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 DEFINATION 1- Hook load (HKL) This is the load on the hook (summation of the strings: BHA and bit) 2- Weight on bit (WOB) It's calculated from the hook load and its decrease on it (if HKL is 200 tones then becomes 150 tones due to formation resistance so WOB is 50 tones) 3- Stand pipe pressure (SPP) The pressure of the pumped fluid inside the pipes and hoses (related to SPM) 4- Casing pressure (annular pressure) The pressure of the pumped cement into casing 5- Rotary speed The speed of rotation of the string 6- Rotary torque The resistance of the formation to the drilling and rotation of string 7- Pump speed The speeds of pumping of mud inside the pipes (related to SPM or efficiency of pump) 8- Slow pump rate Test on each pump to notice the pressure exerted by each one in order to use specific SPM for each pump to kill the well in case of kick. 9-Blind drilling Drilling of hole without any return of cutting or fluid so they drill with seawater in order to reduce the costs or with normal drilling fluids 10- Free point indicator The point at which they can make cut for the sticky string, firstly they try to make jarring to free this point. 11- Over pull or Pick up It is the sudden increase in hook load reading while POOH, due to the tight spot in the hole. 12- Twist off Cut of the drill string from any weak point predicted by sharp drop in SPP and sharp drop in HKLD. 13- Fast break Means ROP is high due to soft formation. 1
 14- Tripping One of two: 1- RIH (Run In Hole) 2- POOH (Pull Out Of Hole) 15- Flow check This test is made to check if there is flow out at the rest or not (in case of stopped pumping). We stop pumping then notice if there is flow out or not. If there is flow out at rest so we have Flow. 16- Equivalent circulated density (ECD) This is mud wt in the dynamic state. 17- Kick off point Due to the hardness of the cement, the bit escapes from this point into the softer lithology. 18- Nippling up BOP It’s the setting up & installing of the BOP for new open hole, which followed by the BOP test to see what is the maximum allowable pressure on the annulus. 19- Wash (circulation) and Reaming It's process of widening and claiming the hole after the drilling of every one STD by moving up and down Wash (circulation without surface RPM) Reaming (circulation with surface RPM and bit RPM if there is motor) 19- Connection Off bottom, no WOB, lowest HKLD, no SPP, no RPM, no SPM, and no TRQ 20- On slips It’s done when the floor man makes anew connection. 21-How to know the wash out in pipes!!!! A-Vertical: when WOB increasing, the crack increases and the pressure will continue drops B-Horizontal: that on decreasing the WOB, the pressures will increase. 22-There are several different types of pressure test: 1- FIT – Formation Integrity Test This is a pressure test to a predetermined pressure, which is designed to be below the probable fracture pressure. 2- LOT – Leak Off Test Determines the yield point of the weakest formation. 3- Formation Breakdown This is a test that fractures the formation and injects fluid. What is a Leak Off Test? *A Leak Off Test (LOT) is used to determine the maximum pressure, which can be applied to the formation while drilling the next hole section. 2

*The LOT involves increasing the mud pressure in a shut-in well until mud is injected into the formation. *Generally LOTs are performed after cementing casing, re-drilling cement and the shoe and a few metres of formation. This zone is considered to be the weakest part of the formation for the next hole section. *- The basic procedure is to pump slowly into the well at a rate of ¼ to ½ barrel per minute and record the drill pipe pressure (the well is closed). - The point where drill pipe pressure starts to deviate just as the curve leaves the straight line is the pressure where the formation starts to take fluid. - It is important to keep in mind that you are pumping into a closed well when conducting a leak-off test

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*This test does not fracture the formation but merely tests the formations integrity to a pre-determined test pressure. *Typically the anticipated slope shows a linear relationship between the volume pumped and the pressure

*Initially the LOT follows the same linear pattern on the anticipated slope as the FIT. *At the point of divergence leak-off is achieved and the trend becomes non-linear.

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23- Swabbing & Surge

1- Swabbing

2- Surge

24- Drilling processes

1-

2-

3-

4-

5-

*Again the anticipated slope is linear prior to achieving breakdown of the formation.

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Sliding drilling

 1- run with BHA motor assemblies 2- with only bit RPM, no surface RPM 3- without TRQ reading 4- with higher value of SPP 5- in software choose ( Rotary & turbine )

Bottom Hole Pressure temporary reduction results from the upward movement of pipe in the hole. If the drill pipe is pulled too fast during tripping (Swabbing), formation fluid will be pulled into the well bore. Swabbing is caused by the piston action of the bit when it is pulled upward Swabbing pressure make BHP decrease.

Bottom Hole Pressure temporary increase results from the downward movement of pipe in the hole. The opposite of swabbing, Surge pressure makes BHP increase. If it is high enough, surge will result in formation splitfracture. Loss of circulation.

Rotary drilling

run with BHA rotary assemblies

with surface and equal bit RPM

with normal SPP values

in software choose ( Rotary drilling)

25- MWD & GYRO & TOTCO

 MWD GYRO TOTCO 1- take angle and direction survey 2- Run with rotary assembly through motor, it could send its pulses through the mud during the drilling. 1- take angle only 2- run through the pipes and it requires being Off bottom and stopping drill , using especial piece of pipe 1- take angle only 2- Run through the open hole by using a wire.

26- Type of tanks 1- Suction tank: is the active pit, which directly attached to the pumps. 2- Reserve tank: is the tank for saving additional quantities of mud if needed again. 3- Slug tank: is the tank for high viscosity mud preparations and its small value 4- Settling (sand trap): it's lay below the shale shaker directly and can be dumped to pore if it is undesired mud or contaminated. 5- Trip tank: used when we POOH or RIN to add mud inside hole or receives mud from hole respectively

27- Spot & Sweep & Slug Spot: it is a high mud left on bottom, in order to POOH with dry pipes as possible. Sweep: it is high viscosity mud to clean hole from cuttings in order to clean only. Slug: it is high mud weight used to clean the string from cutting during the tripping.

28- Types of losses 1- Surface losses: it's the losses of mud due to surface equipments like (desander, desilter, mud cleaner and centrifuge.) 2- Hole fill: its mud needed to fill the hole. 3- Down hole losses: its mud lost in the formation due to fracturing or higher mud weight

29- Pick up point & Slack of point & Rotary weight Pick up point = weight of drill string Slack of point = weight of drill string resistance of mud (no RPM) Rotary weight = weight of drill string (with RPM)

30- Centralizer & stabilizer Centralizer for centering the casing Stabilizer (put behind bit) for 1- well smoothing 2- building angle in side track

Steaf assembly = bit + bit sub + stabilizer + DC + Stabilizer + HWDP + DP

Bendlum assembly = bit + bit sub + stabilizer + DC + HWDP + DP

- Mud circulation

Active tank… Pumps…. Stand pipe line … mud hose … swivels … string… annulus… flow out line … shale shaker … active tank.

- Gas cycle Flow out line

flow controller … chromatograph

degasser … water trap (condensate bottle) … ditch line … suction pump …

(1% = 10000 pmm)

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The main jobs of the mud logger are to take care of:
1- Geological job.
2- Drilling job.
3- Drilling fluids
1- Geological job.
I have to be responsible for:
A)
Sampling:
I should prepare two samples. One dried, the other is wetted.
The wetted samples are enclosed into specific bags.
On both of the two samples we write above them three information's.
(Company name, well name and depth from and to).
The samples must have been washed and sieved to take the finest grains to
make a thin section from it and to do the second step of the responsibility,
which is.
B)
Descriptions:
It is done under specific microscope to see the oil shows and take the other
descriptions of lithological percentages and properties.
2- Drilling:
We have to take care of many of the drilling parameters such as:
A)
This is the load on the hook this is the summation of the strings, i.e.; the bit and
(BHA) bottom hole assembly.
B)
Weight on bit
It's always calculated from the hook load and its decrease on it.
Since if the HL is 500 tones and suddenly became 400 tones so -this difference is due
to the formation resistance and this is called the WOB.
Sand (lowest resistance) < shale < silt < lime < dolostone < anhydrite (highest
resistance)
The higher the FM resistance, the higher the WOB.
C)
Stand pipe pressure:
This is the pressure of the pumped fluids inside the pipes and hoses. This is related
highly to the SPM.
D)
Casing pressure:
This is the pressure of the pumped cement into casings.
E)
Rotary speed:
The speed of rotation of the strings, which is, supported either from above on top
drive or on the rotary table on rig floor.
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 F) Rotary torque: The resistance of the formation to the drilling and rotation of strings The more the resistance of formation, the higher exerted torque. G) Pump speed: The speeds of pumping of mud inside the pipes, which depend on the number of stroke per minute or in general the efficiency of pump. NB; the diameter of the bit is that of caliber is that of the hole And the casing pipes are smaller than them. If the torque is very high and we increased the RPM so there may be twisting off the drill string 3) Drilling fluids: A) Volume. B) Mud Wt (density) into and out from hole. C) Mud temp into and out put from the hole. D) Mud conductivity (resistivity) into and out put from hole. Q: What are the sensors that feel all those parameters? There are #3 types of the sensors such as: 1- Pressure transducer: ANALOUGE # Standpipe pressure sensors. # Casing pressure sensors. # Hooks load sensors. # Torque sensors. # Mud weight sensors. 2- Pulse sensors: DIGITAL # Magnet sensors (SPM, RPM). # Limits switch sensors.ie; mechanical (RPM, SPM) Draw work sensors. 3- Ultra sonic sensors. (PVT) 4- Temp sensors. 5- Mudflow out sensors 6- Hydrocarbon sensors. 7- Hydrogen sulfide sensors. 8- Conductivity sensors. 9- Temp & mud weight out sensor. # NB; ## When depth is incorrect, go to data gp in software and enter depth correction, then write new value of total depth and click on bit depth also to be adjusted. And try to do that when Kelly is stop moving. ## When the stand is on bottom with specific SPM the pressure differs to some extent than when it is off bottom with same SPM. 6

WASH and REAMING:

It’s a process of widening and cleaning the hole after the drilling of every one STD. By moving up and down with RPM, SPM.

##When we make POOH and changes bit or any like that, then we RIH we should change run no and file no, and enter the new bit data or if its rerun again.

## ROP for rocks is:

(Sand, shale, siltstone, salt, anhyd, limestone, dolomite, basement).

## ROTATION PER MINUTE IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE TORQUE.

Theory of any pressure sensor is {sensitive diaphragm that affected with any pressure lay on it, and it’s contacted with oil to give sensor.

Mud or air

Diaphragm

Oil

Sensor

Wire

Q: How can I differentiate between the different lithologies?

 Sand stone Limestone Shale Anhydrite Salt 1-SD: Lse, clss, pnk, yellsh wh, occ/ gy, crse- v. crse grnd, occ/ pebbly, ang - sub ang, poor 1- Lst: Tansh 1- Sh: Gy, brwnsh gy, grnsh gy, sub blky - sub flky , mod frm - frm , non calc - sli calc, Dolomitc: 1- Anh: Crmy wh, mlky wh, wh, clss, mod hd -hd , cryptoxln. 1- Salt: Anh i/p wh, off wh, brnsh gy, cryptoxin, sft- mod hd, arg. srtd, w/ up to 50% fldsp. 2-SD: Lse, 2-Dol: Tansh 2-Anh: Yelsh wh, off wh, pstd, sft, cryptoxln. 2-Salt pnk, occ/ gy, gy, brnsh gy, tansh md - crse grnd, cryptoxln- brnsh, occ / v. crse , microxln, hd- tansh gy, ang - sub ang, poor srtd, w/ up to 90% v.hd. cryptoxln- microxln, mod hd- fldsp. hd. 3-faster ROP 3-Reacts with 3-SALINITY H Cl 3-Reacts with Ba SO4 TEST & Poor return & Fast ROP

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 Free point indicator The point at which they can make cut for the sticky string, firstly they try to make jarring to free this point. Flow check The test done to notice the level of mud inside the conductor. Leak of test This test done after each casing and the beginning of new open hole , this occurs by drilling of ten feet’s nearly to know what is the allowable pressure on the formation. Pumping a high vis mud It’s a high viscosity mud pumped to clean the hole from any cuttings or LCM or CMT contamination. Junk sample (magnet) It’s the metal cuttings come from the friction between the CSG pipes and the DP. Carbide test It’s the test done to calibrate the gas system chromatograph; it’s also used to examine the wash in hole by calculating the lag strokes. ## Calculate the amount of losses if no return: Bbls/hrs = POP * TSPM * 60 ## Calculate the (TFA) ---------- total flow area ==== = (Jet size/32/2) 2 * 22/7 * no of jets if they equal. If the jets is opened so ===========the size is 32 # ECD=======is the equivalent circulated density This is the mud wt in the dynamic state. ## GPM = POP * SPM * 42 ## POP = (LD) 2 * length stroke * efficiency * 0.000243 Q: HOW TO CALIBRATE THE PVT SENSOR? 1- One double press ---------4 MA --------------value---------------reach it to 2.80 2- Tow double press----------20 MA-------------value---------------reach it to 0.50 3- Four double press---------speed---------------value---------------reach it to 1 ## In case of partial losses, we add LCM in the mud, make shale shaker (by-pass), if it's continued so add sea water instead of mud to reduce the cost. 8
 Type of losses: 1-Surface losses --------it’s the losses of mud due to surface equipments like (desander, desilter, mud cleaner and centrifuge). 2-Hole fill---------------it’s the mud needed to fill the hole = (ID) 2 *1 feet/1029 3-Down hole losses---- it’s the mud lost in the formation due to fracturing or higher mud wt. Dogleg well This is well deviated, tends to be horizontal. Slip and cut It’s the process of elimination of the old worn wire on the draw work and installing of anew one from the dead line reel onto the draw work. During this process, they hang the top drive so the hook load sensor reads a minimum value like 25 k lbs. ### The junction between 2 DP is called -------TOOL JOINT. While that between 2 casings pipes is called ---CASING COLLAR. ## The gas system in the unit composed of: 1-DEGASSER : this is a MOTOR with agitator to liberate the gases from the mud. 2-SUCTION PUMP: this used to suck the gases from the WATER TRAP through the DITCH LINE. 3-PNEUMATIC PANEL: this is used to filter the gasses that coming from the pump into the gas system 4-LARGE COMPRESSOR: this is used to make alarm for H2S and exiting of any water or mud in the ditch line. 5-SMALL COMPRESSOR: this is used to supply an air needed for ignition. 6-HYDROGEN GENERATOR: this main source of hydrogen &work by the distilled water ionization into (H and O). 7-Total gas detector: is for the overall gas quantity detection. 8-Catalytic chromatograph: for sampling and timing of analysis. 9-FID chromatograph: for the gas sample analysis into their components. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q: How to know the wash out in pipes? By sudden pressure drop while drilling. ##This may be due to the pump de efficiency or leak in the stand pipe line so they must make check on both in order to confirm that is wash out in pipe, Also it may be due to loss of the jets. 9

##There are 2 types of cracks either :-

1-vertical:

That is when increasing the WOB, the crack increases and the pressure will continue drops.

2-horizontal:

That on decreasing the WOB, the pressures will increase.

Q: How to calculate the wash out depth?

V = {(id) 2 * L*const} + {(d-od) 2 *L*const} Where---------id, od ---------for the drill pipe. d---------------for the open hole or casing diameter.

OVERPULL:

It’s the sudden increase in the HKLD reading while POOH, due to the tight spot in the hole.

TWIST OFF:

This is the cut of the drill string from any weak point like the tool joints that is predicted by sharp drop in SPP and sharp drop in HKLD. ## The addition of new mud of different M WT can differ the total M WT in the hole, so there will be difference in the HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE.

 MWD GYRO TOT CO 1-it take angel and direction survey. 2-it ran with rotary assembly through motor it could send its pulses through the mud during the drilling. 1-it takes angel only. 1-it takes angel only. 2-it ran through the pipes and it requires being off bottom and stopping drill, using a special piece of pipe. 2-it ran through the open hole by using a wire.

Nippling up Bop:

It’s the setting up& installing of the BOP for the new open hole, which followed by the BOP test to see what is the maximum allowable pressure on the annulus.

FAST BREAK:

It means the ROP is high due to soft formation.

DRILL OFF:

It’s coming off bottom position after the drilling process.

BACK FLUSH (PURGE):

It’s the process of exiting the water or any mud from the ditch line in order not to plug that; by switching on the compressor and opening the water trap.

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## We should increase the mud weight incase of drilling high pressurized shale in
order not to cause mechanical stuck and also we shouldn’t increase above limited
value in order not to make differential stuck.
## Lime sandy texture-------it’s the lithology of limestone in shape of sand size;
hence it can react with hydrochloric acid without any ppt.
## Sandy limestone-----------its limestone and sand stone mixed rock, when reacts
with HCl it gives ppt.
-------------------------------------------------
CALCULATION OF THE BOTTOM UP:
Bbls= {(id) 2 -(od) 2 }*L/1029
Strokes=bbls/POP
Time=strokes/T. spm
DP
HOLE
CALCULATION OF THE CAPACITY:
Bbls=(id) 2 *L/1029
Strokes=bbls/POP
Time= strokes/T. spm
(HOLE or DP)
CALCULATION OF THE DISPLACEMENT IN THE TRIPPING:
Bbls=(od) 2 -(id) 2 *L/1029
The difference of the
outer diameter than the
inner diameter is the
thickness of the pipe.
The pass of the signals from and into the unit is:
{Sensor--Safety barrier-- modulaDAS--Phillips--on line}
The DAQ is the connecting node of this system, so it’s connected to server via
RS-
232 connection through card in the server called MOXA, which is also connected to
the rig monitor through the DAQ.
DAQ is feeding the sensors with the required power through the SAFETY BARRIER &
consequently the DAQ collects the sensors data through the safety barrier.
The DAQ modules also are feeding the PHILLIPS recorder with the data.
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The importance of the safety barrier:

1-feeding the sensors with required power. 2-isolate sensors from the DAQ. 3-protect the system from bad connections (short circuit, open Circuit conditions.

Bit sub:

It’s the connection between the DC and the bit, and it’s above the bit directly.

Kelly down:

It’s the end point of Kelly near the rotary table; approximately it’s the height of the old stand minus 2-3 feet’s

Kelly up:

It’s the beginning point of the Kelly in the top of the mast, the height of new stand plus 2-3 feet’s

2-WIPER TRIP POOH-----it's short trip to the last casing shoe in the well.

RISER

The long tube (conductor) that used only in offshore rigs to connect between the floor and the opening of the hole, and on the bottom the BOP is reset on the sea floor.

FORMATION INTEGRATED TEST:

It’s the test on 5 feet’s of the formation after casing and after they drill the shoes, by pumping mud in closing of the hole to know the amount of pressure allowable on the formation, this point is known from the decrease in the pressure after its increase. If it’s pumped from the cement pump it's called (LEAK OFF TEST).

Cement job:

WAIT ON CEMENT about 6-12 hours according to the depth of the casing.

The BOTTOM PLUG is added before pumping the spacer, While the UPPER PLUG is added after pumping the slurry.

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 LOSSES KICK 1-DECREASE IN THE PIT VOLUME WITH RESPECT TO HOLE FILLS. 1-INCREASE IN THE PITS VOLUME. 2-INCREASE IN THE SPP, WITH 2-DECREASE IN THE SPP &IT MAY INCREASE SPM OF PUMPS. SAME STROKES. 3-IN CASE OF COMPLETE LOSS, 3-INCREASE IN THE MUD TEMPERATURE. NO MUD FLOW OUT RETURN. 4- 4-DECREASE IN MUD WT 5- 5-MAX READING OF GAS THAN BACK GROUND GASES. 6- 6-FAST BREAK IN ROP.

NB When the pumps switched on, it will consume many barrels to fill the lines (no losses), While the pumps switched off, it will back the mud in lines (no gain).

--------------------------------------

Types of gases:

1- Back ground gas. 2- Connection gas. 3- Trip gas. 4 Circulation gas.

 SPP increase with same SPM SPP decrease with same SPM 1-Mud weight is increased. 1-Mud weight is decreased. 2-jets may be plugged. 2-lossing of jets. 3-MWD problems if present. 3-the deficiency of the pumps (POP)

Squeeze:

It’s the process of injection the cement, it’s done by running (cement returner tool) and its work through pumping cement at bottom then it will plug the cement.

Morgatol bacterial acid):

Its ataxic additive is placed in the geochemical samples to preserve it.

### No carbide test occurs in oil base mud unless we add water in the test between the tow pipe connections.

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 Q: What is effect of increasing the mud weight? 1- It may cause fracturing to the formation so losses. 2- If it didn’t make losses due to impermeable formation, it would make impact force on the ROP. 3- Also it can affect on the bit hence it will affect all the drilling. Spot: It’s a high mud weight mud left on bottom, in order to pooh with dry pipes as possible. Slug: It’s a high mud weight used to clean the string from cuttings during the tripping. HTHP: High temp high pressure in case of oil base mud and its equivalent to water loss in case of water base mud. Scab liner: Its reverse liner ran above the liner to support. And it must be of high grade. Stinger: Its 3.5” DP used when we pumping cement plug to close a hole also when we drill 6”. During pulling string: Fluid level drop (ft) = pipe displacement (bbl) / (annular capacity + pipe capacity) So Hyd press loss due to pulling = (0.052* M wt * level drop) After pooh 5 STD, the level will decrease in the hole so; we need to fill the hole after every 5 STD So the strokes to fill the hole = (pipe displacement (bbl)/POP) Pressure loss: Pressure expanded where fluid flow through pipe and annulus since there is resistance to flow, such as drop @ (string &bit&annular&surface) It depends on: -fluid properties. - Pipe dimensions. - Flow rate of fluid. Pressure on the formation = (hyd press +imposed press +press loss) Slip velocity: The velocity of the cuttings to get to bottom with effect of gravity only when the pump is switched off. 14
 Reynolds no: The factor, which determine the type of flow for any fluid, When it’s increased than 2000so its turbulent flow that help in cleaning the hole especially at the drill collar area, which is spiral. When it’s decreased than 2000so it’s a laminar flow such that at the drill pipe Fill up tool: Its tool added to the top drive in case of casing running in order to fill the tube after many joints. What do you do to make WOB in the drilling of CMT with knowing that bit depth isn't equal to total depth? CALCULATION BOUYANT WEIGHTOF DRILL STRING OFF BOTTOM ========ENTER THE OFF BOTTOM NEEDED TO CALCULATE FROM WHICH THE WEIGHT DRILL STRING WEIGHT========= TO ENTER THE NEW VALUE OF THE OFF BOTTOM: (TD-FLOAT COLLAR DEPTH)= VALUE (WHICH IS NEEDED) TO BE OFFBOTTOM TO CALCULAT WOB #TO MAKE THE SOFTWARE CALCULATE STANDS WHICH CATCH THE LINER CASING: ENTER THE STANDS NUMBER IN (DRILL STRING GEOMETRY) 15