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SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS

FLAT AND SQUARE KEYS DESIGN PROBLEMS

521. A 2-in. shaft, of cold-drawn AISI 1137, has a pulley keyed to it. (a) Compute the length of square key and the length of flat key such that a key made of cold-drawn C1020 has the same yield strength as the shaft does in pure torsion. (b) The same as (a), except that the key material is AISI 2317, OQT 1000 F. (c) Would you discard either of these keys? Explain.

Solution:

For AISI 1137 shaft, Table AT 8, sy = 93 ksi Yield Strength of Shaft s ys = 0.6s y = 0.6(93) = 55.8 ksi

T =

s

ys

D

π

3

=

(

55 8

.

)(

π

)( )

2

3

16

16

= 87 65

.

in

kips

(a)

Key Material, cold-drawn, C1020, Table AT 7 s y = 66 ksi s ys = 0.6sy = 0.6(66) = 39.6 ksi Table AT 19, use b = ½ in , t = 3/8 in. For square key, b = t = ½ in. By shear, s s = s ys

2 T 2 87 65 ( . ) L = = = 4 43 in
2
T
2 87 65
(
.
)
L =
=
= 4 43 in
.
s
bD
39
.
6 1 2
(
)(
2
)
s

By compression, s c = s y . Key has lowest yield strength.

4 T 4 87 65 ( . ) L = = = 5 32 in
4
T
4 87 65
(
.
)
L =
=
= 5 32 in
.
s
tD 66
( 1 2
)( )
2
c
Use L = 5.32 in
For Flat key, b = ½ in , t = 3/8 in.
By shear, s s = s ys
2
T
2 87 65
(
.
)
L =
=
= 4 43 in
.
s
bD
39
.
6 1 2
(
)(
2
)
s

By compression, s c = s y . Key has lowest yield strength.

(b)

4 T 4 87 65 ( . ) L = = s tD 66 (
4
T
4 87 65
(
.
)
L =
=
s
tD 66
( 3 8
)( )
2
c
Use L = 7.09 in

= 7 09 in

.

Key Material, AISI 2317, QOT 1000 F. Table AT 8 s y = 71 ksi s ys = 0.6sy = 0.6(71) = 42.6 ksi Table AT 19, use b = ½ in , t = 3/8 in. For square key, b = t = ½ in. By shear, s s = s ys

2 T 2 87 65 ( . ) L = = = 4 12 in
2
T
2 87 65
(
.
)
L =
=
= 4 12 in
.
s
bD
42
.
6 1 2
(
)( )
2
s

By compression, s c = s y . Key has lowest yield strength.

1

SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS

4 T 4 87 65 ( . ) L = = = 4 94 in
4
T
4 87 65
(
.
)
L =
=
= 4 94 in
.
s
tD
71
(
1 2
)(
2
)
c
Use L = 4.94 in
For Flat key, b = ½ in , t = 3/8 in.
By shear, s s = s ys
2
T
2 87 65
(
.
)
L =
=
= 4 12 in
.
s
bD
42 6 1 2
.
(
)( )
2
s

By compression, s c = s y . Key has lowest yield strength.

 
4 T 4 87 65 ( . ) L = = s tD 71 (
4
T
4 87 65
(
.
)
L =
=
s
tD
71
(
3 8
)(
2
)
c
Use L = 6.59 in

= 6 59 in

.

 

(c)

Either of the above is not to be discarded since they are designed based on yield strength with the same factor of safety.

522.

A cast-iron pulley transmits 65.5 hp at 1750 rpm. The 1045 as-rolled shaft to which it is to be keyed is 1 ¾ in. in diameter; key material, cold-drawn 1020. Compute the length of flat key and of square key needed.

Solution:

For shaft: 1045 as-rolled, Table AT 7, s y = 59 ksi For key: Cold-drawn 1020, s y = 66 ksi D = 1 ¾ in = 1.75 in hp = 65.5 hp, n = 1750 rpm

T =

63 000

,

hp

=

63 000 65 5

,

(

.

)

n 1750

= 2358

in

lb

= 2 358

.

in

kips

Table AT 19, use b = 3/8 in, t = 1/4 in for D = 1 ¾ in

Assume smooth load, N = 1.5

For Flat key, b = 3/8 in, t = 1/4 in. By shear, s ys
For Flat key, b = 3/8 in, t = 1/4 in.
By shear,
s ys = 0.6sy = 0.6(66) = 39.6 ksi
s
39 6
.
= ys
s
=
= 26 4 ksi
.
s
N 1 5
.
2
T
2 2 358
(
.
)
L =
=
= 0 272 in
.
s
bD
26 4 3 8
.
(
)(
1 75
.
)
s

By compression, use s y of shaft the lowest. Pulley has the highest compressive strength (Cast iron).

s 59 s = y = = 39 3 ksi . c N 1 5
s
59
s
= y
=
= 39 3 ksi
.
c
N 1 5
.
4
T
4 2 358
(
.
)
L =
=
s
tD
39 3 1 4
.
(
)(
1 75
.
)
c

= 0 549 in

.

Use L = 0.549 in - answer

2

SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS

For Square key, b = 3/8 in, t = 3/8 in. By shear, s s
For Square key, b = 3/8 in, t = 3/8 in.
By shear, s s = s ys
s ys = 0.6s y = 0.6(66) = 39.6 ksi
s
39 6
.
ys =
s
=
= 26 4 ksi
.
s
N 1 5
.
2
T
2 2 358
(
.
)
L =
=
= 0 272 in
.
s
bD
26 4 3 8
.
(
)(
1 75
.
)
s

By compression, use s y of shaft the lowest. Pulley has the highest compressive strength (Cast iron).

s y 59 s = = = 39 3 ksi . c N 1 5
s y
59
s
=
=
= 39 3 ksi
.
c
N
1 5
.
4
T
4 2 358
(
.
)
L =
=
s
tD
39 3 3 8
.
(
)(
1 75
.
)
c

= 0 366 in

.

Use L = 0.366 in - answer

523. A 3 ¼-in. shaft transmits with medium shock 85 hp at 100 rpm. Power is received through a sprocket (annealed nodular iron 60-45-10) keyed to the shaft of cold-rolled AISI 1040 (10% work), with a key of cold-finished B1113. What should be the length of (a) a square key? (b) a flat key?

Solution:

For sprocket, annealed nodular iron, 60-45-10, Table AT 6, s y = 55 ksi For shaft, cold-rolled AISI 1040 (10% work), Table AT 10, s y = 85 ksi For key, cold-finished B1113, Table AT 7, s y = 72 ksi

D = 3 ¼ in = 3.25 in

hp = 85 hp

n = 100 rpm

T

=

63 000

,

hp

=

,

(

)

63 000 85

= 53 550

, n 100

in

lb

= 53 55

.

Table AT 19, use b = ¾ in, t = 1/2 in for D = 3 ¼

For medium shock, N = 2.25

(a) Square key,

b = ¾ in, t = ¾ in.

in

in

kips

By shear, s ys = 0.6s y = 0.6(72) = 43.2 ksi s 43 2
By shear,
s ys = 0.6s y = 0.6(72) = 43.2 ksi
s
43 2
.
= ys
s
=
= 19 2 ksi
.
s
N 2 25
.
2
T
2 53 55
(
.
)
L =
=
= 2 29 in
.
s
bD
19 2 3 4
.
(
)(
3 25
.
)
s

By compression, use s y of sprocket the lowest.

s 55 s = y = = 24 4 ksi . c N 2 25
s
55
s
= y
=
= 24 4 ksi
.
c
N 2 25
.
4
T
4 53 55
(
.
)
L =
=
s
tD
24 4 3 4
.
(
)(
3 25
.
)
c

= 3 60 in

.

3

SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS

Use L = 3.60 in. - answer

(b) Flat key,

b = ¾ in, t = ½ in.

By shear, s s = s ys s ys = 0.6s y = 0.6(72) =
By shear, s s = s ys
s ys = 0.6s y = 0.6(72) = 43.2 ksi
s
43
. 2
ys
s
=
=
= 19 2 ksi
.
s
N
2 25
.
2
T
2 53 55
(
.
)
L
=
=
= 2 29 in
.
s
bD
19
.
2 3 4
(
)(
3 25
.
)
s

By compression, use s y of sprocket the lowest.

s 55 y s = = = 24 4 ksi . c N 2 25
s
55
y
s
=
=
= 24 4 ksi
.
c
N
2 25
.
4
T
4 53 55
(
.
)
L
=
=
.
Use L = 5.40 in. - answer
s
tD
24
.
4 1 2
(
)(
3 25
)
c

= 5 40 in

.

524.

a rock crusher, and is keyed to a 3-in. shaft (AISI 1045, as rolled); the key is made of AISI C1020,

cold drawn. For a design factor of 4 based on yield strength, what should be the length of (a) a square key, (b) flat key? (c) Would either of these keys be satisfactory? Solution:

A cast-steel gear (SAE 0030), with a pitch diameter of 36 in., is transmitting 75 hp at 210 rpm to

For cast-steel gear (SAE 0030), Table AT 6, s y = 35 ksi For shaft, AISI 1045, as rolled, Table AT 7, s y = 59 ksi For key, AISI C1020, cold-drawn, Table AT 7, s y = 66 ksi

D = 3 in

hp = 75 hp

n = 210 rpm

T

=

63 000

,

hp

=

,

(

)

63 000 75

= 22 500

, n 210

in

lb

= 22 5

.

in

kips

Table AT 19, use b = ¾ in, t = 1/2 in for D = 3 in

Design factor, N = 4

(a) Square key,

b = ¾ in, t = ¾ in.

By shear, s ys = 0.6s y = 0.6(66) = 39.6 ksi

s 39 . 6 = ys s = = 9 9 ksi . s N
s
39
. 6
= ys
s
=
= 9 9 ksi
.
s
N 4
2
T
2 22 5
(
.
)
L =
=
= 2 02 in
.
s
bD
9 9 3 4
.
(
)( )
3
s

By compression, use s y of cast-steel gear the lowest.

s

c

=

s

y

35

=

N 4

=

8 75 ksi

.

4

SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS

4 T 4 22 5 ( . ) L = = = 4 57 in
4
T
4 22 5
(
.
)
L =
=
= 4 57 in
.
s
tD 8
.
75 3 4
(
)( )
3
c
Use L = 4.57 in. - answer

(b) Flat key,

b = ¾ in, t = ½ in.

By shear, s s = s ys s ys = 0.6s y = 0.6(66) = 39.6 ksi

s 39 6 . ys = s = = 9 9 ksi . s N
s
39 6
.
ys =
s
=
= 9 9 ksi
.
s
N 4
2
T
2 22 5
(
.
)
L =
=
= 2 02 in
.
s
bD
9 9 3 4
.
(
)( )
3
s

By compression, use s y of cast-steel gear the lowest.

s 35 s = y = = 8 75 ksi . c N 4 4
s
35
s
= y
=
=
8 75 ksi
.
c
N 4
4
T
4 22 5
(
.
)
L =
=
= 6 86 in
.
s
tD 8
.
75 1 2
(
)( )
3
c
Use L = 6.86 in. - answer

525. An electric motor delivers 50 hp at 1160 rpm to a 1 5/8 in. shaft (AISI 13B45, OQT 1100 F). Keyed to this shaft is a cast-steel (SAE 080, N & T) pulley whose hub is 2 in. long. The loading may be

classified as mild shock. Decide upon a key for this pulley (material), investigating both flat and square keys. Solution:

hp = 50 hp

n

= 1160 rpm

D

= 1 5/8 in = 1.625 in

Shaft material – AISI 13B45, OQT 1100 F, Table AT 10, s y = 112 ksi Pulley material – SAE 080, N & T, Table AT 6, s y = 40 ksi

L

= 2 in

N

= 2.0 to 2.25 for mild shock

From Table AT 19 for D = 1 5/8 in

b = 3/8 in, t = ¼ in

T

=

63 000

,

hp

=

(

63 000 50

,

)

= 2

,

n

1160

 

For flat key: b = 3/8 in, Check for compression:

t = ¼ in

716

in

lb

4 T 4 2 716 ( . ) s = = = 13 37 ksi
4
T
4 2 716
(
.
)
s
=
=
= 13 37 ksi
.
c
LtD
(
2
)(
1 4
)(
1 625
.
)
s
40
y
Based on pulley material,
N =
=
s
13 37
.
c
Therefore safe in compression.
Determine the yield stress on the key
2
T
2 2 716
(
.
)
s
=
=
= 4 457 ksi
.
s
LbD
(
2
)(
3 8
)(
1 625
.
)

= 2 716

.

=

2 99

.

>

in

kips

2 25

.

5

SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS

N = 2.25

s

0.6 s

ys

= 0.6s = Ns

y

s

y = (2.25)(4.457)

s

y

=16.7

ksi

Min. s

Select SAE 003, Table AT 6, s y = 35 ksi – Answer.

y

(

= 13.37

)(

)

2.25 = 30

ksi

- Minimum yield strength of key material required.

For square key: b = t = 3/8 in Check for compression:

4 T 4 2 716 ( . ) s = = = 8 914 ksi
4
T
4 2 716
(
.
)
s
=
=
= 8 914 ksi
.
c
LtD
(
2
)(
3 8
)(
1 625
.
)
s
40
y
Based on pulley material,
N =
=
=
4 49
.
>
2 25
.
s
8 914
.
c
Therefore safe in compression.
Determine the yield stress on the key
2
T
2 2 716
(
.
)
s
=
=
= 4 457 ksi
.
s
LbD
(
2
)(
3 8
)(
1 625
.
)
N = 2.25
= 0.6s = Ns
s ys
y
s
0.6
s
y = (2.25)(4.457)
s
y =16.7
ksi
Min. s
= 8.914
(
)(
2.25 = 20
)
ksi
- Minimum yield strength of key material required.
y

Select SAE 003, Table AT 6, s y = 35 ksi – Answer.

CHECK PROBLEMS

526. A cast-steel (SAE 080, N & T) pulley, attached to a 2-in. shaft, is transmitting 40 hp at 200 rpm, and is keyed by a standard square key, 3 in. long, made of SAE 1015, cold drawn; shaft material, C1144, OQT 1000 F. (a) What is the factor of safety of the key? (b) The same as (a) except a flat key is used.

Solution:

Pulley, Cast steel, SAE 080, N & T, Table AT 6, s y = 40 ksi Key, SAE 1015, cold drawn, Table AT 7, s y = 63 ksi Shaft, C1144, OQT 1000 F, s y = 83 ksi hp = 40 hp N = 200 rpm D = 2 in

L = 3 in

T =

63 000

,

hp

(

63 000 40

,

)

=

=12 600

, n 200

Table AT 19, D = 2 in

b = ½ in, t = 3/8 in

in

lb

=12 6

.

in

kips

6

SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS

a) Square key, b = ½ in, t = ½ in By shear:

2 T 2 12 6 ( . ) = = = 8 4 ksi .
2
T
2 12 6
(
.
)
=
=
= 8 4 ksi
.
s s
LbD
(
3
)(
1 2
)( )
2
s
0
. 6 s
y 0
.
6 63
(
)
ys
N =
=
=
= 4 50
.
< 6.21
s
s
8
. 4
s
s
By compression:
4
T
4 12 6
(
.
)
=
=
= 16 8 ksi
.
s c
LtD
( )(
3
1 2
)( )
2
s
(
pulley
)
40
y
N
=
=
= 2 38
.
< 6.21
s
16
. 8
c

Answer N = 2.38

b) Flat key, b = ½ in, t = 3/8 in By shear:

2 T 2 12 6 ( . ) = = = 8 4 ksi .
2
T
2 12 6
(
.
)
=
=
= 8 4 ksi
.
s s
LbD
(
3
)(
1 2
)( )
2
s
0
. 6 s
6 63
(
)
y 0
.
ys
N =
=
=
= 4 50
.
s
s
8
. 4
s
s

< 6.21

By compression: 4 T 4 12 6 ( . ) = = = 22 4
By compression:
4
T
4 12 6
(
.
)
=
=
= 22 4 ksi
.
s c
LtD
(
3
)(
3 8
)( )
2
s
( pulley
)
40
y
N
= =
= 1 78
.
< 6.21
s
22
. 4
c

Answer N = 1.78

527. A cast-steel (SAE 080, N & T) pulley is keyed to a 2 1/2-in. shaft by means of a standard square key, 3 ½-in. long, made of cold-drawn SAE 1015. The shaft is made of cold-drawn AISI 1045. If the shaft is in virtually pure torsion, and turns at 420 rpm, what horsepower could the assembly safely transmit (steady loading)?

Solution:

Pulley, Cast steel, SAE 080, N & T, Table AT 6, s y = 40 ksi Key, SAE 1015, cold drawn, Table AT 7, s y = 63 ksi Shaft, AISI 1045, cold drawn, Table AT 7, s y = 85 ksi

N = 420 rpm

L = 3 ½

D = 2 ½ in

Table AT 19, D = 2 ½

b = 5/8 in, t = 7/16 in

Square Key, b = t = 5/8 in

N = 1.5 for steady loading (smooth)

For shaft:

in = 3.5 in

in

7

SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS

T =

s

s

D

π

3

=

0

.

6 s

y

D

π

3

=

0 6 85

.

(

)(

π

)(

2 5

.

)

3

16

(

N 16

)

(

1 5 16

.

)

=104 31

.

in

kips

Key:

By shear:

T =

s

s

LbD

2

s s

T

s 0 . 6 s 0 6 63 . ( ) ys y = =
s
0
.
6 s
0 6 63
.
(
)
ys
y
=
=
=
= 25 2 ksi
.
N
N 1 5
.
(
25 .
2
)(
3 5
.
)(
5 8
)(
2 5
.
)
=
= 68 9 in − kips < 104.31 in-kips
.
2

By compression:

T =

s

c

LtD

4

s y ( pulley ) 40 = = = 26 s c N 1 5
s
y (
pulley
)
40
=
=
= 26
s c
N
1 5
.
(
26 .
67
)(
3 5
.
)(
5 8
)(
2 5
.
)
T =
4

. 67 ksi

= 36 46 in kips < 104.31 in-kips

.

Use T = 36.46 in kips = 36,460 in kips

hp

=

Tn

(

36 460 420

,

)

=

63 000

,

63 000

,

=

243 hp

528. The same as 527, except that the diameter is 3 in. and the length of the key is 5 in.

Solution:

Pulley, Cast steel, SAE 080, N & T, Table AT 6, s y = 40 ksi Key, SAE 1015, cold drawn, Table AT 7, s y = 63 ksi Shaft, AISI 1045, cold drawn, Table AT 7, s y = 85 ksi

N = 420 rpm

L = 5 in

D = 3 in

Table AT 19, D = 3 in

b = 3/4 in, t = 1/2 in

Square Key, b = t = 3/4 in

N = 1.5 for steady loading (smooth)

For shaft:

s

s

π D

3

0 6 s

π D

3 0

=

.

(

6 85

)(

π

)( )

3

3

T

=

16

=

.

N

(

y

Key:

 

By shear:

 

16

)

(

1 5 16

.

)

T =

s LbD

s

2

=180 25

.

in

kips

8

SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS

0 . 6 s 0 6 63 . ( ) s ys y s =
0
. 6 s
0 6 63
.
(
)
s ys
y
s
= =
=
= 25 2 ksi
.
s
N
N 1 5
.
(
25 2
.
)( )(
5
3 4
)( )
3
T =
=141 75 in − kips < 180.25 in-kips
.
2
By compression:
s LtD
c
T =
4
s
pulley
)
y (
40
s
= =
= 26 67 ksi
.
c
N 1 5
.
( 26.67
)( )(
5
3 4
)( )
3
T =
= 75 in − kips <
180.25 in-kips
4

Use T = 75 in kips = 75,000 in kips

hp

=

Tn

(

75 000 420

,

)

=

63 000

,

63 000

,

=

500 hp

MISCELLANEOUS KEYS

529. Two assemblies, one with one feather keys, are shown, with the assumed positions of the normal forces N. Each assembly is transmitting a torque T. Derive an equation for each case giving the axial force needed to slide the hub along the shaft (f = coefficient of friction). Does either have an advantage in this respect?

of friction). Does either have an advantage in this respect? Solution:   ND   a) T

Solution:

 

ND

 

a)

T

=

 

2

 

2

T

 

N

=

 

D

 
 

Axial force =

F

=

fN

=

 

2

ND

 

b)

T

=

=

ND

 
 

2

 

T

 

N

=

 

D

 

Axial force =

F = fN =

2 fT

D

fT

D

Assembly (b) is stronger than assembly (a) which has an axial force half that of assembly (b).

9

SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS

530. A 1 11/16-in. shaft rotating at 200 rpm, carries a cast-iron gear keyed to it by a ¼ x 1 ¼-in. Woodruff key; shaft material is cold-finished SAE 1045. The power is transmitted with mild shock. What horsepower may be safely transmitted by the key, (a) if it is made of cold-drawn SAE 1118? (b) if it is made of SAE 2317, OQT 1000 F? (c) How many keys of each material are needed to give a capacity of 25 hp? Specify a choice.

Solution:

Only shear is used.

D

= 1 11/16 in

n

= 200 rpm

Woodruff key = ¼ x 1 ¼ in

N = 2 for mild shock

Shear force for key 2 T

F

T

=

=

D

= s A

s

s

s A D

s

s

2

Table 10.1, ¼ x 1 ¼ in Woodruff Key is Key No. 810

Shear area, A s = 0.296 sq. in.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Key, cold-drawn 1118, Table AT 7, s y = 75 ksi

s

s

T

=

s

ys

=

0

.

6 s

y

=

(

0 6 75

.

)

N

 

N

   

2

 

=

(

22 .

5

)(

0 296

.

)

 

1

11

16

=

2

=

22 5 ksi

.

< 24.06 ksi

5 62

.

in kips =

5620

hp

Tn

= =

63 000

(

5620

)(

200

)

,

63

,

000

=

17 84 hp

.

in lb

Key, SAE 2317, OQT 1000F, Table AT 7, s y = 79 ksi

s

s

=

s

ys

=

0

.

6 s

y

=

0 6 79

.

(

)

N

N

2

=

23 7 ksi

.

< 24.06 ksi

.

)(

0 296

.

)

1

11

16

(

23 7

 

=

 

.

 

2

 

Tn

(

5920

)(

200

)

=

=

=

=

hp

63 000

,

63

,

000

T

5 92

in kips =

18 79 hp

.

5920

in lb

Number of keys for (a) = 25 / 17.84 = 1.4 or 2 keys Number of keys for (b) = 25 / 18.79 = 1.33 or 2 keys Select (b) which is stronger.

531. A 3/16 x 1-in. Woodruff key is used in a 1 3/16-in. shaft (cold-drawn SAE 1045). (a) If the key is made of the same material, will it be weaker or stronger than the shaft in pure torsion? (b) If the key is made of SAE 4130, WQT 1100 F, will it be weaker or stronger? For the purposes here, the weakening of the shaft by the keyway is ignored.

10

SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS

Solution:

Woodruff key, 3/16 x 1 in. D = 1 3/16 in Shaft: Cold drawn, SAE 1045 (Table AT 8) s y = 85 ksi s A D

T

s

s

=

2

Table 10.1, 3/16 x 1 in., Woodruff key is Key no. 608. Shear area = A s = 0.178 sq. in.

(a) Key material = Shaft Material In yield: For key

T

=

s A D

s

s

=

0 6

.

s

y

A D

s

2

2

For shaft:

T =

s

s

D

π

3

=

0

.

6 s

y

D

π

3

16

16

=

=

(

0 6 85

.

)(

0 178

.

)

1

3

16

2

=

(

0 6 85

.

)(

π

)

1

3

16

3

16

=

16

Therefore the key is weaker.

.

5 39

.

in

77 in

kips

kips

(b) Key material = SAE 4130, WQT 1100, Table AT 7, s y = 114 ksi In yield: For key

T

=

s A D

s

s

=

0

. 6 s

y

A D

s

=

)(

0 . 178

)

 

1

3

16


=

0 .

(

6 114

2

2 2

For shaft:

7 23 in

.

kips

T

=

s

s

D

π

3

=

0

.

6 s

y

D

π

3

16

16

=

(

0 6 85

.

)(

π

)

1

3

16

3

16

=

16 77 in

.

Therefore the key is weaker.

kips

532. A 2-in. shaft (cold-finished SAE 1137) is connected to a hub by a 3/8-in. radial taper pin made of 4150, OQT 1000 F. (a) What horsepower at 1800 rpm would be transmitted when the pin is about to be sheared off? (b) For this horsepower, what peak torsional stress may be repeated in the shaft? Is the shaft safe from fatigue at this stress?

Solution:

D

= 2 in

d

= 3/8 in

n

= 1800 rpm

(a) For pin material , 4150, OQT 1000 F, Table AT9, su = 193.5 ksi

F

=

s

s

(

2

A

s

)

=

s

s

(

2

)

d

π

2

4

s

= s

d

π

2

2

T =

FD

2

s

s

=

s

us

= s

s

 

π d

2

2

 

 

 

D

2

  =

1

4

s

s

π d

2 D

= 0.75

s

u

= 0.75 193.5 =145.1 ksi

(

)

11

SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS

T

= 1 (

4

hp

=

145

Tn

.

1 )(

π

=

3

 

 

8

32 050 1800

,

2

)

(

(

2

) =

)(

32 05

.

)

=

 

63 000

,

63 000

,

 

in kips =

915 7 hp

.

32

,

050 in lb

(b) For shaft, cold-finished, SAE 1137, Table AT 8, s u = 103 ksi

s

ns

=

0.6

s

n

= 0.6

 

s

u

2

  = 0 6

.

 

103

2

 

=

30 96 ksi

.

But,

16

T

(

16 32 050

,

)

=

N

=

D

π

s

ns

=

3

π

30 96

.

(

2

)

3

= 1 52

.

s

s

=

s

s

20 4

.

=

20 404

,

psi

=

20 4

.

ksi

<

30 96

.

ksi

> 1.5, therefore safe from fatigue at this stress.

533. A 20-in. lever is keyed to a 1 7/8-in. shaft (cold-finished SAE 1141) by a radial taper pin whose mean diameter is 0.5 in.; pin material, C1095, OQT 800 F. The load on the lever is repeatedly reversed; N = 2 on endurance strength. What is the safe lever load (a) for the shaft, (b) for the pin key (shear only), (c) for the combination?

Solution:

T

= FL where F = safe lever load.

L

= 20 in

D

= 1 7/8 in = 1.875 in

Shaft Material, cold finished, SAE 1141, Table AT 10.

s

y

= 90

ksi

s

y

s

n

s

n

=1.8

=

90

1 8

.

= 50

ksi

Pin Material, C1095, OQT 800 F, Table AT 9.

s

u

=176

ksi

s

n

= 0.5

(a)

s

u

= 0.5 176 = 88 ksi

(

)

For the shaft.

(b)

s

s

=

0

.

6 s

y

=

=

0 6 50

.

(

)

N

15

T =

T = FL

19,414 = F(20)

F = 970.7 lb

For the pin.

.

s

s

D

π

3

2

(

π

)(

= 15 ksi

1 875

.

)

3

16

16

=19 414

.

0 6

.

s

y

0 6 88

(

)

s

s

=

=

=

N 2

26 4

.

ksi

in

kips

=19 414

,

12

in

lbs

SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS

2 T d T 4 T s = = = s 2 A π 3
2
T
d
T
4
T
s
=
=
=
s
2
A
π
3
π
2
d
s
d
(
d
)
4
3
3
s
π
d
26 4
.
(
π
)(
0 5
.
)
s
T =
=
= 2 592
.
4
4
T = FL

2592 = F(20)

F =129.6 lb

in

(c) For the combination. Use F =129.6 lb

kips

= 2592

in

lbs

534. A lever is keyed to a 2 ½-in. shaft made of SAE 1035, as rolled, by a radial taper pin, made of SAE

1020, as rolled. A load of 200 lb. is applied to the lever 22 in. from the center of the shaft. (a) What size pin should be used for N = 3 based on the yield strength in shear? (b) Let the hub diameter be 5 in. and assume that the part of the pin in the hub is uniformly loaded cantilever beam. Compute the bending stress and comment on the bending strength (especially if the loading varies). Solution:

Shaft material, SAE 1035, as rolled, Table AT 7, s y = 55 ksi Pin material, SAE 1020, as rolled, Table AT 7, s y = 48 ksi

F = 200 lb, L = 22 in, N = 3 D = 2 ½
F
= 200 lb, L = 22 in, N = 3
D
= 2 ½ in, D h = 5 in
T
= FL = (200)(22) = 4400 in-lb = 4.4 in-kips
(a)
For the pin:
0
. 6 s
0 6 48
.
(
)
=
y =
= 9 6 ksi
.
s s
N 3
2 T
d
T
4 T
=
=
=
s s
2
A
π
3
π d
2
s
d
(
d
)
4
4 4 4
(
.
)
9 6
.
=
3
πd

d = 0.836 in

Use d

=

7

in

=

0 875 in

.

(b)

8

For the bending stress.

As cantilever beam let

L

=

2

1

2

(D

h

(5

D)

2 5)

.

1

L =

From Table AT 2.

=

1 25 in

.

M =

2

wL

FL

=

2

2

Where F is the uniform load.

13

SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS

2

F =

2

T

=

4

T 4 4400

(

)

= = 2347 lb

D

D

+

D

5

+

.

2 5

m

F =1174 lb

h

 

FL

(

)(

1174 1 25

.

)

 

M

=

=

 

=

734 lb

 
   
 

2

2

Bending stress

 
 

32

M

(

32 734

)

=

11160

,

psi

 

.

11 16

s

b

=

=

d

π

3

π

(

0 875

.

)

3

=

ksi

If the loading varies and factor of safety of 3.

s

n

=

Ns

b

= 3 11.16 = 33.48 ksi

(

)

Pin material, SAE 1020, as rolled, Table AT 7, s y = 48 ksi, s u = 65 ksu.

s

n

= 0.5

s

u

= 0.5 65 = 32.5 ksi

(

)

The bending stress is nearly safe as the load varies.

535. A sprocket, transmitting 10 hp at 100 rpm, is attached to a 1 7/16 in. shaft as shown in Fig.

10.15, p. 290., Text; E = 3-1/2 in. What should be the minimum shear pin diameter if the computed stress is 85% of the breaking stress mentioned in the Text? Solution:

hp = 10 hp, n = 100 rpm, D = 1 7/16 in = 1.4375 in, E = 3 ½ in = 3.5 in

T

=

63,000

hp

=

(

63,000 10

)

= 6300

 

n

100

=

T

=

6300

=

1800 lb

E

.

3 5

 

in

lb

F

From text, Page 290. Breaking stress = 50,000 psi

s s = 0.85 50,000 = 42,500 psi

(

)

4 F

s s π

=

d

2

42 500

,

=

(

4 1800

)

πd

2

d = 0.2322 in use ¼ in.

536. A gear is attached to a 2-in. shaft somewhat as shown in Fig. 10-15, p. 290, Text; E = 3 5/16 in.; minimum shear-pin diameter = 3/8 in. with a rated torque of 22 in-kips. (a) For this torque, compute the stress in the shear pin. (b) From the ferrous metals given in the Appendix, select those that would give a resisting torque of about 110% of the rated value. Choose one, specifying its heat treatments or other conditions.

Solution:

D = 2 in

E = 3 5/16 in = 3.3125 in

d = 3/8 in T = 22 in-kips

(a) Stress in shear-pin

F

=

T

=

22

=

6 64 lb

 

E

3 3125

.

.

14

SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS

4 6 64 ( . ) s = s 2 π ( 3 8 )
4 6 64
(
.
)
s
=
s
2
π
(
3 8
)

= 60 12 ksi

.

(b)

Select material. s

us =1.1 60.12 = 66.13 ksi

(

)

From appendix, Table AT 7, select Cold drawn, C1020 with s us = 66 ksi

SPLINES

537.

A shaft for an automobile transmission has 10 splines with the following dimensions: D = 1.25

in., d = 1.087 in., and L = 1.000 in. (see Table 10.2, p. 287, Text). Determine the safe torque capacity and horsepower at 3600 rpm of this sliding connection. Solution:

D = 1.25 in, d = 1.087 in, L = 1.000 in, N t = 10, n = 3600 rpm

(

T = 1000

)(hL)(r

m

r m

=

D

+

d

4

)(N

t

)in

lb

Table 10.2 for 10 splines, sliding connection

h = 0.095D Then

h = 0.095(1.25)= 0.11875 in

But

D

=

=

h

r m

d

1 25

.

=

+

1 25

1 087

2

1 087

.

.

=

0 0815 in

.

in

2

= 0 58425

4

actual

T = (1000)(0.0815)(1.000)(0.58425)(10)= 476.2 in lb - ans

hp

=

Tn

(

)(

476 2 3600

.

)

=

=

63000 63000

27 2 hp

.

- ans

538. The rear axle of an automobile has one end splined. For this fitting there are ten splines, and D =

1.31 in., d = 1.122 in., and L = 1 15/16 in. The minimum shaft diameter is 1 3/16 in. (a) Determine the safe torque capacity of the splined connection, sliding under load. (b) Determine the torque that would have the splines on the point of yielding if the shaft is AISI 8640, OQT 1000 F, if one fourth of the splines are in contact. (c) Determine the torsional stress in the shaft corresponding to each of these torques. Solution:

D = 1.31 in, d = 1.122 in, L = 1 15/16 = 1.9375 in, N t = 10 D r = 1 3/16 in = 1.1875 in

(

T = 1000

)(hL)(r

m

r m

=

D

+

d

4

)(N

t

)in

lb

Table 10.2 for 10 splines, sliding connection

h = 0.095D

Then

h = 0.095(1.31)= 0.12445 in

15

SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS

But

D

d

=

1 31

.

+ 1 122

.

1 122

.

h

r m

=

=

2

1 31

.

2

= 0 608

.

.

in

=

0 094 in

4

(a)

Safe Torque

(actual)

T = (1000)(0.094)(1.9375)(0.608)(10)=1107.32 in lb - ans

(b)

Torque by splines required on the point of yielding with one fourth of splines in contact (Page

288).

From Table AT-7, AISI 8640, OQT 1000 F. s y = 150 ksi, s s = s ys = 0.6s y = 0.6(150) = 90 ksi

T =

 

s

s

DL

π

 

 

D

8

2

 

=

T = 58,760 in lbs

(

90 )(

π

)(

1 31

.

)(

1 9375

.

)

8


 

1 31

.

2

58 76 in

=

.

kips

(c)

Torsional stress in the shaft From safe torque of 1107.32 in-lb

s s

=

16 T

=

16 1107 32

.

(

3

)

= 3368 psi

D

π

3

r

π

(

1 1875

.

)

- ans

From torque at the point of yield

s

s

=

16

T

(

16 58 760

,

)

=

D

π

3

r

π

(

1 1875

.

)

3

= 178 711 psi

,

- ans (too high)

539. An involute splined connection has 10 splines with a pitch P d of 12/24 (a) Determine the dimension of this connection. (b) Compute the length of spline to have the same torsional

strength as the shaft when one fourth the splines carry the load; minimum shaft diameter is 9/16 in. (no sliding). Check for compression. Solution:

N t = 10, P d = 12, D r = 9/16 in = 0.5625 in

(a)

Dimension D

 

D

=

N

t

=

10

=

0

.

8333 in

 

P

d

12

(b)

Length of spline (same torsional strength as the shaft when one fourth the splines carry the load (Page 288).

L

=