Sunteți pe pagina 1din 5

Recommended Enhancements for CHM012, Introduction to Chemistry (Working Copy

!r" E#i$a%eth M" &'Connor


&cto%er (, 2011
Course !escription) A foundation in the fundamentals of chemistry and chemical reasoning.
This course is intended for students who have not successfully completed one year of high
school chemistry or who need to refresh skills in chemistry before registering for certain
allied health programs. A practicum involving problem-solving techniques, both
mathematical and logical, that are frequently used in chemistry and in the laboratory is
included to provide initial exposure to the chemistry laboratory setting. There will be 3 !3
hours lecture!practicum per week. "Two and a half hours lecture and approximately fifty
minutes of laboratory per week. # credits$ *rere+uisite) M,- 0.1 or appropriate score on
the math p#acement test
Re+uired -e/t%ook) Tro, %ivaldo. &ntroductory 'hemistry. 3
rd
or (th ed. )earson )rentice *all+
,pper -addle .iver, %ew /ersey.
Re+uired Ca#cu#ator) T&-3#0a -cientific 'alculator
Course &ut#ine
'hapter 1 The 'hemical 2orld
'hapter 3 1 4easurements and )roblem -olving
Algebra .eview
'hapter 3 1 4atter and 5nergy
E0,M I)
'hapter ( 1 Atoms and 5lements
'hapter 6 1 5lectrons in Atoms and the )eriodic Table
E0,M II)
'hapter 7 1 4olecules and 'ompounds
'hapter # 1 'hemical 8onding 9omit sections #.: 1 #.;<
'hapter ( 1 Acids, 8ases, = 5lectrolytes 9(.3 1 (.7, excluding 8r>nsted-?owry definition
of acids and bases, (.; 1 (.6, excluding calculations using logs, p.((6 1electrolyte
solutions<
E0,M III)
'hapter : 1 'hemical 'omposition
'hapter ; 1 'hemical .eactions
'hapter @ 1 Auantities in 'hemical .eactions
E0,M I1) 2ina#
-ince the students taking this course move into Allied *ealth careers such as nursing, & have
made the following recommendations with that in mind. *aving taught both '*4#3 and
8&B3#3, & feel that these changes would better prepare the students for downstream courses such
as 4icrobiology 9and also Anatomy and )hysiology<.
3pecific &%4ecti5es Chapter from
Introductory
Chemistry,
-ro
Recommended
Changes
C Describe chemistry as an
obEective physical science.
C Describe the scientific
method including the
definition of observation,
hypothesis, experimentation,
law, and theory.
%one
C )erform calculations and
unit conversions using
significant figures and
scientific notation.
3 %one
C Define matter and energy.
C Discuss chemical and
physical changes in terms of
the law of conservation of
matter.
C Distinguish between
elements, mixtures, and
compounds.
3 Bmit heat capacity calculations
C 'ompare and contrast
atomic models.
(
C 'ompare and contrast
atomic models.
C ,se the periodic table to
predict electron
configuration and periodic
trends in the elements.
6 Recommendations)
. 'over electromagnetic radiation
3. 5xpose them to the quantum mechanical
model and demonstrate both electron
configuration and orbital diagrams
3. Do not hold them responsible for electron
configuration and orbital diagrams.
(. Test on valence electrons and periodic trend.
Rationa#e) The class tends to get stalled on the
sections covering the quantum-mechanical
model of the atom, electron configuration
notation and orbital diagrams. The second half
of this chapter, valence electrons and periodic
trends, is important to know. &t can be taught in
a more qualitative fashion with Eust the
background information from 'hapter (.
C 2rite symbols and!or
formulas for chemical
elements and compounds.
C ,se systematic
nomenclature for naming
inorganic compounds.
7 %one
C Discuss chemical bonds in
terms of formation, types,
and electronegativity.
# %one
C &dentify acids and bases
according to the Arrhenius
definition.
C Discuss the p* scale in terms of
acidity and basicity.
C Define electrolytes.
( Recommendations)
. 'ontinue to teach p* qualitatively, without
calculations
3. Add section (.# 8uffers
3. Add section3.3 -olutions
(. 2hen 'hapter ; is covered, the section on
solubility and precipitation reactions should be
covered in detail.
Rationa#e+ This subEect is woefully glossed
over, especially electrolytes. ,nderstanding
electrolyte balance, the solubility of electrolytes,
p* balance and buffering is central for health
care professionals.
C Determine molecular
weights and empirical =
molecular formulas from
given data.
: Recommendations)
. .etain conversions involving the number,
moles and mass of atoms and molecules.
3. Feep mass percent composition of
compounds and mass percent composition from
a chemical formula
3. Bmit calculating empirical formulas and
molecular formulas.
Rationa#e+ Grom the point of view of
preparation, these empirical and molecular
formula calculations are not used in a health
care setting and do not enhance the kind of
chemical knowledge that these students need.
C 8alance chemical equations and
identify basic reaction types.
; %one
C )erform stoichiometric
calculations.
@ Recommendations)
. The single most important skill that must be
learned from this chapter is how to calculate the
grams!moles of any component of a balanced
chemical equation, when give the gram!moles of
any other component of that equation.
3. -imple percent yield calculations are
important 9i.e., those where theoretical yield is
provided to the student<
3. ?imiting reactant and theoretical yield are not
essential.
Rationa#e+ The same reason as given for
empirical and molecular formulas.
6a%oratories
6a% -it#e *resent 6a% Recommendations
&%ser5ations ?ight a tea light and record as
many observations as you can
Recommendation+ *ave them
do a series of microreactions
that allows them to see a
precipitation, a p* change, gas
formation, etc.
Rationa#e+ They can get
familiar with what they will
have to look for in future labs.
3ignificant 2igures and
Measurement
,sing rulers of various levels
of precision to determine the
density of a wooden block
This lab works best if block
measuring is done as part of
the lecture on significant
figures, measurement and
calculations. As each concept
is introduced in lecture, the
students practice it by doing
the steps of the lab.
Rationa#e+ &t moves the
concept of significant digits
from the theoretical to the
concrete.
Identification of *hysica#
and Chemica# Changes
)erform and identify a series
of physical and chemical
changes
There may be some repetition
if ?ab is changed. They
struggle with this concept,
repetition couldnHt hurt.
E#ement *oster A poster and presentation on a
biologically relevant element
%o changes 1 the students love
this assignment
2#ame -est Demonstrated how electrons
Eump to different energy levels
%o changes 1 the students love
this assignment and it gets the
point across beautifully.
E/tracting Iron from Cerea# 5xtract the iron from various
commercial cereals and
visualiIe on a magnetic stir
bar.
*ossi%#e change 1 replace
with a less elementary lab. The
students love this assignment.
& relate it to diet and prepared
food choices, but it is pretty
elementary.
Ear#y Chemica# 6a7
3imu#ation
,sing screws, washers, and
nuts, JconstructK and
JdecomposeK JcompoundsK to
illustrate the ?aws of 'onstant
.eplace it with an actual
chemistry lab.
Rationa#e+ The language in
this lab is confusing and they
'omposition, 4ultiple
)roportions, and 'onservation
of 4ass
do not succeed in proving
these laws to themselves. &
tried doing it in lecture with
them as a guided activity and
it still fails.
,cids 8 9ases:E#ectro#ytes .elates the idea of strong and
weak acids = bases with
strong and weak electrolytes
They use p* paper to measure
the p* of various liquids
Recommendation+ .eplace
with a less elementary lab+
a. *ave a neutraliIation
reaction and -
b. .eactions that show how
buffering stabiliIes p* when
acids!bases are added to water.
Rationa#e+ 5xposes the
students to those aspects of p*
that they will encounter
everyday.
Ho7 Many 9eans; They have to design an
experiment to determine the
number of beans in a sample
without actually counting
them.
%o change 1 this allows them
to practice critical thinking,
and experimental design and
illustrates the notion of
determining the number of
things in a sample by using
mass 9mole concepts<
3ing#e<!isp#acement
Reactions
A lab that pits metal ions
against metals to qualitatively
determine ioniIation potential
%o change 1 demonstrates
redox reactions and
electrochemical series
!ou%#e<!isp#acement
Reactions
A lab that mixes various salts
in solution to see which ones
will exchange ions to form
precipitates
&n addition to A0 L 8M N AM
L 80, this lab demonstrates
precipitation reactions.
-olubility should be
emphasiIed in this lab.