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ABSTRACT

In this paper the state space model for Full Wave Active Clamp Forward Converter is formed. The model utilizes low output

inductance value to achieve an improved bandwidth and load transient response. Simulation results are presented for a

converter operating at 100 KHz with 48V DC nominal input and 5V/20A DC output. The effect of input voltage and output

current is also observed.

Keywords: Active Clamp, Peak current mode control, State Space Averaging

Research Paper Research Paper

State Space Modeling & Simulation of Full

wave Active-Clamp Forward Converter Using

Peak Current Mode Control

* Prof. Sagar Manjrekar ** Ms. Shrankhala Jain

Engineering

* PIES Indore, M.P.

** PIES Indore, M.P.

I. INTRODUCTION

ACTIVE clamp forward converter (ACFC) is one of the most

attractive topology for low and medium power applications

where low voltages at high currents are required with higher

effciency. The leakage and magnetizing inductance is utilized

for zero voltage switching (ZVS), which allow a converter to

operate at higher frequency [1-3]. The secondary side power

losses are reduced with current doubler rectifer by minimiz-

ing rms current in the transformer secondary [4]. These topo-

logical advancements to improve the performance are done

on ACFC with half wave rectifcation.

A centretapped full wave rectifer is used at the secondary

of transformer to reduce the size of the output flter [5-7]. In

[5] the steady state design is provided with the analysis of

operating modes. However the literature does not tell about

transient response, bandwidth and effect of clamp capacitor

on dynamic performance of the converter.

The objective of this paper is to present a high frequency

PWM DC-DC converter with full wave rectifer. Also the effect

of input voltage and output current variation on the converter

performance are studied. In section II the operating princi-

ple of Full wave ACFC is outlined as in [5] and the key ideas

are represented. The small signal peak current mode control

model [8] has been developed for ACFC.

There is no unifed model that can predict both the steady

state and dynamic characteristics of the current mode con-

trolled ACFWC. The steady state analysis is provided by

employing state space averaging concept in section III.

Moreover a small signal model based on state space av-

eraging and peak current mode control is established to

investigate the converter dynamic performance. Simulation

results are presented in section IV to verify the theoretical

analysis.

II. OPERATING PRINCIPLE

The basic circuit diagram of ACFWC is shown in Fig. 1. The

DC input voltage V

in

isolation transformer and main switch Q

1

are the basic circuit confguration in the primary side of the

forward converter. The active clamp circuit consists of one

auxiliary switch Q

2

, and one clamp capacitor C

c

. L

m

is the

magnetizing inductance of the transformer; L

r

is the resonant

inductance, which includes the transformer leakage induct-

ance and the external inductance.

In the secondary side the rectifer diodes D

1

and D

2

are used

to achieve full-wave rectifcation. The output flter inductance

L

o

and capacitance C

o

are used to reduce the inductor current

and output voltage ripples. The main switch Q

1

and auxiliary

switch Q

2

in the transformer primary side are operated under

the ZVS condition based on resonance during the commuta-

tion interval. With full wave rectifcation we can reduce the

output inductor ripples and improvement in the bandwidth can

be achieved by utilizing different values of secondary turns

Ns

1

and Ns

2

.

To illustrate the basic operation of the topology the following

assumptions have been made-

a) The Mosfets are ideal with no conduction voltage drop, no

switching loss.

b) Leakage inductance of transformer is zero.

c) There is no dead time between Mosfet on-off transitions.

Fig. 1 Circuit diagram of the ACFWC

With all the assumptions there are two modes of operation of

the converter.

1) Mode1: T

on

[D]: Q

1

and D

1

are on, Q

2

and D

2

are off.

1) Mode2: T

off

[1-D]: Q

2

and D

2

are on, Q

1

and D

1

are off.

The corresponding waveforms of the converter are shown in

fg. 2.The value of V

sec

during main mosfet Q

1

on period V

secon

and during off period V

secoff

are always larger than zero and

the difference between them can be made small by selecting

N

s1

and N

s2

appropriately.

During Ton Vsec is given by Vsecon (1) and during Toff, Vsec

is given by Vsecoff (2).

Volume : 2 | Issue : 3 | March 2013 ISSN - 2250-1991

70 X PARIPEX - INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH

Fig. 2 Waveforms ACFC with full wave rectifer

(1)

(2)

For unbalanced ACFWC

2 1 s s

N N

and for balanced ACFWC

2 1 s s

N N = . However for conventional ACFC V

secon

is given by

(3) and V

secoff

is zero.

(3)

The small value of sec

V

of the unbalanced ACFWC reduces

the output inductor ripple current

o

I

. The equations for in-

ductor ripple current and output voltage as a function of input

voltage are given below by (4) (9) for balanced ACFWC,

unbalanced ACFWC, and ACFC.

Unbalanced ACFWC:

(4)

(5)

Balanced ACFWC:

(6)

(7)

Where, Ns1 = Ns2 = Ns

ACFC:

(8)

(9)

It is possible to achieve zero inductor ripple current for bal-

anced ACFWC if D=0.5, which is impractical operating point

due to restriction on duty cycle limit for ACFWC. ACFC can

achieve zero inductor ripple current for D=1 which is also im-

practical. For unbalanced ACFWC zero inductor ripple current

can be achieved if (10) is satisfed.

(10)

On simplifying we get

(11)

Fig. 3 shows the variation of D w.r.t. n.

Fig. 3 Variation of duty cycle with secondary winding ratios

III. STATE SPACE AVERAGING

There are two operating modes of ACFWC in a switching

period, in which converter can be denoted using two linear

state space equations (12, 13), where x is the vector of state

variables, u is the vector of independent sources; A1, B1, A2

and B2 are respective system matrices in each of the two

operating modes.

(n=1,2) (12)

(13)

where

Averaging the two set of state space equations over one

switching period:

where the equivalent matrices are defned by,

The small-signal model is found out by the equations (14) and

(15) as given in [9].

Volume : 2 | Issue : 3 | March 2013 ISSN - 2250-1991

PARIPEX - INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH X 71

(15)

From the above state space model equations, small-signal

ac equivalent circuit model can be formed as shown in fg. 4.

Fig. 4 Small signal ac equivalent circuit model of ACFWC

The equivalent circuit of fg. 4 can now be solved using tech-

niques of conventional linear circuit analysis, to fnd out the

converter transfer functions.

IV. PEAK CURRENT MODE CONTROL

In this control method the power switch Q1 is turned on at the

rising edge of clock pulse and turns off at peak current of mag-

netic origin.In this paper the main switch current is sensed,

which is a combination of magnetizing current and refected

secondary current. The equivalent voltage of sensed current

is compared with the processed voltage error and accodingly

duty cycle is varied to maintain the output voltage at a value

set by Vref .

In current mode control the output voltage is controlled by

limiting the peak current through the inductor. To model this,

the relation between controlled current ic and the duty cycle

d can be derived from Fig. 5 in terms of output current, output

voltage, input voltage and magnetizing current.

Fig. 5 Peak current mode control dynamics

The slopes of different currents can be defned as follows

Output Current Slope

Magnetizing current slope

Primary current slope M

1

=M

2

+M

3

Equating control current with added artifcial ramp to the pri-

mary side current. At point A

(16)

Perturbing with small ac quantities, assuming the atrifcial

ramp is constant and separating small signal ac componants,

(17)

Solving for

d

(18)

Where

The complete block diagram of active clamp forward converter

with peak current mode control is shown in Fig. 6. In block dia-

gram Gvg, Gig, Gimg are small signal transfer function from

0

v ,

0

i ,

m

i

to input voltage change and Gvd, Gid, Gimd are the small

signal transfer function from

0

v ,

0

i ,

m

i

Fig. 6 Block diagram ACFC with PCMC

From Fig. 6 various gains are as follws

V. SIMULATION RESULTS

The above small signal model of ACFWC with peak current

mode control is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink with the de-

sign parameters as,

Input ratings V

in

= 36-72V (48V nominal)

Switching frequency, F

s

=100 KHz

Output ratings V

o

=5V, P

o

=100W

Maximum Duty Cycle 0.5

Turns ratio of Transformer 8:1:1

Magnetizing inductance,

Output inductor flter,

A disturbance of 5V in the input is applied at 3msec and a load

variation of 2A in output current is given at 6msec. The output

voltage response for C

c

=100nF is shown in Figure 7.

Volume : 2 | Issue : 3 | March 2013 ISSN - 2250-1991

72 X PARIPEX - INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH

Figure 7: Steady state output voltage with i/p voltage and o/p

current disturbance for C

c

=100nF

The output current response for Cc=100nF is shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8: Steady state output current with i/p voltage and o/p

current disturbance for Cc=100nF

The frequency response with different values of C

c

is given in

Figure 9 and it is observed that the resonance frequency is

shifted to a higher value for lower value of the clamp capacitor.

Figure 9: Open loop frequency response of small signal mod-

el from Control input ic to output voltage V

o

A resonant peak is observed due to the magnetizing induct-

ance and clamp capacitance at

Where the effective clamp capacitance,

VI. CONCLUSION

A small signal model for ACFWC has been presented using

state space averaging. The effect of input voltage and out-

put current variation on the performance of the converter

was shown. Improvement in bandwidth can also be done by

reducing the value of clamp capacitance. The small signal

model can be further improved by considering the neglected

parameters.

REFERENCES

[1] B. R. Lin, K. Huang, and D. Wang, Analysis design and implementation of an active clamp forward converter with synchronous rectifer, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.

I, Reg. Papers, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 13101319, Jun. 2006. | [2] A. Acik and I. Cadirci, Active clamped ZVS forward converter with soft-switched synchronous rectifer for

high effciency low output voltage applications IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl. Vol. 150, No. 2. March 2003. | [3] Adnan ACIK, Isik CADIRCI, Active Clamp ZVS Forward

Converter With Soft-Switched Synchronous Rectifer Turk J Elec. Engin. VOL. 10, NO.3 2002. | [4] Yangyang Wen, Hong Mao, and Issa Batarseh, DC Bias AnaIysis and

Small-Signal Characteristic of Active-Clamp Forward-Flyback DC-DC Converter with a Current DoubIer Rectifer Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition,

2005. | [5] B.-R. Lin, S.-C. Tsay and C.-S. Yang, Analysis and implementation of ZVS forward converter with centre-tapped rectifer IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol.

153, No. 5, September 2006. | [6] Wilson Eberle, and Yan-Fei Liu, A Zero Voltage Switching Asymmetrical Half-Bridge DC/DC Converter With Unbalanced Secondary

Windings For Improved Bandwidth Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2002 Vol. 4 pp. 1829-1834. | [7] B.-R. Lin, K. Huang and D. Wang, Analysis and imple-

mentation of full-bridge converter with current doubler rectifer IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 5, September 2005 | [8] Fontan A, Ollero S, de la Cruz E.

Sebastian J, "Peak current mode control applied to the forward converter with active clamp", Power Electronics Specialists Conference. 1998, vol. I, pp.45-51 | [9] Robert

W. Erickson, Dragan Maksimovic Fundamentals of power electronics, Springer publications, 2nd edition. |

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