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Cambelt change on a R33 GTS-t - by Bob Owen ...............................................................................................................

2
THE BEGINNING.......................................................................................................................................................... 2
THE PIG ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4
CHANGING THE BELT ............................................................................................................................................... 5
FINALLY ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8
Changing R32 GTSt Type M rear pads - By AlexJ .......................................................................................................... 10
Fitting a passenger air vent to an R32 - by AlexJ ............................................................................................................. 14
R32 - FUSE LAYOUT AND DESCRIPTIONS .............................................................................................................. 16
Interior........................................................................................................................................................................... 16
Project R33 Audio - by NickC .......................................................................................................................................... 18
GETTING STARTED... ............................................................................................................................................... 19
WIRING... ..................................................................................................................................................................... 20
THE FINISHED PRODUCT... ..................................................................................................................................... 21
By-Passing Nissan Active Speaker Systems - by AlexJ ................................................................................................... 23
Fitting a suspension top arm ............................................................................................................................................. 25
(1) - by Mike ................................................................................................................................................................. 25
(2)A "guide" to replace the top front suspension arm: ................................................................................................. 27
OIL GAUGE INSTALL ................................................................................................................................................... 28
ECCS COMPONENTS .................................................................................................................................................... 31
NISSAN SKYLINE PART NUMBERS .......................................................................................................................... 32
ECU AND ELECTRONICS ............................................................................................................................................. 34
Z32 MAF WIRRING DIAGRAM ................................................................................................................................ 34
RB20 MAF DIAGRAM ............................................................................................................................................... 34
EXHAUST GAS SENSOR DIAGRAM ...................................................................................................................... 35
TESTING COIL PACKS .............................................................................................................................................. 35
Nissan Airflow Meter Diagrams ................................................................................................................................... 36
ECU PINOUT ............................................................................................................................................................... 39
ECU Tuning Basics....................................................................................................................................................... 40
Clutch Replacment ** from a 240sx** ............................................................................................................................. 43
Cambelt change on a R33 GTS-t - by Bob Owen
I struggled finding any information on the web, with detailed instructions for a cam belt change
I did find the actual Nissan belt number however, so decided to change it myself. Total time needed, IF you have all the
tools is around 3 hours. In reality, for most of us anyway, you will probably need nearer 5 or 6 hours. This covers the
coffees, the fags, answering the phone, finding that dropped screw, locating that bloody 10mm spanner that was here a
moment ago and all the other distractions that plague the home mechanic
Before you decide to go ahead yourself, you do need all the normal metric spanners and sockets, including a 23mm one for
the crank pulley bolt and allen keys, plus a persuader extension tube for the socket wrench. You will also need a suitable
pulley extractor to remove the crank pulley, and ideally a torque wrench for re tightening. A bottle of Tippex is helpful to
mark various timing marks, but any other suitable means of marking can be used
You will, of course, also need the cambelt. While carrying out this job, it makes sense to replace all the ancillary drive belts
that drive the alternator, air con and power steering. The Nissan numbers for all these are:-
CAMBELT - 13028-20P25 (Supersedes 20P10)
AIRCON - 11720-77A01 (Supersedes 77A00)
ALTERNATOR - 11720-42L01
POWER STEER - 11950-58S01
If your local Nissan dealer can't or won't help, (Even if they do, they will probably have to order them in) then try
Middlehurst Nissan parts on 01744 457166. They usually carry them in stock and will take orders over the phone. Cambelt
is around 40 pounds, the rest are about 10/11 pounds each and overnight delivery around a tenner...
My local dealer wouldn't even take cards over the phone, you would have to call in so they could swipe the card. Then call
back to collect the parts, customer service eh?
The job itself is mainly removing light parts, fixed by small nuts and bolts, the crank pulley being the only pig element. I
will show you a rather neat way of locking it in place while you undo the main fixing bolt, with nothing more than a little
nylon cord! (Thanks for that Roger)
DISCLAIMER: If you have the tools, and some mechanical experience then this is not a particularly difficult job.
Using this as a guide, you should find no major problems. This article is only MY experience and I do not accept
ANY liability should you choose to go ahead. If you are in any doubt, seek qualified assistance. Any constructive
comments or further detailed info that could be included are most welcome - Bob.owen@btinternet.com
All references to LHS (Left Hand Side) and RHS (Right Hand Side) are with the viewer standing in front of the car facing the
engine
THE BEGINNING
In an ideal world, with a keen conscience and plenty of time, you would obtain the correct locking tools, which would require
starter motor removal, you would remove the radiator, to avoid any possible damage, you would drain all coolant, you would
wheel out your 'Snap On' tool box, you would obtain the correct puller, in fact if your that keen, you'd probably pay
someone else to do it!
Anyway, here's how I did it. The rest is up to you!
1 - Reread disclaimer. Get the kettle on, make a nice brew, lift the bonnet and identify the various parts
In front of you is the cambelt cover, located on the front of the block, upper right of the cambelt cover, is a round device fixed with
3 bolts. It has an electrical loom entering it. This is the cam sensor. On the LHS, notice the fan is held onto a pulley by 4 nuts. At
the bottom of the cam belt cover (Which is actually in two parts, an upper and lower) you will see the main crank pulley with all the
belts on
These belts, 3 off, go to:-
a) LHS the alternator and fan
b) RHS upper the power steering pump (PSP)
c) RHS lower the aircon compressor
2 - Finish your brew. Remove the spark plugs. Disconnect the battery. Remove the radiator OR find a suitable piece of
cardboard to cover the radiator matrix with. You must protect this - the slightest touch on this WILL bend the fins and
block your radiator air flow off or worse. Unscrew the clamp holding the top hose on the radiator LHS and pull off. You will
lose a litre or so of coolant. Bend the hose back, out of the way. Undo the 4 nuts holding the fan stem on its pulley and
gently remove
3 - Identify the plastic shroud fixed to the radiator rear. On the LHS is a sensor. Unplug this and remove the loom from
the clips on the shroud. Tuck the loom and plug well out of the way. Remove the two top screws holding the plastic radiator
shroud in place. Ease the shroud partially out and pull the hose that is clipped in the bottom of the shroud, out. Remove the
shroud
4 - On the LHS identify the alternator locking bolt and adjuster screw SEE FIG.1, unslacken these, which allows the belt
to come off the alternator. The power steering pump on the RHS has a similar arrangement, so repeat as per alternator

5 - If you examine the A/C compressor belt, you will see it passes an idle wheel near the bottom of the engine bay. To
access the adjuster, you need to drop the plastic pan running across the engine bay bottom. Access is easy without
crawling right under the car. Remove the front 3 bolts, then the middle 2. The tray will drop down at the front, being held
up by the rear most bolts that do not need removal. Slacken the idler off
6 - Remove all ancillary belt
THE PIG
1 - Having now cleared a space, so to speak, you can get on with the job of removing the crank pulley. This is held in place
with a central bolt. You will need a 23mm socket and a good extension bar to undo the beast. The problem of course, is
that the pulley turns with it. My motor is an auto, if you have a manual you may be able to put it in gear and get someone to
stomp down on the brakes, allowing you to undo the bolt.... maybe
I'm sure that Nissan will have some engine locking device, probably involving starter motor removal and locking the starter
ring
The solution I used is incredibly simple and easy. It works too! I took a length of nylon cord, about 1.5M long and about
4mm diameter. Military types will know this as 'para cord'
2 - Look at FIG.2, you need to wrap the cord around the pulley and pass it through itself as shown. Then it needs to pass
over the alternator pulley. To adjust the length, twist the cord before putting it on the alternator pulley, which will
effectively shorten it

3 - Now, using your extension shaft on the wrench and rotating anti clockwise, it should lock the crank pulley and allow the
bolt to be undone. Once the bolt is removed, you now need the puller to pull the pulley off the crank. I used a cheapish 2
legged puller I've had knocking about, but needed to cut 50mm off the legs to allow it to fit in place, without fouling the
radiator
The pulley is actually a collection of pulleys fixed together via an internal rubber mount. This means that the rubber will
compress as the pulley assembly is pulled off, so the puller has to be wound more than normal, to 'crack' it off the shaft.
The pulley assembly is keyed onto the shaft
Once removed, it is worth cleaning the shaft and pulley mating surfaces, to make life easier on replacement
CHANGING THE BELT
1 - Having gotten this far, the worst is over. Make a celebratory brew. Locate the cam sensor on the upper RHS of the
cam belt cover SEE FIG.3, this is held in place by 3 bolts which allow adjustment, as the fixing holes are slotted. Mark the
cover and the sensor with Tippex or some other marker before removing. This needs to be replaced back in the exact same
position! It is on a keyed spline and can only go on/off one way. Ease the sensor out, pull the wiring loom out of the clip and
tuck it out of the way
2 - Remove the upper cam belt cover. They are held in place with bolts fixed in rubber grommets, don't lose these! They
are also different lengths, so take note where each one comes from. Ease the cover off
3 - You should now see the cam belt in all its glory. You will see the two cam pulleys at the top, two rotating wheels in the
centre and the bottom crank belt pulley. The RHS centre wheel is a fixed idler. The LHS centre wheel is the tensioner
4 - There are 3 timing marks you need to identify. Each cam pulley has a dimple alongside one tooth. Behind each cam pulley
is a notch on the engine block. I marked the dimples, the back of the corresponding tooth and the block marker with
Tippex SEE FIG.4 for LHS

The crank pulley you removed has a series of notches. Holding the pulley in the orientation it came off, the TDC (Top Dead
Centre) notch that is the most anti clockwise one. On my car, this was marked with a dot of orange paint. On the lower cam
belt cover is a raised marker on the upper RHS. Mark these with Tippex SEE FIG.5

5 - Ease the crank pulley back on, so it engages the keyway. Rotate the engine by hand, (Rotating the crank pulley) so that
the crank pulley and the lower cover mark are in line. This places the engine at its TDC point. Observe the cam pulley marks
as you rotate the crank pulley. You should see them in line with their block marks, when the crank pulley is at TDC.
Remember the cam pulleys will pass their marks TWICE for every rotation of the crank. You must arrive at a point where
all 3 marks are aligned.
6 - Remove the crank pulley again and the lower cam belt cover. The tensioner has an allen key hole off centre, which allows
you to rotate it with an allen key and vary the tension. It is locked in position by a central nut. Slacken the nut, rotate the
tensioner against its internal spring to its slack position. Lock it in this position and ease the cam belt off by edging it of
each pulley in turn by a millimetre or so at a time. Check the idler wheel (RHS) is in good condition easy to move and has no
wobble. If not, replace
7 -Fit the new belt on the pulleys, taking care to ensure there is no slack on the RHS. This is essential as even one tooth
slack will screw the cam timing up and probably your engine! Note that the belt is marked to indicate its front edge.
Release the tensioner and recheck all the timing marks. All 3 must be aligned. If not, then redo. The tensioner must be on
and all 3 marks must align correct that is, the crank pulley mark and each of the cams. Once correct, retighten the
tensioner centre nut to lock it
8 - Ease the crank pulley on again, so it just catches the keyway, and rotate the engine at least 2 times. If any resistance is felt -
STOP - you may have made a mistake with the timing and now have interference between piston and valve. Re check that all 3
timing marks (The crank and each cam) are perfectly aligned
9 - Make a brew. Its downhill from now on
FINALLY
1 - Rotate the crank pulley AGAIN and recheck the marks are all perfectly aligned
2 - Re read the disclaimer at the top of this article. Rotate the crank pulley AGAIN and recheck the marks are all
perfectly aligned!!!!! Remove crank pulley
3 - Refit the lower and upper cam belt covers, leaving the top one a little loose. Refit the crank pulley on the crank. Use
the rope technique described earlier (Or your engine locking device) but in reverse. I tightened the crank bolt to 140
ft/lb which I remember from the last car I did. I don't know the Nissan figure you may want to check this (140 ft/lb is
fine - RonS), remove rope
4 - Refit cam sensor ensuring you re align with the marks made earlier, jiggling the still loose top cam belt cover to allow
central fitting. When correct, retighten sensor and cover
5 - At this point, rotate the crank pulley a number of times to ensure the engine can turn OK and there are no strange
noises. Refit plugs and reconnect battery
6 - Make brew. Give engine a good coat of 'looking at'. The engine can be started to check all is well. Make sure all loose
items, looms, sensors are clear. Remember the water pump is not running so there is no coolant circulating! Do not run for
more than a minute
7 - Refit and tension all belts. Refit plastic lower engine pan. Refit fan and radiator shroud, ensuring sensor and bottom
hose are fitted as they came off. Refit top hose and top system coolant up
8 - Clean and polish everything, check all parts are refitted, remove all tools and wonder where that screw that's left over
came from. VROOM VROOM!
(Info should be good for any RB engine, nice work Bob - RonS)
Changing R32 GTSt Type M rear pads - By AlexJ
My track outing to Hethel finished off my old set of rear pads. I had to cut the day short as the back end got more and
more snakey under braking. On closer examination I realise why; one rear pad down to the metal, eek. Time for new ones
sharpish.
This is an easy job, if you can change a wheel you can do this, infact once you've got the wheel off its fairly obvious what
to do. Still brakes are somewhat important so be carefully out there :-).
R32 Type M rear's have 2 pot "Nissan" calipers (same as 300zx TT). Apec part no:753 16.60 from XL Motors in New
Malden 0208 949 9131 who deserve a plug for being open on a Sunday (Note some R32GTSt's use 200SX S13 style rear
pads, check the PARTS page) Anyhow my pads look like this.........

Tools Needed...
Jack, chock, wheel brace, Philips screwdriver, long-nose pliers, pad spreader (not essential but this makes life easier),
Copaslip, brake cleaner, wirewool/wetndry paper.

1. Chock the front wheels, put the handbrake on, loosen wheels nuts 1/4 turn then jack the corner of the car, remove
wheel, and put and axle stand under the sill or place the removed wheel under the sill.
2. Gently pull out retaining wire/clip from the ends of the retaining pins. Don't turn the philips heads of the retaining pins
as you'll mess up the clips and you can only buy them as part of a shim kit from Nissan for 50!

3. Remove retaining pins (beware as the large spring pops out with some force when you remove the first spring)

4. Remove the pads. You can lever the pads out with a screwdriver using the holes in the tops of the pads pressing against
the caliper body then wiggle pads out with pliers (you shouldn't lever against the discs).

5. Remove lid of the brake fluid resevior and check it isn't going to overflow as you push the brake pistons back in (it will
only do this if you've topped up the reservoir with worn pads).
6. Then use brake pad spreader to push pistons back into the caliper. You can do this with any suitable wedge but don't
bend or scratch the disc and be careful to push the pistons back squarely. I do this quite slowly so as not to damage any
seals in the brake/abs system. Lightly Copaslip the piston faces or piston facing part of shims (don't get any Copaslip on
the discs!).

7. Fit the old shims to new pads, and slide pads in, don't damage the friction material and ensure you don't get any
Copaslip/grease on the pad or disc. Fit the pad with the wear indicator (little metal tab) on inner (axle) side of the caliper
as you can do visual inspection on the outside one but you cant on the inner one without removing the wheel.

8. Refit the first of the retaining pins and then holding the large spring clip in place fit the second. My pins were pretty
manky so a cleaned then up a bit with some wet and dry paper and gave them a light copaslip. Use the philips screwdriver to
twist the pins line up the holes in the ends so that you can refit retaining wire/spring.
9. Check there's no Copaslip etc on discs (if there is remove it with brake cleaner and a clean cloth). Refit the wheel, lower
car, check the wheelnuts are tight, replace brake fluid reservoir cover and pump the foot brake until its hard. Now all you
need to do is avoid hard braking for a hundred miles or so hmmmm I might make it to the end of the road :-).
Like I said easy peasy but at least you've got some piccies and you know what to expect. Alex
Fitting a passenger air vent to an R32 - by AlexJ
When my car turned up it had an ugly hole where the passenger side air vent should have been. The first plan was to get a
scrap one. But after talking to Ron at R K Tuning I decided that a 10 year old bit of plastic would be pretty knackered if
not already broken. So I ordered a nice new one from Nissan for 44+vat ouch.
Two weeks later and here's the new bit order from my local Nissan garage; Nissan part no. 68761-01U00 (R32GTST TYPE
M GREY TRIM)

Four tabs hold the assembly in place and to get the remains of the old one out you've got to pry up the two bottom tabs as
you wiggle it out. Once the two tabs at the bottom are clear you can rotate the bottom edge of the assembly up, this
dislodges the two tabs at the top which you can't get at with a screw driver.

Then you can curse the tiny broken bit of plastic that cost you 50 quid

The new one just pushes in snugly until the tabs click into place. Your not getting that out again without breaking it, so
now's not the time to remember that you didn't take a photo of "before" to compare with the after!
All done ahhhh!

(Nice work Alex, a great help to other owners :-) - cheers RonS)
R32 - FUSE LAYOUT AND DESCRIPTIONS
E
1 Horn 10A
2 Headlight R 15A
3 Headlight L 15A
4 ?? 25A
5 Engine control 25A
6 Power window 25A
7 Antiskid 30A
8 Ignition switch 30A
9 Heater 4WD 30A
10 Main
11 Headlight relay
12 Air conditioner relay
13 Blower fan relay
14 Horn relay
Interior


1 4WD 10A IGN
2 Blower motor 15A ACC
3 Blower motor 15A ACC
4 Wiper 20A ACC
5 Engine control 10A IGN
6 Fuel pump 15A IGN
7 Audio 10A ACC
8 Air conditioner 10A ACC
9 Mirrors/rear wiper 10A ACC
10 ?? 15A ACC
11 Fog lamp 15A BAT
12 Antiskid 20A BAT
13 Starter signal 10A ST
14 Hazard lamp 10A BAT
15 Shift lock 10A BAT
16 Tail lamp 10A BAT
17 Air conditioner 10A ACC
18 Meter 10A IGN
19 Turn-signal lamp 10A IGN
20 Electronic part 10A BAT
21 Stop lamp 10A BAT
22 Interior lamp 10A BAT
23 Rear demister 20A IGN
24 Spare
25 Spare
26 Spare
27 Spare
28 Diagnostic coupler
29 IGN relay
30 ACC relay
31 ACC relay
32 IGN relay
33 Electronic part ? 10A IGN
34 Transmission control 10A IGN
35 ?? 10A IGN
Project R33 Audio - by NickC
There can't be very many UK owned Skylines around that still have their original stereos (or head unit) fitted.
Why not ? well the original unit was in most cases a drab radio cassette player, that worked in the 70-90 Mhz range, so
needed an 18 Mhz expander to work properly in FM in this country, unless you only ever want to listen to Radio 2, which is
fairly unlikely.
Some imports come in with after market CD or Minidisc players, which may be worth keeping and fitting an expander for
FM (30). If your car didn't, you'll probably want to replace the original with an aftermarket unit. Having just bought a
newly imported R33, I found myself in this situation.
I wanted a CD player, nothing too fancy, no CD changer, just a CD head unit with FM that worked in the right frequency
range. I decided to buy a unit from a website, and fit it myself. I couldn't find much help on the Net with the fitting, so
thought that I should document what I did, and put it here, so it might prove some use to others.
Before continuing, I should tell you a couple of things, firstly:
I didn't do this: take the seats out and pull the carpet up to replace all the cabling, fill the boot up with a huge subwoofer,
take out the door panels and parcel shelf to change all the speakers. If you want to do all this, then good luck to you, and
you might find some of what follows of use. I wanted to listen to CD's and the radio in my car, with as little work for me
and impact on the car as possible, that's it, and that's what this is about.
Secondly, I had a helping hand with this, which turned out to be invaluable. However this job can be done single handed,
without any problems, but a bit of help never goes amiss. Big thanks to Les for being the helping hand.
One more thing, this is based on my experiences doing the job, and should be taken as a guide. The wiring in your car may
be different to mine, you car may be different to mine, if you break something, it's not my fault. If in doubt with wiring,
always check it with a multimeter, if in doubt with fitting, pay your local dealer or specialist to do it !
The car is a 1995 Manual R33 GTS-t, this may be important, because connectors and layouts vary over the years. For more
info on the car CLICK HERE
GETTING STARTED...
Here's a picture of the dash

Notice the complete lack of screws, where do you start ? Well, pull the ashtray out, behind it there are 2 Phillips screws,
undo them.
Now grab the back of the plastic trim around the gearshift shroud, and pull/ prise it upwards, and it will pop out. Now
carefully lift it over the gearshift so it is out of the way (does not need to be removed completely).
There should now be some more Phillips screws visible, undo all those that secure the bottom of the dash front. (when it
comes to screws - if in doubt, take it out).
You should now have something that looks like this:

Now the front dash surround has to come loose. You've already removed all the screws holding it, the rest of it is held on
with clips. Starting at the bottom, gently prise it out all the way round. Be particularly careful with the bit that goes
across the top of the steering wheel, this is where it's at it's thinnest.
Once the lower dash is loose you'll need to disconnect some of the connectors on the back of it, notably hazard lights,
aircon control and possibly fog light switch. All the connectors are different so its impossible to put them back wrong.
You should now be able to see behind the lower dash 4 more phillips screws which are holding in a cage, in which is fixed
the head unit and the storage pocket (could also be a blanking plate or a double DIN head unit).
Undo these screws, and the cage will drop down. Now pull it forward, then reach behind it and unplug the connector on the
back of the head unit. By tilting the unit up to the vertical position, we were just able to remove the cage without having
to completely remove the lower dash.
Having removed the cage from the car, you can now remove the 4 screws retaining the original head unit, and put in your
new unit in it's place.
WIRING...
Now your new head unit is almost certainly going to have an ISO connector on it, but when you look at the wiring loom
connector in your Skyline, you won't see an ISO connector. There's a number of ways around this, you could pull out all the
seats and carpets, and run new cables - I covered that earlier remember ? you could cut the loom connector off in the car
and connect wire to wire using chocolate block, bullet connectors or some other type of crimp connectors, OR you save
yourself a lot of hassle and buy an aftermarket head unit adaptor.
An aftermarket head unit adaptor provides an ISO plug on one end, and an socket on the other end to match the connector
in your car. This has a number of advantages; you don't have to cut into the cars wiring loom, it takes about 20 seconds to
fit, and you don't have to do any wiring. They cost a tenner, but are worth every penny.
The trick is of course getting the right adaptor. My car needed a "PC2-76-4" which is described as "Nissan Micra July -
2000 Onwards - (4 speaker system)".
It looks like this:

This is not the same as the so-called "All Nissans" connector which some companies and shops will sell you. I believe this
connector to be the right one for any R33 GTS from 1995 onwards, but it may also be good for other variants too.
I got mine from my local in car hi-fi shop "Sextons". If you can't get it locally (Halfords also sell these), you can get it
online from this website: www.incar-discount.co.uk
This one is made by Autoleads, but there may be other manufacturers around. Autoleads have their own website you can
order from, but they list the connector with the wrong description, making ordering the right one somewhat confusing.
If your car is pre-1995, you may (but I cannot guarantee this !) need this connector, PC2-13-4:

This is a common Nissan connector, used on most of their cars, including all Skylines from 1999 onwards apparently. It is
also available from Autoleads.
The only way to make sure you get the right connector is to check what is in your car before buying, and compare what you
see with the pics above.
If you do not want to use an adaptor, but would rather cut the existing one out and use bullet connectors or chocolate
block, then check out www.installdr.com/Harnesses/Nissan-Wiring.pdf for a key as to what each of the wires do, but
bear in mind that the colour schemes of the wires vary wildly. What is consistent is a wires POSITION in the connector,
so this is what you should use to determine what a particular wire does.
Connect up your new head unit with the adaptor, and connect up the aerial lead as well. Now, before re-assembling
everything, give it a thorough test. Make sure that the right things come on when you turn the ignition on and off, make
sure you have sound coming out of all speakers, and test the left and right balance, front and rear fader controls on your
head unit.
Once you are happy that all is well, replacement really is the reversal of removal, you'll have it all back together in 5
minutes.
THE FINISHED PRODUCT...

This is a JVC KD-LH1000R from www.caraudiodirect.co.uk which cost 220 delivered next day to my door. There is a
finishing piece of trim which should go round the edge, but it won't fit, due to the close proximity of the lower dash
surround. It could be possible to cut this trim piece so it would fit, but I haven't tried it yet.
What next ? well now I have a reasonable head unit, it's apparent that the aftermarket Carrozzeria rear speakers the car
came with not only look nasty, but sound it too.....
If you have any questions or feedback on this article, from your own experiences past or present, please e-mail them to
Ron who will forward them to me, and I will update this accordingly. Please remember, no one paid me to write this.....
Good luck,
Nick
(Nice work mate, will be great help to many I'm sure :-) - cheers RonS)
By-Passing Nissan Active Speaker Systems - by AlexJ
My GTsT had a factory Nissan "active speaker" stereo system. This sends a "quiet" signal from the head unit which is
amplified by three auxilary amps arround the car (the amps all need power and a signal to switch on and off which
is supplied by some extra wiring)

This won't work properly with anything but a Nissan "Active" head unit and mine had a broken tape deck! So here's what I
did;
I decided to fit new front 4x6 speakers as the old ones were knackered, but keep the OK sounding 6x9 rears. As far as
possible I wanted to keep the original wiring.
Replacing the front speakers takes the two "active" amps built into the front speakers out of the equation (here's some
help on doing this from Brendon Moses), you just need to safely insulate the extra "power/switch on" wires. I still had
to bypass the single active amp used for both the rear speakers wihch is under the parcel shelf between the HICCAS
brains.

I looked up the wire colour codes at SDU and ran new wires from the connector straight to the speakers. This worked
OK but it was a bit messy. Then I realised that you can easily bypass the old amp whilst still using its neat wiring loom...
Unplug the connector and cut it off and join the wires taking signal from the head to the amp and from the amp to the
speaker as shown below. I used a chocolate block. The pairs of -/+ wires were taped together in the loom already which
makes it a bit easier. The three centre wires need to be safely insulated as the carry power to the amp.

Now go and have some osteopathy because leaning into the boot and looking up at the underside of the parcel shelf is a
serious contortionist job.
Alternatively
If you want to keep all the speakers and you don't want to cut any wires you can try to send a 12v Switch ON signal to the
correct wire of each amp, the amps should in theory stay on all the time. The downside of this is that the amps will be
boosting a signal that is already full strength which may cause them and/or the speaker to distort at higher volumes. They
may also put some extra drain on the battery.
Fitting a suspension top arm
(1) - by Mike
Mike kindly sent me these pictures and info of him replacing his OSF (Right Hand) top suspension arm (Nissan part No.
54524-86L00), on his R32 GTSt (Type M), cheers mate :-). This should serve for other Skyline models also
It's common problem on Nissan's with this type of suspension (had to replace mine on me old Primera eGT), shows up as a
'knocking' noise when running on a rough surface, check by jacking up the car and 'rocking' the wheel, if worn, you will see
movement in top arm. Although mine has some movement and 'knocks' a little, I'm told it is within the 'limits' for an MOT,
so more annoying than a problem at the moment, but I'm sure it won't get any better :-(
Mike's replacement arm does looks suspiciously like that on my Primera eGT, so if you happen to know if it is the same
part, please mail me be helpful to know if it is available as a UK part, cheers - ron@skylinegts.co.uk

1) From within the engine bay undo the 4no. bolts, holding the top arm fixing plate - 2) Undo the bolt to the lower arm

3) The top arm removed, easy eh !!, well maybe not the bolts can be very stubborn :-) - 4) Remove the bolt holding the arm
to the fixing plate, before finally taking it apart remember which way up and round the old arm is mounted IT'S VERY
IMPORTANT !!

5) The shiny new arm :-), of course you remembered which way up it goes ? !!, NO !!! well look at the one on the other side
of car - 6) The part number

Mike got this and other parts for his R32 from these people, seems they served him well and do more than BM's and
Alfa's :-), so here's their contact details
Leaders Engineering
2-4 Duke Terrace
Silverhill
Hastings
TN37 7DJ
Phone 01424 430 036

(2)A "guide" to replace the top front suspension arm:
Suspension top arm bush replacement
Well here goes, a fools (not fool proof) guide to replacing top suspension arm on a R32 Gts t.
Firstly you will need a set of bushes (normally they come complete for both arms) and access to a press, or if you can a second
hand arm, which will do ok as they are normally going to be better than yours (range in price N.Z.$30.00 - $60.00). Just check the
bushes before you purchase. Then you can change the bushes at your own leisure instead of right here right now and still be
mobile.
Secondly get your tools you will need.
1. Jack
2. Wheel brace
3. Axle stand(s)
4. 17mm spanner
5. 17mm socket
6. Ratchet
7. Power bar (for throwing at cat)
8. Short extension
9. Hammer (for gentle persuasions)
Disassembling
First thing jack car up and take wheel off dont forget the axle stand(s) as we dont want Missus or Mum finding you squished
under car. Now you need to go into engine compartment and locate 4 nuts on the rear of the suspension tower (1 has a plastic
loom holder covering it) loosen almost until they are off, then go back to inner guard. Located at the top of the suspension is two
bolts, you will need your spanner and socket to undo the one closest to you and gently tap out, then the arm will need to be
tapped down until free (no job should be started without a hammer) Go back to engine compartment and persuade the 4 nuts (yes
you get to use the hammer again) until free then undo remaining thread (watch out for feet) the plate that was attached to the
suspension tower should be completely free. Undo remaining nut & bolt and you should have the top arm in your hand.

Press out the old bushes and press in the new ones, or if you have opted for the pre-used way you are now ready to begin re-
assembling.
Re-assembling
First of all attach top assembly arm to backing plate, make sure to use the bolt-labelled 9B (marked at the top of bolt) the other
being labelled 9 and re-attach the backing plate to suspension tower. Now for the tricky part, you need to push and twist the rest
of the suspension together all the time having the remaining bolt at your finger tip ready to push in as you are twisting it (you may
have to get somebody to help youmaybe your Mummy). Once its in just check all nuts are tight, place wheel back on and whilst
car is still in the air check to see if there is any movement in the top arm by grasping wheel and moving up and down (you need to
be quite firm when doing this) if no movement in bushes sweet as (if yes hell I dont know pay somebody to do it).

The whole process took me 30mins. I opted for the replace arm fix later method.
This guide was written by frog and originally posted on the rb20det forum click here to view the original.
OIL GAUGE INSTALL

As I was having problems with fluctuating oil pressure (hope it's just a faulty Nissan pressure sender), so I thought I'd
fit a mechanical oil gauge (20), easy task ?, you would think so....
The sender is located on the block to the left and below the oil filter... had a bit of struggle getting it out due to it's
awkward location...Ummm, not a 'standard' thread on the sender, no problem I'll tap the hole to fit a 1/8 BSP tee, so what
did I do ?, my straight 'plug' tap would not 'bite' so just ended up reaming the hole, now neither will fit !!... rethink needed.
Down to my local engineer's tool shop and order 'taper' tap 1/8 BSP-t (20 eekk!!), a day later it's here, a wee bit of
cutting compound and it's done, in with tee (1/8 BSP-t), PTFE tape on the old sender, as it is loose-ish fit, fit pipework and
gauge (no honest, the gauge is just fixed there as temporary measure :-)
Fire up 65 PSI at 900rpm cool !!!... go for a testing 'run' :-)), once hot I get 20psi at 1000rpm, 40psi at 2000rpm, 60psi at
3500rpm and 'stable' too, pretty much as spec.... although strangely the standard gauge was working OK as well, but less
accurate showing 2bar (30psi) at 2000rpm, I will keep an eye on it though...




23/05/02 - Repositioned the gauge, quite easy to cut a 50mm hole in dash through an existing blank plate (same as the
adjacent alarm LED) , much tidier eh !! :-)


Any comments or thoughts, please mail me ron@skylinegts.co.uk
ECCS COMPONENTS
Component part Type Installation postion
injector elevation resistor type intake manifold
fuel pump electronic. turbine type fuel tank
aac valve solenoid type collector
ignition coil small mould type cylinder head
power transistor unit 6 channel electronic distribution rocker cover
crank angle sensor photocell type (auto camshaft)
cylinder head left
bank front
air flow meter hot wire type front left
throttle sensor variable resistor type throttle chamber
throttle valve switch switch throttle chamber
engine temperature
sensor
thermistor type water outlet
exhaust gas sensor zirconium type (no heater) exhaust outlet
detonation sensor pressure-electrical type
cylinder block right
side
NISSAN SKYLINE PART NUMBERS
I've made a start with some useful (hopefully) part
numbers. If you have any more part numbers, spot any
errors or have any other comments, please mail them to
me at ron@skylinegts.co.uk and I will try to keep the
info updated, cheers... RonS
As the sharp eyed amongst you have noticed, I've not
included the non-turbo GTS models, only because this
would make the sheet to wide, but please send me part
numbers for these also
Where to start ?.. umm !!, how about - get to know and love
your VIN plate :-)
(Note. As the information is received from various
sources, no guarantee is offered that any part numbers
listed here is correct, for your car. It is best to just quote
the part number to your Nissan dealer and ask what
information he has listed, about the item required)
(other part numbers in Blue)
Nissan part
number
R32
GTR
R33
GTR
R34
GTR
R32
GTSt
R33
GTSt
R34
GTt
Notes (model codes used for notes
FILTERS
Oil A5208-H8904 X X X X X
Oil 15208-70J00 X
(Sump washer) 11026-01M02 X X ? X X X Should suit all
Fuel 16400-53J10 X X ? X X Should suit all
Air 16546-3J400 X X
REFILL CAPACITIES - Lt.
Oil with filter 4.4 4.4 RB20DET OEM oil spec 7.5W-30 (SG)
Manual gearbox 2.4 3.6
Rear diff 1.5
Cooling system 9.0
BELTS (Info on belts)
Alternator 11720-42L01 X
Aircon 11720-77A01 X (Supersedes 77A00)
Cam 13028-20P25 X (pic) (Supersedes 20P10)
PAS 11950-58S01 X
SPARKPLUGS
NGK (standard) PFR5A-11
NGK Iridium T7341T-8
Trust-Greddy Iridium IT08
BRAKES PADS
A - Single pot fronts
B - 4 pot fronts 41060-37P91 X
C - 4 pot Brembo fronts X
D - 4 pot Gold Brembo fronts
E - Single pot rears 44060-44F85
EBC Green Stuff for Type B DP21200 X
EBC Red Stuff for Type B DP31200 X
Overhaul Parts - for Type B
4 Pot Caliper 41011-05U01 X
Shim Set (for both sides) 41080-40P26 X
Retaining Pin (4no. reqd.) 41217-30P00 X
Spring Clip (2no. reqd.) 41090-40P02 X
FRONT BRAKE DISC
280mm x 30mm - 5 stud 40206-40P02
296mm x 32mm - 5 stud 40206-05U13 X
FRONT SUSPENSION
Top arm (RH) offside 54524-86L00 X
Top arm (LH) nearside 54525-86L00 X
Top arm bushes (2no/side) inner 54541-RS580 X
Top arm bushes (2no/side) outer 54545-RS580 X
CLUTCH
Cover assembly 30210-21U00
Disc assembly clutch 30100-21U01
Clutch sleeve 30501-S0200
Release bearing
MISC.
Speedo drive, gearbox end 32702-58S21
AFM (Air Flow Meter) 22680-02U00
AFM (Air Flow Meter) (2no) 22680-05U00 X
FAI - steering rack gaitor SGK178 X X (pic) may fit others
YUASA - battery 40B19R X X (pic) 184w x 127d x 203h - 28Ah
Passenger Air vent (for Grey trim) 68761-01U00 X X (pic) may fit others
Inlet manifold gasket 14035-72L11 X RB20DET
Front wheel bearing 40210-33P02 X may fit others
Trackrod end 48520-71L25 X
Front shock absorber 56110-4U25 X
Rear shock absorber 56210-4U27 X

ECU AND ELECTRONICS
Z32 MAF WIRRING DIAGRAM
Z32 afm: Wiring and info to fit to rb20det.

Z32 connections are marked A to F but only four connections are used when fitting to the rb20det.
This wiring diagram is based on fitting a z32 afm to a r32 gts-t.
A: Blank off
B: connect to Black wire
C: connect to black/silver
D: connect to white
E: connect to black with white trace
F: Blank off
A Z32 AFM will support up to 450 BHP with the correct supporting mods, it has a 80mm diameter and you'll need the eprom
remapped to suit.
RB20 MAF DIAGRAM


EXHAUST GAS SENSOR DIAGRAM



TESTING COIL PACKS



Nissan Airflow Meter Diagrams






Airflow Meter Found on Vehicle
Wire colour vs
Function
Size Notes
RB20/RB25
AFM
Nissan Skyline R32
GTST & R33 GTST
Wire A - Not
Connected
Wire B - Signal
Wire C - 12v
Ground
Wire D - Signal
Ground
Wire E - 12v
Power
80mm Same size and calabration as Rb25 AFM
Z32 AFM -
Orange Label
Nissan 300zx Twin
Turbo
Wire 1 - Not
Connected
Wire 2 - Signal
Wire 3 - 12v
Ground
Wire 4 - Signal
Ground
Wire 5 - 12v Power
Wire 6 Not
Connected
80mm
Same size as RB20/RB25 but has higher calibration. Should be good
for around 290rwkw. Perfect swap into Rb20/Rb25 as bolt pattern is
identical and no change is required. RB30 AFM plug fits which can
be had very cheaply from any nissan/holden wrecker
Higher Resolution Airflow Meter. The standard RB20 and RB25
airflow meters measure airflow in volts. They range from 0 to 5.0
volts. When they max out, as in show 5.0 volts to the ECU the ECU
no longers see's airflow increase although the air inlet system is
having more airflow coming in. This can make the mixture unsafe
and lean out the engine due to mismatch A/F combinations. It's also
harder to tune as the stock airflow meter may max out too early.
Maxing out the airflow meter usually comes after upgrading the
power and air intake system. Cooler, More boost, Bigger turbo etc
will cause more air to be measured as the engine is using up more
air. The stock ecu wont give any errors or warnings (well in the r33
at least) when the airflow maxes out. The z32 airflow is the same
size as the RB20 and RB25 items however it can measure more air.
When the RB20/RB25 AFM's are measuring air at 4.8 volts the z32
is usually around the 3.8volt mark so it can measure and show more
airflow to the ECU. This doesn't result in any power gains but
prevents the ECU from seeing afm max out and allows you to tune it
safely. The z32 usually needs a custom plug made up to fit (see
documents section). The unit size is the same and bolt holes are the
same so your standard pod or airbox still match up. You'll need a
remapped ECU or SAFC or Aftermarket ECU to support the z32.
They can be brought second hand for about $250. Usually
recommend at about 250rwkw in an R33
Q45 AFM -
Yellow Label
Nissan
Infiniti Q45
V8
Wire 1 (White) - Signal
Wire 2 (Black) - Ground
Wire 3 (White & Black --have
seen red and black--) - 12v
Power
90mm
Same as the z32 but has even higher resolution. Upto 400rwkw has
been reported. unit is larger than the z32 and Rb20/Rb25 so piping
size changes are required. You'll need a remapped ECU or SAFC or
Aftermarket ECU to support the q45. They can be brought second
hand for about $350 and fairly rare to find. The hardest part is the
wiring diagram, which can be found on my site under Diagrams. The
diagram doesnt appear to be very common

Q45 AFM PIC:


Z32 AFM PIC:

ECU PINOUT
Ecu pinout: rb20det eccs control unit pin layout.

1 Ign signal (power transistor) Cyl #1
2 Ign signal (power transistor) Cyl #5
3 Ign signal (power transistor) Cyl #3
5 engine. A/T control input signal (bt1)
6 Sub electrical fan relay (engine temp
switch)
7 Tacometeter speed signal
9 AC relay (AC cut signal)
10 Ground (ign signal system)
11 Ign signal (power transistor) Cyl #6
12 Ign signal (power transistor) Cyl #2
13 Ign signal (power transistor) Cyl #4
14 engine. a/t control input sigal (bt2)
15 engine. a/t control input sigal (bt3)
16 ECCS relay
18 fuel pump relay
19 Power steering switch
20 Ground (ignition signal system)
21(RX) Receive (control unit data
reception)
22 (TX) Transmit (data sent from control
unit)
23 Detonation sensor 1 (cyl 1-3)
24 Detonation sensor 2 (cyl 4-6)
26 Air flow meter ground
27 Air flow meter intake air quantity
signal
28 Engine temp sensor
29 Exhaust gas sensor
30 Sensor ground (throttle sen, ENG
temp)
31 clock (synchronization signal)
32 Monitor and check lamp (red)
38 Throttle opening output
41 Crank angle sensor (120degree signal)
42 Crank angle sensor (1 degree signal)
43 Ignition switch START signal
44 Neutral switch
45 Ignition switch (IGN)
46 AC switch
47 (CHK) Check (diagnosis activation)
48 Throttle sensor power supply
49 Control unit power supply
50 Ground (control unit)
51 Crank angle sensor (120 degree
signal)
52 Crank angle sensor (1 degree signal)
53 Vehicle speed sensor
54 Throttle valve switch (idle connection pt)
56 Throttle sensor output signal
57 Throttle valve switch power supply
58 Battery power supply
59 Control unit power supply
60 Ground (control unit)
101 Injector #1
103 Injector #3
104 Fuel pump terminal voltage control output
105 Injector #2 107 Injector ground
108 Injector ground
109 Injector power supply
110 Injector #5
112 Injector #4
114 Injector #6
115 exhaust gas sensor heater ground
116 injector ground
ECU Tuning Basics
I figured I might start and put a bit of effort into the general CA18DET Tuning community.. I'm sick of it being an
industry secret..

I built my EPROM programmer, cost me $35.. Full schematics and part link here -
http://home.quicknet.com.au/andrewm/eprom1/index.html .. of course, if you're not very electrically minded, then
digging into this side of things of your car is most likely not for you.. if you insist on disagreeing, you can go and pay
mega hundreds/thousands of bux for a commercial EPROM programming unit..

The EPROM's that you program cost a wopping total of $10 each.. gee.. what a pain! .. haha.. (yeah, you see people
charging hundreds for the chip PLUS tuning!).. Actually, the most painful part is erasing the buggers, I have a
professional UV eraser that cost me just over $150.. of course you can try leaving them in the sun for days.. that might
work.. but 5 mins in one of these erases them good and proper! You can get such units from Jaycar Electronics or
similar.. (http://www.jaycar.com.au)

Now, the second most tricky part (aside from assembling/buying a programmer), is to get under the daughterboard of
your ECU, pulling it to bits, and desoldering the 28PIN EPROM.. then putting in a 28PIN IC Cage.. (or ZIF socket if
you can get your hands on one)..

The trickiest part of all, is getting used to the programming etc.. you can download the only freely available product
here - ROM EDITOR.

But to use ROM EDITOR, you need more than just the program.. when you first install it, you will need to load an
address file. Here is an address file for CA18DE(T), the following is address file for S13 SR20DE(T). This one is for
the 512k EPROM's in the (I think) S14/S15 SR20DE(T).
So what you do with these, is once you start the program, you click on 'Setup' then 'Are crowded as reading address file'
.. and then you select the appropriate address file (*.adr).
That will stay loaded each time you start the program.. now you need to load a binary, the information from an eprom.
Here's copies of the standard CA18DET ROM and standard SR20DET ROM.

Now you are ready to go and explore the program.. the most nifty things you will find is when viewing a Fuel or
Timing Map, you can click on Edit - Graph Editing - 3D Graph Editing (or just press Alt+G).

But anyway, explore and have fun.. the easiest things to do is to raise the speed limiter!

Also, if you have an R32 Skyline (rb20det) than all the CA programming principles are the same, ie, no need for a
daughterboard (like the sr20) etc..

A full set of the address files for use with rom images from a various selection of Nissan ECU's is here - ECU VQ
Map's, and save them in a 'vqmap' folder within the ROM EDITOR directory..
Viewing the fuel / ignition high/low octane maps

The data displayed is a bit confusing if you're not using the 3D graph editing function.. if you insist on working with
the numbers, here's some more information.

The formula to achieve the correction factor is
if DATA > 128 then Factor = (DATA - 64) / 128 else Factor = (DATA + 128) / 128


Here's a bit of theory regarding how the ECU works:
* Basic fuel injection = air flow output (curved line) -> VQMAP
(straight line) x K constant XXDIV rpm + various revisions (MAP and
the like)

* Simultaneous injection mode = effective injection quantitative +
invalid injection quantitative voltage revision

* Sequential mode = effective injection quantitative x 2 + invalid
injection quantitative voltage revisions

* Effective injection quantitative = basic injection quantitative x
various correction coefficient x air/fuel ratio feedback correction
coefficients

* Basic injection quantitative = air flow output (0. 08v - 5. 12v 0.
08v it cuts) AD converting

-> VQ map (2 byte data) x K constant XXDIV rpm (crank angular
sensor)

* Various correction coefficient = 1 + air/fuel ratio revision map +
water temperature correction coefficient + starting correction
coefficients

The "K constant" which is a value easily found within ROM EDITOR under the Global tab (its called K required
number). It is the key to a hell of a lot of things. It is a constant value that can be adjusted to suit various changes. If
you were to decrease or increase its value, its a surefire way to quicky enrichen or lean' your fuel maps. But where this
value really comes into play, is when you do things like:

Upgrading the AFM (air flow meter) or upgrading injectors.
In my case, I installed an RB20DET AFM, which is known to flow around 310ps (knowing what it flows and knowing
that the value is accurate, is IMPORTANT!). In order to make the car run with this AFM, you will need to do TWO
things..

The most obvious one to most people, is changing the VQ Map (which is commonly referred to as the VE Map, but
stupid jap translated program has introduced confusion to some people). A basic summary of how things work, is the
VQ maps values are proportional to the injector pulses, and the base value that it works with is the K required
number that is in HEX that youll find in the Global tab in the ROM Editor program how to work out what value to
change that to is relatively simple..

Take the current value thats there.. in the case of the CA its 00B7 (.. which is B7 in hex which is 183.. if you havent
played with hex before, just pull up the windows calculator and click on View and select scientific mode.. then click
the Hex check option thing and type in the hex value, then click decimal and theres its actual decimal value)..

Alrighty.. so say.. B7 is the value in mine, and thats suited for an AFM with a resolution up to 190ps (stock CA
AFM).. in your case.. the SR20 AFM has a resolution up to 210ps.. what you have to work out is the new K required
number to suit your new AFM.. my new afm was an RB20 unit of 310ps.. so this is how I worked it out..

Current AFM = 190
Current AFM K required number = 183
New AFM = 310
New AFM K required number = ???

So.. you gotto work it out bit like this..
(just use windows calculator and when open, click View and select Scientific)

190 / 310 = 0.612903
Then get the base number of 183 divided by the above.. soo..

183 / 0.612903 = 298.579057
Then click on the Hex option in the calculator while that answer is still in it.. and I have the value 12A.

The Rom Editor program likes this entered in as 4 digits.. so the new value to put in there is 012A (zero, one, two, A)

And then, you're done!

Note: I've had troubles with my car starting when cold, but otherwise it runs fine, I'll let people know
what the problem is when I find out.. if anyone has any ideas, let me know.
Upgrading the Injectors is a rather similar story.. here's how ya do it..

On the CA18DET, you have standard injectors, and their size is 370cc.

I upgraded to RB26DETT Injectors, which are 440cc.

So you get the std cc value and divide it by the new cc value.
370 / 440 = 0.849
So you then grab your current K constant value, for example, 12A.

So in calculator, click Hex, type in 12A, then click decimal, and click multiply and enter 0.849.

So you'll have 12A (298) * 0.849 = 253.
Click back to hex, and your value is FD, enter that in ROM EDITOR as 00FA (zero, zero, F, A).

Also, I used the correction of 0.849 to all the values in the 'boost' section along the bottom of the fuel maps. You will
find that once you adjust all those values, and then click Setup - Engine Specification setup, and adjust the Injector
Blas-off quantity to the injector size that you are now using, all the values will come back to normal compared to the
original map with uncorrected values and standard injector size spec).

If you have any further questions, I might be able to help - Reach me here - Boostcruising.com Forums
Clutch Replacment ** from a 240sx**
A Note -
The clutch from the old 240zx's fits it it and is the price as the stock one. Plus it grabs harder because the springs are
stiffer. I had one in my car and 60k later am going on my second one. (I beat on my car so... ) But it chirps em in thrid
when it's new so you might wanna recommend it to people. Both times I have had 'Pierre Z' of Hawthorne do my
clutches and they know their shit and do a great job.
Kevin
tach@earthlink.net
The Clutch Install
I have a 91. The process is quite easy. But set aside a lot of time, and have a strong guy who knows something about
cars. It took me a total of 6 hours of labor to do the job. Find a shop that will resurface your flywheel ahead of time,
and make sure they will be open when you plan to have your flywheel out. I recommend pulling the tranny and
flywheel in the afternoon of one day, or at night, as long as lighting is sufficient. This way, even if you run into
problems, you can work all night to get the flywheel off. Drop the flywheel off in the morning so you can be sure you
can get back to it that day.
Parts you will need:
Pressure plate
Clutch disc
Pilot bushing
Throwout Bearing
Lithium based grease
Brake cleaner
Brake Fluid
Loctite
The biggest bottle of GOJO/handcleaner you can buy(LOL)
Driveway cleaner(LOL)
Tools you will need:
Open-end wrenches (metric)
Socket wrenches (metric)
Screwdrivers
Torque wrench
Clutch alignment tool
Pilot bushing removal tool (w/ Slide hammer)
Needle nose pliers
1/2-inch drive socket wrench or breaker bar.
Tranny lift, or Floor jack
The process:
First off lift your car and be sure to use jack stands to secure the car. Disconnect the negative terminal of the battery.
Drain the tranny fluid. This is done by inserting the end of a half in drive socket wrench into the drain plug underneath
the tranny, and unscrewing it. Remove the entire shift lever assembly. Youll have to remove parts of your dash until
you can get to it. Inside the tranny, you'll see a retainer ring holding it in. You'll have to use some needle nose pliers to
squeeze the ends together, and pull it out. There is a tool made to do this, but I don't know what it is called, and most
people do not have access to one. It may be kind of hard to remove it. Next, remove the driveshaft. To do this you have
to remove the bolts that hold it together with the 3rd member (differential) and the crossmember holding the center of it
up. The end attached to the tranny will slide right out. Be prepared to catch some oil. Disconnect all the wiring
harnesses that go into the tranny. You'll need to remove the speedometer cable as well. Remove the starter. Remove
all of the bolts that attach the bell housing to the motor. Some are hard to see. Take you're time and make sure you get
all of them out. Support the transmission with a jack. Remove the crossmember under the tranny. Slide out the
transmission 1-2 inches. You may need to pry with a screwdriver. You shouldn't have to force it. If it does not come
out make sure you got all the bolts off. Once you have it out slightly, rotate the transmission about 180 degrees. If you
don't, the tranny will not clear as you slid it out. Make sure you keep the jack supporting the weight as you do this.
You don't want to put a heavy load on the input shaft. Once it's upside down, you should be able to slide it out. Again,
keep the weight of the tranny on the jack. It helps to have a friend help you with this. You may need to maneuver the
tranny a bit as you slide it out. Once it clears, lower the jack and you should be able to wheel the tranny out on the
jack. Now you should be able to access the clutch. Put the clutch alignment tool in the disc. Using a socket wrench,
slowly loosen the bolts holding the pressure plate to the flywheel. Do each one in sequence a little at a time to release
pressure slowly and evenly until it comes off. Take off the disc. Remove the flywheel. This is a lot easier with an
impact wrench. Take the flywheel in to be resurfaced. This is a good time to clean the tranny. Be careful not to get
any water in it if you spray it with a hose. Next you need to remove the throwout bearing. Just slide the unit off. The
arm seems to be attached, but pull and it will come off. Hold the arm in place though. The bearing itself will have to be
removed from the carrier (I'm not sure what the technical word for this part is, but you'll know what I mean when you
see it) that it is attached to. I removed it by sticking the bearing in a vise, and finding a socket that matches closely to
the inside of the bearing, and knocking the carrier out by hitting the socket with the hammer. Make sure to note which
way the bearing faced before you remove it. To get the new one in place, place the carrier on the new bearing, on a
block of wood, and gently tap it in using a hammer and the same socket used before. Pack some lithium-based grease
into the inside of the T.O bearing assembly's shaft. Also put grease onto the shaft itself, and take the old clutch disc and
slide it back and forth on the splines of the input shaft to remove excess grease. You will need to put grease on the
contact points of the clutch fork arm, and behind it on the fulcrum. Reinstall the T.O bearing assembly, and make sure
the clips are in the correct place. Now, to replace the pilot bearing, you need a slide hammer with a pilot bearing
attachment. Pep Boys rents tools for free, so I just borrowed it from them. Once removed, place the new on in using a
socket of similar size, and a hammer, and gently tap it in until it stops. Put the flywheel back on. I also used the impact
wrench to do this but I believe you are supposed to torque it down. I was not able to, so I guessed. Place the new clutch
disc on by using the alignment tool to hold it in place. Install the pressure plate. You will have to do this slowly, as
there is pressure, and you want it to go evenly on the studs. The hardest part now is to get the tranny back in. It is
essentially the reverse of removal. But it will take some heavy-duty feeling around and pushing, pulling, and turning to
get it in. Make sure you don't rest the weight of the tranny on the diaphragm of the pressure plate. You definitely do not
want to damage it. Use the jack to support the weight of the tranny, and only use you hands and arms to position the
tranny. It will take some time to get it to line up just right. Everything else should be reverse of removal. Just try to
remember where all the nuts and bolts are supposed to go. As a suggestion, especially if this is the first time you will be
replacing a clutch, READ THE MANUAL! READ IT MANY TIMES. READ IT UNTIL YOU MEMORIZE THE
PROCEDURE. It's hard to keep getting out from under the car and flipping through the pages with dirty hands. Make
sure to use loctite on the driveshaft to differential bolts, so that they don't come loose while you are driving. Also when
loosening and tightening the driveshaft bolts, set the parking brake so that the shaft does not turn while you are trying
to wrench on it. It helps to have a friend help you with this, as you'll need him to set and release the parking brake as
you are doing this. There are 4 bolts and you'll need to be able to turn the shaft as you go along.
Simon Kim had recommended the ACT pressure plate and their street disc. They ran out on me, and I desperately
needed one, so I chose the JWT unit. I still have to break it in, so I won't know the results until then. 450 miles to go. =)
ACT has the T.O Bearing and pilot bushing, but you may want to check the Nissan dealer
for these parts. I found it cheaper there, and I didn't have to pay for freight charges on them.
I had used a Centerforce unit before, on my 83 Celica. I liked the clamping force, as it was strong enough to break my
differential gear, and a tranny gear. This was only the 30% increase clutch. As far as the dual friction, I wouldn't
because of my experience with the Stillen unit. I'm not sure if it was because of the Kevlar material, or poor quality, but
I have decided to stay away from fancy materials until I absolutely need it. My Centerforce unit was quite stiff though.
I had to use a pretty good amount of force to push down the pedal.
Hope this is of some help.

CURING ERRATIC IDLE (Part 1)




General:
Erratic idle is one of the most common problems with our cars. This is caused by
the number of engine components that are affecting it, such as: IAA (Idle Air
Adjusting unit), Air Regulator, Throttle Bodies, Injectors, CAS, fuel delivery,
vacuum piping...
This article will cover the three components mentioned first.
IAA-unit:
This unit consists mainly of two valves: FICD and AAC. The FICD valve
compensates for RPM drop when AC compressor is activated. The symptoms of
the FICD failing are idle drop and vibrations when switching on the air condition.
The AAC (Auxiliary Air Control) valve is controlled by the ECU (PWM-control)
to set the idle speed to a pre-programmed level. The ECU switches the AAC on
and off very fast and thereby is able obtain a gradual opening of the valve. The
AAC opening ratio can be observed on a Techtom MDM-100. If the valve is
completely closed at idle it could mean that the idle screw is not adjusted correctly
(too much air enters through it) or there is a vacuum leak (could be dirty TB's not
closing all the way).
Very often is the IAA unit (pic 1.) diagnosed faulty and replaced. Since it costs
~$200 it's worth to take the time and fix it yourself. Just as long as the solenoids
are electrically intact there's not much that can go wrong with this unit.
First off, check the solenoid resistance (don't forget to clean the connectors too).
FICD => ~22 Ohm
AAC => ~10 Ohm
You can also check the solenoid operation by applying 12V from the battery to its
connectors (you should hear a click).
If the resistance is far off then you really need a new IAA-unit, if not then read
on...
Remove the IAA from the plenum. It's attached to it with 4 screws. There is also a
gasket between the IAA and the plenum. I reused the old one since it wasn't
broken. Disassemble the solenoids as in picture 2. Check if the spring inside them
is not broken.
Now clean the solenoids and the IAA-unit casing with WD-40 or Brake Cleaner or
similar.
Reassemble and it's as good as new.
Air Regulator:
The purpose of the air regulator is to raise the idle during engine warm-up by
letting additional air to enter the intake.
The symptoms of the air regulator going bad is either low unstable idle during
warm up or constantly high idle.
The regulator consists of a bimetal-activated shutter that closes after ~5 min of
engine operation and cuts off the airflow.
Note: It's normal that the shutter is only partially open at room temperature.
Check the resistance between the pins in the connector. It should be ~75 Ohm. If
not good then replace the whole regulator.
Another problem could be that the regulator is clogged, causing the shutter to
stick.
The air regulator is located on the rear of the plenum and is attached to it with 2
screws.
There are 4 screws keeping the housing together. Remove them and clean the
1.
2.
3.
regulator internals (pic 3).
Throttle Bodies (TB's):
Dirty throttle bodies can be the cause of unstable idle and hesitation.
Remove the rubber hoses attached to them. It's easiest when the hoses are warm as
it makes them softer. Twist them and pull (push them further on to the intercooler
pipe too). Detach also the small hoses beneath the TB's.
Use an appropriate detergent to clean the TB internals. I've found Brake Cleaner
and WD-40 to work well. Use a toothbrush to scrub on the surface.
Dry and reassemble.
Some people reported that after cleaning the TB's they had to reset the ECU to get
the idle speed down. I would suggest disconnecting the negative battery terminal
before you start cleaning the TB's. It takes ~30 minutes for the ECU to forget what
it has learned and that is how long it will take (at least...) to clean the TB's.
After cleaning the TB's the idle may need to be readjusted as the amount of air
entering the plenum may have changed (depending on how dirty the TB's were).
Adjust the Throttle Position Sensor first (see Part 2) and then adjust the idle as
described below.
Idle adjustment:
Normally the engine should idle at ~800RPM. If it's to high then you should try to
adjust it.
Let the engine warm up to normal operating temperature. Put the transmission in
neutral gear.
Disconnect the connector on the AAC valve (pic 2).
With the idle screw (pic 1) adjust the idle according to the values listed for the
different Z models:
NA AT = 720 RPM
NA MT => 650 RPM
TT => 700 RPM
Reconnect the AAC and you should hear the engine rev up ~50RPM. That means
that AAC is working correctly and the ECU has control over the idle speed now.
IMPORTANT! The purpose of the idle screw is to set the bottom value of the idle
and let the ECU control it. If you adjust the screw for higher idle than the above
then the ECU is no longer in charge of the idle speed.
If you've got a Techtom MDM-100 then the idle adjustment is easier.
Let the engine warm up fully and watch the AAC opening on the MDM while
you're adjusting the idle screw. Adjust it so that the AAC is 15%-20% open.
If you're not able to reach the 15% and the MDM shows a value below that even
with the idle screw fully in then you've got a big vacuum leak somewhere (see
how to find it HERE).
4.

Maciej Nowakowski 2000
CURING ERRATIC IDLE (Part 2)


General:
This part describes further investigation on unstable idle problems.
Main topics are Coolant Temp sensor, TPS, Power balance test, IgnitionCoils,
Spark plugs, Injectors, CAS, MAS, Fuel delivery, PCVs, vacuum leaksand
compression test.
Coolant temperature sensor:
The ECU coolant temp sensor is a very common cause of high idle, hesitation and
safety boost mode.
It's located in front of the engine on the upper aluminium coolantpipe (see pic 1).
Most often the source of the problem is bad connection caused by corrosion on its
contact (see Connector Cleaning document for the cleaning procedure).
You can also check the resistance of the sensor by measuring it acrossits terminals.
The resistance should be:
2.1-2.9 kOhm at 20C (68F)
0.68-1.0 kOhm at 50C (122F)
0.30-0.33 kOhm at 80C (176F)
TPS - Throttle Position Sensor:
Poorly adjusted TPS can cause jumping or high idle. The TPS is locatedon the left
throttle body, pic 2.
To measure its output voltage (if you haven't got a AVC-R or AFC ora Techtom
MDM-100) you have to insert a thin wire in its harness contact(pic 2), since it has
to be connected while measuring.
Measure between the middle pin and the chassis or battery ground.
The voltage should be between 0.4V and 0.45V (the spec says 0.5V butthat's to
high from my experience).
To adjust the voltage, turn ignition switch ON, loosen the screws holding the TPS
and turn it slightly (CW => -) until the voltage is within spec. Tighten the screws
and recheck voltage.
Open the throttle fully and check that the output voltage is ~4V.
Important: If you haven't cleaned the throttle bodies, do it first (seePart1) and then
adjust the TPS.
A worn out TPS can cause problems like: jumping RPM while driving andshifting
problems with auto transmission.
A new TPS costs ~$29. Check the part number HEREstarting at page 2-A-8,
section Throttle Chamber.
Power Balance test:
If the engine is missing at idle, try to determine if the problem isconnected to one
of the cylinders.
Start the engine and proceed to disconnect each of the coil connectors(pic 3), one
at a time. The idle should drop when disconnecting a coil.If the idle doesn't change
at all or changes only slightly compared toother cylinders then you've narrowed
the problem to a single cylinder.
Ignition Coils:
Easiest way of checking a coil is to swap it with another good one.
If you discovered one faulty cylinder in the power balance test thenswap the
suspected coil with a coil from a cylinder that was firing correctly. Perform the
power balance test again and see if the problem moves together with the coil. If
yes then replace the coil.
1.
2.
3.
4.
You can also check the resistance between the middle and the left pin(looking
from the side of the engine) of the coil connector. It should be ~0.7 Ohm.
Check also the coil connectors for corrosion and overall condition. The locking
pin tends to brake and the connector can come off by itself.
See Contact cleaningdocument for more info on repairing the harness.
Spark plugs:
Examine all the spark plugs carefully cause they've got a lot to "tell".
Be sure to know which one comes from which cylinder. If you installedspark
plugs that are to cold then they could foul and contribute to anunstable idle. Use
the colder PFR6B-11B plugs on a modded Z. Going onegrade colder to PFR7B-11
is only necessary when pushing SERIOUS power whileracing. The standard gap is
1.1mm. The gap should be lowered on modifiedengines. I'm running on ~0.8mm
gap.
Compare all the spark plugs to see if you've got a problem with oneof the
cylinders. If one spark plug is abnormally fouled that could meanthat one injector
is leaking. If there is an oil leak in the system (e.g.from a turbo) then you would
see some burned oil residue on the plug.
A normal plug will be clean with white or tan insulator. See
www.ngksparkplugs.comfor more info on plugs.
Injectors:
Injectors themselves are hard to diagnose. Like mentioned above, aleaking injector
could be diagnosed by looking at the spark plug. Thereis also one more hint that
I've heard of. If you let the car sit for acouple of hours and then remove the plug
then you would smell a strongfuel smell from the cylinder that has a leaking
injector and the plug wouldprobably be wet with fuel.
You can also examine if the injector is "ticking" if you let the caridle and put a
long screwdriver on the top of the injector while puttingyour ear to the handle.
You should hear a loud clicking. Compare the soundfrom all the injectors. If an
injector is not clicking then it's dead.
You can check the resistance of the injectors as well by measuringit across its
terminals. It should be between 10 and 14 Ohm.
Most often though, the problem is caused by corroded injector connectors. They
are accessible from the top of the plenum (pic 4). If they are broken or in a really
bad shape then I would recommend that you replace them.
You can use two sets of injector connectors PN: 24079-25P26 (~$20).They are
meant for a Z from the 80's but they'll fit, well almost... Youwill have
to knock off a plastic pin on the injector connector, not to difficult.See the
Connector Cleaningdocument for more info on this.
CAS:
The Crank Angle Sensor informs the ECU about the current position ofthe crank
shaft (pic 5).
The most common reason for it affecting the idle is the connector getting dirty,
although if the CAS connection is completely broken the car won'tstart at all. The
best way to examine CAS is to pull it out completely.Be sure to mark its position
so you can reinstall it like it was before(use millimetre precision here).
Clean the connector if required. Check also that the sensor is spinningfreely
without the
bearings making to much noise and vibrations.
Check that the half circle pin inside its shaft is intact. Some earlymodel Zs had
wrongly machined heads causing the pin to wear out.
The ECU will not always report an error on the CAS. I had to put theECU in test
mode and then crank the engine before the CAS-fault code showed up.
MAS:
Mass Airflow Sensor (pic 6) tells the ECU how much air is enteringthe engine
5.
6.
7.
8.
which in turn gives the information about how much fuel needsto be supplied.
Check the MAS by looking through it to see if the hot-wire is damaged or clogged
by dirt. You can gently clean the hot-wire by spraying it with a contact cleaner that
doesn't leave a protective film. I cleaned minewith brake cleaner since it
evaporates completely but it could be a littleharsh for the vulnerable hot wire..
Never remove the mash screen! It serves both as a protection and hasits effect on
the airflow.
You can check the MAS voltage at the ECU (see ECUcontact diagram) with a volt
meter.
It should read ~0.8V with ignition on (some people get 0.08V on theTechtom) and
~1.5V at idle, unless you've got a vacuum leak somewhere...
Vacuum leaks:
Basically examine all of the hoses for leaks. If there is a vacuumleak somewhere
then air that's not registered by MAS will enter the systemcausing the engine to
run to lean.
See the Finding Vacuum Leaks article for more info.
.
Fuel delivery:
Check the fuel pressure after the fuel filter.
Depressurize the fuel system by disconnecting the fuel pump under thespare tire or
disconnecting the
fuel pump relay (see pic 7). Start the engine and let it stall.Crank it again a couple
of times to let more fuel out.
There's always a bit of pressure left in the hoses so have some ragshandy.
Disconnect the fuel filter hose from the metal pipe on the plenum.Insert a T-pipe
there (pic 8). Attach a pressure gauge to the T and tightenall clamps.
Now reconnect the fuel pump harness and pressurize the system by turningthe
ignition key 3 times ON and OFF (the fuel pump operates for a secondor two after
ignition on, you should be able to hear it).
Check for leaks and start the engine.
The fuel pressure at idle should be approximately 2.5bar (36 psi)
The fuel pressure should rise with the pressure in the intake manifold.
Disconnect the vacuum line from the pressure regulator (pic 9) andthe fuel
pressure should rise to ~3 bar (~43.4 psi)
PCV-valves:
The Positive Crankcase Ventilation valves are located under the plenumon its right
and left side (see pic 10)
Faulty PCVs can cause crank case air to be sucked in to the plenumat times when
it's not supposed to.
They can also get stuck closed so that excessive pressure is builtup inside the
crank case causing the engine oil to leak
through the rear main seal and sometimes the oil dipstick to pop out.
There is also one more symptom that happened to me. The spring insidethe PCVs
got weak so they opened wile braking and
that caused the engine to stall after a fairly hard braking.
I would recommend everyone with an older Z to replace them. They cost~$3.4 so
it's not a big deal (PN 11810-40P00).
Be sure to get new rubber hoses since the old ones are probably hardas a rock and
you have to cut them.
The part numbers are 11826-30P11 for the left one and 11826-30P01 forthe right
one (~$23 total).
Remove the battery while replacing the PCV on passenger side.
Do not over torque them when installing, you can brake the plenum!!
Compression test:
Always a good way to see the condition of the engine internals, especially if you
find that there is a problem with a
particular cylinder when looking at its spark plug.
9.
10.

Below is the procedure as described in the Service Manual (except forthe fusible
link).
1. Warm up the engine
2. Turn ignition switch off
3. Disconnect the fusible link (by the battery) named "Fuel pump, Inj."
4. Remove all spark plugs
5. Attach compression tester to no. 1 cylinder
6. Depress accelerator pedal fully to keep the throttle bodies wide open.
7. Crank engine and record the highest gauge indication
8. Repeat the measurement for each cylinder.
Always use a fully charged battery to obtain the specified engine revolution
(~300RPM) while cranking.
Compression pressure:
Standard: 12,85 bar (186 psi) for NA ; 11,79 bar (171 psi) for TT
Minimum: 9,81 bar (142 psi) for NA ; 8,83 bar (128 psi) for TT
Maximum difference between cylinders: 0,98 bar (14 psi)
If cylinder pressure in one or more cylinders is low, pour a small amount of engine
oil into it through the spark plug hole and retest compression.
If adding oil helps compression, piston rings may be worn or damaged.
Replacepiston rings after checking the piston for damage.
If pressure stays low, a valve may be sticking or seating improperly.
Inspectand repair the valves and their seats.
If compression in any two adjacent cylinders is low and if adding oil
doesnot help, there may be a leakage past head gasket surface.
Maciej Nowakowski 2000