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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1
1. INTRODUCTION
Control engineering in industry is heavily constrained by economic factors.
Low cost and high reward are often considered to be the important factors. The servo-
hydraulic system can provide large processing force and has good positioning
capabilities. In Order to test the dynamic performance of a fin position Servo system
an aeroload simulator to generate the aerodynamic load to which a missile is
sub!ected to during flight is needed. The aerodynamic load is a highly nonlinear
function that varies with the deflection angle of the control fin the angle of attac"
and #ach number etc. Therefore the aeroload simulator has to be designed as a
tor$ue-control servo system %&' which has fast and accurate dynamic performance to
follow desired tor$ue profiles. (ydraulic servo systems however have uncertainties
time-varying and nonlinear characteristics due to the flow-pressure relationship oil
lea"age oil temperature variation and so on. Conse$uently the conventional control
approaches based on a lineari)ed model near the operating point of interest may not
guarantee satisfactory control performance for these load simulator systems. To solve
such hydraulic servo problems some research efforts on adaptive control approaches
have been made in recent years %1'. The control techni$ues provide satisfactory results
over relatively much larger ranges of changes in the plant dynamics. *ut in the case of
plants whose parameters are not completely "nown or change rapidly over very large
ranges the adaptive control strategies re$uire considerable computation time due to
the comple+ity in their algorithms and often lead to instability. To avoid such
criticism the fu))y logic-based controllers have been actively researched and widely
utili)ed for many industrial processes %,'. These fu))y logic controllers show good
results in the cases of controlling high-order nonlinear systems. -ccordingly many
.
research efforts have adopted fu))y logic for the control of hydraulic servo systems
%.'-%/'. 0hen the design of a fu))y system is underta"en one immediately faces
many design parameters such as scaling factors membership functions and control
rules. (owever at present there are not many simple methods currently available for
control engineers in designing the "nowledge base and tuning of a fu))y logic
controller. Therefore the designers have to devise a "nowledge base by heuristic
methods employing e+perience and accordingly the parameters of a fu))y control
system are tuned repeatedly by trial and error method. This leads to a well-"nown fact
that the design of a fu))y logic controller is more difficult than the design of a
conventional controller. In this paper we propose a novel fu))y logic controller
which can improve the transient performance and robustness of the aeroload simulator
control system in response to the disturbances. To demonstrate effectiveness of this
proposed controller a series of numerical simulations are performed on an aeroload
simulator for various conditions. The simulation results show that the proposed
control scheme gives faster and more accurate responses as compared with a
proportional integral derivative 12I34 control.
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LIT56-T765 S76859
,
INTRODUCTION
- literature survey forms the basis on which a pro!ect can be built or
developed. It forms the core to which ideas can be added and developed into a
comprehensive system which will be able to cover the deficiencies of some of the
e+isting systems. 0e have studied some of the research publications of the eminent
scholars which form the bac"ground for our pro!ect. The various research papers are
given below.
2.1 Review of literature survey
1. Developmet of fu!!y al"orit#ms for servo systems. 19.:.Li and
C.C.Lau I555 Contr.Syst.#ag. vol.;no./pp.<&-=.1;>;4%,'
This paper investigates the possibility of applying fu))y algorithms in a
microprocessor-based servomotor controller which re$uires faster and more accurate
response compared with other industrial processes. The performance of proportional-
integral-derivative control model reference adaptive control and fu))y controllers is
compared in terms of steady-state error settling time and response time. Limitations
of fu))y control algorithms are also described.
Co$lusio
The parameters of the controller should be designed so that the servo system
can have fast response and minimum steady steady-state error. To achieve this the
$uanti)ation of the parameters is arranged so that the full loo"up table can be utili)ed.
The results show that the settling time of the fu))y controller is only one-half that of
&
the #6-C controller and two-fifths that of the 2I controller. The fu))y controllers are
insensitive to the simulated disturbance which is done by slightly altering the
mechanical time constant.
2. %elf tui" fu!!y lo"i$ $otrol of a ele$tro&#y'rauli$ fi positio
servo system 1in 2roc.-S#5 Int. #echanical 5ng. Conf. 5+position vol.:2ST-
&-naheim C- ?ov. 1&-.@1;;>pp.;;-1@<4%/'
In this paper based on the mathematical model driven the implementation of
self tuning fu))y logic controller 1ST:LC4 techni$ue for positioning an electro
hydraulic servo motor system as a nonlinear plant is investigated. :easibility and
robustness of such application is assured.
Co$lusio
:u))y logic control system results is faster damping of system oscillation less
settling times and )ero overshoots after system transient impacts compared
with the classical 2I3 control system.
It is clear if only 2I3 controller is used without a nonlinear compensatorA the
closed-loop system response gives steady state error with the disturbance
change in system parameters.
-nother interesting result of this search implementing the proposed controller
it is noticed that both amplitudes of the controller signal and the servo valve
flow rate is smaller than them based on the 2I3 controller which mean better
saving in the consumed hydraulic energy and economical using of the
hydraulic circuit parts.
<
(. T#e A'aptive Positio Cotrol of a Ele$tro Hy'rauli$ %ervo
Cyli'er 1#ing-Chang S(I( and 9ih-6an S(57.2roc.BS#5
Int.B.ser.IIIvol/,no./1;;14%1'
This paper is concerned with the practical application of model reference
adaptive control 1#6-C4 on the position control of a hydraulic cylinder. In this study
the modified hyperstable-#6-C method is employed to adapt the loading effect. The
reference model is based on the reduced-order model of the plant. - 1<-bit
microcomputer is used to design an adaptive controller. The results are compared with
those obtained using the classical control theory.
Co$lusio
The design based on the modified 2opov-Landau method is potentially more
useful for the position control of the hydraulic cylinder than is the classical method
under the variable loading effect. The configuration has a high-speed adaptation
capability. The control parameters of the adaptation mechanism cannot be too large in
order to avoid the phenomenon of oscillation the added 2-I compensation signal be
larger toe better performance.
). A *u!!y Cotroller for a Aeroloa' %imulator usi" P#ase Plae
+et#o'
.1Sang 9eal Lee and (yung Sun" Cho.2rocI555.Trans.Contr.Syst.volC;.no.< ?ov
.@@14%&'
This paper investigates to reali)e a fu))y logic controller for an aeroload
simulator which simulates the aerodynamic load that a missile is sub!ected to on
=
flight. In this paper we propose a new fu))y logic controller using the phase plane in
order to improve the overall performance of the aeroload simulator system.
The design procedure and method of this controller are easy and simple such
that performance evaluation of the aeroload simulator is carried out in a phase plane
mapped from a decision rule table. The effectiveness of this control scheme is verified
by comparison with a proportional integral derivative 12I34 and a fi+ed fu))y control
through a series of simulation studies.
Co$lusio
The results show that the fu))y control scheme designed using the proposed
method gives faster and more accurate responses compared with the 2I3 and the
fi+ed fu))y controller in the cases when the operating point is changed and e+ternal
disturbances are applied. Since this control scheme utili)es a phase plane to which the
control rules and membership functions are $uantitatively transformed simultaneous
ad!ustments of them are accomplished by the self-compensating mechanism a teach
sampling instant. If the speed factor is determined the fu))y logic controller is
automatically tuned without repetitive ad!ustment of many parameters of the fu))y
logic controller. This ma"es it very easy to tune a fu))y logic controller to wor"
properly.
2.2 Pro,lem 'es$riptio
:rom the literature survey it is evident that conventional controllers are
inferior for the control of electro hydraulic servo systems. The conventional controller
li"e 2I3controllers is not suitable for nonlinear systems. In recent years the
>
advantages in fu))y control are more robust control method than usual 2I3 control to
variation of system parameter. :u))y set theory first formulated by L.-.Dadeh
constitutes the fundamentals of fu))y set theory. :u))y logic can be considered as a
mathematical theory combining multi-valued logic probably theory and artificial
intelligence. -n 5lectro (ydraulic Servo system will be sub!ected to an aero dynamic
load on flight which denies the stability of the flying conditions of an aircraft is a
highly non linear function. - :u))y Logic Controller is designed which improves the
overall performance of the system sub!ected to an e+ternal disturbance. The
effectiveness of this control is verified by comparision with 2I3.
2.( Co$lusio
:inally from the literature survey the drawbac"s of the conventional
controllers 12I3 #6-C4 have been identified. In order to overcome the drawbac"s of
the conventional controllers here in our pro!ect we have designed controller which
shows good results in controlling higher order nonlinear systems.

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T(5O65TIC-L -?-L9SIS
1@
E-ECTRO H.DRAU-IC %ER/O +ECHA+NI%+
INTRODUCTION
:luid power control that is the transmission and control of energy by means of
a pressuri)ed fluid is an old and well recogni)ed discipline. The growth of fluid
power has accelerated with our desires to control ever increasing $uantities of power
and mass with higher speeds and greater precision. #ore specifically where precise
motion control is desired and space and weight are limited the convenience of high
power-to-weight ratio ma"es hydraulic servomechanisms the ideal control elements.In
aircraft electro hydraulics were used for things li"e stability augmentation in flight
control systems 1where limited authority automatic control was added to the manual
flight controls4.
(.1 %ervo motor
The motors that are used for automatic control systems are called servo motors.
Servo motor 1servo4 is an electromechanical device in which an electrical input
determines the position of the armature of the motor. Servo motors are the control
motors have high tor$ue capabilities. 7nli"e large industrial motors they are not used
for continuous energy conversion but only for precise position control at high tor$ues.
Their basic principle of operation is same as that of other electromagnetic motors.
These motors loo" li"e the usual electric motors. Their main difference from
industrial motors is that more electric wires come out of them for power as well as for
control.
11
A'vata"es
1. (igh intermittent tor$ue.
.. (igh-speed operation is possible.
/. -vailable in si)es.
Disa'vata"es
1. #ore e+pensive than stepper motors.
.. 6e$uire tuning of control loop parameters.
/. Cannot wor" open loop-feedbac" is necessary.
(.2Compoet 'es$riptio
Typi$al #y'rauli$ system 'es$riptio
- typical hydraulic system consists of a power supply flow control valve
linear actuator displacement transducer and electronic servo-controller. The servo
controller compares the signal from the feedbac" displacement transducer with an
input demand to determine the position error and produces a command signal to drive
the flow control valve. The control valve ad!usts the flow of pressuri)ed oil to move
the actuator until the desired position is attainedE a condition indicated by the error
signal falling to )ero. - force controlled hydraulic system operates in a similar way
e+cept that the oil flow is ad!usted to achieve an output force measured by a suitable
transducer.
1.
*i".1 0lo$1 'ia"ram of t#e positio $otrolle' #y'rauli$ servo system
1. Hy'rauli$ power supply
-ll hydraulic systems re$uire a supply of pressuri)ed fluid usually a form of
mineral oil. The choice of system oil pressure depends on various factors. Low
pressure means less lea"age but physically larger components are re$uired to develop
a given force. (igh pressure systems suffer from more lea"age but have better
dynamic performance and are both smaller and lighterE significant advantages in
mobile and aircraft applications. In many high performance systems /@@@ psi
1appro+imately .1@ bar4 is a standard choice of system pressure.
Oil is drawn from a reservoir 1tan"4 into a rotary vane or piston pump driven
at constant speed by an electric motor. The oil is driven at constant flow rate into an
ad!ustable pressure relief valve which regulates system pressure by allowing e+cess
oil to return to the reservoir once a pre-defined pressure threshold has been reached.
1/
2ressuri)ed hydraulic oil is carried to the servo-valve through a system of rigid or
fle+ible piping possibly fitted with electrically operated shut-off valves to control
hydraulic start-up and shut-down se$uences. Oil is returned from the valve to the tan"
through a low pressure return pipe which is often fitted with an in-line heat
e+changer for temperature regulation of the oil.
.. *low $otrol value
The electro-hydraulic flow control valve acts as a high gain electrical to
hydraulic transducer the input to which is an electrical voltage or current and the
output a variable flow of oil. The valve consists of a spool with lands machined into
it moving within a cylindrical sleeve. The lands are aligned with apertures cut in the
sleeve such that movement of the spool progressively changes the e+posed aperture
si)e and alters differential oil flow between two control ports.
*i" 2 Hy'rauli$ valve $ross se$tio
1,
The basic servo-valve produces a control flow proportional to input current for
a constant load. 0hile the dynamic performance of a servo-valve is influenced
somewhat by operating conditions 1supply pressure input signal level fluid and
ambient temperature and so on4 a ma!or advantage is that load dynamics do not affect
stability unli"e single stage proportional valves. Servo valves usually have superior
dynamic response although their close internal machining tolerances ma"e them
relatively e+pensive and susceptible to contamination of the hydraulic fluid.
3. Displa$emet tras'u$er
2osition transducers are usually collocated with the actuator and often attached
directly to the piston rod. 8arious types of feedbac" transducer are in use including
incremental or absolute encoders inductive linear variable differential transformer
1L83TFs4 and rotary variable differential transformer 1683TFs4 linear and rotary
potentiometers and revolvers. In industrial applications employing linear
displacement control the L83T is a common choice of feedbac" transducer due to its
accuracy and robustness. The transducer is usually selected such that its bandwidth is
ten times or so higher than that of the servo-valve and actuator and is often omitted
from a first analysis of the system.
). %ervo $otroller
The diagram below shows the layout of the servo-controller bloc".
1&
*i" (T#e ,lo$1 'ia"ram of aalo"ue $otroller
The error amplifier continuously monitors the input reference signal 1ur4 and
compares it against the actuator position 1up4 measured by a displacement transducer
to yield an error signal 17e4. The error is manipulated by the servo controller
according to a pre-defined control law to generate a command signal 1uv4 to drive the
hydraulic flow control valve. #ost conventional electro-hydraulic servo-systems use a
2I3 form of control occasionally enhanced with velocity feedbac". The processing of
the error signal in such a controller is a function of the proportional integral and
derivative gain compensation settings according to the control law

where Gp Gi and Gd are the 2I3 constants ue is the error signal and uv is the
controller output.
2. -iear #y'rauli$ a$tuator
- hydraulic actuator is a device which converts hydraulic energy into
mechanical force or motion. -ctuators may be divided into those with linear
movement 1sometimes called rams cylinders or !ac"s4 and those with rotary
1<
movement 1rotary actuators and motors4. Linear actuators may be further sub-divided
into those in which hydraulic pressure is applied to one side of the piston only 1single
acting4 and are capable of movement only in one direction and those in which
pressure is applied to both sides of the piston 1double acting4 and are therefore
capable of controlled movement in both directions. Linear actuators may also be
classified as single-ended in which the piston has an e+tension rod on one end only
or the double-ended type which have rods on both ends. Single-ended actuators are
useful in space constrained applications but une$ual areas on each side of the piston
results in asymmetrical flow gain which can complicate the control problem. 3ouble-
ended actuators have the advantage that they naturally produce e$ual force and speed
in both directions and for this reason are sometimes called symmetric or
synchroni)ing cylinders. (ydraulic motors are a separate class of actuator in which
the speed and direction of a rotating output shaft is regulated by the flow control
valve.
(. ( Dyami$s of t#e system
The schematic diagram of an 5lectro (ydraulic servo system :ig. /., The system is
composed of a hydraulic power supply an electro-hydraulic servo valve a hydraulic
motor a torsion spring to combine with a fin position servo system and a tor$ue
sensor. The tor$ue of the hydraulic motor is controlled as followsE Once the voltage
input corresponding to the tor$ue input is transmitted to the servo controller the input
current is generated in proportion to the error between the voltage input and the
voltage output from the tor$ue sensor. Then the valve spool position is controlled
according to the input current applied to the tor$ue motor of the servo valve.
3epending on the spool position and the load conditions of the hydraulic motor the
1=
rate as well as the direction of the flows supplied to each hydraulic motor chamber is
determined. The motion of the hydraulic motor is controlled by these flows. -t the
same time the hydraulic motor is influenced by an e+ternal disturbance generated
from the fin position servo system. If it is necessary to represent servo valve dynamics
through a wider fre$uency range a second-order transfer function must be used. The
relation between the servo valve spool position and the input current can be written as
*i" ) %$#emati$ 'ia"ram of a Ele$tro #y'rauli$ servo me$#aism


.
. .
1 4
1 4 .
v
v v
Xv s Kv
i s S s

=
+ +
HHHHH.114
where
G
v
tor$ue motor gain
0
v
natural fre$uency of the servo valve

v
damping ratio of the servo valve
1>
defining the load pressure as 2L as 2LI21-2. and the load flow JL as
JLI1J1KJ.4L. the relationship between the load pressure 2Land the load flow JL
for an ideal critical center servo valve with a matched and symmetric orifice can be
e+pressed as followsE
1 4
v
L v s L
v
X
Q kX P P
X
=
P P
HHHHHHH.1.4
where "1IC
d
wLM) represents the servo valveFs si)ing factor and 2sis the supply
pressure. 0hen the continuity e$uation is applied to the fluid flowing in each chamber
of the hydraulic motor the following e+pression can be derivedE
,
hm t L
L m t L
e
d V dP
Q D CP
dt dt

= + +

HHHHHHH.1/4
where
3m volumetric displacement coefficient of the hydraulic motorA

hm
angular displacement of the hydraulic motorA
C
t
total lea"age coefficient of the hydraulic motorA
8
t
total volume of the servo valve and the hydraulic motorA

e
effective bul" modulus of oil.
The final basic relation is the tor$ue balance e$uation for the hydraulic motor. The
tor$ue 1T
hm
4 developed by the hydraulic motor is

.
.
1 4
hm hm
hm L m m m s hm ext f
d
T P D J B K T
t dt

= = + + +

HHH. 1,4
where
B
m
*
m
moment of inertia and the viscous damping coefficient of the
hydraulic motor respectivelyA
G
s
Torsion spring coefficientA
1;

e+t
5+ternal disturbance applied to the aeroload simulatorA
T
f
:riction of the hydraulic motor.
The tor$ue output of the hydraulic motor system then can be calculated
1 4 out s hm ext T K = HHHHH 1&4
Ta,le (.1 C#ara$teristi$ values of t#e %ystem
(.) Cotrol %ystem
Control systems may consist of a number of components. In control engineering
to show the functions performed by each component we commonly use a diagram
called the bloc" diagram. - bloc" diagram of system is a pictorial representation of
the functions performed by each component and of the flow of signals. Such a
diagram depicts the interrelationship that e+ists among the various components. The
elements of a bloc" diagram are the following
1. *loc"
.@
.. Summing point
/. *ranch point
1.0lo$1E
The functional bloc" or simply bloc" is a symbol for the mathematical
operation on the input signal to the bloc" that produces the output.
2. %ummi" poit
Summing points is a point from which the signal from a bloc" goes
concurrently to other bloc"s or summing points.
(. 0ra$# poit
- branch point is a point from which the signal from a bloc" goes
concurrently to other bloc"s or summing points.
0hen a number of elements or components are connected in a se$uence to
perform a specific function the group thus formed is called a system. In a system a
when the output $uantity is controlled by varying the input $uantity the system is
called control system. The output $uantity is called controlled variable or response
and the input $uantity is called commend signal or e+citation.
Cotrol system is of two types
1. Ope loop system
-ny physical system which does not automatically correct the variation in its
output is called an open loop system or control system in which the output $uantity
has no effect upon the input $uantity are called open loop control system. This means
that the output is not feed bac" to the input for correction.

.1

*i". 2 0lo$1 'ia"ram of a ope loop system

A'vata"es
1. The open loop systems are simple and economical.
.. The open loop systems are easier to construct.
/. Nenerally the open loop systems are stable.
Disa'vata"es
1. The open loop systems are inaccurate and unreliable.
.. The changes in the output due to e+ternal disturbances are not corrected
automatically.
2. Close' loop system
Control system in which the output has no effect upon the input $uantity I
such a manner as to maintain the desired output values of called closed loop system.
This means the output is feedbac" to the input for correction.
..
Controller
2lant
:eed bac"
K
-
6eference
input
5rror detector
Output
*i" 3 0lo$1 'ia"ram of a $lose' loop system
Two types of feedbac" are there positive feedbac" system and negative
feedbac" system. ?egative feedbac" is invariably preferred in a closed loop system
because of the following advantages of negative feedbac" system compared to
positive feedbac" system.
a. The negative feedbac" results in better stability in steady state and re!ects any
disturbance signals.
b. It also has low sensitivity to parameter variations.
A'vata"es
1. The closed loop systems are accurate even in the presence of non-linearities.
.. The sensitivity of the systems may be made small to ma"e the system more
stable.
/. The closed loop systems are less affected by noise.
Disa'vata"es
1. The closed loop systems are comple+ and costlier.
.. The feedbac" in closed may lead to oscillatory response.
/. The feedbac" reduces the overall gain of the system.
./
,. Stability is a ma!or problem in closed loop system and more easier needed to
design a stable closed loop system
(.2 Cotrollers
- controller is a device introduces in the system to modify the error signal and
to produce a control signal. The manner in which the controller produces the control
signal is called the control action. The controller modifies the transient response of the
system.
The controllers may be electrical electronic hydraulic or pneumonic
depending on the nature of the signal and the system depending on the control action
provided the controllers can be classified as follows
1. 2roportional controllers
.. Integral controllers
/. 2roportional plus integral controllers
,. 2roportional plus derivative controllers
&. 2I3 controllers
(.2.1 Proportioal $otroller
2roportional controllers are used to handle the immediate error the error is
multiplied by a constant p 1for OP proportionalPP4 and added to the controlled
$uantity.
The 2 controller is a device that produces the control signal. 71t4 which is
proportional to input error signal 51t4.
2 is only valid in the band over which a controllers output is proportional to
error signal.
71t4 Q 51t4
.,
71t4I Gp51t4
Ta"ing laplace transform of the above e$uation
71s4L51s4IGp where GpIproportional gain or constant.
A'vata"e
The increase in loop gain improves disturbance re!ection and the relative
stability.
Disa'vata"e
It produces a constant steady state error.
(.2.2 Ite"ral $otroller
1. To learn the past the error is integrated 1added up4 over a period of time and
then multiplied by a constant I1ma"ing an average4 and added to the
controlled $uantity.
.. The I controller is a device that produce a control signal which is proportional
to the integral of the input error signal.
71t4 Q R51t4
71t4I Gi 51t4
Ta"ing LT 71s4L51s4I GiLs
A'vata"e
It eliminate steady state error
Disa'vata"e
It may lead to oscillatory response of increasing or decreasing amplitude which
is undesirable and system may become unstable.
.&
(.2.( PI $otroller
The proportional plus integral controller produces an output signal consisting of
two terms one proportional to error signal and the other proportional to the
integral of the error signal.
' 4 1 4 1 % 4 1 dt t E t E t U

+
ie
' 4 1 4 1 % 4 1 dt t E Ki t KE t U

+ =
Ta"ing LT 71s4L51s4IGpKGiLs
Effe$t of PI $otroller
1. 2I controller increases the order of the system by one which results in
reducing the steady state error.
.. The system become less stable than the original system.
(.2.) PD $otroller
The proportional plus derivative controller produces an output signal consisting of
two terms one proportional to error signal and the other proportional to the Q
derivative of the error signal
4' 1 4 1 % 4 1 t E
dt
d
t E t U +
.<
4' 1 4 1 4 1 % 4 1 t E
dt
d
dt t E t E t U + +

4' 1 4 1 % 4 1 t E
dt
d
Kd t KE t U + =
Ta"ing LT 71s4L51s4IGpKGdS
0here GpIproportional gain constant
GdIderivative gain constant
Effe$t of PD $otroller
23 controller introduces a )ero in the system and increases the damping ratio
reduces the pea" overshoot
(.2.2 PID $otroller
It is a three term controller. The proportional plus integral plus derivative
. controller produces an output signal consisting of three terms one proportional
to error signal another proportional to integral of the error signal and the third
one proportional to derivative of error signal.
The combination of proportional control action integral control action and
derivative control action is called 2I3 control action.

4' 1 4 1 4 1 % 4 1 t E
dt
d
Kd dt t E Ki t KE t U + + =

The transfer function of the 2I3 controller loo"s li"e the following
S Ki KS KdS
s E
s U
L 4 1
4 1
4 1
.
+ + =
4eeral tips for 'esi"i" a PID $otroller
0hen we design a 2I3 controller for a given system follow the steps
shown below to obtain a desired response.
1. Obtain an open-loop response and determine what needs to be improved
.=
.. -dd a proportional control to improve the rise time
/. -dd a derivative control to improve the overshoot
,. -dd an integral control to eliminate the steady- state error
&. -d!ust each of GpGi and Gd until you obtain a desired overall response. 9ou
can always refer to the table shown in this O2I3TutorialP page to find out
which controller controls what characteristics.
(.2.3 Tui" of Cotrollers PID
If the 2I3 controller parameters 1the gains of the proportional integral and
derivative terms4 are chosen incorrectly the controlled process input can be unstable
i.e. its output diverges with or without oscillation5 and is limited only by saturation or
mechanical brea"age. Tuning a control loop is the ad!ustment of its control parameters
1gainLproportional band integral gainLreset derivative gainLrate4 to the optimum
values for the desired control response.
The optimum behavior on a process change or setpoint change varies depending on
the application. Some processes must not allow an overshoot of the process variable
beyond the setpoint if for e+ample this would be unsafe. Other processes must
minimi)e the energy e+pended in reaching a new setpoint. Nenerally stability of
response 1the reverse of instability4 is re$uired and the process must not oscillate for
any combination of process conditions and setpoints. Some processes have a degree
of non-linearity and so parameters that wor" well at full-load conditions donSt wor"
when the process is starting up from no-load. Inorder to tune the 2I3 first set 3 and
Ivalues to @. increase tha 2 until th eoutput of the loop oscillates. Increase I until
oscillations stops. :inally increase 3 until the loop is acceptably $uic" to reach its
reference.
.>
Effe$t of i$reasi" parameters6
CL response 6ise time Over shoot Settling time SS error
Gp 3ecrease Increase ?o change 3ecrease
Gi 3ecrease Increase Increase eliminates
Gd ?o change 3ecrease 3ecrease ?o change
Ta,le (.2 Comparisio ta,le
(.2.7 -imitatios of PID $otroller
2I3 controllers when used alone can give poor performance when the 2I3
loop gains must be reduced so that the control system does not overshoot oscillate or
ThuntT about the control setpoint value. The control system performance can be
improved by combining the 2I3 controller functionality with that of a :eed-:orward
control output as described in Control Theory. -ny information or intelligence
derived from the system state can be Tfed forwardT or combined with the 2I3 output
to improve the overall system performance. The :eed-:orward value alone can often
provide a ma!or portion of the controller output. The 2I3 controller can then be used
to respond to whatever difference or TerrorT that remains between the controller
setpoint and the feedbac" value. Since the :eed-:orward output is not a function of
the process feedbac" it can never cause the control system to oscillate thus
improving the system response and stability.-nother problem faced with 2I3
.;
controllers is that they are linear. Thus performance of 2I3 controllers in non-linear
systems. Often 2I3 controllers are enhanced through methods such as gain scheduling
or fu))y logic. :urther practical application issues can arise from instrumentation
connected to the controller. - high enough sampling rate and measurement precision
and measurement accuracy 1more relevant to :: and #2C4.
- problem with the differential term is that small amounts of measurement or
process noise can cause large amounts of change in the output. Sometimes it is helpful
to filter the measurements with a running average also "nown as a low-pass filter.
(owever low-pass filtering and derivative control cancel each other out so reducing
noise by instrumentation means is a much better choice. -lternatively the differential
band can be turned off in most systems with little loss of control. This is e$uivalent to
using the 2I3 controller as a 2I controller.
(.3 Itro'u$tio to *u!!y -o"i$
:u))y logic has emerged as one of the active areas of research activity
particularly in control applications.:u))y logic is a very poweerful method of
reasoning when mathematical models are not available and input data are
imprecise.ItSs applications mainly to control is being studied through out the world
by control engineers.The result of these studies have shown that fu))y logic is indeed
a powerful control tool when it comes to control system or processes which are
comple+.- fu))y logic solution is tolerent to the imprecision in the inputs and the
modes of the system and still produces an output that is desired out of the system .
This was put in a more effective way by Lofti - . Dadeh the father of fu))y set theory
when he said Tmost applications of fu))y logic e+ploit itSs tolerance for
/@
imprecision.*ecause precise is costly it ma"es a sense to minimise the precision
needed to perform a tas".T
:u))y logic is derived from fu))y set theory dealing with reasoning that is
appro+imate rather than precisely deduced from classical predicate logic. :u))y Logic
is a paradigm for an alternative design methodology which can be applied in
developing both linear and non-linear systems for embedded control. *y using fu))y
logic designers can reali)e lower development costs superior features and better end
product performance. :urthermore products can be brought to mar"et faster and
more. :u))y logic is a powerful problem-solving methodology with wide
applications in industrial control and information processing. It provides a simple way
to draw definite conclusions from vague ambiguous or imprecise information. It
resembles human decision ma"ing with its ability to wor" from appro+imate data and
find precise solutions.
7nli"e classical logic which re$uires a deep understanding of a system e+act
e$uations and precise numeric values fu))y logic incorporates an alternative way of
thin"ing which allows modeling comple+ systems using a higher level of abstraction
originating from our "nowledge and e+perience. :u))y Logic allows e+pressing this
"nowledge with sub!ective concepts such as Tvery goodT and Ta little bit satisfiedT
which are mapped into e+act numeric ranges.
(.3.1 *u!!y sets
:u))y theory holds that all things are matters of degree and also reduces
blac"-white logic and mathematics to special limiting cases of grey relation ships.
/1
:igure = :u))y set and crisp set
(.3.2 +em,ers#ip fu$tio
- member ship function is a curve that defines how each point in the universe
of discourse is mapped is mapped to a value between @ and 1. This value is called
member ship value or degree of membership. This toolbo+ includes 11built in
membership function typesE piecewise linear functions 1Triangular and trape)oidal4
the Naussian distribution function 1gaussian curves and generali)ed bell4 the sigmoid
curve and $uadratic and cubic polynomial curves 1D S and 2i curves4E
*u!!y -o"i$ operators6
1. -?3
.. O6
/. ?OT
/.
(.3.( Ifere$e pro$e'ure
If&T#e Rules
:u))y inference procedure wor"s li"e in classical theory Since conditional
statements are used in order to ma"e complete sentences If-Then rules will be used to
ma"e something useful with fu))y logic.
- single fu))y If-Then 6ule assumes the appearanceE I: 1+ is -4 T(5? 1y is *4
where - and * are linguistic values defined by fu))y sets on the ranges U and 9
1universes of discourses4. The SI:S part is called antecedent while 8THEN8 part is
called conse$uent or conclusionE
Ate$e'etE Is an interpretation that returns a single number between @ and 1.
Cose9uetE Is an assignment that brings up the entire fu))y set 0 to the output
variable y.
Interpreting an If-Then rule implies different parts E first evaluating the
antecedent which involves fu))yfying the input and apply any fu))y operator and
second applying that result to the conse$uent1 implecation4. 0hen antecedent is a
fu))y statement so that is true to some degree of membership then the conse$uent is
also true to that same degree. *oth antecedent and conse$uent rules can have multiple
partsT
(.3.)Defu!!ifi$atiomet#o'
//
There are different methods in order to obtain a single number as output result.
Since there is not any procedural method to choose which method is more suitable
most common used are
1. #iddle smallest and largest of ma+imum
.. Centroid
/. *isector
1. +i''le5 %mallest a' -ar"est of ma:imum
#O# SO# and LO# stand for #iddle Smallest and Largest of #a+imum
respectively. These three methods "ey off the ma+imum value assumed by the
aggregate membership function.
2. Cetroi' 'efu!!ifi$atio
Centroid defu))ification returns the center of area under the curve. If you
thin" of the area as a plate of e$ual density the Centroid is the point along the +-a+is
about which this shape would balance.
(. 0ise$tor
The bisector is the vertical line that will divide the region into two sub-regions
of e$ual area. It is sometimes but not always coincident with the centroid line.
(.3.2 *u!!y lo"i$ $otroller
/,
:u))y Logic Controllers 1:LC4 use fu))y logic as process of mapping from a
given input 1crisp numerical value e4 to an output 1signal control u4. This process has
a basic structure that involves a fu))ifier an inference engine a "nowledge base 1rule
data base4 and a defu))ifier which transforms fu))y sets into real numbers to provide
control signals.
(.3.3 Desi" of fu!!y $otroller
The bloc" diagram of the proposed fu))y controller is shown in :ig /.> the
error e and its change in error ce are inputs of the fu))y controller u
fc
In the nominal case the model is perfect and the fu))y controller has no contribution.
*ut when parameter variations occur the fu))y controller will automatically generate
a control signal to allow good control performance to be preserved. In the design of
the fu))y controller it is important to select the fu))y subsets membership functions
*i"ure ; T#e ,lo$1 'ia"ram of t#e fu!!y $otroller
and $uanti)ition levels. In this thesis the following seven fu))y subsets are assignedE
2ositive *ig 12*4 2ositive #edium 12#4 2ositive Small 12S4 Dero ?egative 1D54
?egative Small 1?S4 ?egative #edium 1?#4 ?egative *ig 1?*4. The membership
functions are chosen as triangular-shaped functions owing to simplicity as well as the
/&
closer to human thin"ing. The :ig.&.1@ shows the input and output membership
functions used in the design of this fu))y controller. Incorporating with the fu))y
subsets assigned above $uanti)ation levels of the fu))y variables are chosen to be
thirteen levels.
*i"ure < *u!!y mem,ers#ip fu$tios for t#e ,ot# iput a' output
In :igure /.; the main function of the fu))y controller is to let the system output
Ta,le (.( T#e *u!!y $otrol rule
ta,le
5
5C
?L ?# ?S D5 2S 2# 2L
?L ?L ?L ?L ?L ?L ?L ?L
?# ?# ?# ?# ?# ?# ?# ?#
?S ?S ?S ?S ?S ?S ?S ?S
D5 D5 D5 D5 D5 D5 D5 D5
2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S
2# 2# 2# 2# 2# 2# 2# 2#
2L 2L 2L 2L 2L 2L 2L 2L
/<
follow the nominal dynamic model output as soon as possible. -ccording to the
e+perience and "nowledge the fu))y control rules are decided and listed in
Table&...Nenerally in the design of the conventional fu))y controller they are
selected based on a trail and error method. The fu))y logic controller gives control
signal automatically using rule base created by e+pert. In this controller the output
variable is defu))ified using the center of gravity method.
(.3.7 Usi" fu!!y lo"i$ i +AT-A0
3eal with fu))y logic in #-TL-* becomes very easy due to new :u))y logic
toolbo+ because
1. It provides tool to create and edit fu))y Inference System 1:IS4.
.. -llows to integrate fu))y systems in to simulation with SI#7LI?G.
/. It is possible to create stand alone C programs that call on fu))y systems built
with #-TL-*. The toolbo+ provides three categories of toolsE command line
functions Nraphical or interactive tools and SI#7LI?G bloc"s.
(.7 Itro'u$tio to +AT-A0= %I+U-IN>
0hatever tas" youFre facing #-TL-* can amplify your efforts. ItFs a
complete e+tensible technical computing environment for computation and
visuali)ation that draw upon toolbo+es to address your speciali)ed needs.
A eviromet for te$#i$al $omputi"
The #-TL-* environment provides built-in math and visuali)ation functions
to solve your most important technical problems. Its matri+-oriented language is
designed for large-scale computation and data analysis allowing you to manage
/=
computing challenges in a fraction of the time it ta"es with :O6T6-? or C.0ith an
e+tensive function set application-specific toolbo+es and an intuitive language
#-TL-* is the neutral environment for solving problems and e+pressing technical
concepts.
Hi"#&performa$e mat#emati$al $omputatio
0ith #-TL-* we can crunch huge data sets and perform comple+ numeric
and symbolic computations $uic"ly and accurately
Reveali" "rap#i$s to s#arpe your isi"#t
#-T LabFs interactive .-3 and /-3 visuali)ation tools have no e$ual because
theyFre tightly coupled to the math functions. 9ou can freely analy)e transform and
visuali)e your data V in a single integrated process.
A ope system for appli$atio 'evelopmet
0ith #-TL-*Fs open approach you can tailor any feature to your needs. 9ou
can inspect source code and algorithms change e+isting functions or add your own.
#-TL-* fits into your current computing environment. 9ou can dynamically lin"
#-TL-* with your C or :ortran programs e+change data with other applications or
embed #-TL-* as an analysis and visuali)ation engine. 2owerful N7I tools let you
create interactive displays prototype modules and build entire applications.
-ea'i"&e'"e tool,o:es let you $#oose your approa$#
The #-TL-* Toolbo+es written by world-class e+perts provide
comprehensive functionality for speciali)ed applications in engineering and science.
TheySre written in #-TL-*Fs high-level language so itFs easy to e+amine any
function or even add your own. In combination they give you an integrated set of
tools to speed your development and optimi)e your designs.
/>
Ima"e pro$essi" Tool,o: wit# floati"&poit power
0ith the Image 2rocessing Toolbo+ you can treat image data both visually
and numerically. It gives you the resources you need to view analy)e and manipulate
images and .-3 signals. Techni$ues include image enhancement filtering and
statistical analysis.
%i"al Pro$essi" tool,o:es for 'esi" a' 'evelopmet
#-TL-*Fs family of signal processing toolbo+es gives you the unrivaled
ability to filter models analy)e and view signals. Toolbo+es for spectral analysis
parametric modeling 3S2 system design and algorithm development and time-series
analysis includeE
Signal 2rocessing
(igher-Order Spectral -nalysis
System Identification
:re$uency 3omain System I3
Cotrol %ystem e"ieeri" tool,o:es
#-TL-* and SI#7LI?G provide the most comprehensive environment for
analy)ing designing simulating and implementing control systems.
SI#7LI?G allows us to model the behavior of comple+ nonlinear systems
and interactively monitor simulation results using bloc" diagrams. The control family
of toolbo+es includesE
Control System 3esign
?onlinear Control 3esign
6obust Control 3esign
/;
#icro--nalysis and Synthesis
#odel 2redictive Control
System Identification
Iter'is$ipliary tool,o:es e:te' your fo$us
?eural ?etwor"s
Symbolic #ath 1with #aple 84
Statistics
Optimi)ation
%I+U-IN->
Itro'u$tio
SI#7LI?G is a program for simulating dynamic systems. -s an e+tension to
#-TL-* SI#7LI?G adds many features specific to dynamic systems while
retaining all of #-TL-*Fs general purpose functionality.SI#7LI?G is a graphical
mouse-driven environment-seamlessly integrated with #-TL-*-that allows to model
systems by drawing bloc" diagrams on screen and manipulating them interactively. It
can handle linear nonlinear continuous-time discrete-time multirate systems
SI#7LI?G models can incorporate bloc" containing #-TL-* commandsL
functions and #-TL-*Fs complete set of numerical and visuali)ation tools can be
used to analy)e and display the results of SI#7LI?G simulations.
P#ase of use
SI#7LI?G has two phases of use
1. #odel definition .. #odel -nalysis
,@
SI#7LI?G adds a new class of 0indows called Wbloc" diagramsF windows
for mode definition. In these windows models are created and edited principally by
mouse driven commands. -fter defining a model then proceeds to analysis of model.
In practice these two steps are often performed iteratively as the model designer
creates and modifies a model to achieve the desired behavior. -fter we define a
model we can analy)e it either by choosing options from the SI#7LI?G menu or by
entering commands in #-TL-*Fs command window. The progress of a simulation
can be viewed while the simulation is running and the final results can be made
available in the #-TL-* wor"space when a simulation is complete.
Co$lusio
In this chapter we have seen about theoretical bac"ground in forming the
*loc" 3iagram basic "nowledge of the controllers to be used and the introduction of
the software to simulate the dynamic systems.
,1
C#apter )
E?PERI+ENTA-
IN/E%TI4ATION%
,.
Itro'u$tio
In the previous chapter we dealt with the theoretical aspects of the whole
components and the software used in this pro!ect. (ere in this chapter e+perimental
Investigation of the proposed pro!ect has been done. :irstly dealing with the
conventional methods of controllers and then the most modern techni$ues of
controlling the electro hydraulic servo system using O:u))y controlP.
).1 %imuli1 mo'el of t#e system wit# PID $otroller
The simulin" model of the electro hydraulic servo system with 2I3 controller us
shown below

,/
@>
p
A)5>
I
A25>
D
AB.BB1C
*i".1B %imuli1 mo'el of t#e system wit# PID $otroller

*i"ure 11 %imuli1 mo'el of t#e system wit# *UDD. Cotroller
1N
5
IX1L&.N
C
IX1L&@@@N
C
IX1@4
,,
).( %imuli1 0lo$1 'ia"ram of t#e $omparisio of t#e $otrollers

*i" 12 %imuli1 $ompariso mo'el of t#e $otrollers
It $osists of
1. Transfer :unction .. Constant *loc" /. 3erivative *loc" ,. Integrating *loc"
&. Nain <. Step =. 2I3 controller >. :u))y controller ;. Sign 1@. 2roduct 11. -dd Y
Subtract 1.. Scope
1. Trasfer *u$tio
3escription
The Transfer :unction bloc" implements a transfer function where the input 1u4 and
output 1y4 can be e+pressed in transfer function form as the following e$uation.
,&
where nn and nd are the number of numerator and denominator coefficients
respectively. num and den contain the coefficients of the numerator and denominator
in descending powers of s. num can be a vector or matri+ den must be a vector and
both are specified as parameters on the bloc" dialog bo+. The order of the
denominator must be greater than or e$ual to the order of the numerator.
- Transfer :unction bloc" ta"es a scalar input. If the numerator of the bloc"Ss
transfer function is a vector the bloc"Ss output is also scalar. (owever if the
numerator is a matri+ the transfer function e+pands the input into an output vector
e$ual in width to the number of rows in the numerator. :or e+ample a two-row
numerator results in a bloc" with scalar input and vector output. The width of the
output vector is two. Initial conditions are preset to )ero.
2. Costat
3escription

The Constant bloc" generates a real or comple+ constant value. The bloc" generates
scalar 11+1 .-3 array4 vector 11-3 array4 or matri+ 1.-3 array4 output depending on
the the dimensionality of the Constant value parameter and the setting of the Interpret
vector parameters as 1-3 parameter.
he output of the bloc" has the same dimensions and elements as the Constant value
parameter. If you specify a vector for this parameter and you want the bloc" to
,<
interpret it as a vector 1i.e. a 1-3 array4 select the Interpret vector parameters as 1-3
parameterA otherwise the bloc" treats the Constant value parameter as a matri+ 1i.e. a
.-3 array4. 3ata Type Support *y default the Constant bloc" outputs a signal whose
data type and comple+ity are the same as that of the bloc"Ss Constant value parameter.
(owever you can specify the output to be any supported data type supported by
Simulin" including fi+ed-point data types.
/. 3erivative
3escription
The 3erivative bloc" appro+imates the derivative of its input by computing
0here du is the change in input value and dt is the change in time since the
previous simulation time step.The bloc" accepts one input and generates one output.
The initial output for the bloc" is )ero. The accuracy of the results depends on the si)e
of the time steps ta"en in the simulation. Smaller steps allow a smoother and more
accurate output curve from this bloc". 7nli"e bloc"s that have continuous states the
solver does not ta"e smaller steps when the input changes rapidly.
,. Integrator
3escription

The Integrator bloc" outputs the integral of its input at the current time step.
The following e$uation represents the output of the bloc" y as a function of its input u
,=
and an initial condition y@ where y and u are vector functions of the current
simulation time t.


Simulin" can use a number of different numerical integration methods to compute the
Integrator bloc"Ss output each with advantages in particular applications.
&. Nain
3escription
The Nain bloc" multiplies the input by a constant value 1gain4. The input and
the gain can each be a scalar vector or matri+. 9ou specify the value of the gain in
the Nain parameter. The #ultiplication parameter lets you specify element-wise or
matri+ multiplication. :or matri+ multiplication this parameter also lets you indicate
the order of the multiplicands. The gain is converted from doubles to the data
specified in the bloc" mas" offline using round-to-nearest and saturation. The input
and gain are then multiplied and the result is converted to the output data type using
the specified rounding and overflow modes.
3. %tep
3escription

,>
The Step bloc" provides a step between two definable levels at a specified
time. If the simulation time is less than the Step time parameter value the
bloc"Ssoutput is the Initial value parameter value. :or simulation time greater than or
e$ual to the Step time the output is the :inal value parameter value.
%tep timeE - The time in seconds when the output !umps from the Initial value
parameter to the :inal value parameter. The default is 1 second.
Iitial valueE - The bloc" output until the simulation time reaches the Step time
parameter. The default is @.
*ial valueE - The bloc" output when the simulation time reaches and e+ceeds the
Step time parameter. The default is 1.
7. PID Cotroller
3escription
This bloc" implements a 2I3 controller where parameters are entered for the
2roportional Integral and 3erivative terms. 7nmas" this bloc" to see how it wor"s.
The derivative term is implemented using a true derivative bloc".
;. *u!!y -o"i$ Cotroller
3escription

The :u))y Logic Controller bloc" implements a fu))y inference system 1:IS4
in Simulin". :igure below shows fu))y logic controller. The two inputs to the fu))y
,;
controller are error and the integral of the error. The triangular and trape)oidal
membership function is used to frame the rules.
<.%i"
3escription

The Sign bloc" indicates the sign of the inputE The output is 1 when the input
is greater than )ero. The output is @ when the input is e$ual to )ero. The output is -1
when the input is less than )ero.
1B.Pro'u$t
3escription

The 2roduct bloc" performs multiplication or division of its inputs. This bloc"
produces outputs using either element-wise or matri+ multiplication depending on the
value of the #ultiplication parameter. 9ou specify the operations with the ?umber of
inputs parameter. #ultiply1Z4 and divide1L4 characters indicate the operations to be
performed on the inputsE If there are two or more inputs then the number of
characters must e$ual the number of inputs. :or e+ample TZLZT re$uires three inputs.
11. %um
3escription

&@
The Sum bloc" performs addition or subtraction on its inputs. This bloc" can
add or subtract scalar vector or matri+ inputs. It can also collapse the elements of a
single input vector. 9ou specify the operations of the bloc" with the List of Signs
parameter. 2lus 1K4 minus 1-4 and spacer 1[4 characters indicate the operations to be
performed on the inputsEIf there are two or more inputs then the number of characters
must e$ual the number of inputs. :or e+ample TK-KT re$uires three inputs and
configures the bloc" to subtract the second 1middle4 input from the first 1top4 input
and then add the third 1bottom4 input.
12.%$ope
3escription

The Scope bloc" displays its input with respect to simulation time. The Scope
bloc" can have multiple a+es 1one per port4A all a+es have a common time range with
independent y-a+es. The Scope allows you to ad!ust the amount of time and the range
of input values displayed. 9ou can move and resi)e the Scope window and you can
modify the ScopeSs parameter values during the simulation. 0hen you start a
simulation Simulin" does not open Scope windows although it does write data to
connected Scopes. -s a result if you open a Scope after a simulation the ScopeSs
input signal or signals will be displayed. If the signal is continuous the Scope
produces a point-to-point plot. If the signal is discrete the Scope produces a stair-step
plot. The Scope provides toolbar buttons that enable you to )oom in on displayed
data display all the data input to the Scope preserve a+is settings from one simulation
to the ne+t limit data displayed and save data to the wor"space. The toolbar buttons
&1
are labeled in this figure which shows the Scope window as it appears when you open
a Scope bloc".
*i" 1( Iput 1 mem,ers#ip fu$tio
.
&.

*i" 1) Iput 2 mem,ers#ip fu$tio


*i" 12 output mem,ers#ip fu$tio
&/
*i"ure 13 %urfa$e viewer

C#apter 2
E?PERI+ENTA- ANA-.%I%
&,
E:perimetal Results
1. %imulatio result of system wit# PID $otroller for step iput
1BBl,=i
2

*i" 17 %imulatio result of system wit# PID $otroller for step iput
1BBl,=i
2
&&
The figure above shows the result obtained when the system is sub!ected to
2I3 controller for step input 1@@. from the results it is evident that the system reaches
the steady state at @.@/ sec
.. %imulatio result of t#e system wit# PID $otroller for step iput
2BBl,=i
2



*i" 1; %imulatio result of t#e system wit# PID $otroller for step iput
2BBl,=i
2
&<
The figure above shows the result obtained when the system is sub!ected to
2I3 controller for step input &@@. from the results it is evident that the system reaches
the steady state at @.@/ sec
(. %imulatio result of t#e system wit# PID $otroller for e:teral
'istur,a$e E2 'e"ree

&=
*i" 1< %imulatio result of t#e system wit# PID $otroller for e:teral
'istur,a$e E2 'e"ree
The figure above shows the result obtained when the system is sub!ected to
e+ternal disturbance 1K& degree4with 2I3 controller for step input &@@.


C#apter 3
&>
DI%CU%%ION O* RE%U-T%
Dis$ussio of t#e Result
-fter designing the simulin" model of O2I3 controller T the whole module
wor"ed satisfactory and produced the desired results. The efficiency of the proposed
controller has tested by giving the output of the controller to the servo valve in
Simulin" model design. It wor"ed satisfactorily and produced desired response.
The result of the 2I3 controller reveals that it wor"s well for all the
nonlinearities= that may occurs in the system. This increased the reliability and
fle+ibility of the controller.
The best thing about the controller that can be found from the results is that
there is no overshoot present in the output response. So the 5lectro (ydraulic Servo
System with 2I3 controller can be use much satisfactorily in industrial use.
&;
C#apter 7
CONC-U%ION% F
RECO++ENDATION%

<@
Co$lusio
- series of numerical simulations were performed on the system. The
simulation results show that the 2I3 control scheme designed using the proposed
method gives faster and more accurate responses. #ore research is necessary to
develop the general topology of fu))y models so that these models are made
applicable in system modeling and control of comple+ systems.
:rom all the above points the following conclusion can be made about the
system.
1. *le:i,le
The controller is more fle+ible owing to the fact that e+pert "nowledge is using
here.
2. Cost effe$tive
One of the ma!or advantages of this controller is that it is cost effective and
affordable compared to other conventional controllers.
<1
(. 4rowi" awareess
5ven though the concept of T :u))y ControllerT is new to India the awareness of
this controller is on the rise.
7.1 -imitatios
5ven though :u))y logic controllers often produce results superior to those of
classical controllers as mentioned above the control engineer has difficulty in
accessing the fu))y logic controller because of the following limitations.
The design of the fu))y logic controller is not straight-forward due to
heuristics involved with control rules and membership functions.
The tuning of the parameters of the fu))y logic controller is very comple+.
7.2 Re$omme'atios
0ith respect to our pro!ect there is always scope to improve the system
hence the following recommendation can be made. It is possible to develop 2I3-
fu))y controller in the same model.
7. ( Appli$atios
-ny system is designed to be applied to a particular scenario. The ma!or
applications of our controller is as follows
<.
1. -utomotive engineering
.. #edical process
/. Telecommunication
,. 5nvironmental control
&. Chemical process control
<. -utonomous robotics
7.) *uture s$ope
- controller can be made more attractive only if it is more fle+ible. So that any
addition to the system in future will not alter its performance significantly. :or any
given controller there will be a scope for e+tension at any given point of time.
The newer technologies such as
1. *u!!y&PID can be integrated to further enhance the performance of the hybrid
systems.
.. -s we have used the second order system P#ase Plae +et#o' can be
applied to the above system.
/. Neuro&*u!!y techni$ues can be applied to the above system.
</
Chapter >
*I*LION6-2(9
<,
RE*ERENCE%=0I0-IO4RAPH.
1. 6. *. Geller and B. Chen O- high performance adaptive controller for nonlinear
hydraulic servo systemP in !S"E #i$ter !$$u% "eet%*oston #- 1;>/ >/-
0-L3SC-1=.
.. S. 9. Lee 9. B. 2ar" and (. S. Cho O- neuro-fu))y control of an electro-hydraulic
fin position servo systemP in Proc% !S"E &$t% "ech'$ic'(E$)% Co$f% Exositio$ vol.
:2ST-/ -tlanta N- ?ov. 1=V.. 1;;<pp. 1@1V1@<.
/. O- self-tuning fu))y control of an electro-hydraulic fin position servo systemP in
Proc% !S"E &$t% "ech'$ic'( E$)% Co$f% Exositio$vol. :2ST-& -naheim C- ?ov.
1&V.@ 1;;> pp. ;;V1@<.
<&
,. 9. :. Li and C. C. Lau O3evelopment of fu))y algorithms for servo systemP &EEE
Co$tr% Syst% "')% vol. ; no. / pp. <&V=. 1;>;.
&. - :u))y controller for an -eroload Simulator using phase plane method by Sang
9eal Lee and (yung Suc" Cho member I555.
Ge,sites 6
www.mat#wor1s.$om
www.fu!!y.$om

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Chapter ;
APPENDI?

APPENDI? 1
#-TL-* is a high-performance language for technical computing. It
integrates computation visuali)ation and programming in an easy to use environment
where problems and solutions are e+pressed in familiar mathematical notations .
#-TL-* is an interactive system whose basic data element is an array that does not
re$uire dimensioning. This allows you to solve many technical problems especially
those with matri+ and vector formations. in a fraction of the time it would ta"e to
write a program in a scalar noninteractive language such as C or :ortran . The name
#-TL-* stands for matri+ laboratory. #-TL-* was originally written to provide
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easy access to matri+ software developed by the LI?2-CG and 5IS2-CG pro!ects.
Today #-TL-* engines incorporatesthe L-2-CG and *L-S libraries embedding
the state of the art in software for matri+ computation . #-TL-* has evolved over a
period of years with input from many users. In university environments it is the
standard instructional tool for introductory and advanced courses in mathematics
engineering and science. In industry #-TL-* is the tool of choice for high
productivity research development and analysis. #-TL-* features a of add on
application specific solutions called toolbo+es. 8ery important to most users of
#-TL-* toolbo+es allow you to learn and apply speciali)ed technology. Toolbo+es
are comprehensive collections of #-TL-* functions 1#-files4 that e+tended the
#-TL-* environment to solve particular classes of problems. -reas in which
toolbo+es are available include signal processing control systems neural networ"s
fu))y logic wave lets simulation.
APPENDI? 2
*UDD. -O4IC TOO- 0O?
The fu))y logic toolbo+ is a collection of functions built on the #-TL-*
numeric computing environment provides tool for you to create and edit fu))y
inference systems within the framewor" of #-TL-* or if you prefer you can
integrate your fu))y systems in to simulations with simulin" 9ou can even build
stand-alone C programs that call on fu))y systems you build with #TL-*. This
toolbo+ relies heavily on Nraphical 7ser Interface 1N7I4 tools to help you accomplish
your wor" although you can wor" entirely from the command line if you prefer. The
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toolbo+ provides three categories of toolsE command line functions graphical
interactive tools simulin" bloc"s and e+amples. The first category of tools is made up
of functions that you can call from the command line or from your own applications.
#any of these functions are #-TL-* #-files series of #-TL-* statements that
implement speciali)ed fu))y logic algorithm
The #-TL-* code for these functions can be viewed using statement type function-
name.
The way any toolbo+ function wor" can be changed by copying and renaming
the #-file then modifying the original copy. The toolbo+ can also be e+tended by
adding the #-files. Secondly the toolbo+ provides a number of iterative tools that lets
access to many of the functions through a N7I. Together the N7I based tools provide
an environment for fu))y inference system design analysis and implementation. The
third category of tools is a set of bloc"s for use with the simulin" simulation software.
APPENDI? (
A'vata"es a' 'isa'vata"es of fu!!y lo"i$ for system $otrol6
A'vata"es
1. :ewer values rules and decisions are re$uired.
.. #ore observed values can be evaluated.
/. Linguistic not numerical variables are used ma"ing it similar to the way
humans thin".
<;
,. It relates output to input without having to understand all the variables
permitting the design of the system that may be more accurate and stable than
one with a conventional control system.
&. Simplicity allows the solution of previously unsolved problem.
<. They are cheaper to ma"e than conventional systems because they are easier to
design.
=. They have increased robustness.
>. They simply "nowledge ac$uisition and representation.
;. - few rules encompass comple+ity.
Disa'vata"es
1. ItSs hard to develop a model from a fu))y system.
.. Though they are easier to design and faster to proto type than conventional
control systems fu))y systems re$uire more simulation an fine tuning before
they are operational.

APPENDI? )
C#alle"es i $omputer simulatio
-t the outset it is important to reali)e that there are several factors that ma"e
simulation of power electronic systems very challenging.
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1. The simulation may ta"e long time the time constraints or in other wards the
response time of various parts within the system may differ by several orders
of magnitude.
.. -ccurate models are not always available.
/. 5ven if steady state waveforms are of interest the simulation time is usually
long due to un"nown values of the critical circuit states at the start of the
simulation.
The challenges listed above dictate that the ob!ective of the simulation
should be care fully evaluated. In general it is not desirable to simulate all
aspects of the system in detail. The reason is that the simulation time may be
very long and the output at the end of the simulation may be overwhelming thus
obscuring the phenomena of interest in this aspects the best simulation that
meets the immediate ob!ective.
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