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Volume : 2 | Issue : 3 | March 2013 ISSN - 2250-1991

PARIPEX - INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH X 69


ABSTRACT
In this paper the state space model for Full Wave Active Clamp Forward Converter is formed. The model utilizes low output
inductance value to achieve an improved bandwidth and load transient response. Simulation results are presented for a
converter operating at 100 KHz with 48V DC nominal input and 5V/20A DC output. The effect of input voltage and output
current is also observed.
Keywords: Active Clamp, Peak current mode control, State Space Averaging
Research Paper Research Paper
State Space Modeling & Simulation of Full
wave Active-Clamp Forward Converter Using
Peak Current Mode Control
* Prof. Sagar Manjrekar ** Ms. Shrankhala Jain
Engineering
* PIES Indore, M.P.
** PIES Indore, M.P.
I. INTRODUCTION
ACTIVE clamp forward converter (ACFC) is one of the most
attractive topology for low and medium power applications
where low voltages at high currents are required with higher
effciency. The leakage and magnetizing inductance is utilized
for zero voltage switching (ZVS), which allow a converter to
operate at higher frequency [1-3]. The secondary side power
losses are reduced with current doubler rectifer by minimiz-
ing rms current in the transformer secondary [4]. These topo-
logical advancements to improve the performance are done
on ACFC with half wave rectifcation.
A centretapped full wave rectifer is used at the secondary
of transformer to reduce the size of the output flter [5-7]. In
[5] the steady state design is provided with the analysis of
operating modes. However the literature does not tell about
transient response, bandwidth and effect of clamp capacitor
on dynamic performance of the converter.
The objective of this paper is to present a high frequency
PWM DC-DC converter with full wave rectifer. Also the effect
of input voltage and output current variation on the converter
performance are studied. In section II the operating princi-
ple of Full wave ACFC is outlined as in [5] and the key ideas
are represented. The small signal peak current mode control
model [8] has been developed for ACFC.
There is no unifed model that can predict both the steady
state and dynamic characteristics of the current mode con-
trolled ACFWC. The steady state analysis is provided by
employing state space averaging concept in section III.
Moreover a small signal model based on state space av-
eraging and peak current mode control is established to
investigate the converter dynamic performance. Simulation
results are presented in section IV to verify the theoretical
analysis.
II. OPERATING PRINCIPLE
The basic circuit diagram of ACFWC is shown in Fig. 1. The
DC input voltage V
in
isolation transformer and main switch Q
1
are the basic circuit confguration in the primary side of the
forward converter. The active clamp circuit consists of one
auxiliary switch Q
2
, and one clamp capacitor C
c
. L
m
is the
magnetizing inductance of the transformer; L
r
is the resonant
inductance, which includes the transformer leakage induct-
ance and the external inductance.
In the secondary side the rectifer diodes D
1
and D
2
are used
to achieve full-wave rectifcation. The output flter inductance
L
o
and capacitance C
o
are used to reduce the inductor current
and output voltage ripples. The main switch Q
1
and auxiliary
switch Q
2
in the transformer primary side are operated under
the ZVS condition based on resonance during the commuta-
tion interval. With full wave rectifcation we can reduce the
output inductor ripples and improvement in the bandwidth can
be achieved by utilizing different values of secondary turns
Ns
1
and Ns
2
.
To illustrate the basic operation of the topology the following
assumptions have been made-
a) The Mosfets are ideal with no conduction voltage drop, no
switching loss.
b) Leakage inductance of transformer is zero.
c) There is no dead time between Mosfet on-off transitions.
Fig. 1 Circuit diagram of the ACFWC
With all the assumptions there are two modes of operation of
the converter.
1) Mode1: T
on
[D]: Q
1
and D
1
are on, Q
2
and D
2
are off.
1) Mode2: T
off
[1-D]: Q
2
and D
2
are on, Q
1
and D
1
are off.
The corresponding waveforms of the converter are shown in
fg. 2.The value of V
sec
during main mosfet Q
1
on period V
secon

and during off period V
secoff
are always larger than zero and
the difference between them can be made small by selecting
N
s1
and N
s2
appropriately.
During Ton Vsec is given by Vsecon (1) and during Toff, Vsec
is given by Vsecoff (2).
Volume : 2 | Issue : 3 | March 2013 ISSN - 2250-1991
70 X PARIPEX - INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH
Fig. 2 Waveforms ACFC with full wave rectifer
(1)
(2)
For unbalanced ACFWC
2 1 s s
N N

and for balanced ACFWC
2 1 s s
N N = . However for conventional ACFC V
secon
is given by
(3) and V
secoff
is zero.
(3)
The small value of sec
V

of the unbalanced ACFWC reduces
the output inductor ripple current
o
I
. The equations for in-
ductor ripple current and output voltage as a function of input
voltage are given below by (4) (9) for balanced ACFWC,
unbalanced ACFWC, and ACFC.
Unbalanced ACFWC:
(4)
(5)
Balanced ACFWC:
(6)
(7)
Where, Ns1 = Ns2 = Ns
ACFC:
(8)
(9)
It is possible to achieve zero inductor ripple current for bal-
anced ACFWC if D=0.5, which is impractical operating point
due to restriction on duty cycle limit for ACFWC. ACFC can
achieve zero inductor ripple current for D=1 which is also im-
practical. For unbalanced ACFWC zero inductor ripple current
can be achieved if (10) is satisfed.
(10)
On simplifying we get
(11)
Fig. 3 shows the variation of D w.r.t. n.
Fig. 3 Variation of duty cycle with secondary winding ratios
III. STATE SPACE AVERAGING
There are two operating modes of ACFWC in a switching
period, in which converter can be denoted using two linear
state space equations (12, 13), where x is the vector of state
variables, u is the vector of independent sources; A1, B1, A2
and B2 are respective system matrices in each of the two
operating modes.
(n=1,2) (12)
(13)
where
Averaging the two set of state space equations over one
switching period:
where the equivalent matrices are defned by,

The small-signal model is found out by the equations (14) and
(15) as given in [9].
Volume : 2 | Issue : 3 | March 2013 ISSN - 2250-1991
PARIPEX - INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH X 71

(15)
From the above state space model equations, small-signal
ac equivalent circuit model can be formed as shown in fg. 4.
Fig. 4 Small signal ac equivalent circuit model of ACFWC
The equivalent circuit of fg. 4 can now be solved using tech-
niques of conventional linear circuit analysis, to fnd out the
converter transfer functions.
IV. PEAK CURRENT MODE CONTROL
In this control method the power switch Q1 is turned on at the
rising edge of clock pulse and turns off at peak current of mag-
netic origin.In this paper the main switch current is sensed,
which is a combination of magnetizing current and refected
secondary current. The equivalent voltage of sensed current
is compared with the processed voltage error and accodingly
duty cycle is varied to maintain the output voltage at a value
set by Vref .
In current mode control the output voltage is controlled by
limiting the peak current through the inductor. To model this,
the relation between controlled current ic and the duty cycle
d can be derived from Fig. 5 in terms of output current, output
voltage, input voltage and magnetizing current.
Fig. 5 Peak current mode control dynamics
The slopes of different currents can be defned as follows
Output Current Slope
Magnetizing current slope
Primary current slope M
1
=M
2
+M
3
Equating control current with added artifcial ramp to the pri-
mary side current. At point A
(16)
Perturbing with small ac quantities, assuming the atrifcial
ramp is constant and separating small signal ac componants,
(17)
Solving for
d

(18)
Where
The complete block diagram of active clamp forward converter
with peak current mode control is shown in Fig. 6. In block dia-
gram Gvg, Gig, Gimg are small signal transfer function from
0
v ,

0

i ,

m
i

to input voltage change and Gvd, Gid, Gimd are the small
signal transfer function from
0
v ,

0

i ,

m
i

to change in duty cycle.


Fig. 6 Block diagram ACFC with PCMC
From Fig. 6 various gains are as follws
V. SIMULATION RESULTS
The above small signal model of ACFWC with peak current
mode control is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink with the de-
sign parameters as,
Input ratings V
in
= 36-72V (48V nominal)
Switching frequency, F
s
=100 KHz
Output ratings V
o
=5V, P
o
=100W
Maximum Duty Cycle 0.5
Turns ratio of Transformer 8:1:1
Magnetizing inductance,
Output inductor flter,
A disturbance of 5V in the input is applied at 3msec and a load
variation of 2A in output current is given at 6msec. The output
voltage response for C
c
=100nF is shown in Figure 7.
Volume : 2 | Issue : 3 | March 2013 ISSN - 2250-1991
72 X PARIPEX - INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH
Figure 7: Steady state output voltage with i/p voltage and o/p
current disturbance for C
c
=100nF
The output current response for Cc=100nF is shown in Figure 8.
Figure 8: Steady state output current with i/p voltage and o/p
current disturbance for Cc=100nF
The frequency response with different values of C
c
is given in
Figure 9 and it is observed that the resonance frequency is
shifted to a higher value for lower value of the clamp capacitor.
Figure 9: Open loop frequency response of small signal mod-
el from Control input ic to output voltage V
o
A resonant peak is observed due to the magnetizing induct-
ance and clamp capacitance at
Where the effective clamp capacitance,
VI. CONCLUSION
A small signal model for ACFWC has been presented using
state space averaging. The effect of input voltage and out-
put current variation on the performance of the converter
was shown. Improvement in bandwidth can also be done by
reducing the value of clamp capacitance. The small signal
model can be further improved by considering the neglected
parameters.
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