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LESSON3
FlatSlab
Introduction
Areinforcedconcreteslabsupporteddirectly
byconcretecolumnswithouttheuseof
intermediarybeams.
Constantthicknessormaybethickenedinthe
areaofcolumndroppanel.
Thecolumnofconstantsectionormaybe
flaredcolumnheadorcapital.
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Introduction(cont.)
Droppanelseffectiveinreducingthe
shearingstresswhy??
Droppanelsincreasemomentresistance.
Advantagesoversolidslab:
Simplifiedformwork.
Reducestoreyheightmoreeconomical.
Windowscanextendundersidetheslab.
Nobeamstoobstructthelightandthecirculation
ofair.
Introduction(cont.)
Deflectionrequirementsgovernslab
thicknessnormallynotlessthan180mm
forfireresistance.
Theanalysisdividethestructureintoa
seriesofequivalentframes.
Momentintheseframesmaybedetermined
by:
Frameanalysismomentdistribution.
SimplifiedmethodoutlinedinTable3.12BS8110
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Analysis
Theanalysisdividethestructureintoa
seriesofequivalentframes.
Momentintheseframesmaybedetermined
by:
Frameanalysismomentdistribution.
SimplifiedmethodoutlinedinTable3.12BS8110
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Analysis(cont.)
Columnandmiddlestrips.
Droppanelsignoredsmallerdimension<
l
x
/3
MomentsfromTable3.12aredistributed
betweenthestripssuchthatthenegativeand
positivemomentsresistedbythecolumnand
middlestripstotal100%ineachcase.
Design
Designasflexuralmembersbeam
procedures.
Importantfeatures:tocalculatethepunching
shearattheheadofcolumnsandatthe
changeindepthoftheslab,ifdroppanelsare
used.
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Design(cont.)
ThedesignforshearshouldfollowEC2that
requiresthedesignshearforcetobe
increasedabovethecalculatedvalueby15%
forinternalcolumns,upto40%foredge
columnsand50%forcornercolumnsto
allowformomenttransfereffects.
Design(cont.)
Onlyapplytobracedstructureswhere
adjacentspansdonotdifferbymorethan
25%.
Punchingshearadditionalrequirementby
EC2ontheamountanddistributionof
reinforcementaroundcolumnheadstoensure
thatfullpunchingshearcapacityisdeveloped.
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Design(cont.)
Theusualbasicspaneffectivedepthratios
maybeusedbutwherethegreaterspan
exceeds8.5mthebasicratioshouldbe
multipliedby8.5/span.
Spaneffectivedepthcalculationshouldbe
basedonthelongerspan.
Detailing
Reinforcementdesignedtoresisttheseslab
momentsmaybedetailedaccordingtothe
simplifiedrulesforslabstosatisfynormal
spacinglimits.
Shouldbespreadacrosstherespectivestrip,
butinsolidslabswithoutdrops,topsteelto
resistnegativemomentsincolumnstrips
shouldhaveofthearealocatedinthe
centralquarterstripwidth.
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Detailing(cont.)
Ifcolumnstripisnarrowerbecauseofdrops,
themomentsresistedbythecolumnand
middlestripsshouldbeadjusted
proportionally.
Thereinforcementshouldpassthrough
internalcolumnstoenhancerobustness.
Example
Thecolumnsare6.5mcentresineachdirectionand
theslabsupportsthevariableloadof5kN/m
2
.The
characteristicmaterialstrengthsaref
ck
=25N/mm
2
fortheconcrete,andf
yk
=500N/mm
2
forthe
reinforcement.
Itisdecidedtouseafloorslabasshowninfigure
belowwith250mmoveralldepthofslab,anddrop
panels2.5msquareby100mmdeep.Thecolumn
headsaretobemade1.2mdiameter.
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Solution
Permanentload
Weightofslab =0.25x25x6.5
2
=264.1kN
Weightofdrop =0.1x25x2.5
2
=15.6kN
Total =279.7kN
Variableload =5x6.52
=211.3kN
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Solution(cont.)
Therefore,ultimateloadonthefloor,F
=1.35G
k
+1.5Q
k
=1.35x279.7+1.5x211.3
=695kNperpanel
andequivalentdistributedload,n
=695/6.5
2
=16.4kN/m
2
Theeffectivespan,
L=clearspanbetweencolumnhead+
sIub thckncss
2
at
eitherend
=(6.51.2)+
350
2
x2x10
3
=5.65m
Aconcretecoverof25mmhasbeenallowed,andthere
aretwoequallayersofreinforcementtheeffective
depthhasbeentakenasthemeandepthofthetwo
layersincalculatingthereinforcementareas.
(d=205mminspanand305mminsupports).
Solution(cont.)
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Thedropdimensionisgreaterthanonethirdof
thepaneldimension,thereforethecolumnstrip
istakenasthewidthofthedroppanel(2.5m).
Bendingreinforcement
Sincethevariableloadislessthanthe
permanentloadandbaysize=6.5x6.5=
42.25m
2
(30m
2
),fromTable3.12BS8110:
Solution(cont.)
1. Centreofinteriorspan
Positivemoment =0.063FL
=0.063x695x5.65 =247kNm
Thewidthofthemiddlestripis(6.52.5)=4mwhichis
greaterthanhalfthepaneldimension,thereforethe
proportionothismomenttakenbythemiddlestripcanbe
takenas0.45fromtable3.18adjustedasshown:
0.45x(
4
6.S
2

) = u.SS
Solution(cont.)
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Thusmiddlestrippositivemoment=0.55x247=136kNm
Thecolumnstrippositivemoment=0.45x247=111kNm
(a) Forthemiddlestrip
M/bd
2
f
ck
=136x10
6
/4000x205
2
x25 =0.032
A
s
=M/0.87f
yk
z =136x10
6
/0.87x500x0.95x205
=1605mm
2
bottomsteel
Thusprovide16H12bars(A
s
=1809mm
2
)eachwayinthespan,
distributedevenlyacrossthe4mwidthofthemiddlestrip
(spacing=250mm=maxallowableforaslab)
Solution(cont.)
(b)Forthecolumnstrip
willrequire1310mm
2
bottomsteelwhichcanbeprovidedas
12H12bars(A
s
=1356mm
2
)inthespandistributedevenlyacross
the2.5mwidthofthecolumnstrip(spacingapprox.210mm)
2.Negativemoment =0.063Fl
=0.063x695x5.65
=247kNm
Solution(cont.)
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andthiscanalsobedividedinto
middlestrip =0.25x[4/(6.5/2)]x247
=77kNm
columnstrip =(10.31)x247
=0.69x247=170kNm
Solution(cont.)
(a)Forthemiddlestrip
M/bd
2
f
ck
=77x10
6
/4000x205
2
x25 =0.018
A
s
=M/0.87f
yk
z =77x10
6
/0.87x500x0.95x205
=909mm
2
topsteel
Thusprovide11H12bars(A
s
=1243mm
2
)tosatisfy400mmmax
limit.
(b)Forthecolumnstrip
M/bd
2
f
ck
=170x10
6
/2500x305
2
x25 =0.029
A
s
=M/0.87f
yk
z =170x10
6
/0.87x500x0.95x305
=1349mm
2
topsteel
Thusprovide14H12bars(A
s
=1582mm
2
)at200centresoverthe
full2.5mwidthofthecolumnstrip.
Solution(cont.)
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PunchingShear
1. Atthecolumnhead
Perimeteru
o
= xdiameterofcolumnhead
= x1200 =3770mm
Shearforce,V
ed
=F-

4
x1.2
2
=695

4
x1.2
2
x16.4
=676.4kN
Solution(cont.)
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Toallowfortheeffectsofmomenttransfer,Vis
increasedby15%foraninternalcolumn,thus
V
ed,eff
=1.15x676.4 =778kN
Maximumpermissibleshearforce,
V
Rd,max
=0.5u
o
d u.6 1 -
]
ck
250
]
ck
1.5
= 0.5x3770xSuSx u.6 1 -
25
250
25
1.5
=5174kN
Solution(cont.)
ThusV
ed,eff
issignificantlylessthanV
Rd,max
2.Thefirstcriticalsection
criticalsection=2.0xeffectivedepthfromtheface
ofthecolumnhead,thatis,asectionofdiameter
1.2+2x2.0x0.305=2.42m(withinthedroppanel)
Thusthelengthoftheperimeteru
1
=x2420 =7602mm
Ultimateshearforce,V
ed
=695

4
x2.42
2
x16.4 =620kN
V
ed,eff
=1.15x620 =713kN
Solution(cont.)
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Fortheunreinforcedsection,
V
Rd,c
u
1
d =
Rd,c
x7602x305
with
1
=
y
=
z
=
100x1582
2500x305
=0.21%
thusfromTable7,
Rd,c
=0.47N/mm
2
,therefore
V
Rd,c
=0.47x7602x305x10
3
=1090kN
AsV
ed,eff
islessthanV
Rd,c
thesectionisadequate,andshear
reinforcementisnotneeded.
Solution(cont.)
0.21%
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3.Atthedroppedpanelthecriticalsectionis
2.0x205=410mmfromthepanelwitha
parametergivenby
u =(2a+2b+2x2d)
=(4x2500+2x410) =12576mm
theareawithintheperimeterisgivenby
(2.5+3d)
2
(4)(2.0x0.205)
2
=(2.5+3x0.205)
2
(4)(0.410)
2
=9.559m
2
Solution(cont.)
Ultimateshearforce,
V
ed
=6959.559x16.4 =538kN
V
ed,eff
=1.15x538 =619kN
V
Rd,c
=
Rd,c
udwhereu=12576mmandd=205mm

1
=
100x1582
2500x205
= u.S1%,thusfromTable7,

Rd,c
0.55N/mm
2
V
Rd,c
=0.55x12576x205 =1418kN
AsV
ed,eff
islessthanV
Rd,c
,thesectionisadequate.
Solution(cont.)
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Spaneffectivedepthratios
atthecentreofthespan
100A
s,rcq
bd
=
100x1605
4000x205
=0.20
thebasicspaneffectivedepthratio=32x1.2(kfactorfora
flatslab) =32x1.2 =38.4
actualspaneffectiveratio =l/d =6500/205 =31.7
Hencetheslabeffectivedepthisacceptable.
Solution(cont.)
0.20%