical.

28
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Whitman, B., Johnson, B., & Tomczyk, J. (2005). Refrigeration & air conditioning technology
[Text, Student Guide/Lab Manual, and Instructors Guide]. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson
Delmar Learning.

Tools and Piping

Fluke Corporation. (1998). The ABCs of digital multimeter safety [Videotape]. (Available from
Fluke Corporation, 6920 Seaway Blvd., Everett, WA 98203)

Woodson, R. (2000). International and uniform plumbing codes handbook. New York: McGraw-
Hill.

Trade Publications

Commercial Building Products. Commercial Building Products ConSource LLC. Retrieved June
19, 2006, from http://www.cbpmagazine.com/

Contractor Excellence. Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.acca.org/

HVAC & Refrigeration. Insider Newspapers, Inc. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.insidernewspapers.com/

RETA Breeze. Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006,
from http://www.reta.com/

RSES Journal: Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration. RSES. Retrieved June
20, 2006, from www.rsesjournal.com

Web Sites

Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.acca.org

Commercial Building Products. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.cbmagazine.com

Insider Newspapers. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.insidernewspapers.com

Mainstream Engineering. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.mainstream-
engr.com/home/

Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.reta.com

29
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Course Name: Controls

Course Abbreviation: ACT 1213

Classification: Vocational-Technical Core

Description: Fundamentals of gas, fluid, electrical, and programmable controls. (3 sch: 2 hr.
lecture, 2 hr. lab)

Prerequisite: None

Competencies and Suggested Objectives
1. Safely perform checks on gas valves.
a. Identify terms associated with gas valves.
b. Identify the types of gas valves.
c. Describe the function and applications of regulators.
d. Describe the methods of pilot/burner ignition.
e. Identify the components used in all types of gas furnaces.
2. Safely install gas controls.
a. Identify controls for residential heating/cooling.
b. Install, test, and troubleshoot residential controls.
c. Identify controls for commercial systems.
d. Install, test, and troubleshoot commercial controls.
3. Explain the operation and function of heat pump controls.
a. Identify safety procedures.
b. Identify the main types of defrost controls.
4. Discuss and service direct digital controls (DDC).
a. Discuss the definition of DDC systems.
b. Explain the wiring methods in DDC controls.
c. Describe the major applications of electronic controls.
d. Install, troubleshoot, and program various DDCs.
5. Explain computer energy management system (EMS) controls.
a. Define EMS.
b. Discuss the uses for EMS.

STANDARDS

Contren Learning Series Best Practices

CONTREN CORE

BASIC SAFETY

SAF1 Identify the responsibilities and personal characteristics of a professional craftsperson.
SAF2 Explain the role that safety plays in the construction crafts.
SAF3 Describe what job-site safety means.
30
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
SAF4 Explain the appropriate safety precautions around common job-site hazards.
SAF5 Demonstrate the use and care of appropriate personal protective equipment.
SAF5 Follow safe procedures for lifting heavy objects.
SAF6 Describe safe behavior on and around ladders and scaffolds.
SAF7 Explain the importance of the HazCom (Hazard Communication Standard) requirement
and MSDSs (Material Safety Data Sheets).
SAF8 Describe fire prevention and fire fighting techniques.
SAF9 Define safe work procedures around electrical hazards.

INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTION MATH

MAT1 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, with and without a calculator.
MAT2 Use a standard ruler and a metric ruler to measure.
MAT3 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions.
MAT4 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals, with and without a calculator.
MAT5 Convert decimals to percents and percents to decimals.
MAT6 Convert fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.
MAT7 Explain what the metric system is and how it is important in the construction trade.
MAT8 Recognize and use metric units of length, weight, volume, and temperature.
MAT9 Recognize some of the basic shapes used in the construction industry and apply basic
geometry to measure them.

Level I

TRADE MATHEMATICS

TMA1 Identify similar units of measurement in both the inch-pound (English) and metric
systems and know which units are larger.
TMA2 Convert measured values in the inch-pound system to equivalent metric values and vice
versa.
TMA3 Express numbers as powers of ten.
TMA4 Determine the powers and roots of numbers.
TMA5 Solve basic algebraic equations.
TMA6 Recognize various geometric figures.
TMA7 Use the Pythagorean theorem to make calculations involving right triangles.
TMA8 Convert decimal feet to feet and inches and vice versa.

Level II

BASIC ELECTRONICS

BEM1 Explain the basic theory of electronics and semiconductors.
BEM2 Explain how various semiconductor devices such as diodes, LEDs, and photo diodes
work, and how they are used in power and control circuits.
BEM3 Identify different types of resistors and explain how their resistance values can be
determined.
31
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
BEM4 Describe the operation and function of thermistors and cad cells.
BEM5 Test semiconductor components.
BEM6 Identify the connectors on a personal computer.

INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL CIRCUIT TROUBLESHOOTING

CCT1 Explain the function of a thermostat in an HVAC system.
CCT2 Describe different types of thermostats and explain how they are used.
CCT3 Demonstrate the correct installation and adjustment of a thermostat using proper siting
and wiring techniques.
CCT4 Explain the basic principles applicable to all control systems.
CCT5 Identify the various types of electromechanical, electronic, and pneumatic HVAC
controls, and explain their function and operation.
CCT6 Describe a systematic approach for electrical troubleshooting of HVAC equipment and
components.
CCT7 Recognize and use equipment manufacturers troubleshooting aids to troubleshoot
HVAC equipment.
CCT8 Exhibit competence in isolating electrical problems to faulty power distribution, load, or
control circuits.
CCT9 Identify the service instruments needed to troubleshoot HVAC electrical equipment.
CCT10 Make electrical troubleshooting checks and measurements on circuits and components
common to all HVAC equipment.

Level III

TROUBLESHOOTING ELECTRONIC CONTROLS

TEC1 Describe the similarities and differences between electronic controls and conventional
controls.
TEC2 Analyze circuit diagrams and other manufacturers literature to determine the operating
sequence of microprocessor-controlled systems.
TEC3 Use standard and special test equipment to test a microprocessor-controlled comfort
system.

Level IV

MODULE 03403-03 ENERGY CONSERVATION EQUIPMENT

ECE1 Recognize selected air-to-air heat exchangers and describe how they operate.
ECE2 Recognize selected condenser heat recovery systems and explain how they operate.
ECE3 Recognize a coil energy recovery loop and explain how it operates.
ECE4 Recognize a heat pipe heat exchanger and explain how it operates.
ECE5 Recognize thermosiphon heat exchangers and explain how they operate.
ECE6 Recognize a twin tower enthalpy recovery loop system and explain how it operates.
ECE7 Recognize airside and waterside economizers and explain how each type operates.
ECE8 Recognize selected steam system heat recovery systems and explain how they operate.
32
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
ECE9 Recognize an ice bank-type off-peak hours energy reduction system.
ECE10 Demonstrate and/or describe how to operate selected energy conversion equipment.

BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

BMS1 Define a building management system.
BMS2 Explain the operation of a basic direct digital controller.
BMS3 Demonstrate familiarity with the terms commonly used in discussing control loops and
building management systems.
BMS4 Identify the major components of a building management system and describe how they
fit together.
BMS5 Recognize the type of information available on a typical front-end computer screen for a
building management system.
BMS6 Describe the typical steps required to install a building management system.
BMS7 Understand how to install typical sensors, actuators, power wiring, and communication
wiring.
BMS8 Recognize what programming a building management system entails.

Related Academic Standards

R1 Interpret Graphic Information (forms, maps, reference sources)
R2 Words in Context (same and opposite meaning)
R3 Recall Information (details, sequence)
R4 Construct Meaning (main idea, summary/paraphrase, compare/contrast, cause/effect)
R5 Evaluate/Extend Meaning (fact/opinion, predict outcomes, point of view)
M1 Addition of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M2 Subtraction of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M3 Multiplication of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M4 Division of Whole Numbers (no remainder, remainder)
M5 Decimals (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M6 Fractions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M7 Integers (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
A2 Number Theory (ratio, proportion)
A3 Data Interpretation (graph, table, chart, diagram)
A4 Pre-Algebra and Algebra (equations, inequality)
A5 Measurement (money, time, temperature, length, area, volume)
A6 Geometry (angles, Pythagorean theory)
A7 Computation in Context (whole numbers, decimals, fractions, algebraic operations)
A8 Estimation (rounding, estimation)
L1 Usage (pronoun, tense, subject/verb agreement, adjective, adverb)
L2 Sentence Formation (fragments, run-on, clarity)
L3 Paragraph Development (topic sentence, supporting sentence, sequence)
L4 Capitalization (proper noun, titles)
L5 Punctuation (comma, semicolon)
L6 Writing Conventions (quotation marks, apostrophe, parts of a letter)
S1 Vowel (short, long)
33
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
S2 Consonant (variant spelling, silent letter)
S3 Structural Unit (root, suffix)

Copyright 1994 by CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC

21
st
Century Skills

CS2 Financial, Economic, and Business Literacy
CS4 Information and Communication Skills
CS5 Thinking and Problem-Solving Skills
CS6 Interpersonal and Self-Directional Skills

SUGGESTED REFERENCES

Controls

Auvil, R. (2003). HVAC control systems. Homewood, IL: American Technical.

Coffin, M. (1992). Direct digital control for building HVAC systems. New York: Van Nostrand
Reinhold.

Hordeski, M. (2000). Control and instrumentation technology in HVAC: PCs and environmental
controls. Lilburn, GA: The Fairmont Press.

Swenson, D. (1994). HVAC controls & control systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Trade Publications

Commercial Building Products. Commercial Building Products ConSource LLC. Retrieved June
19, 2006, from http://www.cbpmagazine.com/

Contractor Excellence. Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.acca.org/

HVAC & Refrigeration. Insider Newspapers, Inc. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.insidernewspapers.com/

RETA Breeze. Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006,
from http://www.reta.com/

RSES Journal: Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration. RSES. Retrieved June
20, 2006, from www.rsesjournal.com

Web Sites

Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.acca.org
34
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Commercial Building Products. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.cbmagazine.com

Insider Newspapers. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.insidernewspapers.com

Mainstream Engineering. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.mainstream-
engr.com/home/

Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.reta.com

35
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Course Name: Refrigeration System Components

Course Abbreviation: ACT 1313

Classification: Vocational-Technical Core

Description: An in-depth study of the components and accessories of a sealed system including
metering devices, evaporators, compressors, and condensers. (3 sch: 2 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab)

Prerequisite: None

Competencies and Suggested Objectives
1. Identify the types, compression, and capacity control of major compressors used in
refrigerant systems.
2. Identify condensers and their operations.
a. Define the types of condensers.
b. Explain the operation and performance of a condenser.
c. Explain the purpose of heat reclaim.
d. Adjust the air flow for proper temperature difference.
3. Identify, check, and adjust metering devices.
4. Identify and check evaporators for performance.
a. Size the evaporator as per the compressor capacity.
5. Explain the location and operation of various accessories.

STANDARDS

Contren Learning Series Best Practices

CONTREN CORE

BASIC SAFETY

SAF1 Identify the responsibilities and personal characteristics of a professional craftsperson.
SAF2 Explain the role that safety plays in the construction crafts.
SAF3 Describe what job-site safety means.
SAF4 Explain the appropriate safety precautions around common job-site hazards.
SAF5 Demonstrate the use and care of appropriate personal protective equipment.
SAF5 Follow safe procedures for lifting heavy objects.
SAF6 Describe safe behavior on and around ladders and scaffolds.
SAF7 Explain the importance of the HazCom (Hazard Communication Standard) requirement
and MSDSs (Material Safety Data Sheets).
SAF8 Describe fire prevention and fire fighting techniques.
SAF9 Define safe work procedures around electrical hazards.

36
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTION MATH

MAT1 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, with and without a calculator.
MAT2 Use a standard ruler and a metric ruler to measure.
MAT3 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions.
MAT4 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals, with and without a calculator.
MAT5 Convert decimals to percents and percents to decimals.
MAT6 Convert fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.
MAT7 Explain what the metric system is and how it is important in the construction trade.
MAT8 Recognize and use metric units of length, weight, volume, and temperature.
MAT9 Recognize some of the basic shapes used in the construction industry and apply basic
geometry to measure them.

Level I

TRADE MATHEMATICS

TMA1 Identify similar units of measurement in both the inch-pound (English) and metric
systems and know which units are larger.
TMA2 Convert measured values in the inch-pound system to equivalent metric values and vice
versa.
TMA3 Express numbers as powers of ten.
TMA4 Determine the powers and roots of numbers.
TMA5 Solve basic algebraic equations.
TMA6 Recognize various geometric figures.
TMA7 Use the Pythagorean theorem to make calculations involving right triangles.
TMA8 Convert decimal feet to feet and inches and vice versa.

Level II

ACCESSORIES AND OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT

AOE1 Explain how heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation relates to
human comfort.
AOE2 Explain why it is important to control humidity in a building.
AOE3 Recognize the various kinds of humidifiers used with HVAC systems and explain why
each is used.
AOE4 Demonstrate or describe how to install and service the humidifiers used in HVAC
systems.
AOE5 Recognize the kinds of air filters used with HVAC systems and explain why each is used.
AOE6 Demonstrate or describe how to install and service the filters used in HVAC systems.
AOE7 Use a manometer or differential pressure gauge to measure the friction loss of an air
filter.
AOE8 Identify accessories commonly used with air conditioning systems to improve indoor air
quality and reduce energy cost, and explain the function of each.

37
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
METERING DEVICES

MDM1 Explain the function of metering devices.
MDM2 Describe the operation of selected metering devices and expansion valves.
MDM3 Identify types of thermal expansion valves (TXVs).
MDM4 Describe problems associated with replacement of TXVs.
MDM5 Describe the procedure for installing and adjusting selected TXVs.

COMPRESSORS

COM1 Identify the different kinds of compressors.
COM2 Demonstrate or describe the mechanical operation for each type of compressor.
COM3 Demonstrate or explain compressor lubrication methods.
COM4 Demonstrate or explain methods used to control compressor capacity.
COM5 Demonstrate or describe how compressor protection devices operate.
COM6 Perform the common procedures used when field servicing open and semi-hermetic
compressors.
Shaft seal removal and installation
Valve plate removal and installation
Unloader adjustment
COM7 Demonstrate the procedures used to identify system problems that cause compressor
failures.
COM8 Demonstrate the system checkout procedure performed following a compressor failure.
COM9 Demonstrate or describe the procedures used to remove and install a compressor.
COM10 Demonstrate or describe the procedures used to clean up a system after a compressor
burnout.

Level III

TROUBLESHOOTING ACCESSORIES

TAM1 Describe a systematic approach for troubleshooting HVAC system accessories.
TAM2 Exhibit competence in isolating problems to electrical and/or mechanical functions of
HVAC system accessories.
TAM3 Recognize and use equipment manufacturers troubleshooting aids to troubleshoot
HVAC system accessories.
TAM4 Identify and properly use the service instruments needed to troubleshoot HVAC system
accessories.
TAM5 Successfully troubleshoot problems in selected HVAC system accessories.
TAM6 State the safety precautions associated with the troubleshooting of HVAC accessories.

Related Academic Standards

R1 Interpret Graphic Information (forms, maps, reference sources)
R2 Words in Context (same and opposite meaning)
R3 Recall Information (details, sequence)
38
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
R4 Construct Meaning (main idea, summary/paraphrase, compare/contrast, cause/effect)
R5 Evaluate/Extend Meaning (fact/opinion, predict outcomes, point of view)
M1 Addition of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M2 Subtraction of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M3 Multiplication of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M4 Division of Whole Numbers (no remainder, remainder)
M5 Decimals (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M6 Fractions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M7 Integers (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
A2 Number Theory (ratio, proportion)
A3 Data Interpretation (graph, table, chart, diagram)
A4 Pre-Algebra and Algebra (equations, inequality)
A5 Measurement (money, time, temperature, length, area, volume)
A6 Geometry (angles, Pythagorean theory)
A7 Computation in Context (whole numbers, decimals, fractions, algebraic operations)
A8 Estimation (rounding, estimation)
L1 Usage (pronoun, tense, subject/verb agreement, adjective, adverb)
L2 Sentence Formation (fragments, run-on, clarity)
L3 Paragraph Development (topic sentence, supporting sentence, sequence)
L4 Capitalization (proper noun, titles)
L5 Punctuation (comma, semicolon)
L6 Writing Conventions (quotation marks, apostrophe, parts of a letter)
S1 Vowel (short, long)
S2 Consonant (variant spelling, silent letter)
S3 Structural Unit (root, suffix)

Copyright 1994 by CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC

21
st
Century Skills

CS2 Financial, Economic, and Business Literacy
CS4 Information and Communication Skills
CS5 Thinking and Problem-Solving Skills
CS6 Interpersonal and Self-Directional Skills

SUGGESTED REFERENCES

General Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Books

Althouse, A., Turnquist, C., & Bracciano, A. (2000). Modern refrigeration and air conditioning.
Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox.

Jeffus, L., & Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute. (2004). Refrigeration and air
conditioning. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

39
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004) Core curriculum. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level I. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level II. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level III. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level IV. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Swenson, D. (2004). Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. Homewood, IL: American
Technical.

Whitman, B., Johnson, B., & Tomczyk, J. (2005). Refrigeration & air conditioning technology
[Text, Student Guide/Lab Manual, and Instructors Guide]. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson
Delmar Learning.

Trade Publications

Commercial Building Products. Commercial Building Products ConSource LLC. Retrieved June
19, 2006, from http://www.cbpmagazine.com/

Contractor Excellence. Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.acca.org/

HVAC & Refrigeration. Insider Newspapers, Inc. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.insidernewspapers.com/

RETA Breeze. Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006,
from http://www.reta.com/

RSES Journal: Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration. RSES. Retrieved June
20, 2006, from www.rsesjournal.com

Web Sites

Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.acca.org

Commercial Building Products. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.cbmagazine.com

40
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
The Educational Standards Corporation. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.escoinst.com

Insider Newspapers. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.insidernewspapers.com

Mainstream Engineering. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.mainstream-
engr.com/home/

Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.reta.com

RHVAC Tools. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.rhvactools.com

Wrightsoft. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.wrightsoft.com/

41
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Course Name: Electricity for Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration

Course Abbreviation: ACT 1713

Classification: Vocational-Technical Core

Description: Basic knowledge of electricity, power distribution, components, solid state devices,
and electrical circuits. (3 sch: 2 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab)

Prerequisite: None

Competencies and Suggested Objectives
1. Define basic electricity terms.
a. Define terms such as watts, ohms, volts, and amps.
b. Define current and compare single- and three-phase voltage.
c. Identify types of electrical loads.
d. Identify principles of solid-state switching devices.
2. Explain, construct, and analyze various circuits.
a. Define terms associated with circuits.
b. Explain the procedures for constructing circuits.
3. Explain the principles of electrical generation and distribution.
4. Define and explain the safe use/function of electrical devices.
a. Define magnetic theory.
b. Define and explain the use of capacitors, starters/heaters, relays/switches,
delays/thermostats, electrically operated valves, etc.
5. Explain and demonstrate procedures for testing electrical motors.
a. Explain the operation and application of electric motors.
b. Explain the electric motor theory.
c. Demonstrate use of testing equipment.

STANDARDS

Contren Learning Series Best Practices

CONTREN CORE

BASIC SAFETY

SAF1 Identify the responsibilities and personal characteristics of a professional craftsperson.
SAF2 Explain the role that safety plays in the construction crafts.
SAF3 Describe what job-site safety means.
SAF4 Explain the appropriate safety precautions around common job-site hazards.
SAF5 Demonstrate the use and care of appropriate personal protective equipment.
SAF5 Follow safe procedures for lifting heavy objects.
SAF6 Describe safe behavior on and around ladders and scaffolds.
42
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
SAF7 Explain the importance of the HazCom (Hazard Communication Standard) requirement
and MSDSs (Material Safety Data Sheets).
SAF8 Describe fire prevention and fire fighting techniques.
SAF9 Define safe work procedures around electrical hazards.

INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTION MATH

MAT1 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, with and without a calculator.
MAT2 Use a standard ruler and a metric ruler to measure.
MAT3 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions.
MAT4 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals, with and without a calculator.
MAT5 Convert decimals to percents and percents to decimals.
MAT6 Convert fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.
MAT7 Explain what the metric system is and how it is important in the construction trade.
MAT8 Recognize and use metric units of length, weight, volume, and temperature.
MAT9 Recognize some of the basic shapes used in the construction industry and apply basic
geometry to measure them.

Level I

TRADE MATHEMATICS

TMA1 Identify similar units of measurement in both the inch-pound (English) and metric
systems and know which units are larger.
TMA2 Convert measured values in the inch-pound system to equivalent metric values and vice
versa.
TMA3 Express numbers as powers of ten.
TMA4 Determine the powers and roots of numbers.
TMA5 Solve basic algebraic equations.
TMA6 Recognize various geometric figures.
TMA7 Use the Pythagorean theorem to make calculations involving right triangles.
TMA8 Convert decimal feet to feet and inches and vice versa.

BASIC ELECTRICITY

BEL1 State how electrical power is generated and distributed.
BEL2 Describe how voltage, current, resistance, and power are related.
BEL3 Use Ohms law to calculate the current, voltage, and resistance in a circuit.
BEL4 Use the power formula to calculate how much power is consumed by a circuit.
BEL5 Describe the differences between series and parallel circuits.
BEL6 Recognize and describe the purpose and operation of the various electrical components
used in HVAC equipment.
BEL7 State and demonstrate the safety precautions that must be followed when working on
electrical equipment.
BEL8 Make voltage, current, and resistance measurements using electrical test equipment.

43
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Level II

MAINTENANCE SKILLS FOR THE SERVICE TECHNICIAN

MSS1 Identify the types of threaded and non-threaded fasteners and explain their use.
MSS2 Install threaded and non-threaded fasteners.
MSS3 Identify the types of gaskets, packings, and seals and explain their use.
MSS4 Remove and install gaskets, packings, and seals.
MSS5 Identify the types of lubricants and explain their use.
MSS6 Use lubrication equipment to lubricate motor bearings.
MSS7 Identify the types of belt drives and explain their use.
MSS8 Demonstrate and/or explain procedures used to install or adjust a belt drive.
MSS9 Identify the types of couplings and explain their use.
MSS10 Demonstrate and/or explain procedures used to remove, install, and align couplings.
MSS11 Identify the types of bearings and explain their use.
MSS12 Explain causes of bearing failures.
MSS13 Demonstrate and/or explain procedures used to remove and install bearings.
MSS14 Perform basic preventive maintenance inspection and cleaning procedures.
MSS15 List work and personal habits that contribute to good customer relations.
MSS16 Identify steps in the handling of a typical service call that will contribute to good
customer relations.
MSS17 Legibly fill out forms used for installation and service calls.

ALTERNATING CURRENT

ACM1 Describe the operation of various types of transformers.
ACM2 Explain how alternating current is developed and draw a sine wave.
ACM3 Identify single-phase and three-phase wiring arrangements.
ACM4 Explain how phase shift occurs in inductors and capacitors.
ACM5 Describe the types of capacitors and their applications.
ACM6 Explain the operation of single-phase and three-phase induction motors.
ACM7 Identify the various types of single-phase motors and their applications.
ACM8 Use a wattmeter, megger, capacitor analyzer, and chart recorder.
ACM9 Test inductors and capacitors using an ohmmeter.
ACM10 State and demonstrate the safety precautions that must be followed when working with
electrical equipment.

BASIC ELECTRONICS

BEM1 Explain the basic theory of electronics and semiconductors.
BEM2 Explain how various semiconductor devices such as diodes, LEDs, and photo diodes
work, and how they are used in power and control circuits.
BEM3 Identify different types of resistors and explain how their resistance values can be
determined.
BEM4 Describe the operation and function of thermistors and cad cells.
BEM5 Test semiconductor components.
44
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
BEM6 Identify the connectors on a personal computer.

Related Academic Standards

R1 Interpret Graphic Information (forms, maps, reference sources)
R2 Words in Context (same and opposite meaning)
R3 Recall Information (details, sequence)
R4 Construct Meaning (main idea, summary/paraphrase, compare/contrast, cause/effect)
R5 Evaluate/Extend Meaning (fact/opinion, predict outcomes, point of view)
M1 Addition of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M2 Subtraction of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M3 Multiplication of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M4 Division of Whole Numbers (no remainder, remainder)
M5 Decimals (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M6 Fractions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M7 Integers (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
A2 Number Theory (ratio, proportion)
A3 Data Interpretation (graph, table, chart, diagram)
A4 Pre-Algebra and Algebra (equations, inequality)
A5 Measurement (money, time, temperature, length, area, volume)
A6 Geometry (angles, Pythagorean theory)
A7 Computation in Context (whole numbers, decimals, fractions, algebraic operations)
A8 Estimation (rounding, estimation)
L1 Usage (pronoun, tense, subject/verb agreement, adjective, adverb)
L2 Sentence Formation (fragments, run-on, clarity)
L3 Paragraph Development (topic sentence, supporting sentence, sequence)
L4 Capitalization (proper noun, titles)
L5 Punctuation (comma, semicolon)
L6 Writing Conventions (quotation marks, apostrophe, parts of a letter)
S1 Vowel (short, long)
S2 Consonant (variant spelling, silent letter)
S3 Structural Unit (root, suffix)

Copyright 1994 by CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC

21
st
Century Skills

CS2 Financial, Economic, and Business Literacy
CS4 Information and Communication Skills
CS5 Thinking and Problem-Solving Skills
CS6 Interpersonal and Self-Directional Skills

45
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
SUGGESTED REFERENCES

General Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Books

Althouse, A., Turnquist, C., & Bracciano, A. (2000). Modern refrigeration and air conditioning.
Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox.

Jeffus, L., & Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute. (2004). Refrigeration and air
conditioning. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004) Core curriculum. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level I. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level II. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level III. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level IV. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Swenson, D. (2004). Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. Homewood, IL: American
Technical.

Whitman, B., Johnson, B., & Tomczyk, J. (2005). Refrigeration & air conditioning technology
[Text, Student Guide/Lab Manual, and Instructors Guide]. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson
Delmar Learning.

Electricity for Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration

Clemons, M. (1997). ACR electrical systems. Stillwater, OK: Multistate Academic and
Vocational Curriculum Consortium.

Herman, S., & Sparkman, B. (2003). Electricity and controls for HVAC/R. Clifton Park, NY:
Thomson Delmar Learning.

Horan, T. (2000). Electrical fundamentals and systems for HVAC/R. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Prentice Hall.

Kissell, T. (2003). Electricity, electronics, and control systems for HVAC. Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Prentice Hall.

46
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Mahoney, E. (2000). Electricity for air conditioning and refrigeration technicians. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Mahoney, E. (2006). Electricity, electronics, and wiring diagrams for HVAC/R. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Smith, R. (2003). Electricity for refrigeration, heating, and air conditioning. Albany, NY:
Delmar.

Videos

Coastal Skills Training. (n.d.). Mechanical electrical control (Series 1 & 2) [Videotape].
(Available from Coastal Training Technologies Corp, 500 Studio Drive, Virginia Beach,
VA 23452)

Tel-A-Train. (n.d.). Electric motors (Lessons 1-6) [Videotape]. (Available from Tel-A-Train P.
O. Box 4752, Chattanooga, TN 37405)

Trade Publications

Commercial Building Products. Commercial Building Products ConSource LLC. Retrieved June
19, 2006, from http://www.cbpmagazine.com/

Contractor Excellence. Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.acca.org/

HVAC & Refrigeration. Insider Newspapers, Inc. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.insidernewspapers.com/

RETA Breeze. Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006,
from http://www.reta.com/

RSES Journal: Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration. RSES. Retrieved June
20, 2006, from www.rsesjournal.com

Web Sites

Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.acca.org

Commercial Building Products. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.cbmagazine.com

The Educational Standards Corporation. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.escoinst.com

Insider Newspapers. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.insidernewspapers.com

47
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Mainstream Engineering. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.mainstream-
engr.com/home/

Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.reta.com

RHVAC Tools. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.rhvactools.com

Wrightsoft. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.wrightsoft.com/

48
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Course Name: Professional Service Procedures

Course Abbreviation: ACT 1813

Classification: Vocational-Technical Core

Description: Business ethics necessary to work with both the employer and customer. Includes
resum, record keeping, and service contracts. (3 sch: 3 hr. lecture)

Prerequisite: None

Competencies and Suggested Objectives
1. Describe/explain customer and employer relations/communications.
a. Describe methods of dealing with customers in selling and customer satisfaction,
employers, and co-workers.
b. Explain services performed in laymans terms.
c. Describe the procedures for selling service agreements and replacement equipment.
d. Explain service contracts.
2. Perform customer and employer relations/communications activities.
a. Demonstrate professionalism relating to personal appearance and attitude.
b. Demonstrate good customer relations.
3. Explore employment and workplace skills.
a. Discuss and complete a resum, an application, an interview, etc.
b. Discuss proper work ethics such as attendance, tardiness, performance, etc.
c. Demonstrate proper record keeping including invoices, maintenance records,
refrigerant logs, etc.

STANDARDS

Contren Learning Series Best Practices

CONTREN CORE

COMMUNICATION SKILLS
COM1 Demonstrate the ability to understand information and instructions that are presented in
both written and verbal form.
COM2 Demonstrate the ability to communicate effectively in on-the-job situations using written
and verbal skills.

EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS
EMP1 Explain the construction industry, the role of the companies that make up the industry,
and the role of individual professionals in the industry.
EMP2 Demonstrate critical thinking skills and the ability to solve problems using those skills.
EMP3 Demonstrate knowledge of computer systems and explain common uses for computers in
49
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
the construction industry.
EMP4 Demonstrate effective relationship skills with teammates and supervisors, exhibit the
ability to work on a team, and demonstrate appropriate leadership skills.
EMP5 Be aware of workplace issues such as sexual harassment, stress, and substance abuse.

Level I

TRADE MATHEMATICS

TMA1 Identify similar units of measurement in both the inch-pound (English) and metric
systems and know which units are larger.
TMA2 Convert measured values in the inch-pound system to equivalent metric values and vice
versa.
TMA3 Express numbers as powers of ten.
TMA4 Determine the powers and roots of numbers.
TMA5 Solve basic algebraic equations.
TMA6 Recognize various geometric figures.
TMA7 Use the Pythagorean theorem to make calculations involving right triangles.
TMA8 Convert decimal feet to feet and inches and vice versa.

Level II

MAINTENANCE SKILLS FOR THE SERVICE TECHNICIAN

MSS1 Identify the types of threaded and non-threaded fasteners and explain their use.
MSS2 Install threaded and non-threaded fasteners.
MSS3 Identify the types of gaskets, packings, and seals and explain their use.
MSS4 Remove and install gaskets, packings, and seals.
MSS5 Identify the types of lubricants and explain their use.
MSS6 Use lubrication equipment to lubricate motor bearings.
MSS7 Identify the types of belt drives and explain their use.
MSS8 Demonstrate and/or explain procedures used to install or adjust a belt drive.
MSS9 Identify the types of couplings and explain their use.
MSS10 Demonstrate and/or explain procedures used to remove, install, and align couplings.
MSS11 Identify the types of bearings and explain their use.
MSS12 Explain causes of bearing failures.
MSS13 Demonstrate and/or explain procedures used to remove and install bearings.
MSS14 Perform basic preventive maintenance inspection and cleaning procedures.
MSS15 List work and personal habits that contribute to good customer relations.
MSS16 Identify steps in the handling of a typical service call that will contribute to good
customer relations.
MSS17 Legibly fill out forms used for installation and service calls.

50
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Related Academic Standards

R1 Interpret Graphic Information (forms, maps, reference sources)
R2 Words in Context (same and opposite meaning)
R3 Recall Information (details, sequence)
R4 Construct Meaning (main idea, summary/paraphrase, compare/contrast, cause/effect)
R5 Evaluate/Extend Meaning (fact/opinion, predict outcomes, point of view)
M1 Addition of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M2 Subtraction of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M3 Multiplication of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M4 Division of Whole Numbers (no remainder, remainder)
M5 Decimals (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M6 Fractions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M7 Integers (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
A2 Number Theory (ratio, proportion)
A3 Data Interpretation (graph, table, chart, diagram)
A4 Pre-Algebra and Algebra (equations, inequality)
A5 Measurement (money, time, temperature, length, area, volume)
A6 Geometry (angles, Pythagorean theory)
A7 Computation in Context (whole numbers, decimals, fractions, algebraic operations)
A8 Estimation (rounding, estimation)
L1 Usage (pronoun, tense, subject/verb agreement, adjective, adverb)
L2 Sentence Formation (fragments, run-on, clarity)
L3 Paragraph Development (topic sentence, supporting sentence, sequence)
L4 Capitalization (proper noun, titles)
L5 Punctuation (comma, semicolon)
L6 Writing Conventions (quotation marks, apostrophe, parts of a letter)
S1 Vowel (short, long)
S2 Consonant (variant spelling, silent letter)
S3 Structural Unit (root, suffix)

Copyright 1994 by CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC

21
st
Century Skills

CS2 Financial, Economic, and Business Literacy
CS4 Information and Communication Skills
CS5 Thinking and Problem-Solving Skills
CS6 Interpersonal and Self-Directional Skills

SUGGESTED REFERENCES

Professional Service Procedures

Fry, R. (2000). 101 answers to the toughest interview questions. Albany, NY: Delmar.

51
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Fry, R. (2001). 101 great resumes. Albany, NY: Delmar.

Fry, R. (2002). Your first resume. Albany, NY: Delmar.

Fry, R. (2003). 101 smart questions to ask on your interview. Albany, NY: Delmar.

Gould, M. (2002). Developing literacy & workplace skills. Bloomington, IN: National Education
Service.

Krantman, S. (2001). Resume writers workbook. Albany, NY: Delmar.

Pigford, L. (2001). The successful interview and beyond. Albany, NY: Delmar.

Wendes, H. (2002). HVAC procedures & forms manual. Lilburn, GA: The Fairmont Press.

52
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Course Name: Commercial Refrigeration

Course Abbreviation: ACT 2324

Classification: Vocational-Technical Core

Description: A study of various commercial refrigeration systems. Includes installation,
servicing, and maintaining systems. (4 sch: 2 hr. lecture, 4 hr. lab)

Prerequisite: None

Competencies and Suggested Objectives
1. Define and perform checks of multiplexed evaporator systems.
a. Explain the application of multiplexed systems.
b. Describe the physical construction of a common rack system.
c. Check and adjust Evaporator Pressure Regulating (EPR) valves.
d. Identify capacity of compressors according to manufacturers specifications.
2. Explain and perform routine maintenance and repairs of refrigerated storage.
a. Explain the difference among medium, low, and ultralow temperature storage systems.
b. Explain the operation of various types of freezers and coolers.
c. Explain the different methods of defrost.
3. Explain and perform routine maintenance and repair of ice makers.
a. Explain the operation of various types of ice makers.
b. Explain the different methods of harvest.
4. Identify and discuss operations check of packaged liquid chillers.
a. Discuss the applications of liquid chillers.
b. Explain the operation of liquid chillers.
5. Explain and perform maintenance of other system applications.

STANDARDS

Contren Learning Series Best Practices

CONTREN CORE

BASIC SAFETY

SAF1 Identify the responsibilities and personal characteristics of a professional craftsperson.
SAF2 Explain the role that safety plays in the construction crafts.
SAF3 Describe what job-site safety means.
SAF4 Explain the appropriate safety precautions around common job-site hazards.
SAF5 Demonstrate the use and care of appropriate personal protective equipment.
SAF5 Follow safe procedures for lifting heavy objects.
SAF6 Describe safe behavior on and around ladders and scaffolds.
SAF7 Explain the importance of the HazCom (Hazard Communication Standard) requirement
and MSDSs (Material Safety Data Sheets).
53
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
SAF8 Describe fire prevention and fire fighting techniques.
SAF9 Define safe work procedures around electrical hazards.

INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTION MATH

MAT1 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, with and without a calculator.
MAT2 Use a standard ruler and a metric ruler to measure.
MAT3 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions.
MAT4 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals, with and without a calculator.
MAT5 Convert decimals to percents and percents to decimals.
MAT6 Convert fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.
MAT7 Explain what the metric system is and how it is important in the construction trade.
MAT8 Recognize and use metric units of length, weight, volume, and temperature.
MAT9 Recognize some of the basic shapes used in the construction industry and apply basic
geometry to measure them.

Level I

TRADE MATHEMATICS

TMA1 Identify similar units of measurement in both the inch-pound (English) and metric
systems and know which units are larger.
TMA2 Convert measured values in the inch-pound system to equivalent metric values and vice
versa.
TMA3 Express numbers as powers of ten.
TMA4 Determine the powers and roots of numbers.
TMA5 Solve basic algebraic equations.
TMA6 Recognize various geometric figures.
TMA7 Use the Pythagorean theorem to make calculations involving right triangles.
TMA8 Convert decimal feet to feet and inches and vice versa.

Level III

PLANNED MAINTENANCE

PMM1 Describe planned maintenance and service procedures required for selected HVAC
equipment and components.
PMM2 Develop a planned maintenance and service checklist for selected HVAC equipment
and accessories.
PMM3 Perform identified service and maintenance tasks on selected HVAC equipment,
components, and accessories.
PMM4 Identify the tools and materials necessary for performing service and maintenance tasks.
PMM5 State the safety practices associated with the servicing of selected HVAC equipment,
components, and accessories.

54
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
TROUBLESHOOTING COOLING

TCM1 Describe a systematic approach for troubleshooting cooling systems and components.
TCM2 Isolate problems to electrical and/or mechanical functions in cooling systems.
TCM3 Recognize and use equipment manufacturers troubleshooting aids to troubleshoot
cooling systems.
TCM4 Identify and use the service instruments needed to troubleshoot cooling systems.
TCM5 Successfully troubleshoot selected problems in cooling equipment.
TCM6 State the safety precautions associated with cooling troubleshooting.

Level IV

WATER TREATMENT

WTM1 Explain the reasons why water treatment programs are needed.
WTM2 Recognize symptoms in heating/cooling systems that indicate a water problem exists.
WTM3 Describe the types of problems and related remedies associated with water problems that
can occur in the different types of water and steam systems.
WTM4 Recognize and perform general maintenance on selected mechanical types of HVAC
equipment that are used to control and/or enhance water quality.
WTM5 Use commercial water test kits to test water quality in selected water/steam systems.
WTM6 Perform an inspection/evaluation of a cooling tower or evaporative condenser to identify
potential causes and/or existing conditions that indicate water problems.
WTM7 Demonstrate and/or describe the general procedures used to clean open recirculating
water systems and related cooling towers.
WTM8 Demonstrate and/or describe the general procedures used to inspect, blowdown, and
clean steam boilers.

COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL REFRIGERATION

CIR1 Recognize the different types of refrigerated coolers and display cases. For each type,
give its common application.
CIR2 Compare the basic components used in commercial/industrial refrigeration systems with
those used in comfort air conditioning systems.
CIR3 Recognize single, multiple, and satellite compressor systems. Describe the applications,
installation considerations, and advantages and disadvantages of each type.
CIR4 Recognize packaged condensing units and unit coolers. Describe their applications,
operation, and installation considerations.
CIR5 Recognize two-stage compressors. Explain their operation and applications.
CIR6 Recognize the various accessories used in commercial refrigeration systems.
CIR7 Explain why each is used and where it should be installed in the system.
CIR8 Recognize the various refrigeration control devices. Explain the purpose of each type and
how it works.
CIR9 Describe the various methods used to defrost evaporators.
CIR10 Recognize ice cube and ice flake making machines. Describe their operation and
installation considerations.
55
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
CIR11 Describe the characteristics and properties of the refrigerants and oils being used to
replace CFC refrigerants and mineral oils in existing systems.
CIR12 Demonstrate or describe the general procedure for retrofitting a CFC refrigeration system
to use an HCFC or HFC refrigerant.
CIR13 Recognize basic ammonia refrigeration systems.compare the components used in
ammonia systems with those used in halocarbon-based refrigerant systems.

Related Academic Standards

R1 Interpret Graphic Information (forms, maps, reference sources)
R2 Words in Context (same and opposite meaning)
R3 Recall Information (details, sequence)
R4 Construct Meaning (main idea, summary/paraphrase, compare/contrast, cause/effect)
R5 Evaluate/Extend Meaning (fact/opinion, predict outcomes, point of view)
M1 Addition of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M2 Subtraction of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M3 Multiplication of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M4 Division of Whole Numbers (no remainder, remainder)
M5 Decimals (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M6 Fractions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M7 Integers (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
A2 Number Theory (ratio, proportion)
A3 Data Interpretation (graph, table, chart, diagram)
A4 Pre-Algebra and Algebra (equations, inequality)
A5 Measurement (money, time, temperature, length, area, volume)
A6 Geometry (angles, Pythagorean theory)
A7 Computation in Context (whole numbers, decimals, fractions, algebraic operations)
A8 Estimation (rounding, estimation)
L1 Usage (pronoun, tense, subject/verb agreement, adjective, adverb)
L2 Sentence Formation (fragments, run-on, clarity)
L3 Paragraph Development (topic sentence, supporting sentence, sequence)
L4 Capitalization (proper noun, titles)
L5 Punctuation (comma, semicolon)
L6 Writing Conventions (quotation marks, apostrophe, parts of a letter)
S1 Vowel (short, long)
S2 Consonant (variant spelling, silent letter)
S3 Structural Unit (root, suffix)

Copyright 1994 by CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC

21
st
Century Skills

CS2 Financial, Economic, and Business Literacy
CS4 Information and Communication Skills
CS5 Thinking and Problem-Solving Skills
CS6 Interpersonal and Self-Directional Skills
56
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
SUGGESTED REFERENCES

General Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Books

Althouse, A., Turnquist, C., & Bracciano, A. (2000). Modern refrigeration and air conditioning.
Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox.

Jeffus, L., & Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute. (2004). Refrigeration and air
conditioning. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004) Core curriculum. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level I. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level II. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level III. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level IV. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Swenson, D. (2004). Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. Homewood, IL: American
Technical.

Whitman, B., Johnson, B., & Tomczyk, J. (2005). Refrigeration & air conditioning technology
[Text, Student Guide/Lab Manual, and Instructors Guide]. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson
Delmar Learning.

Commercial Refrigeration

Clemons, M. (1996). Domestic refrigerator, freezer, and window air conditioner service.
Stillwater, OK: Multistate Academic and Vocational Curriculum Consortium.

Stoecker, W. (1995). Industrial refrigeration vol 2. Troy, MI: Business News Publishing.

Wirz, D. (2006). Commercial refrigeration for air conditioning technicians. Clifton Park, NY:
Thomson Delmar Learning.

57
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Trade Publications

Commercial Building Products. Commercial Building Products ConSource LLC. Retrieved June
19, 2006, from http://www.cbpmagazine.com/

Contractor Excellence. Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.acca.org/

HVAC & Refrigeration. Insider Newspapers, Inc. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.insidernewspapers.com/

RETA Breeze. Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006,
from http://www.reta.com/

RSES Journal: Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration. RSES. Retrieved June
20, 2006, from www.rsesjournal.com

Web Sites

Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.acca.org

Commercial Building Products. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.cbmagazine.com

The Educational Standards Corporation. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.escoinst.com

Insider Newspapers. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.insidernewspapers.com

Mainstream Engineering. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.mainstream-
engr.com/home/

Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.reta.com

RHVAC Tools. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.rhvactools.com

Wrightsoft. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.wrightsoft.com/

58
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Course Name: Air Conditioning I

Course Abbreviation: ACT 2414

Classification: Vocational-Technical Core

Description: Residential air conditioning including indoor air quality. (4 sch: 2 hr. lecture, 4 hr.
lab)

Prerequisite: None

Competencies and Suggested Objectives
1. Identify and perform startup and operation requirements for residential air conditioning.
a. Define terms associated with air conditioning systems.
b. Describe the safety procedures for air conditioning startup.
c. Describe the required checks for air conditioning startup.
2. Describe the sequence of operation of the various types of residential air conditioning
systems.
3. Provide service and maintenance to the various types of residential air conditioning
systems.
a. Use and read various tools and instrumentation needed for checking, testing, and
operating air conditioning systems.
b. Analyze and diagnose the electrical and/or mechanical problems.
c. Provide maintenance check of all external components of the systems.
4. Define/explain the requirements and maintenance of air quality.
a. Define and explain indoor air quality and standards.
b. Explain sick building syndrome and building-related illness.
c. Explain the different factors which constitute acceptable indoor air quality.

STANDARDS

Contren Learning Series Best Practices

CONTREN CORE

BASIC SAFETY

SAF1 Identify the responsibilities and personal characteristics of a professional craftsperson.
SAF2 Explain the role that safety plays in the construction crafts.
SAF3 Describe what job-site safety means.
SAF4 Explain the appropriate safety precautions around common job-site hazards.
SAF5 Demonstrate the use and care of appropriate personal protective equipment.
SAF5 Follow safe procedures for lifting heavy objects.
SAF6 Describe safe behavior on and around ladders and scaffolds.
SAF7 Explain the importance of the HazCom (Hazard Communication Standard) requirement
and MSDSs (Material Safety Data Sheets).
59
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
SAF8 Describe fire prevention and fire fighting techniques.
SAF9 Define safe work procedures around electrical hazards.

INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTION MATH

MAT1 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, with and without a calculator.
MAT2 Use a standard ruler and a metric ruler to measure.
MAT3 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions.
MAT4 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals, with and without a calculator.
MAT5 Convert decimals to percents and percents to decimals.
MAT6 Convert fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.
MAT7 Explain what the metric system is and how it is important in the construction trade.
MAT8 Recognize and use metric units of length, weight, volume, and temperature.
MAT9 Recognize some of the basic shapes used in the construction industry and apply basic
geometry to measure them.

Level I

TRADE MATHEMATICS

TMA1 Identify similar units of measurement in both the inch-pound (English) and metric
systems and know which units are larger.
TMA2 Convert measured values in the inch-pound system to equivalent metric values and vice
versa.
TMA3 Express numbers as powers of ten.
TMA4 Determine the powers and roots of numbers.
TMA5 Solve basic algebraic equations.
TMA6 Recognize various geometric figures.
TMA7 Use the Pythagorean theorem to make calculations involving right triangles.
TMA8 Convert decimal feet to feet and inches and vice versa.

INTRODUCTION TO COOLING

ITC1 Explain how heat transfer occurs in a cooling system, demonstrating an understanding of
the terms and concepts used in the refrigeration cycle.
ITC2 Calculate the temperature and pressure relationships at key points in the refrigeration
cycle.
ITC3 Under supervision, use temperature-and pressure-measuring instruments to make
readings at key points in the refrigeration cycle.
ITC4 Identify commonly used refrigerants and demonstrate the procedures for handling these
refrigerants.
ITC5 Identify the major components of a cooling system and explain how each type works.
ITC6 Identify the major accessories available for cooling systems and explain how each type
works.
ITC7 Identify the control devices used in cooling systems and explain how each type works.
ITC8 State the correct methods to be used when piping a refrigeration system.
60
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Level III

PLANNED MAINTENANCE

PMM1 Describe planned maintenance and service procedures required for selected HVAC
equipment and components.
PMM2 Develop a planned maintenance and service checklist for selected HVAC equipment
and accessories.
PMM3 Perform identified service and maintenance tasks on selected HVAC equipment,
components, and accessories.
PMM4 Identify the tools and materials necessary for performing service and maintenance tasks.
PMM5 State the safety practices associated with the servicing of selected HVAC equipment,
components, and accessories.

TROUBLESHOOTING COOLING

TCM1 Describe a systematic approach for troubleshooting cooling systems and components.
TCM2 Isolate problems to electrical and/or mechanical functions in cooling systems.
TCM3 Recognize and use equipment manufacturers troubleshooting aids to troubleshoot
cooling systems.
TCM4 Identify and use the service instruments needed to troubleshoot cooling systems.
TCM5 Successfully troubleshoot selected problems in cooling equipment.
TCM6 State the safety precautions associated with cooling troubleshooting.

Level IV

INDOOR AIR QUALITY

IAQ1 Explain the need for good indoor air quality.
IAQ2 Recognize the symptoms of poor indoor air quality.
IAQ3 Perform an inspection/evaluation of a buildings structure and equipment for potential
causes of poor indoor air quality.
IAQ4 Identify the causes and corrective actions used to remedy the more common indoor air
problems.
IAQ5 Recognize the HVAC equipment and accessories that are used to sense, control, and/or
enhance indoor air quality.
IAQ6 Use selected test instruments to measure or monitor the quality of indoor air.
IAQ7 Demonstrate and/or describe the general procedures used to clean HVAC air system
ductwork and components.

SYSTEM STARTUP AND SHUTDOWN

SSS1 Demonstrate and/or describe how to prepare a boiler for dry storage.
SSS2 Demonstrate and/or describe how to prepare a boiler for wet storage.
SSS3 Demonstrate and/or describe how to clean, start up, and shut down a steam boiler.
SSS4 Demonstrate and/or describe how to clean, start up, and shut down a hot-water boiler.
61
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
SSS5 Demonstrate and/or describe how to start up and shut down a reciprocating liquid chiller
and related water system.
SSS6 Demonstrate and/or describe how to start up and shut down a selected centrifugal or
screw liquid chiller and related water system.
SSS7 Demonstrate and/or describe how to start up and shut down an air handler and related
forced-air distribution system.
SSS8 Demonstrate and/or describe how to test compressor oil for acid contamination.
SSS9 Demonstrate and/or describe how to add or remove oil from a semi-hermetic or open
reciprocating compressor.
SSS10 Demonstrate and/or describe how to inspect and clean shell and tube
condensers/evaporators and other water-type heat exchangers.

Related Academic Standards

R1 Interpret Graphic Information (forms, maps, reference sources)
R2 Words in Context (same and opposite meaning)
R3 Recall Information (details, sequence)
R4 Construct Meaning (main idea, summary/paraphrase, compare/contrast, cause/effect)
R5 Evaluate/Extend Meaning (fact/opinion, predict outcomes, point of view)
M1 Addition of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M2 Subtraction of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M3 Multiplication of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M4 Division of Whole Numbers (no remainder, remainder)
M5 Decimals (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M6 Fractions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M7 Integers (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
A2 Number Theory (ratio, proportion)
A3 Data Interpretation (graph, table, chart, diagram)
A4 Pre-Algebra and Algebra (equations, inequality)
A5 Measurement (money, time, temperature, length, area, volume)
A6 Geometry (angles, Pythagorean theory)
A7 Computation in Context (whole numbers, decimals, fractions, algebraic operations)
A8 Estimation (rounding, estimation)
L1 Usage (pronoun, tense, subject/verb agreement, adjective, adverb)
L2 Sentence Formation (fragments, run-on, clarity)
L3 Paragraph Development (topic sentence, supporting sentence, sequence)
L4 Capitalization (proper noun, titles)
L5 Punctuation (comma, semicolon)
L6 Writing Conventions (quotation marks, apostrophe, parts of a letter)
S1 Vowel (short, long)
S2 Consonant (variant spelling, silent letter)
S3 Structural Unit (root, suffix)

Copyright 1994 by CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC


62
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
21
st
Century Skills

CS2 Financial, Economic, and Business Literacy
CS4 Information and Communication Skills
CS5 Thinking and Problem-Solving Skills
CS6 Interpersonal and Self-Directional Skills

SUGGESTED REFERENCES

General Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Books

Althouse, A., Turnquist, C., & Bracciano, A. (2000). Modern refrigeration and air conditioning.
Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox.

Jeffus, L., & Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute. (2004). Refrigeration and air
conditioning. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004) Core curriculum. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level I. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level II. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level III. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level IV. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Swenson, D. (2004). Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. Homewood, IL: American
Technical.

Whitman, B., Johnson, B., & Tomczyk, J. (2005). Refrigeration & air conditioning technology
[Text, Student Guide/Lab Manual, and Instructors Guide]. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson
Delmar Learning.

Air Conditioning I Video

WaterFurnace International, Inc. (1989). Water Furnace Video Series [Videotape]. (Available
from Water Furnace International, Inc., 9000 Conservation Way, Fort Wayne, IN 46809)

63
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Trade Publications

Commercial Building Products. Commercial Building Products ConSource LLC. Retrieved June
19, 2006, from http://www.cbpmagazine.com/

Contractor Excellence. Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.acca.org/

HVAC & Refrigeration. Insider Newspapers, Inc. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.insidernewspapers.com/

RETA Breeze. Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006,
from http://www.reta.com/

RSES Journal: Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration. RSES. Retrieved June
20, 2006, from www.rsesjournal.com

Web Sites

Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.acca.org

Commercial Building Products. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.cbmagazine.com

The Educational Standards Corporation. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.escoinst.com

Insider Newspapers. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.insidernewspapers.com

Mainstream Engineering. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.mainstream-
engr.com/home/

Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.reta.com

RHVAC Tools. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.rhvactools.com

Wrightsoft. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.wrightsoft.com/

64
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Course Name: Air Conditioning II

Course Abbreviation: ACT 2424

Classification: Vocational-Technical Core

Description: A continuation of Air Conditioning I as an in-depth course in the installation,
startup, and maintenance of air conditioning systems to include residential and commercial. (4
sch: 2 hr. lecture, 4 hr. lab)

Prerequisite: Air Conditioning I (ACT 2414)

Competencies and Suggested Objectives
1. Identify/describe and perform air conditioning startup and operation requirements.
a. Identify the importance of manufacturers installation and operation requirements.
b. Describe the safety procedures for air conditioning startup.
c. Describe the required checks for air conditioning startup.
d. Apply the required procedures for the operation of the system.
2. Analyze and diagnose the electrical and mechanical and/or hydronic systems.
3. Explain and perform basic preventive maintenance.
a. Explain the various types of maintenance programs.
b. Explain tasks and frequencies for a quality maintenance program.
c. Develop and implement a maintenance program.

STANDARDS

Contren Learning Series Best Practices

CONTREN CORE

BASIC SAFETY

SAF1 Identify the responsibilities and personal characteristics of a professional craftsperson.
SAF2 Explain the role that safety plays in the construction crafts.
SAF3 Describe what job-site safety means.
SAF4 Explain the appropriate safety precautions around common job-site hazards.
SAF5 Demonstrate the use and care of appropriate personal protective equipment.
SAF5 Follow safe procedures for lifting heavy objects.
SAF6 Describe safe behavior on and around ladders and scaffolds.
SAF7 Explain the importance of the HazCom (Hazard Communication Standard) requirement
and MSDSs (Material Safety Data Sheets).
SAF8 Describe fire prevention and fire fighting techniques.
SAF9 Define safe work procedures around electrical hazards.

65
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTION MATH

MAT1 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, with and without a calculator.
MAT2 Use a standard ruler and a metric ruler to measure.
MAT3 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions.
MAT4 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals, with and without a calculator.
MAT5 Convert decimals to percents and percents to decimals.
MAT6 Convert fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.
MAT7 Explain what the metric system is and how it is important in the construction trade.
MAT8 Recognize and use metric units of length, weight, volume, and temperature.
MAT9 Recognize some of the basic shapes used in the construction industry and apply basic
geometry to measure them.

Level I

TRADE MATHEMATICS

TMA1 Identify similar units of measurement in both the inch-pound (English) and metric
systems and know which units are larger.
TMA2 Convert measured values in the inch-pound system to equivalent metric values and vice
versa.
TMA3 Express numbers as powers of ten.
TMA4 Determine the powers and roots of numbers.
TMA5 Solve basic algebraic equations.
TMA6 Recognize various geometric figures.
TMA7 Use the Pythagorean theorem to make calculations involving right triangles.
TMA8 Convert decimal feet to feet and inches and vice versa.

Level III

PLANNED MAINTENANCE

PMM1 Describe planned maintenance and service procedures required for selected HVAC
equipment and components.
PMM2 Develop a planned maintenance and service checklist for selected HVAC equipment and
accessories.
PMM3 Perform identified service and maintenance tasks on selected HVAC equipment,
components, and accessories.
PMM4 Identify the tools and materials necessary for performing service and maintenance tasks.
PMM5 State the safety practices associated with the servicing of selected HVAC equipment,
components, and accessories.

TROUBLESHOOTING COOLING

TCM1 Describe a systematic approach for troubleshooting cooling systems and components.
TCM2 Isolate problems to electrical and/or mechanical functions in cooling systems.
66
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
TCM3 Recognize and use equipment manufacturers troubleshooting aids to troubleshoot
cooling systems.
TCM4 Identify and use the service instruments needed to troubleshoot cooling systems.
TCM5 Successfully troubleshoot selected problems in cooling equipment.
TCM6 State the safety precautions associated with cooling troubleshooting.

TROUBLESHOOTING ACCESSORIES

TAM1 Describe a systematic approach for troubleshooting HVAC system accessories.
TAM2 Exhibit competence in isolating problems to electrical and/or mechanical functions of
HVAC system accessories.
TAM3 Recognize and use equipment manufacturers troubleshooting aids to troubleshoot
HVAC system accessories.
TAM4 Identify and properly use the service instruments needed to troubleshoot HVAC system
accessories.
TAM5 Successfully troubleshoot problems in selected HVAC system accessories.
TAM6 State the safety precautions associated with the troubleshooting of HVAC accessories.

HYDRONIC HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS

HHC1 Explain the terms and concepts used when working with hot-water heating, steam
heating, and chilled-water cooling systems.
HHC2 Identify the major components of hot-water heating, steam heating, chilled-water
cooling, and dual-tem-perature water systems.
HHC3 Explain the purpose of each component of hot-water heating, steam heating, chilled-
water cooling, and dual-temperature water systems.
HHC4 Demonstrate the safety precautions used when working with hot-water/chilled-water
systems.
HHC5 Demonstrate or describe how to operate and balance selected hot-water and chilled-
water systems.
HHC6 Describe the basic steam heating cycle.
HHC7 Demonstrate or describe how to safely perform selected operating procedures on low-
pressure steam boilers and systems.
HHC8 Demonstrate or describe how to install and maintain selected steam traps.
HHC9 Identify the common piping configurations used with hot-water heating, steam heating,
and chilled-water cooling systems.
HHC10 Explain the principles involved, and describe the procedures used, in balancing hydronic
systems.
HHC11 Select, calibrate, and properly use the tools and instruments needed to balance hydronic
systems.
HHC12 Read the pressure across a water system circulating pump.

AIRSIDE SYSTEMS

ASM1 Explain the operating principles of different types of commercial air systems.
ASM2 Identify the components that make up a commercial air system.
67
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
ASM3 Describe the functions of commercial air systems and their components.
ASM4 Identify the type of building in which a particular type of system is used.
ASM5 Explain the typical range of capacities for a commercial air system.

Level IV

SYSTEM STARTUP AND SHUTDOWN

SSS1 Demonstrate and/or describe how to prepare a boiler for dry storage.
SSS2 Demonstrate and/or describe how to prepare a boiler for wet storage.
SSS3 Demonstrate and/or describe how to clean, start up, and shut down a steam boiler.
SSS4 Demonstrate and/or describe how to clean, start up, and shut down a hot-water boiler.
SSS5 Demonstrate and/or describe how to start up and shut down a reciprocating liquid chiller
and related water system.
SSS6 Demonstrate and/or describe how to start up and shut down a selected centrifugal or
screw liquid chiller and related water system.
SSS7 Demonstrate and/or describe how to start up and shut down an air handler and related
forced-air distribution system.
SSS8 Demonstrate and/or describe how to test compressor oil for acid contamination.
SSS9 Demonstrate and/or describe how to add or remove oil from a semi-hermetic or open
reciprocating compressor.
SSS10 Demonstrate and/or describe how to inspect and clean shell and tube
condensers/evaporators and other water-type heat exchangers.

Related Academic Standards

R1 Interpret Graphic Information (forms, maps, reference sources)
R2 Words in Context (same and opposite meaning)
R3 Recall Information (details, sequence)
R4 Construct Meaning (main idea, summary/paraphrase, compare/contrast, cause/effect)
R5 Evaluate/Extend Meaning (fact/opinion, predict outcomes, point of view)
M1 Addition of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M2 Subtraction of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M3 Multiplication of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M4 Division of Whole Numbers (no remainder, remainder)
M5 Decimals (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M6 Fractions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M7 Integers (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
A2 Number Theory (ratio, proportion)
A3 Data Interpretation (graph, table, chart, diagram)
A4 Pre-Algebra and Algebra (equations, inequality)
A5 Measurement (money, time, temperature, length, area, volume)
A6 Geometry (angles, Pythagorean theory)
A7 Computation in Context (whole numbers, decimals, fractions, algebraic operations)
A8 Estimation (rounding, estimation)
L1 Usage (pronoun, tense, subject/verb agreement, adjective, adverb)
68
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
L2 Sentence Formation (fragments, run-on, clarity)
L3 Paragraph Development (topic sentence, supporting sentence, sequence)
L4 Capitalization (proper noun, titles)
L5 Punctuation (comma, semicolon)
L6 Writing Conventions (quotation marks, apostrophe, parts of a letter)
S1 Vowel (short, long)
S2 Consonant (variant spelling, silent letter)
S3 Structural Unit (root, suffix)

Copyright 1994 by CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC

21
st
Century Skills

CS2 Financial, Economic, and Business Literacy
CS4 Information and Communication Skills
CS5 Thinking and Problem-Solving Skills
CS6 Interpersonal and Self-Directional Skills

SUGGESTED REFERENCES

General Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Books

Althouse, A., Turnquist, C., & Bracciano, A. (2000). Modern refrigeration and air conditioning.
Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox.

Jeffus, L., & Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute. (2004). Refrigeration and air
conditioning. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004) Core curriculum. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level I. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level II. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level III. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level IV. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Swenson, D. (2004). Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. Homewood, IL: American
Technical.

69
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Whitman, B., Johnson, B., & Tomczyk, J. (2005). Refrigeration & air conditioning technology
[Text, Student Guide/Lab Manual, and Instructors Guide]. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson
Delmar Learning.

Air Conditioning II

Rutkowski, H. (n.d.). Manual H heat pump systems: Principles and applications Arlington, VA:
Air Conditioning Contractors of America.

Video

Tel-A-Train. (n.d.). Pneumatic controls [Videotape]. (Available from Tel-A-Train P. O. Box
4752, Chattanooga, TN 37405)

Trade Publications

Commercial Building Products. Commercial Building Products ConSource LLC. Retrieved June
19, 2006, from http://www.cbpmagazine.com/

Contractor Excellence. Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.acca.org/

HVAC & Refrigeration. Insider Newspapers, Inc. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.insidernewspapers.com/

RETA Breeze. Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006,
from http://www.reta.com/

RSES Journal: Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration. RSES. Retrieved June
20, 2006, from www.rsesjournal.com

Web Sites

Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.acca.org

Commercial Building Products. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.cbmagazine.com

The Educational Standards Corporation. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.escoinst.com

Insider Newspapers. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.insidernewspapers.com

Mainstream Engineering. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.mainstream-
engr.com/home/

70
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.reta.com

RHVAC Tools. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.rhvactools.com

Wrightsoft. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.wrightsoft.com/

71
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Course Name: Refrigerant, Retrofit, and Regulations

Course Abbreviation: ACT 2433

Classification: Vocational-Technical Core

Description: Regulations and standards for new retrofit and government regulations. Includes
OSHA regulations, EPA regulations, and local and state codes. (3 sch: 2 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab)

Prerequisite: None

Competencies and Suggested Objectives
1. Determine the alternative refrigerant and/or lubricant in a specific system.
a. Define terms associated with alternative refrigerant retrofits.
b. Determine if the refrigerant and/or lubricant is applicable to the specific system.
2. Describe/identify codes and standards.
a. Identify standards relating to the air conditioning and refrigeration industry.
b. Explain local and state codes and licensing requirements.
c. Dispose of empty non-refillable cylinders.
d. Explain EPA, DOT, and OSHA rules and regulations as they apply to the industry.

STANDARDS

Contren Learning Series Best Practices

CONTREN CORE

BASIC SAFETY

SAF1 Identify the responsibilities and personal characteristics of a professional craftsperson.
SAF2 Explain the role that safety plays in the construction crafts.
SAF3 Describe what job-site safety means.
SAF4 Explain the appropriate safety precautions around common job-site hazards.
SAF5 Demonstrate the use and care of appropriate personal protective equipment.
SAF5 Follow safe procedures for lifting heavy objects.
SAF6 Describe safe behavior on and around ladders and scaffolds.
SAF7 Explain the importance of the HazCom (Hazard Communication Standard) requirement
and MSDSs (Material Safety Data Sheets).
SAF8 Describe fire prevention and fire fighting techniques.
SAF9 Define safe work procedures around electrical hazards.

72
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Level II

LEAK DETECTION, EVACUATION, RECOVERY, AND CHARGING

LDE1 Identify the common types of leak detectors and explain how each is used.
LDE2 Demonstrate skill in performing leak detection tests.
LDE3 Identify the service equipment used for evacuating a system and explain why each item
of equipment is used.
LDE4 Demonstrate skill in performing system evacuation and dehydration.
LDE5 Identify the service equipment used for recovering refrigerant from a system and for
recycling the recovered refrigerant, and explain why each item of equipment is used.
LDE6 Demonstrate skill in performing refrigerant recovery.
LDE7 Demonstrate or explain how to use a recycle unit.
LDE8 Identify the service equipment used for charging refrigerant into a system, and explain
why each item of equipment is used.

Related Academic Standards

R1 Interpret Graphic Information (forms, maps, reference sources)
R2 Words in Context (same and opposite meaning)
R3 Recall Information (details, sequence)
R4 Construct Meaning (main idea, summary/paraphrase, compare/contrast, cause/effect)
R5 Evaluate/Extend Meaning (fact/opinion, predict outcomes, point of view)
M1 Addition of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M2 Subtraction of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M3 Multiplication of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M4 Division of Whole Numbers (no remainder, remainder)
M5 Decimals (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M6 Fractions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M7 Integers (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
A2 Number Theory (ratio, proportion)
A3 Data Interpretation (graph, table, chart, diagram)
A4 Pre-Algebra and Algebra (equations, inequality)
A5 Measurement (money, time, temperature, length, area, volume)
A6 Geometry (angles, Pythagorean theory)
A7 Computation in Context (whole numbers, decimals, fractions, algebraic operations)
A8 Estimation (rounding, estimation)
L1 Usage (pronoun, tense, subject/verb agreement, adjective, adverb)
L2 Sentence Formation (fragments, run-on, clarity)
L3 Paragraph Development (topic sentence, supporting sentence, sequence)
L4 Capitalization (proper noun, titles)
L5 Punctuation (comma, semicolon)
L6 Writing Conventions (quotation marks, apostrophe, parts of a letter)
S1 Vowel (short, long)
S2 Consonant (variant spelling, silent letter)
S3 Structural Unit (root, suffix)
73
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Copyright 1994 by CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC

21
st
Century Skills

CS2 Financial, Economic, and Business Literacy
CS4 Information and Communication Skills
CS5 Thinking and Problem-Solving Skills
CS6 Interpersonal and Self-Directional Skills

SUGGESTED REFERENCES

General Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Books

Althouse, A., Turnquist, C., & Bracciano, A. (2000). Modern refrigeration and air conditioning.
Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox.

Jeffus, L., & Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute. (2004). Refrigeration and air
conditioning. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004) Core curriculum. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level I. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level II. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level III. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level IV. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Swenson, D. (2004). Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. Homewood, IL: American
Technical.

Whitman, B., Johnson, B., & Tomczyk, J. (2005). Refrigeration & air conditioning technology
[Text, Student Guide/Lab Manual, and Instructors Guide]. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson
Delmar Learning.

Refrigerant, Retrofit, and Regulations

ESCO Institute. (2002). EPA certification exam preparatory manual for air conditioning &
refrigeration technicians. Mount Prospect, IL: Esco Press.

74
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Video

Mainstream Engineering Corp. (2001). Practice exam for 608 Universal Certification
[Videotape]. (Available from Mainstream Engineering Corp., 200 Yellow Place,
Rockledge, FL 32955)

Trade Publications

Commercial Building Products. Commercial Building Products ConSource LLC. Retrieved June
19, 2006, from http://www.cbpmagazine.com/

Contractor Excellence. Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.acca.org/

HVAC & Refrigeration. Insider Newspapers, Inc. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.insidernewspapers.com/

RETA Breeze. Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006,
from http://www.reta.com/

RSES Journal: Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration. RSES. Retrieved June
20, 2006, from www.rsesjournal.com

Web Sites

Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.acca.org

Commercial Building Products. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.cbmagazine.com

The Educational Standards Corporation. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.escoinst.com

Insider Newspapers. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.insidernewspapers.com

Mainstream Engineering. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.mainstream-
engr.com/home/

Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.reta.com

RHVAC Tools. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.rhvactools.com

Wrightsoft. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.wrightsoft.com/
75
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Course Name: Heating Systems

Course Abbreviation: ACT 2513

Classification: Vocational-Technical Core

Description: Various types of residential and commercial heating systems. Includes gas, oil,
electric, compression, and hydroponic heating systems. (3 sch: 2 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab)

Prerequisite: None

Competencies and Suggested Objectives
1. Explain the operation of various types of heating systems.
a. Identify the parts of the systems.
b. Check sequence of the operations.
2. Identify and perform basic maintenance and repair of fossil fuel systems.
a. Define terms associated with fossil fuel systems.
b. Identify basic procedures for maintenance of fossil fuel systems.
c. Describe safety procedures for maintenance repairs.
d. Safely perform basic maintenance on fossil fuel systems.
e. Measure gas pressure by the use of a pressure gauge and U-tube manometer.
f. Determine air velocity with the use of the required instrument.
3. Identify and perform maintenance and repair of hydronic systems.
a. Define terms associated with hydronic systems.
b. Identify basic procedures for maintenance of hydronic systems.
c. Describe safety procedures for maintenance repairs.
d. Safely perform basic maintenance on hydronic systems.
4. Identify and perform basic maintenance and repair of humidifiers.
a. Identify the types of humidifiers.
b. Explain factors affecting humidity.
c. Check operation of humidification equipment.
d. Determine humidity and dew point by using the psychrometer.
5. Identify the operation and basic maintenance of electric furnaces.
a. Identify the major parts of an electric furnace.
6. Identify and safely perform basic maintenance and repair of compression systems to
include air-to-air and geothermal systems.
a. Define terms associated with compression systems.
b. Describe safety procedures for maintenance repairs.
c. Test and balance the system.

76
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
STANDARDS

Contren Learning Series Best Practices

CONTREN CORE

BASIC SAFETY

SAF1 Identify the responsibilities and personal characteristics of a professional craftsperson.
SAF2 Explain the role that safety plays in the construction crafts.
SAF3 Describe what job-site safety means.
SAF4 Explain the appropriate safety precautions around common job-site hazards.
SAF5 Demonstrate the use and care of appropriate personal protective equipment.
SAF5 Follow safe procedures for lifting heavy objects.
SAF6 Describe safe behavior on and around ladders and scaffolds.
SAF7 Explain the importance of the HazCom (Hazard Communication Standard) requirement
and MSDSs (Material Safety Data Sheets).
SAF8 Describe fire prevention and fire fighting techniques.
SAF9 Define safe work procedures around electrical hazards.

INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTION MATH

MAT1 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, with and without a calculator.
MAT2 Use a standard ruler and a metric ruler to measure.
MAT3 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions.
MAT4 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals, with and without a calculator.
MAT5 Convert decimals to percents and percents to decimals.
MAT6 Convert fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.
MAT7 Explain what the metric system is and how it is important in the construction trade.
MAT8 Recognize and use metric units of length, weight, volume, and temperature.
MAT9 Recognize some of the basic shapes used in the construction industry and apply basic
geometry to measure them.

Level I

INTRODUCTION TO HVAC

INT1 Explain the basic principles of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
INT2 Identify career opportunities available to people in the HVAC trade.
INT3 Explain the purpose and objectives of an apprentice training program.
INT4 Describe how certified apprentice training can start in high school.
INT5 Describe what the Clean Air Act means to the HVAC trade

77
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
TRADE MATHEMATICS

TMA1 Identify similar units of measurement in both the inch-pound (English) and metric
systems and know which units are larger.
TMA2 Convert measured values in the inch-pound system to equivalent metric values and vice
versa.
TMA3 Express numbers as powers of ten.
TMA4 Determine the powers and roots of numbers.
TMA5 Solve basic algebraic equations.
TMA6 Recognize various geometric figures.
TMA7 Use the Pythagorean theorem to make calculations involving right triangles.
TMA8 Convert decimal feet to feet and inches and vice versa.

INTRODUCTION TO HEATING

ITH1 Explain the three methods by which heat is transferred and give an example of each.
ITH2 Describe how combustion occurs and identify the by-products of combustion.
ITH3 Identify the various types of fuels used in heating.
ITH4 Identify the major components and accessories of a forced-air furnace and explain the
function of each component.
ITH5 State the factors that must be considered when installing a furnace.
ITH6 Identify the major components of a gas furnace and describe how each works.
ITH7 With supervision, use a manometer to measure and adjust manifold pressure on a gas
furnace.
ITH8 Identify the major components of an oil furnace and describe how each works.
ITH9 Describe how an electric furnace works.
ITH10 With supervision, perform basic furnace preventive maintenance procedures such as
cleaning and filter replacement.

Level II

CHIMNEYS, VENTS, AND FLUES

CVF1 Describe the principles of combustion and explain complete and incomplete combustion.
CVF2 Describe the content of flue gas and explain how it is vented.
CVF3 Identify the components of a furnace vent system.
CVF4 Describe how to select and install a vent system.
CVF5 Perform the adjustments necessary to achieve proper combustion in a gas furnace.
CVF6 Describe the techniques for venting different types of furnaces.
CVF7 Explain the various draft control devices used with natural-draft furnaces.

ELECTRIC HEATING

EHM1 Describe and explain the basic operation of a fan coil equipped with electric heating
elements.
EHM2 Identify and describe the functions of major components of a fan coil equipped with
78
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
electric heating elements.
EHM3 Identify and describe the functions of electric heating controls.
EHM4 Measure resistances and check components and controls for operation and safety.
EHM5 Determine the cubic feet per minute (cfm) using the temperature rise method.
EHM6 Describe and explain the basic operation of other electric heating systems.

ACCESSORIES AND OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT

AOE1 Explain how heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation relates to
human comfort.
AOE2 Explain why it is important to control humidity in a building.
AOE3 Recognize the various kinds of humidifiers used with HVAC systems and explain why
each is used.
AOE4 Demonstrate or describe how to install and service the humidifiers used in HVAC
systems.
AOE5 Recognize the kinds of air filters used with HVAC systems and explain why each is used.
AOE6 Demonstrate or describe how to install and service the filters used in HVAC systems.
AOE7 Use a manometer or differential pressure gauge to measure the friction loss of an air
filter.
AOE8 Identify accessories commonly used with air conditioning systems to improve indoor air
quality and reduce energy cost, and explain the function of each.

HEAT PUMPS

HPM1 Describe the principles of reverse-cycle heating.
HPM2 Identify heat pumps by type and general classification.
HPM3 List the components of heat pump systems.
HPM4 Demonstrate heat pump installation and service procedures.
HPM5 Identify and install refrigerant circuit accessories commonly associated with heat pumps.
HPM6 Analyze a heat pump control circuit.

Level III

TROUBLESHOOTING GAS HEATING

TGH1 Describe the basic operating sequence for natural-draft and induced-draft gas heating
equipment.
TGH2 Demonstrate skill in interpreting control circuit diagrams for gas heating systems.
TGH3 Develop a troubleshooting chart for a gas heating system.
TGH4 Identify the tools and instruments used when troubleshooting gas heating systems.
TGH5 Demonstrate skill in using the tools and instruments required for troubleshooting gas
heating systems.
TGH6 Isolate and correct malfunctions in gas heating systems.

79
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
TROUBLESHOOTING ELECTRIC HEATING

TEH1 Explain the operating principles of various types of electric heating systems.
TEH2 Describe the ways in which electric heating systems and components are likely to fail.
TEH3 Analyze circuit diagrams to determine the operating sequence of a fan coil equipped with
electric heaters.
TEH4 Determine the operating sequence of an electric heater package for a cooling unit or heat
pump.
TEH5 Troubleshoot electric furnaces, accessory heater packages, baseboard heating systems,
duct heaters, and radiant heating systems.
TEH6 State the safety practices associated with the troubleshooting of selected electric heating
systems.

TROUBLESHOOTING OIL HEATING

TOH1 Describe the basic operating sequence for oil-fired heating equipment.
TOH2 Demonstrate skill in interpreting control circuit diagrams for oil heating systems.
TOH3 Develop a troubleshooting chart for an oil heating system.
TOH4 Identify the tools and instruments used in troubleshooting oil heating systems.
TOH5 Demonstrate skill in using the tools and instruments required for troubleshooting oil
heating systems.
TOH6 Isolate and correct malfunctions in oil heating systems.
TOH7 Describe the safety precautions that must be taken when servicing oil heating systems.

TROUBLESHOOTING HEAT PUMPS

THP1 Describe the basic operating sequence for an air-to-air heat pump.
THP2 Demonstrate skill in interpreting control circuit diagrams for heat pumps.
THP3 Develop a troubleshooting chart for a heat pump.
THP4 Identify the tools and instruments used in troubleshooting heat pumps.
THP5 Demonstrate skill in using the tools and instruments required for troubleshooting heat
pumps.
THP6 Isolate and correct malfunctions in heat pumps.
THP7 Describe the safety precautions associated with servicing heat pumps.

Level IV

SYSTEM STARTUP AND SHUTDOWN

SSS1 Demonstrate and/or describe how to prepare a boiler for dry storage.
SSS2 Demonstrate and/or describe how to prepare a boiler for wet storage.
SSS3 Demonstrate and/or describe how to clean, start up, and shut down a steam boiler.
SSS4 Demonstrate and/or describe how to clean, start up, and shut down a hot-water boiler.
SSS5 Demonstrate and/or describe how to start up and shut down a reciprocating liquid chiller
and related water system.
80
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
SSS6 Demonstrate and/or describe how to start up and shut down a selected centrifugal or
screw liquid chiller and related water system.
SSS7 Demonstrate and/or describe how to start up and shut down an air handler and related
forced-air distribution system.
SSS8 Demonstrate and/or describe how to test compressor oil for acid contamination.
SSS9 Demonstrate and/or describe how to add or remove oil from a semi-hermetic or open
reciprocating compressor.
SSS10 Demonstrate and/or describe how to inspect and clean shell and tube
condensers/evaporators and other water-type heat exchangers.

Related Academic Standards

R1 Interpret Graphic Information (forms, maps, reference sources)
R2 Words in Context (same and opposite meaning)
R3 Recall Information (details, sequence)
R4 Construct Meaning (main idea, summary/paraphrase, compare/contrast, cause/effect)
R5 Evaluate/Extend Meaning (fact/opinion, predict outcomes, point of view)
M1 Addition of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M2 Subtraction of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M3 Multiplication of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M4 Division of Whole Numbers (no remainder, remainder)
M5 Decimals (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M6 Fractions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M7 Integers (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
A2 Number Theory (ratio, proportion)
A3 Data Interpretation (graph, table, chart, diagram)
A4 Pre-Algebra and Algebra (equations, inequality)
A5 Measurement (money, time, temperature, length, area, volume)
A6 Geometry (angles, Pythagorean theory)
A7 Computation in Context (whole numbers, decimals, fractions, algebraic operations)
A8 Estimation (rounding, estimation)
L1 Usage (pronoun, tense, subject/verb agreement, adjective, adverb)
L2 Sentence Formation (fragments, run-on, clarity)
L3 Paragraph Development (topic sentence, supporting sentence, sequence)
L4 Capitalization (proper noun, titles)
L5 Punctuation (comma, semicolon)
L6 Writing Conventions (quotation marks, apostrophe, parts of a letter)
S1 Vowel (short, long)
S2 Consonant (variant spelling, silent letter)
S3 Structural Unit (root, suffix)

Copyright 1994 by CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC

21
st
Century Skills

CS2 Financial, Economic, and Business Literacy
81
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
CS4 Information and Communication Skills
CS5 Thinking and Problem-Solving Skills
CS6 Interpersonal and Self-Directional Skills

SUGGESTED REFERENCES

General Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Books

Althouse, A., Turnquist, C., & Bracciano, A. (2000). Modern refrigeration and air conditioning.
Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox.

Jeffus, L., & Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute. (2004). Refrigeration and air
conditioning. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004) Core curriculum. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level I. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level II. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level III. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level IV. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Swenson, D. (2004). Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. Homewood, IL: American
Technical.

Whitman, B., Johnson, B., & Tomczyk, J. (2005). Refrigeration & air conditioning technology
[Text, Student Guide/Lab Manual, and Instructors Guide]. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson
Delmar Learning.

Heating Systems

Cooper, W., Lee, R., Quinlan, R., & Sirowatka, M. (2003). Warm air heating for climate control.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Siegenthaler, J. (2004). Modern hydronic heating for residential and light commercial buildings.
Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.

82
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Trade Publications

Commercial Building Products. Commercial Building Products ConSource LLC. Retrieved June
19, 2006, from http://www.cbpmagazine.com/

Contractor Excellence. Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.acca.org/

HVAC & Refrigeration. Insider Newspapers, Inc. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.insidernewspapers.com/

RETA Breeze. Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006,
from http://www.reta.com/

RSES Journal: Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration. RSES. Retrieved June
20, 2006, from www.rsesjournal.com

Web Sites

Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.acca.org

Commercial Building Products. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.cbmagazine.com

The Educational Standards Corporation. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.escoinst.com

Insider Newspapers. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.insidernewspapers.com

Mainstream Engineering. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.mainstream-
engr.com/home/

Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.reta.com

RHVAC Tools. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.rhvactools.com

Wrightsoft. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.wrightsoft.com/
83
Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Course Name: Heat Load and Air Properties

Course Abbreviation: ACT 2624

Classification: Vocational-Technical Core

Description: Introduction to heat load calculations for residential and light commercial heating,
ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration systems. Includes air distribution, duct sizing,
selection of grills and registers, types of fans, air velocity, and fan performance. Introduces air
testing instruments and computer usage. (4 sch: 2 hr. lecture, 4 hr. lab)

Prerequisite: None

Competencies and Suggested Objectives
1. Identify and calculate generated heat loss/gain using written and/or computer-generated
methods.
a. Define terms associated with heat loss/gain.
b. Identify factors to consider when selecting equipment.
c. Estimate heat loss utilizing construction numbers, multipliers, and design conditions.
d. Calculate a written and/or computer-generated load using charts and/or appropriate
software.
e. Estimate heat loss and gain for structures in a specified geographical location using
tables, worksheets, and/or the computer.
2. Identify and determine duct sizes and air distribution systems using written and/or
computer-generated methods.
a. Define terms associated with air distribution systems and ducts.
b. Identify types of supply duct systems.
c. List advantages/disadvantages of various types of air duct supply and return systems.
d. Solve problems using the friction loss chart and/or appropriate software with various
static pressure.
e. Design an air distribution system utilizing a drawing by hand and/or computer-
generated method.
3. Identify and plot various points on a psychometric chart.
a. Identify terms associated with psychometrics.
b. Discuss the procedures to calculate points on a chart.
c. Calculate and plot points on a chart.
4. Interpret basic blueprints as related to heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and
refrigeration (HVACR).
a. Identify symbols used in HVACR.
b. Interpret the meaning of various symbols.

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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
STANDARDS

Contren Learning Series Best Practices

CONTREN CORE

BASIC SAFETY

SAF1 Identify the responsibilities and personal characteristics of a professional craftsperson.
SAF2 Explain the role that safety plays in the construction crafts.
SAF3 Describe what job-site safety means.
SAF4 Explain the appropriate safety precautions around common job-site hazards.
SAF5 Demonstrate the use and care of appropriate personal protective equipment.
SAF5 Follow safe procedures for lifting heavy objects.
SAF6 Describe safe behavior on and around ladders and scaffolds.
SAF7 Explain the importance of the HazCom (Hazard Communication Standard) requirement
and MSDSs (Material Safety Data Sheets).
SAF8 Describe fire prevention and fire fighting techniques.
SAF9 Define safe work procedures around electrical hazards.

INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTION MATH

MAT1 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, with and without a calculator.
MAT2 Use a standard ruler and a metric ruler to measure.
MAT3 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions.
MAT4 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals, with and without a calculator.
MAT5 Convert decimals to percents and percents to decimals.
MAT6 Convert fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.
MAT7 Explain what the metric system is and how it is important in the construction trade.
MAT8 Recognize and use metric units of length, weight, volume, and temperature.
MAT9 Recognize some of the basic shapes used in the construction industry and apply basic
geometry to measure them.

INTRODUCTION TO BLUEPRINTS

BLU1 Recognize and identify basic blueprint terms, components, and symbols.
BLU2 Relate information on blueprints to actual locations on the print.
BLU3 Recognize different classifications of drawings.
BLU4 Interpret and use drawing dimensions.

Level I

TRADE MATHEMATICS

TMA1 Identify similar units of measurement in both the inch-pound (English) and metric
systems and know which units are larger.
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
TMA2 Convert measured values in the inch-pound system to equivalent metric values and vice
versa.
TMA3 Express numbers as powers of ten.
TMA4 Determine the powers and roots of numbers.
TMA5 Solve basic algebraic equations.
TMA6 Recognize various geometric figures.
TMA7 Use the Pythagorean theorem to make calculations involving right triangles.
TMA8 Convert decimal feet to feet and inches and vice versa.

Level II

AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

ADS1 Describe the airflow and pressures in a basic forced-air distribution system.
ADS2 Explain the differences between propeller and centrifugal fans and blowers.
ADS3 Identify the various types of duct systems and explain why and where each type is used.
ADS4 Demonstrate or explain the installation of metal, fiberboard, and flexible duct.
ADS5 Demonstrate or explain the installation of fittings and transitions used in duct systems.
ADS6 Demonstrate or explain the use and installation of diffusers, registers, and grilles used in
duct systems.
ADS7 Demonstrate or explain the use and installation of dampers used in duct systems.
ADS8 Demonstrate or explain the use and installation of insulation and vapor barriers used in
duct systems.
ADS9 Identify the instruments used to make measurements in air systems and explain the use of
each instrument.
ADS10 Make basic temperature, air pressure, and velocity measurements in an air distribution
system.

ACCESSORIES AND OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT

AOE1 Explain how heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation relates to
human comfort.
AOE2 Explain why it is important to control humidity in a building.
AOE3 Recognize the various kinds of humidifiers used with HVAC systems and explain why
each is used.
AOE4 Demonstrate or describe how to install and service the humidifiers used in HVAC
systems.
AOE5 Recognize the kinds of air filters used with HVAC systems and explain why each is used.
AOE6 Demonstrate or describe how to install and service the filters used in HVAC systems.
AOE7 Use a manometer or differential pressure gauge to measure the friction loss of an air
filter.
AOE8 Identify accessories commonly used with air conditioning systems to improve indoor air
quality and reduce energy cost, and explain the function of each.

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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Level III

AIR PROPERTIES AND AIR SYSTEM BALANCING

PSB1 Explain the gas laws (Dalton, Boyle, and Charles) used when dealing with air and its
properties.
PSB2 Explain how the properties of air relate to one another.
PSB3 Use a psychrometric chart to evaluate air properties and changes in air properties.
PSB4 Explain the principles involved in the balancing of air distribution systems.
PSB5 Define common terms used by manufacturers when describing grilles, registers, and
diffusers.
PSB6 Identify and use the tools and instruments needed to balance air distribution systems.
PSB7 Demonstrate and/or describe the general procedures used to balance air distribution
systems.
PSB8 Demonstrate and/or describe the methods used to change the speed of air distribution
system supply fans

Level IV

CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS

CDS1 Read blueprints and architects plans.
CDS2 Compare mechanical plans with the actual installation of duct run fittings and sections.
CDS3 Interpret specification documents and apply them to the plans.
CDS4 Interpret shop drawings and apply them to the plans and specifications.
CDS5 Develop cut lists for duct runs as shown on shop drawings and develop elevations of
installations.
CDS6 Describe a submittal, its derivation, routing, and makeup.
CDS7 Develop a field set of as-built drawings.
CDS8 Identify the steps required for transferring design information to component production.
CDS9 Identify, develop, and complete takeoff sheets.
CDS10 List and classify materials most commonly used in HVAC systems.
CDS11 Complete takeoff procedures for HVAC systems.

HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM DESIGN

HCD1 Identify and describe the steps in the system design process.
HCD2 From blueprints or an actual job site, obtain information needed to complete heating and
cooling load estimates.
HCD3 Identify the factors that affect heat gains and losses to a building and describe how these
factors influence the design process.
HCD4 With instructor supervision, complete a load estimate to determine the heating and/or
cooling load of a building.
HCD5 State the principles that affect the selection of equipment to satisfy the calculated heating
and/or cooling load.
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
HCD6 With instructor supervision, select heating and/or cooling equipment using
manufacturers product data.
HCD7 Recognize the various types of duct systems and explain why and where each type is
used.
HCD8 Demonstrate the effect of fittings and transitions on duct system design.
HCD9 Explain the use and installation of diffusers, registers, and grilles used in duct systems.
HCD10 Demonstrate the use of a friction loss chart to size round duct.
HCD11 Demonstrate the use of duct sizing tables to size rectangular duct.
HCD12 Explain or demonstrate the use and installation of insulation and vapor barriers used in
duct systems.
HCD13 Apply proper design principles to the selection and installation of refrigerant and
condensate piping.
HCD14 Estimate the electrical load for a building and calculate the effect of the comfort system
on the electrical load.

Related Academic Standards

R1 Interpret Graphic Information (forms, maps, reference sources)
R2 Words in Context (same and opposite meaning)
R3 Recall Information (details, sequence)
R4 Construct Meaning (main idea, summary/paraphrase, compare/contrast, cause/effect)
R5 Evaluate/Extend Meaning (fact/opinion, predict outcomes, point of view)
M1 Addition of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M2 Subtraction of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M3 Multiplication of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M4 Division of Whole Numbers (no remainder, remainder)
M5 Decimals (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M6 Fractions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M7 Integers (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
A2 Number Theory (ratio, proportion)
A3 Data Interpretation (graph, table, chart, diagram)
A4 Pre-Algebra and Algebra (equations, inequality)
A5 Measurement (money, time, temperature, length, area, volume)
A6 Geometry (angles, Pythagorean theory)
A7 Computation in Context (whole numbers, decimals, fractions, algebraic operations)
A8 Estimation (rounding, estimation)
L1 Usage (pronoun, tense, subject/verb agreement, adjective, adverb)
L2 Sentence Formation (fragments, run-on, clarity)
L3 Paragraph Development (topic sentence, supporting sentence, sequence)
L4 Capitalization (proper noun, titles)
L5 Punctuation (comma, semicolon)
L6 Writing Conventions (quotation marks, apostrophe, parts of a letter)
S1 Vowel (short, long)
S2 Consonant (variant spelling, silent letter)
S3 Structural Unit (root, suffix)

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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Copyright 1994 by CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC

21
st
Century Skills

CS1 Global Awareness
CS2 Financial, Economic, and Business Literacy
CS4 Information and Communication Skills
CS5 Thinking and Problem-Solving Skills
CS6 Interpersonal and Self-Directional Skills

SUGGESTED REFERENCES

General Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Books

Althouse, A., Turnquist, C., & Bracciano, A. (2000). Modern refrigeration and air conditioning.
Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox.

Jeffus, L., & Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute. (2004). Refrigeration and air
conditioning. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004) Core curriculum. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level I. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level II. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level III. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

National Center for Construction Education and Research. (2004). HVAC level IV. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Swenson, D. (2004). Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. Homewood, IL: American
Technical.

Whitman, B., Johnson, B., & Tomczyk, J. (2005). Refrigeration & air conditioning technology
[Text, Student Guide/Lab Manual, and Instructors Guide]. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson
Delmar Learning.

Heat Load and Air Properties

Rutkowski, H. (1985). Manual P psychrometrics: Theory and application. Arlington, VA: Air
Conditioning Contractors of America.
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Rutkowski, H. (1995). Manual D residential duct systems. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning
Contractors of America.

Rutkowski, H. (1995). Manual S residential equipment selection. Arlington, VA: Air
Conditioning Contractors of America.

Rutkowski, H. (2000). Manual T air distribution basics for residential and small commercial
buildings. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning Contractors of America.

Rutkowski, H. (2003). Manual J residential load calculation. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning
Contractors of America.

Trade Publications

Commercial Building Products. Commercial Building Products ConSource LLC. Retrieved June
19, 2006, from http://www.cbpmagazine.com/

Contractor Excellence. Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.acca.org/

HVAC & Refrigeration. Insider Newspapers, Inc. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.insidernewspapers.com/

RETA Breeze. Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006,
from http://www.reta.com/

RSES Journal: Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration. RSES. Retrieved June
20, 2006, from www.rsesjournal.com

Web Sites

Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.acca.org

Commercial Building Products. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.cbmagazine.com

The Educational Standards Corporation. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.escoinst.com

Insider Newspapers. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.insidernewspapers.com

Mainstream Engineering. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.mainstream-
engr.com/home/

Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from
http://www.reta.com

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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
RHVAC Tools. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.rhvactools.com

Wrightsoft. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.wrightsoft.com/
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Course Name: Special Project in Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration
Technology

Course Abbreviation: ACT 291(1-3)

Classification: Vocational-Technical Elective

Description: A course designed to provide the student with practical application of skills and
knowledge gained in technical courses. The instructor works closely with the student to insure
that the selection of a project will enhance the student's learning experience. (1-3 sch: 2-6 hr. lab)

Prerequisite: Consent of Instructor

Competencies and Suggested Objectives
1. Develop a written plan which details the activities and projects to be completed.
a. Utilize a written plan which details the activities and projects to be done.
b. Perform written occupational objectives.
2. Assess accomplishment of objectives.
a. Prepare daily written assessment of accomplishment of objectives.
b. Present weekly written report to instructor on activities done.
3. Utilize a set of written guidelines for the special project.
a. Develop and follow a set of written guidelines.

STANDARDS

Specific standards for this course will depend upon the nature of the problem under
investigation.

SUGGESTED REFERENCES

Specific references for this course will depend upon the nature of the problem under
investigation.
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Course Name: Supervised Work Experience in Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and
Refrigeration Technology

Course Abbreviation: ACT 292(1-6)

Classification: Vocational-Technical Elective

Description: A course which is a cooperative program between industry and education and is
designed to integrate the students technical studies with industrial experience. Variable credit is
awarded on the basis of one semester hour per 45 industrial contact hours. (1-6 sch: 3-18 hr.
externship)

Prerequisite: Consent of Instructor

Competencies and Suggested Objectives
1. Apply technical skills needed to be a viable member of the workforce.
a. Prepare a description of technical skills to be developed in the supervised work
experience.
b. Develop technical skills needed to be a viable member of the workforce.
2. Apply skills developed in other program area courses.
a. Perform skills developed in other program area courses.
3. Apply human relationship skills.
a. Use proactive human relationship skills in the supervised work experience.
4. Apply and practice positive work habits and responsibilities.
a. Perform assignments to develop work habits and responsibilities.
5. Work with instructor and employer to develop written occupational objectives to be
accomplished.
a. Perform written occupational objectives in the supervised work experience.
6. Assess accomplishment of objectives.
a. Prepare daily written assessment of accomplishment of objectives.
b. Present weekly written reports to instructor in activities performed and objectives
accomplished.
7. Utilize a set of written guidelines for the supervised work experience.
a. Develop and follow a set of written guidelines for the supervised work experience.

STANDARDS

Specific standards for this course will depend upon the nature of the problem under
investigation.

SUGGESTED REFERENCES

Specific references for this course will depend upon the nature of the problem under
investigation.
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Course Name: Work-Based Learning I, II, III, IV, V, and VI

Course Abbreviation: WBL 191(1-3), WBL 192(1-3), WBL 193(1-3), WBL 291(1-3), WBL
292(1-3), and WBL 293(1-3)

Classification: Free Elective

Description: A structured work-site learning experience in which the student, program area
teacher, Work-Based Learning Coordinator, and worksite supervisor/mentor develop and
implement an educational training agreement. Designed to integrate the students academic and
technical skills into a work environment. May include regular meetings and seminars with school
personnel and employers for supplemental instruction and progress reviews. (1-3 sch: 3-9 hours
externship)

Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in vocational-technical program area courses

Competencies and Suggested Objectives
1. Apply technical skills and related academic knowledge needed to be a viable member of
the workforce.
a. Demonstrate technical skills necessary to complete job requirements.
b. Demonstrate academic skills necessary to complete job requirements.
c. Perform tasks detailed in an educational training agreement at the work setting.
2. Apply general workplace skills to include positive work habits necessary for successful
employment.
a. Demonstrate appropriate human relationship skills in the work setting to include
conflict resolution, team participation, leadership, negotiation, and customer/client
service.
b. Utilize time, materials, and resource management skills.
c. Use critical thinking skills such as problem solving, decision making, and reasoning.
d. Acquire, evaluate, organize, maintain, interpret, and communicate information.

STANDARDS

Specific standards for this course will depend upon the nature of the problem under
investigation.

SUGGESTED REFERENCES

Specific references for this course will depend upon the nature of the problem under
investigation.
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Recommended Tools and Equipment

CAPITALIZED TOOLS

1. Oxy-acetylene outfit (8)
2. Computers (1 per student)
3. Printers (1 per computer or networked lab)

NONCAPITALIZED TOOLS

1. Bench/metal or wood tops with vises (10)
2. C clamps, assorted sets - 6", 8", 10" (3)
3. " and " corded and cordless drill motors (2 each)
4. Gear puller set (1)
5. 7" pedestal grinder, commercial (1)
6. 220v kit quick start (1)
7. 110v kit quick start (1)
8. Electronic leak detectors corded and cordless, (2 each)
9. Ultrasonic and ultraviolet leak detectors (2 each)
10. Pop rivet gun set (1)
11. Service valve kits (2)
12. Snips: straight, left, right (3)
13. Soldering gun (2)
14. Combination squares (2)
15. Tap and die sets (1 metric and 1 SAE) (2)
16. 25 ft. tape measures (2)
17. Three-foot metal rules (2)
18. Universal appliance truck (2)
19. Vacuum (wet or dry) (1)
20. Wheel puller set (1)
21. Pipe wrench set (1)
22. Chisel sets (2)
23. Combination wrench sets (1 metric and 1 SAE) (2)
24. Diagonal cutters (4)
25. Reciprocating saw (1)
26. Grinders, side (1-4" and 1-7") (2)
27. File set (1)
28. Flare/swage sets (10)
29. Nitrogen tank and recycling regulator and relief valve (2)
30. First aid kit (1)
31. Schrader valve core removal tools (2)
32. Industrial flashlights (3)
33. Fuse pullers (2)
34. Hack saws/extra blades (2)
35. Ball peen hammer sets (2)
36. Set, refrigeration flare nut wrenches (7/16"-1") (1)
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
37. Nut driver sets (4)
38. Pinch off tool (4)
39. Pliers (slip joint/needle nose/linesman locking) (3)
40. Scratch awls (2)
41. Screwdriver sets (2 straight and 2 Philips) (4)
42. Sockets and ratchet sets - ", ", " drive (1 metric and 1 SAE) (2 each)
43. Tubing bender set (1)
44. Tubing cutter kits (5)
45. Wire strippers (5)
46. Allen wrench sets (2)
47. Wire end crimpers (2)
48. Sanitation cabinet with safety glasses, with 1 pair of safety glasses per person (1)
49. 8 ft. fiberglass ladders (3)
50. Four wheel cart (1)
51. Appliance lift (1)
52. Circular saw (1)
53. Hand trucks for cylinders (4)
54. 12 ft. fiberglass ladder (1)

CAPITALIZED EQUIPMENT

1. A/C split (gas and electric)(4)
2. A/C window unit (4)
3. Residential package heating (Dual purpose - for heating and cooling instruction) (2)
4. Air-to-air heat pump (with electrical backup heat) (2)
5. Residential refrigerator (1)
6. Commercial ice maker (trainer) (1)
7. Vacuum pumps, 2 stage (4)
8. Refrigerant identifier (1)
9. Recovery/recycling equipment (4)
10. Combustion test kit (1)
11. Basic electrical trainers (4)
12. Air conditioning trainer (1)
13. Refrigeration trainer (1)
14. Heat pump trainer (1)
15. Solid state electronic trainer (1)
16. Electric heat trainer (1)
17. Gas heat trainer (1)
18. Compressor trainer (1)

NONCAPITALIZED EQUIPMENT

1. Clamp-on ammeters (4)
2. Hermetic analyzer (2)
3. Capacitor analyzer (2)
4. Set of recording ammeter and voltmeter (1)
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
5. Electronic thermometer (8)
6. Electronic charging scale (2)
7. Micron vacuum gauge (4)
8. Manifold gauge sets with low loss fittings (6)
9. Bimetal (digital) thermometers (6)
10. Temperature recorder (2)
11. Psychrometer (dry and wet bulbs) (2)
12. Storage tanks (6)
13. Hand oil pump (1)
14. U-tube manometer (4)
15. Carbon monoxide tester (1)
16. Velometers (Dual purpose - for heating and cooling instruction) (2)

RECOMMENDED INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS

It is recommended that instructors have access to the following items:

1. Scientific calculator (1)
2. Cart, AV (for overhead projector)
3. Computer with operating software with multimedia kit (1)
4. Projector, overhead
5. VCR/DVD player (1)
6. Data projector (1)
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
ASSESSMENT

BLUEPRINT

Title of Program: Heating and Air Conditioning Program Level: Postsecondary

This program is assessed using the MS-CPAS. The following blueprint summary contains the
competencies that are measured when assessing this program. Competencies are grouped into
clusters and a weight is given to each cluster to determine the number of items needed from each
cluster. The numbers of C1s and C2s (item difficulty levels) are also indicated on the blueprint.


Level
1 (C1)

Level
2 (C2)

TOTAL

%

Cl ust er /Compet enc y

Number

Number




Cluster 1 : Tools and Piping
ACT 1133

7


2


9
9

Cluster 2 : Refrigeration
ACT 1125, ACT 1313, ACT 2324, ACT 2433

32


10

42 42

Cluster 3 : Air Conditioning and Controls
Act 1213, ACT 2414, ACT 2424

15


5

20 20

Cluster 4 : Heating
ACT 2513, ACT 2624

15


5

20 20

Cluster 5: Electricity
ACT 1713

7


2

9



Total Questions:

76

24

100

100



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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
Baseline Competencies

The following competencies and suggested objectives are taken from the publication Mississippi
Curriculum Framework for Secondary Heating and Air Conditioning. These competencies and
objectives represent the baseline which was used to develop the community/junior college
Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology courses. Students enrolled
in postsecondary courses should either (1) have documented mastery of these competencies, or
(2) be provided with these competencies before studying the advanced competencies in the
Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology program.

Baseline competencies may be integrated into existing courses in the curriculum or taught as
special Introduction courses. The Introduction courses may be taught for up to six semester
hours of institutional credit and may be divided into two courses. If the Baseline Competencies
are to be taught as Introduction courses, each course should be at least 3 credit hours. The
following course number(s) and description should be used:

Course Name(s): Introduction to Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration
Technology; Introduction to Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration
Technology I; or Introduction to Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration
Technology II

Course Abbreviation(s): ACT 100(3-6), ACT 1013, ACT 1023

Classification: Vocational-Technical Core

Description: These courses contain the baseline competencies and suggested objectives from the
high school curriculum which directly relate to the community college program. The courses are
designed for students entering the community college who have had no previous training or
documented experience in the field. (3-6 semester hours based upon existing skills for each
student, may be divided into 2 courses for a maximum total of 6 hours of institutional credit.)

Competencies and Suggested Objectives:

1. Describe local program and vocational center policies and procedures.
a. Describe local program and vocational center policies and procedures including dress
code, attendance, academic requirements, discipline, and transportation regulations.
2. Describe employment opportunities and responsibilities.
a. Describe employment opportunities including potential earnings, employee benefits, job
availability, place of employment, working conditions, and educational requirements.
b. Describe basic employee responsibilities.
3. Explore leadership skills and personal development opportunities provided students by
student organizations to include SkillsUSA.
a. Demonstrate effective teambuilding and leadership skills.
b. Practice appropriate work ethics.
4. Demonstrate the ability to follow verbal and written instructions and communicate effectively
in on-the-job situations.
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
5. Discuss the basic principles of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning to include materials
and techniques.
6. Describe general safety rules for working in a shop/lab and industry.
a. Describe how to avoid on-site accidents.
b. Explain the relationship between housekeeping and safety.
c. Explain the importance of following all safety rules and company safety policies.
d. Explain the importance of reporting all on-the-job injuries, accidents, and near misses.
e. Explain the need for evacuation policies and the importance of following them.
f. Explain the employers substances abuse policy and how it relates to safety.
g. Explain the safety procedures when working near pressurized or high temperature.
7. Identify and apply safety around welding operations.
a. Use proper safety practices when welding or working around welding operations.
b. Use proper safety practices when welding in or near trenches and excavations.
c. Explain the term proximity work.
8. Identify and explain use of various barriers and confinements.
a. Explain the safety requirements for working in confined areas.
b. Explain and practice lockout/tagout procedures.
c. Explain the different barriers and barricades and how they are used.
d. Recognize and explain personal protective equipment.
e. Inspect and care for personal protective equipment.
9. Explain lifting and the use of ladders and scaffolds.
a. Identify and explain the procedures for lifting heavy objects.
b. Inspect and safely work with various ladders and scaffolds.
10. Explain the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS).
a. Explain the function of the MSDS.
b. Interpret the requirements of the MSDS.
11. Explain fires.
a. Explain the process by which fires start.
b. Explain fire prevention of various flammable liquids.
c. Explain the classes of fire and the types of extinguishers.
12. Explain safety in and around electrical situations.
a. Explain injuries when electrical contact occurs.
b. Explain safety around electrical hazards.
c. Explain action to take when an electrical shock occurs.
13. Apply the four basic math skills with whole numbers, fractions, and percent.
a. Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, decimals, and fractions.
b. Convert whole numbers to fractions, and convert fractions to whole numbers.
c. Convert decimals to percent, and convert percent to decimals.
d. Convert fractions to decimals.
e. Convert fractions to percent.
14. Use the metric system.
a. Use a standard and metric ruler to measure.
b. Explain what the metric system is and its importance.
c. Recognize and use metric units of length, weight, volume, and temperature.
15. Apply basic mathematics for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
a. Solve basic algebraic equations.
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Postsecondary Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technology
b. Calculate volume, weight, pressure, vacuum, and temperature.
c. Construct simple geometric figures and solve basic geometry problems.
16. Demonstrate the use and maintenance of hand and power tools.
a. Identify and discuss the use of common hand and power tools.
b. Discuss rules of safety.
c. Select and demonstrate the use of tools.
d. Explain the procedures for maintenance.
17. Read, analyze, and design a blueprint.
a. Identify terms and symbols commonly used on blueprints.
b. Interpret various symbols to locate various elements.
c. Interpret a plan to determine layout.
d. Interpret basic electrical specifications.
e. Interpret electrical drawings including site plans, floor plans, and detail drawings.
f. Read equipment schedule.
g. Explain basic layout of a blueprint.
h. Describe the information in a title block.
i. Identify the lines used on blueprints.
j. Explain the architects and engineers scales.
k. Design a blueprint.
l. Construct a structure based on a blueprint.
18. Explain and identify safe rigging and equipment.
a. Explain and practice safe rigging.
b. Identify and explain rigging equipment.
c. Inspect rigging equipment.
19. Discuss the proper use of load-handling and signaling practices.
a. Discuss the proper procedures for estimating size, weight, and center of gravity.
b. Simulate rigging and moving materials and equipment.
20. Explain and apply the basic principles in the use of manifold gauges and refrigerant
cylinders.
a. Explain the safety precautions and purpose of working with manifold gauges and
refrigerant cylinders.
b. Connect a set of refrigeration manifold gauges to a system.
c. Identify the methods of charging a refrigeration system.
d. Charge the refrigeration system from the low side or high side.
21. Describe leaks in a refrigerant system.
a. Describe the safety precautions.
b. Discuss the features and benefits of refrigerant leak detectors.
22. Locate leaks in a refrigerant system using the various methods.
23. Identify/install a basic vacuum pump service operation.
a. Describe safety procedures using a vacuum pump.
b. Install a vacuum pump on a system.
24. Provide basic recovery system service operations.
a. Describe the effects of refrigerant and fluorocarbons on the atmosphere.
b. Use a refrigerant recovery system to reclaim refrigerant.
25. Identify and demonstrate precautions and procedures when installing refrigerant piping.
a. Identify safety procedures when installing copper and plastic tubing.
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b. Identify sizes and types of copper and plastic tubing.
c. Lay out and construct copper and plastic tubing in a refrigeration system.
26. Discuss and demonstrate procedures for soldering and brazing safely.
a. Identify purposes and use of solder, filler metal, and fluxes.
b. Solder and braze copper tubing and fittings.
27. Review local program and vocational center policies and procedures.
a. Describe local program and vocational center policies and procedures including dress
code, attendance, academic requirements, discipline, and transportation regulations.
28. Review employment opportunities and responsibilities.
a. Describe employment opportunities including potential earnings, employee benefits, job
availability, place of employment, working conditions, and educational requirements.
b. Describe basic employee responsibilities.
29. Review leadership skills and personal development opportunities provided students by
student organizations to include SkillsUSA.
a. Demonstrate effective teambuilding and leadership skills.
b. Practice appropriate work ethics.
30. Demonstrate the ability to follow verbal and written instructions and communicate effectively
in on-the-job situations.
31. Describe general safety rules for working in a shop/lab and industry.
a. Describe how to avoid on-site accidents.
b. Explain the relationship between housekeeping and safety.
c. Explain the importance of following all safety rules and company safety policies.
d. Explain the importance of reporting all on-the-job injuries, accidents, and near misses.
e. Explain the need for evacuation policies and the importance of following them.
f. Explain the employers substances abuse policy and how it relates to safety.
g. Explain the safety procedures when working near pressurized or high temperature.
32. Identify and apply safety around welding operations.
a. Use proper safety practices when welding or working around welding operations.
b. Use proper safety practices when welding in or near trenches and excavations.
c. Explain the term proximity work.
33. Identify and explain use of various barriers and confinements.
a. Explain the safety requirements for working in confined areas.
b. Explain and practice lockout/tagout procedures.
c. Explain the different barriers and barricades and how they are used.
d. Recognize and explain personal protective equipment.
e. Inspect and care for personal protective equipment.
34. Explain lifting and the use of ladders and scaffolds.
a. Identify and explain the procedures for lifting heavy objects.
b. Inspect and safely work with various ladders and scaffolds.
35. Explain the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS).
a. Explain the function of the MSDS.
b. Interpret the requirements of the MSDS.
36. Explain fires.
a. Explain the process by which fires start.
b. Explain fire prevention of various flammable liquids.
c. Explain the classes of fire and the types of extinguishers.
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37. Explain safety in and around electrical situations.
a. Explain injuries when electrical contact occurs.
b. Explain safety around electrical hazards.
c. Explain action to take when an electrical shock occurs.
38. Describe/identify basic electricity.
a. State how electrical power is generated and distributed.
b. Describe how voltage, current, resistance, and power are related.
c. Explain the different types of meters used to measure voltage, current, and resistance.
d. Use Ohms Law to calculate the current, voltage, and resistance in a circuit.
e. Calculate how much power is consumed by a circuit using the power formula.
f. Describe the differences between series and parallel circuits.
39. Interpret wiring diagrams.
40. Demonstrate the ability to wire basic circuits.
a. Explain the difference between AC and DC currents.
b. Explain the difference between conductors and insulators.
c. Describe the differences between series and parallel circuits.
41. Identify/explain a maintenance schedule.
42. Explore the various types of fuels, systems, and methods of transfer.
a. Identify and explain the three methods by which heat is transferred.
b. Describe how combustion occurs.
c. Identify the various type of fuels used in heating.
43. Perform maintenance on a heating system.
a. Identify the major components of heating systems.
44. Identify and perform a maintenance schedule.
45. Identify and discuss the major components of a cooling system.
a. Explain how heat transfer occurs in a cooling system.
b. Calculate the temperature and pressure relationships at key points.
c. Use temperature and pressure measuring instruments to makereadings at key points.
d. Identify refrigerants and demonstrate the procedures for handling.

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Appendix A: Contren Best Practices for Heating, Ventilation, Air
Conditioning and Refrigeration
1



CORE- Introductory Craft Skills

BASIC SAFETY

SAF1 Identify the responsibilities and personal characteristics of a professional craftsperson.
SAF2 Explain the role that safety plays in the construction crafts.
SAF3 Describe what job-site safety means.
SAF4 Explain the appropriate safety precautions around common job-site hazards.
SAF5 Demonstrate the use and care of appropriate personal protective equipment.
SAF5 Follow safe procedures for lifting heavy objects.
SAF6 Describe safe behavior on and around ladders and scaffolds.
SAF7 Explain the importance of the HazCom (Hazard Communication Standard) requirement
and MSDSs (Material Safety Data Sheets).
SAF8 Describe fire prevention and fire fighting techniques.
SAF9 Define safe work procedures around electrical hazards.

INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTION MATH

MAT1 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, with and without a calculator.
MAT2 Use a standard ruler and a metric ruler to measure.
MAT3 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions.
MAT4 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals, with and without a calculator.
MAT5 Convert decimals to percents and percents to decimals.
MAT6 Convert fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.
MAT7 Explain what the metric system is and how it is important in the construction trade.
MAT8 Recognize and use metric units of length, weight, volume, and temperature.
MAT9 Recognize some of the basic shapes used in the construction industry and apply basic
geometry to measure them.

INTRODUCTION TO HAND TOOLS

HTO1 Recognize and identify some of the basic hand tools used in the construction trade.
HTO2 Use these tools safely.
HTO3 Describe the basic procedures for taking care of these tools.

INTRODUCTION TO POWER TOOLS

PTO1 Identify commonly used power tools of the construction trade.
PTO2 Use power tools safely.

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PTO3 Explain how to maintain power tools properly.

INTRODUCTION TO BLUEPRINTS

BLU1 Recognize and identify basic blueprint terms, components, and symbols.
BLU2 Relate information on blueprints to actual locations on the print.
BLU3 Recognize different classifications of drawings.
BLU4 Interpret and use drawing dimensions.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS
COM1 Demonstrate the ability to understand information and instructions that are presented in
both written and verbal form.
COM2 Demonstrate the ability to communicate effectively in on-the-job situations using written
and verbal skills.

EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS
EMP1 Explain the construction industry, the role of the companies that make up the industry,
and the role of individual professionals in the industry.
EMP2 Demonstrate critical thinking skills and the ability to solve problems using those skills.
EMP3 Demonstrate knowledge of computer systems and explain common uses for computers in
the construction industry.
EMP4 Demonstrate effective relationship skills with teammates and supervisors, exhibit the
ability to work on a team, and demonstrate appropriate leadership skills.
EMP5 Be aware of workplace issues such as sexual harassment, stress, and substance abuse.

Level I

INTRODUCTION TO HVAC

INT1 Explain the basic principles of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
INT2 Identify career opportunities available to people in the HVAC trade.
INT3 Explain the purpose and objectives of an apprentice training program.
INT4 Describe how certified apprentice training can start in high school.
INT5 Describe what the Clean Air Act means to the HVAC trade

TRADE MATHEMATICS

TMA1 Identify similar units of measurement in both the inch-pound (English) and metric
systems and know which units are larger.
TMA2 Convert measured values in the inch-pound system to equivalent metric values and vice
versa.
TMA3 Express numbers as powers of ten.
TMA4 Determine the powers and roots of numbers.
TMA5 Solve basic algebraic equations.
TMA6 Recognize various geometric figures.
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TMA7 Use the Pythagorean theorem to make calculations involving right triangles.
TMA8 Convert decimal feet to feet and inches and vice versa.

TOOLS OF THE TRADE

TOT1 Identify and state the use of the following tools:
Pipe wrenches
Torque wrenches
Tinners and soft-faced hammers
Hand cutting snips
Hand and power hacksaws
Drill press
Measuring tools
TOT2 Describe the general procedures for maintenance of most hand and power tools.
TOT3 Describe or demonstrate the general safety precautions that must be followed when using
most hand and power tools.

COPPER AND PLASTIC PIPING PRACTICES

CPP1 State the precautions that must be taken when installing refrigerant piping.
CPP2 Select the right tubing for the job.
CPP3 Cut and bend tubing
CPP4 Safely join tubing by using flare and compression fittings.
CPP5 Determine the kinds of hangers and supports needed for refrigerant piping.
CPP6 State the basic requirements for pressure testing a system once it has been installed.

SOLDERING AND BRAZING

SBR1 Assemble and operate the tools used for soldering.
SBR2 Prepare tubing and fittings for soldering.
SBR3 Identify the purposes and uses of solder and solder fluxes.
SBR4 Solder copper tubing and fittings.
SBR5 Assemble and operate the tools used for brazing.
SBR6 Prepare tubing and fittings for brazing.
SBR7 Identify the purposes and uses of filler metals and fluxes used for brazing.
SBR8 Braze copper tubing and fittings.
SBR9 Identify the inert gases that can safely be used to purge tubing when brazing.

FERROUS METAL PIPING PRACTICES

FMP1 Identify the types of ferrous metal pipes.
FMP2 Measure the sizes of ferrous metal pipes.
FMP3 Identify the common malleable iron fittings.
FMP4 Cut, ream, and thread ferrous metal pipe.
FMP5 Join lengths of threaded pipe together and install fittings.
FMP6 Describe the main points to consider when installing pipe runs.
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FMP7 Describe the method used to join grooved piping.

BASIC ELECTRICITY

BEL1 State how electrical power is generated and distributed.
BEL2 Describe how voltage, current, resistance, and power are related.
BEL3 Use Ohms law to calculate the current, voltage, and resistance in a circuit.
BEL4 Use the power formula to calculate how much power is consumed by a circuit.
BEL5 Describe the differences between series and parallel circuits.
BEL6 Recognize and describe the purpose and operation of the various electrical components
used in HVAC equipment.
BEL7 State and demonstrate the safety precautions that must be followed when working on
electrical equipment.
BEL8 Make voltage, current, and resistance measurements using electrical test equipment.

INTRODUCTION TO COOLING

ITC1 Explain how heat transfer occurs in a cooling system, demonstrating an understanding of
the terms and concepts used in the refrigeration cycle.
ITC2 Calculate the temperature and pressure relationships at key points in the refrigeration
cycle.
ITC3 Under supervision, use temperature-and pressure-measuring instruments to make
readings at key points in the refrigeration cycle.
ITC4 Identify commonly used refrigerants and demonstrate the procedures for handling these
refrigerants.
ITC5 Identify the major components of a cooling system and explain how each type works.
ITC6 Identify the major accessories available for cooling systems and explain how each type
works.
ITC7 Identify the control devices used in cooling systems and explain how each type works.
ITC8 State the correct methods to be used when piping a refrigeration system.

INTRODUCTION TO HEATING

ITH1 Explain the three methods by which heat is transferred and give an example of each.
ITH2 Describe how combustion occurs and identify the by-products of combustion.
ITH3 Identify the various types of fuels used in heating.
ITH4 Identify the major components and accessories of a forced-air furnace and explain the
function of each component.
ITH5 State the factors that must be considered when installing a furnace.
ITH6 Identify the major components of a gas furnace and describe how each works.
ITH7 With supervision, use a manometer to measure and adjust manifold pressure on a gas
furnace.
ITH8 Identify the major components of an oil furnace and describe how each works.
ITH9 Describe how an electric furnace works.
ITH10 With supervision, perform basic furnace preventive maintenance procedures such as
cleaning and filter replacement.
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Level II

AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

ADS1 Describe the airflow and pressures in a basic forced-air distribution system.
ADS2 Explain the differences between propeller and centrifugal fans and blowers.
ADS3 Identify the various types of duct systems and explain why and where each type is used.
ADS4 Demonstrate or explain the installation of metal, fiberboard, and flexible duct.
ADS5 Demonstrate or explain the installation of fittings and transitions used in duct systems.
ADS6 Demonstrate or explain the use and installation of diffusers, registers, and grilles used in
duct systems.
ADS7 Demonstrate or explain the use and installation of dampers used in duct systems.
ADS8 Demonstrate or explain the use and installation of insulation and vapor barriers used in
duct systems.
ADS9 Identify the instruments used to make measurements in air systems and explain the use of
each instrument.
ADS10 Make basic temperature, air pressure, and velocity measurements in an air distribution
system.

CHIMNEYS, VENTS, AND FLUES

CVF1 Describe the principles of combustion and explain complete and incomplete combustion.
CVF2 Describe the content of flue gas and explain how it is vented.
CVF3 Identify the components of a furnace vent system.
CVF4 Describe how to select and install a vent system.
CVF5 Perform the adjustments necessary to achieve proper combustion in a gas furnace.
CVF6 Describe the techniques for venting different types of furnaces.
CVF7 Explain the various draft control devices used with natural-draft furnaces.

MAINTENANCE SKILLS FOR THE SERVICE TECHNICIAN

MSS1 Identify the types of threaded and non-threaded fasteners and explain their use.
MSS2 Install threaded and non-threaded fasteners.
MSS3 Identify the types of gaskets, packings, and seals and explain their use.
MSS4 Remove and install gaskets, packings, and seals.
MSS5 Identify the types of lubricants and explain their use.
MSS6 Use lubrication equipment to lubricate motor bearings.
MSS7 Identify the types of belt drives and explain their use.
MSS8 Demonstrate and/or explain procedures used to install or adjust a belt drive.
MSS9 Identify the types of couplings and explain their use.
MSS10 Demonstrate and/or explain procedures used to remove, install, and align couplings.
MSS11 Identify the types of bearings and explain their use.
MSS12 Explain causes of bearing failures.
MSS13 Demonstrate and/or explain procedures used to remove and install bearings.
MSS14 Perform basic preventive maintenance inspection and cleaning procedures.
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MSS15 List work and personal habits that contribute to good customer relations.
MSS16 Identify steps in the handling of a typical service call that will contribute to good
customer relations.
MSS17 Legibly fill out forms used for installation and service calls.

ALTERNATING CURRENT

ACM1 Describe the operation of various types of transformers.
ACM2 Explain how alternating current is developed and draw a sine wave.
ACM3 Identify single-phase and three-phase wiring arrangements.
ACM4 Explain how phase shift occurs in inductors and capacitors.
ACM5 Describe the types of capacitors and their applications.
ACM6 Explain the operation of single-phase and three-phase induction motors.
ACM7 Identify the various types of single-phase motors and their applications.
ACM8 Use a wattmeter, megger, capacitor analyzer, and chart recorder.
ACM9 Test inductors and capacitors using an ohmmeter.
ACM10 State and demonstrate the safety precautions that must be followed when working with
electrical equipment.

BASIC ELECTRONICS

BEM1 Explain the basic theory of electronics and semiconductors.
BEM2 Explain how various semiconductor devices such as diodes, LEDs, and photo diodes
work, and how they are used in power and control circuits.
BEM3 Identify different types of resistors and explain how their resistance values can be
determined.
BEM4 Describe the operation and function of thermistors and cad cells.
BEM5 Test semiconductor components.
BEM6 Identify the connectors on a personal computer.

ELECTRIC HEATING

EHM1 Describe and explain the basic operation of a fan coil equipped with electric heating
elements.
EHM2 Identify and describe the functions of major components of a fan coil equipped with
electric heating elements.
EHM3 Identify and describe the functions of electric heating controls.
EHM4 Measure resistances and check components and controls for operation and safety.
EHM5 Determine the cubic feet per minute (cfm) using the temperature rise method.
EHM6 Describe and explain the basic operation of other electric heating systems.

INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL CIRCUIT TROUBLESHOOTING

CCT1 Explain the function of a thermostat in an HVAC system.
CCT2 Describe different types of thermostats and explain how they are used.
CCT3 Demonstrate the correct installation and adjustment of a thermostat using proper siting
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and wiring techniques.
CCT4 Explain the basic principles applicable to all control systems.
CCT5 Identify the various types of electromechanical, electronic, and pneumatic HVAC
controls, and explain their function and operation.
CCT6 Describe a systematic approach for electrical troubleshooting of HVAC equipment and
components.
CCT7 Recognize and use equipment manufacturers troubleshooting aids to troubleshoot
HVAC equipment.
CCT8 Exhibit competence in isolating electrical problems to faulty power distribution, load, or
control circuits.
CCT9 Identify the service instruments needed to troubleshoot HVAC electrical equipment.
CCT10 Make electrical troubleshooting checks and measurements on circuits and components
common to all HVAC equipment.

ACESSORIES AND OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT

AOE1 Explain how heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation relates to
human comfort.
AOE2 Explain why it is important to control humidity in a building.
AOE3 Recognize the various kinds of humidifiers used with HVAC systems and explain why
each is used.
AOE4 Demonstrate or describe how to install and service the humidifiers used in HVAC
systems.
AOE5 Recognize the kinds of air filters used with HVAC systems and explain why each is used.
AOE6 Demonstrate or describe how to install and service the filters used in HVAC systems.
AOE7 Use a manometer or differential pressure gauge to measure the friction loss of an air
filter.
AOE8 Identify accessories commonly used with air conditioning systems to improve indoor air
quality and reduce energy cost, and explain the function of each.

METERING DEVICES

MDM1 Explain the function of metering devices.
MDM2 Describe the operation of selected metering devices and expansion valves.
MDM3 Identify types of thermal expansion valves (TXVs).
MDM4 Describe problems associated with replacement of TXVs.
MDM5 Describe the procedure for installing and adjusting selected TXVs.

COMPRESSORS

COM1 Identify the different kinds of compressors.
COM2 Demonstrate or describe the mechanical operation for each type of compressor.
COM3 Demonstrate or explain compressor lubrication methods.
COM4 Demonstrate or explain methods used to control compressor capacity.
COM5 Demonstrate or describe how compressor protection devices operate.
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COM6 Perform the common procedures used when field servicing open and semi-hermetic
compressors.
Shaft seal removal and installation
Valve plate removal and installation
Unloader adjustment
COM7 Demonstrate the procedures used to identify system problems that cause compressor
failures.
COM8 Demonstrate the system checkout procedure performed following a compressor failure.
COM9 Demonstrate or describe the procedures used to remove and install a compressor.
COM10 Demonstrate or describe the procedures used to clean up a system after a compressor
burnout.

HEAT PUMPS

HPM1 Describe the principles of reverse-cycle heating.
HPM2 Identify heat pumps by type and general classification.
HPM3 List the components of heat pump systems.
HPM4 Demonstrate heat pump installation and service procedures.
HPM5 Identify and install refrigerant circuit accessories commonly associated with heat pumps.
HPM6 Analyze a heat pump control circuit.

LEAK DETECTION, EVACUATION, RECOVERY, AND CHARGING

LDE1 Identify the common types of leak detectors and explain how each is used.
LDE2 Demonstrate skill in performing leak detection tests.
LDE3 Identify the service equipment used for evacuating a system and explain why each item
of equipment is used.
LDE4 Demonstrate skill in performing system evacuation and dehydration.
LDE5 Identify the service equipment used for recovering refrigerant from a system and for
recycling the recovered refrigerant, and explain why each item of equipment is used.
LDE6 Demonstrate skill in performing refrigerant recovery.
LDE7 Demonstrate or explain how to use a recycle unit.
LDE8 Identify the service equipment used for charging refrigerant into a system, and explain
why each item of equipment is used.
LDE9 Demonstrate skill in charging refrigerant into a system.

Level III

PLANNED MAINTENANCE

PMM1 Describe planned maintenance and service procedures required for selected HVAC
equipment and components.
PMM2Develop a planned maintenance and service checklist for selected HVAC equipment and
accessories.
PMM3 Perform identified service and maintenance tasks on selected HVAC equipment,
components, and accessories.
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PMM4 Identify the tools and materials necessary for performing service and maintenance tasks.
PMM5 State the safety practices associated with the servicing of selected HVAC equipment,
components, and accessories.

TROUBLESHOOTING GAS HEATING

TGH1 Describe the basic operating sequence for natural-draft and induced-draft gas heating
equipment.
TGH2 Demonstrate skill in interpreting control circuit diagrams for gas heating systems.
TGH3 Develop a troubleshooting chart for a gas heating system.
TGH4 Identify the tools and instruments used when troubleshooting gas heating systems.
TGH5 Demonstrate skill in using the tools and instruments required for troubleshooting gas
heating systems.
TGH6 Isolate and correct malfunctions in gas heating systems.

TROUBLESHOOTING ELECTRIC HEATING

TEH1 Explain the operating principles of various types of electric heating systems.
TEH2 Describe the ways in which electric heating systems and components are likely to fail.
TEH3 Analyze circuit diagrams to determine the operating sequence of a fan coil equipped with
electric heaters.
TEH4 Determine the operating sequence of an electric heater package for a cooling unit or heat
pump.
TEH5 Troubleshoot electric furnaces, accessory heater packages, baseboard heating systems,
duct heaters, and radiant heating systems.
TEH6 State the safety practices associated with the troubleshooting of selected electric heating
systems.

TROUBLESHOOTING OIL HEATING

TOH1 Describe the basic operating sequence for oil-fired heating equipment.
TOH2 Demonstrate skill in interpreting control circuit diagrams for oil heating systems.
TOH3 Develop a troubleshooting chart for an oil heating system.
TOH4 Identify the tools and instruments used in troubleshooting oil heating systems.
TOH5 Demonstrate skill in using the tools and instruments required for troubleshooting oil
heating systems.
TOH6 Isolate and correct malfunctions in oil heating systems.
TOH7 Describe the safety precautions that must be taken when servicing oil heating systems.

TROUBLESHOOTING COOLING

TCM1 Describe a systematic approach for troubleshooting cooling systems and components.
TCM2 Isolate problems to electrical and/or mechanical functions in cooling systems.
TCM3 Recognize and use equipment manufacturers troubleshooting aids to troubleshoot
cooling systems.
TCM4 Identify and use the service instruments needed to troubleshoot cooling systems.
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TCM5 Successfully troubleshoot selected problems in cooling equipment.
TCM6 State the safety precautions associated with cooling troubleshooting.

TROUBLESHOOTING HEAT PUMPS

THP1 Describe the basic operating sequence for an air-to-air heat pump.
THP2 Demonstrate skill in interpreting control circuit diagrams for heat pumps.
THP3 Develop a troubleshooting chart for a heat pump.
THP4 Identify the tools and instruments used in troubleshooting heat pumps.
THP5 Demonstrate skill in using the tools and instruments required for troubleshooting heat
pumps.
THP6 Isolate and correct malfunctions in heat pumps.
THP7 Describe the safety precautions associated with servicing heat pumps.

TROUBLESHOOTING ACCESSORIES

TAM1 Describe a systematic approach for troubleshooting HVAC system accessories.
TAM2 Exhibit competence in isolating problems to electrical and/or mechanical functions of
HVAC system accessories.
TAM3 Recognize and use equipment manufacturers troubleshooting aids to troubleshoot
HVAC system accessories.
TAM4 Identify and properly use the service instruments needed to troubleshoot HVAC system
accessories.
TAM5 Successfully troubleshoot problems in selected HVAC system accessories.
TAM6 State the safety precautions associated with the troubleshooting of HVAC accessories.

TROUBLESHOOTING ELECTRONIC CONTROLS

TEC1 Describe the similarities and differences between electronic controls and conventional
controls.
TEC2 Analyze circuit diagrams and other manufacturers literature to determine the operating
sequence of microprocessor-controlled systems.
TEC3 Use standard and special test equipment to test a microprocessor-controlled comfort
system.

HYDRONIC HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS

HHC1 Explain the terms and concepts used when working with hot-water heating, steam
heating, and chilled-water cooling systems.
HHC2 Identify the major components of hot-water heating, steam heating, chilled-water cooling,
and dual-tem-perature water systems.
HHC3 Explain the purpose of each component of hot-water heating, steam heating, chilled-
water cooling, and dual-temperature water systems.
HHC4 Demonstrate the safety precautions used when working with hot-water/chilled-water
systems.
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HHC5 Demonstrate or describe how to operate and balance selected hot-water and chilled-water
systems.
HHC6 Describe the basic steam heating cycle.
HHC7 Demonstrate or describe how to safely perform selected operating procedures on low-
pressure steam boilers and systems.
HHC8 Demonstrate or describe how to install and maintain selected steam traps.
HHC9 Identify the common piping configurations used with hot-water heating, steam heating,
and chilled-water cooling systems.
HHC10 Explain the principles involved, and describe the procedures used, in balancing hydronic
systems.
HHC11 Select, calibrate, and properly use the tools and instruments needed to balance hydronic
systems.
HHC12 Read the pressure across a water system circulating pump.

AIRSIDE SYSTEMS

ASM1 Explain the operating principles of different types of commercial air systems.
ASM2 Identify the components that make up a commercial air system.
ASM3 Describe the functions of commercial air systems and their components.
ASM4 Identify the type of building in which a particular type of system is used.
ASM5 Explain the typical range of capacities for a commercial air system.

AIR PROPERTIES AND AIR SYSTEM BALANCING

PSB1 Explain the gas laws (Dalton, Boyle, and Charles) used when dealing with air and its
properties.
PSB2 Explain how the properties of air relate to one another.
PSB3 Use a psychometric chart to evaluate air properties and changes in air properties.
PSB4 Explain the principles involved in the balancing of air distribution systems.
PSB5 Define common terms used by manufacturers when describing grilles, registers, and
diffusers.
PSB6 Identify and use the tools and instruments needed to balance air distribution systems.
PSB7 Demonstrate and/or describe the general procedures used to balance air distribution
systems.
PSB8 Demonstrate and/or describe the methods used to change the speed of air distribution
system supply fans

Level IV

CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS

CDS1 Read blueprints and architects plans.
CDS2 Compare mechanical plans with the actual installation of duct run fittings and sections.
CDS3 Interpret specification documents and apply them to the plans.
CDS4 Interpret shop drawings and apply them to the plans and specifications.
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CDS5 Develop cut lists for duct runs as shown on shop drawings and develop elevations of
installations.
CDS6 Describe a submittal, its derivation, routing, and makeup.
CDS7 Develop a field set of as-built drawings.
CDS8 Identify the steps required for transferring design information to component production.
CDS9 Identify, develop, and complete takeoff sheets.
CDS10 List and classify materials most commonly used in HVAC systems.
CDS11 Complete takeoff procedures for HVAC systems.

INDOOR AIR QUALITY

IAQ1 Explain the need for good indoor air quality.
IAQ2 Recognize the symptoms of poor indoor air quality.
IAQ3 Perform an inspection/evaluation of a buildings structure and equipment for potential
causes of poor indoor air quality.
IAQ4 Identify the causes and corrective actions used to remedy the more common indoor air
problems.
IAQ5 Recognize the HVAC equipment and accessories that are used to sense, control, and/or
enhance indoor air quality.
IAQ6 Use selected test instruments to measure or monitor the quality of indoor air.
IAQ7 Demonstrate and/or describe the general procedures used to clean HVAC air system
ductwork and components.

ENERGY CONSERVATION EQUIPMENT

ECE1 Recognize selected air-to-air heat exchangers and describe how they operate.
ECE2 Recognize selected condenser heat recovery systems and explain how they operate.
ECE3 Recognize a coil energy recovery loop and explain how it operates.
ECE4 Recognize a heat pipe heat exchanger and explain how it operates.
ECE5 Recognize thermosiphon heat exchangers and explain how they operate.
ECE6 Recognize a twin tower enthalpy recovery loop system and explain how it operates.
ECE7 Recognize airside and waterside economizers and explain how each type operates.
ECE8 Recognize selected steam system heat recovery systems and explain how they operate.
ECE9 Recognize an ice bank-type off-peak hours energy reduction system.
ECE10 Demonstrate and/or describe how to operate selected energy conversion equipment.

BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

BMS1 Define a building management system.
BMS2 Explain the operation of a basic direct digital controller.
BMS3 Demonstrate familiarity with the terms commonly used in discussing control loops and
building management systems.
BMS4 Identify the major components of a building management system and describe how they
fit together.
BMS5 Recognize the type of information available on a typical front-end computer screen for a
building management system.
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BMS6 Describe the typical steps required to install a building management system.
BMS7 Understand how to install typical sensors, actuators, power wiring, and communication
wiring.
BMS8 Recognize what programming a building management system entails.

WATER TREATMENT

WTM1 Explain the reasons why water treatment programs are needed.
WTM2 Recognize symptoms in heating/cooling systems that indicate a water problem exists.
WTM3 Describe the types of problems and related remedies associated with water problems that
can occur in the different types of water and steam systems.
WTM4 Recognize and perform general maintenance on selected mechanical types of HVAC
equipment that are used to control and/or enhance water quality.
WTM5 Use commercial water test kits to test water quality in selected water/steam systems.
WTM6 Perform an inspection/evaluation of a cooling tower or evaporative condenser to identify
potential causes and/or existing conditions that indicate water problems.
WTM7 Demonstrate and/or describe the general procedures used to clean open recirculating
water systems and related cooling towers.
WTM8 Demonstrate and/or describe the general procedures used to inspect, blowdown, and
clean steam boilers.

SYSTEM STARTUP AND SHUTDOWN

SSS1 Demonstrate and/or describe how to prepare a boiler for dry storage.
SSS2 Demonstrate and/or describe how to prepare a boiler for wet storage.
SSS3 Demonstrate and/or describe how to clean, start up, and shut down a steam boiler.
SSS4 Demonstrate and/or describe how to clean, start up, and shut down a hot-water boiler.
SSS5 Demonstrate and/or describe how to start up and shut down a reciprocating liquid chiller
and related water system.
SSS6 Demonstrate and/or describe how to start up and shut down a selected centrifugal or
screw liquid chiller and related water system.
SSS7 Demonstrate and/or describe how to start up and shut down an air handler and related
forced-air distribution system.
SSS8 Demonstrate and/or describe how to test compressor oil for acid contamination.
SSS9 Demonstrate and/or describe how to add or remove oil from a semi-hermetic or open
reciprocating compressor.
SSS10 Demonstrate and/or describe how to inspect and clean shell and tube
condensers/evaporators and other water-type heat exchangers.

HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM DESIGN

HCD1 Identify and describe the steps in the system design process.
HCD2 From blueprints or an actual job site, obtain information needed to complete heating and
cooling load estimates.
HCD3 Identify the factors that affect heat gains and losses to a building and describe how these
factors influence the design process.
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HCD4 With instructor supervision, complete a load estimate to determine the heating and/or
cooling load of a building.
HCD5 State the principles that affect the selection of equipment to satisfy the calculated heating
and/or cooling load.
HCD6 With instructor supervision, select heating and/or cooling equipment using
manufacturers product data.
HCD7 Recognize the various types of duct systems and explain why and where each type is
used.
HCD8 Demonstrate the effect of fittings and transitions on duct system design.
HCD9 Explain the use and installation of diffusers, registers, and grilles used in duct systems.
HCD10 Demonstrate the use of a friction loss chart to size round duct.
HCD11 Demonstrate the use of duct sizing tables to size rectangular duct.
HCD12 Explain or demonstrate the use and installation of insulation and vapor barriers used in
duct systems.
HCD13 Apply proper design principles to the selection and installation of refrigerant and
condensate piping.
HCD14 Estimate the electrical load for a building and calculate the effect of the comfort system
on the electrical load.

COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL REFRIGERATION

CIR1 Recognize the different types of refrigerated coolers and display cases. For each type,
give its common application.
CIR2 Compare the basic components used in commercial/industrial refrigeration systems with
those used in comfort air conditioning systems.
CIR3 Recognize single, multiple, and satellite compressor systems. Describe the applications,
installation considerations, and advantages and disadvantages of each type.
CIR4 Recognize packaged condensing units and unit coolers. Describe their applications,
operation, and installation considerations.
CIR5 Recognize two-stage compressors. Explain their operation and applications.
CIR6 Recognize the various accessories used in commercial refrigeration systems.
CIR7 Explain why each is used and where it should be installed in the system.
CIR8 Recognize the various refrigeration control devices. Explain the purpose of each type and
how it works.
CIR9 Describe the various methods used to defrost evaporators.
CIR10 Recognize ice cube and ice flake making machines. Describe their operation and
installation considerations.
CIR11 Describe the characteristics and properties of the refrigerants and oils being used to
replace CFC refrigerants and mineral oils in existing systems.
CIR12 Demonstrate or describe the general procedure for retrofitting a CFC refrigeration system
to use an HCFC or HFC refrigerant.
CIR13 Recognize basic ammonia refrigeration systems.compare the components used in
ammonia systems with those used in halocarbon-based refrigerant systems.
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Appendix B: Related Academic Standards
2


Reading
R1 Interpret Graphic Information (forms, maps, reference sources)
R2 Words in Context (same and opposite meaning)
R3 Recall Information (details, sequence)
R4 Construct Meaning (main idea, summary/paraphrase, compare/contrast, cause/effect)
R5 Evaluate/Extend Meaning (fact/opinion, predict outcomes, point of view)

Mathematics Computation
M1 Addition of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M2 Subtraction of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M3 Multiplication of Whole Numbers (no regrouping, regrouping)
M4 Division of Whole Numbers (no remainder, remainder)
M5 Decimals (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M6 Fractions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M7 Integers (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
M8 Percents
M9 Algebraic Operations

Applied Mathematics
A1 Numeration (ordering, place value, scientific notation)
A2 Number Theory (ratio, proportion)
A3 Data Interpretation (graph, table, chart, diagram)
A4 Pre-Algebra and Algebra (equations, inequality)
A5 Measurement (money, time, temperature, length, area, volume)
A6 Geometry (angles, Pythagorean theory)
A7 Computation in Context (whole numbers, decimals, fractions, algebraic operations)
A8 Estimation (rounding, estimation)

Language
L1 Usage (pronoun, tense, subject/verb agreement, adjective, adverb)
L2 Sentence Formation (fragments, run-on, clarity)
L3 Paragraph Development (topic sentence, supporting sentence, sequence)
L4 Capitalization (proper noun, titles)
L5 Punctuation (comma, semicolon)
L6 Writing Conventions (quotation marks, apostrophe, parts of a letter)

Spelling
S1 Vowel (short, long)
S2 Consonant (variant spelling, silent letter)
S3 Structural Unit (root, suffix)

2
CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC. (1994). Tests of adult basic education, Forms 7 and 8. Monterey, CA: Author.
Reproduced with permission of CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC. TABE is a registered trademark of The McGraw-
Hill Companies, Inc. Copyright 1994 by CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC. Reproduction of this material is
permitted for educational purposes only.
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Appendix C: 21
st
Century Skills
3


CS1 Global Awareness
Using 21
st
century skills to understand and address global issues
Learning from and working collaboratively with individuals representing diverse
cultures, religions, and lifestyles in a spirit of mutual respect and open dialogue in
personal, work, and community contexts
Promoting the study of non-English language as a tool for understanding other
nations and cultures
CS2 Financial, Economic, and Business Literacy
Knowing how to make appropriate personal economic choices
Understanding the role of the economy and the role of business in the economy
Applying appropriate 21
st
century skills to function as a productive contributor within
an organizational setting
Integrating oneself within and adapting continually to our nations evolving economic
and business environment
CS3 Civic Literacy
Being an informed citizen to participate effectively in government
Exercising the rights and obligations of citizenship at local, state, national, and global
levels
Understanding the local and global implications of civic decisions
Applying 21
st
century skills to make intelligent choices as a citizen
CS4 Information and Communication Skills
Information and media literacy skills: Analyzing, accessing, managing, integrating,
evaluating, and creating information in a variety of forms and media; understanding
the role of media in society
Communication skills: Understanding, managing, and creating effective oral, written,
and multimedia communication in a variety of forms and contexts
CS5 Thinking and Problem-Solving Skills
Critical thinking and systems thinking: Exercising sound reasoning in understanding
and making complex choices, understanding the interconnections among systems
Problem identification, formulation, and solution: Ability to frame, analyze, and solve
problems
Creativity and intellectual curiosity: Developing, implementing, and communicating
new ideas to others, staying open and responsive to new and diverse perspectives
CS6 Interpersonal and Self-Directional Skills
Interpersonal and collaborative skills: Demonstrating teamwork and leadership,
adapting to varied roles and responsibilities, working productively with others,
exercising empathy, respecting diverse perspectives
Self-direction: Monitoring ones own understanding and learning needs, locating
appropriate resources, transferring learning from one domain to another
Accountability and adaptability: Exercising personal responsibility and flexibility in
personal, workplace, and community contexts; setting and meeting high standards and
goals for ones self and others; tolerating ambiguity

3
21
st
century skills. (n.d.). Washington, DC: Partnership for 21
st
Century Skills.
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Social responsibility: Acting responsibly with the interests of the larger community in
mind; demonstrating ethical behavior in personal, workplace, and community
contexts