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about torsional behavior

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about torsional behavior

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- Complaint Dialogue
- Analysis of a Simply Supported Beam
- JJ205-Engineering Mechanics Unit 1
- JJ205-Engineering Mechanics Unit 2
- Quiz1 solid material
- Torsion of Shaft
- Different Types of Load and Fatigue Failure(2)
- Chapter 2 - General Fracture Mechanics
- UNIT 6: EXAMPLE AND PROBLEMS KINIMATICS
- Design of X-Joints in Sandwich Structures for Naval Vessels
- Simple Supported Beam
- DT Fracture Test
- Lecture 8 RC Water Retaining Example1
- Initial Tutorial Handout Answers - Steel
- 4stress_flex.pdf
- Sokolnikoff Theory of Elasticity
- ini
- Tensors, Stress, Strain, Elasticity
- Debverma Farm Smp
- Fracturamiento Hidraulico

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Torsion of

Circular

Sections

71

Lecture 7: TORSION OF CIRCULAR SECTIONS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

7.1. Introduction 73

7.2. Problem Description 73

7.2.1. Terminology, Notation, Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . 73

7.2.2. Deformation of Torqued Shaft . . . . . . . . . . . 75

7.2.3. Stress and Strain Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

7.3. The Stress Formula 76

7.4. The Twist Rate And Angle Formulas 77

7.5. Torsion Failure Modes 78

7.5.1. Principal Stresses and Maximum Shear . . . . . . . . 78

7.5.2. Material Failure: Ductile Versus Brittle . . . . . . . . . 79

72

7.2 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION

7.1. Introduction

The present lecture begins a set of three classes on torsion. This topic is presented now to provide

timely theoretical support for the rst experimental Lab, which will be demoed on Friday Sept 21.

The rst lecture covers circular cross sections. These can be be treated by elementary (Mechanics

of Materials) methods that nonetheless provide the exact elasticity solution. The next two lectures

deal with Thin Wall (TW) cross sections of important in Aerospace. For these approximate methods

are necessary.

z

y

z

y

x

T(+)

T(+)

x

T(+)

T(+)

(a)

(b)

Figure 7.1. Torsion of a circular shaft: (a) Single-headed arrow (a.k.a. harpoon) representation and

(b) double-headed arrow vector representation for torque. Both symbols are used in this course.

7.2. Problem Description

This Section introduces the problem of a torqued member (shaft) of circular cross section (solid or

annular), and presents the necessary terminology.

7.2.1. Terminology, Notation, Coordinate Systems

We consider a bar-like, straight, prismatic structural member of constant cross section subjected to

applied torque T about its long axis, as pictured in Figure 7.1(a). This kind of member, designed

primarily to transmit torque, is called a shaft. Axis x is directed along the longitudinal shaft

dimension. The applied torque is shown as a moment about that axis. It is positive when it acts as

indicated, complying with the right-hand screw rule along the x direction. Axes y and z lie on a

cross section conventionally taken as origin.

Figure 7.1(b) shows an alternative picture of the torque as a double-headed arrow vector. We will

use this representation whenever it leads to a more convenient visualization.

An important use of shafts is to transmit power between parallel planes, as in automobile power

trains, electrical machinery, aircraft engines or helicopter rotors. See Figure 7.2.

In this lecture we restrict consideration to shafts of circular cross section that may be either solid

or hollow (annular, tubular), as pictured in Figure 7.3(a,b). If the shaft is solid, its radius is R. If

hollow, the exterior and interior radius are denoted by R

e

and R

i

, respectively.

In addition to the (x, y, z) Rectangular Cartesian Coordinate (RCC) system of Figure 7.1 we shall

also use often the cylindrical coordinate system (x, , ) depicted in Figure 7.3(c) for a typical

73

Lecture 7: TORSION OF CIRCULAR SECTIONS

Figure 7.2. Transfering power between planes via torqued shafts.

2R

2R 2R

i e

x

y

z

P(x,,)

coordinate system (looking at

cross section from +x down)

Cross sections considered in this lecture

(a) (b)

(c)

Figure 7.3. Circular cross sections considered in this Lecture, and coordinate systems.

(b) (a)

Figure 7.4. Visualizing deformations produced by torque.

74

7.2 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION

cross section. The position coordinates of an arbitrary shaft point P are x, y, z in RCC and x, ,

in cylindrical coordinates. Here is the radial coordinate (not a happy notation choice because of

potential confusion with density, but it is the symbol used in most Mechanics of Materials textbooks)

and the angular coordinate, taken positive CCW from y as shown. Note that

y = cos , z = sin . (7.1)

7.2.2. Deformation of Torqued Shaft

To visualize what happens when a circular shaft is torqued, consider rst the undeformed state

under zero torque. A rectangular-like mesh is marked on the surface as shown in Figure 7.4(a).

The rectangles have sides parallel to the longitudinal axis x and the circumferential direction .

Apply torque to the end sections. Rectangles marked in Figure 7.4(b) shear into parallelograms, as

illustrated in Figure 7.4(b). This diagram displays the main effect: shear stresses and associated

shear strains develop over the cylinders = constant. Next subsection goes into more details.

7.2.3. Stress and Strain Distributions

longitudinal

direction x

(a)

(b)

x

x

x

we will often call

= =

x

circumferential

direction

radial

direction

Material element aligned with

cylindrical coordinate axes

T

T

All other stress

components

are zero

z

y

Figure 7.5. Extracting a (x, , )-aligned material element. The only nonzero stresses are

x

=

x

.

A material element aligned with the cylindrical coordinate axes is cut out as shown in Figure

7.5(a). The element is magnied in Figure 7.5(b), which plainly shows that the only nonzero stress

component on its faces is the shear stress

x

=

x

. It follows that the stress and strain matrices

referred to the cylindrical coordinate system have the form

0

x

0

x

0 0

0 0 0

Hookes law

0

x

0

x

0 0

0 0 0

(7.2)

75

Lecture 7: TORSION OF CIRCULAR SECTIONS

x

T

T

x

x

d

=

x

=

x

90

dA = d d

Figure 7.6. Integration over the cross section of the elementary moment produced by the shear stress

component =

x

will balance the internal torque T.

The axes have been reordered as (x, , ) for convenience in identifying with plane stress and strain

later. In the sequel we often call =

x

=

x

, and =

x

=

x

to reduce subscript clutter.

Stresses and strains in (7.2) are connected at each material point by Hookes shear law

= G , =

G

, (7.3)

in which G is the shear modulus. Because of circular symmetry and do not depend on .

They may depend on x if either the cross section radius or the internal torque change along the

shaft length, but that variation will not be generally made explicit. We will assume (subject to a

posteriori verication) that and depend linearly on , and we scale that dependence as follows:

=

R

max

, =

R

max

(7.4)

Here

max

and

max

are maximum values of the shear stress and strain, respectively, over the cross

section. These occur at = R, the radius of the shaft. (For an annular shaft, R = R

e

, the exterior

or outer radius)

7.3. The Stress Formula

Call T the internal torque acting on a cross section x = constant. The shear stress =

x

acting on

an elementary cross section area d A produces an elementary force dF = d A and an elementary

moment dM = dF = ( d A) about the x axis. See Figure 7.6 for the geometric details.

Integration of the elementary moment over the cross section must balance the internal torque:

T =

A

(shear stress elemental area) lever-arm

=

A

( d A) =

R

max

d A =

max

R

2

d A

=

max

R

2

( d d) =

max

R

3

d d =

max

J

R

,

(7.5)

76

7.4 THE TWIST RATE AND ANGLE FORMULAS

T

T

A

B

B'

L

BA

at x

x

=( ) =( )

max max max x x

Figure 7.7. Twist deformation of a torqued circular shaft. Deformations and

rotations greatly exaggerated for visualization convenience.

in which

J =

2

d A =

3

d d, (7.6)

is the polar moment of inertia of the cross section about its center. Solving for

max

gives the stress

formula:

max

=

T R

J

, =

R

max

=

T

J

(7.7)

For a solid circular section of radius R, J =

1

2

R

4

. For an annular cross section of exterior radius

R

e

and interior radius R

i

, J =

1

2

(R

4

e

R

4

i

).

7.4. The Twist Rate And Angle Formulas

A torqued shaft produces a relative rotation of one end respect to the other; see visualization in

Figure 7.4(b). This relative rotation is called the twist angle . The twist angle per unit of x-length

is called the twist rate d/dx. Often the design called for limitation on this rate or angle. It is thus

of interest to have expressions for both of them in terms of the applied torque and the properties of

the shaft. Geometric quantities used for working out those expressions are dened in Figure 7.7.

Note that innitesimal strains and rotations are assumed; deformations depicted in Figure 7.7 are

greatly exaggerated for visibility convenience. For small angles BB

R

BA

L

max

. At an

arbitrary distance x from the xed end, R x

max

whence = x

max

/R. Consequently the

twist rate is

d

dx

=

max

R

=

so =

d

dx

(7.8)

But according to Hookes law (7.3)

=

G

=

T

GJ

=

d

dx

(7.9)

77

Lecture 7: TORSION OF CIRCULAR SECTIONS

6

Material: steel, G = 12 x 10 psi

Solid circular x section, R = 1 in

Fixed end

T = 5000 lbs-in

B

L = 50 in

A

Figure 7.8. Example calculation of maximum shear stress and twist angle.

which yields

d

dx

=

T

GJ

(7.10)

This is the twist rate formula. To nd the twist angle

BA

, where subscripts identify the angle

measurement endpoints, integrate along the length of the shaft:

BA

=

B

A

=

B

0 =

B

=

L

0

d =

L

0

d

dx

dx =

L

0

T

GJ

dx. (7.11)

If T, G and J are constant along the shaft:

BA

=

T

GJ

L

0

dx =

T L

GJ

(7.12)

This is the twist angle formula for a prismatic shaft.

Example 7.1. Data for this example is provided in Figure 7.8. Find: maximum shear stress

max

, maximum

shear strain

max

and relative twist angle

BA

.

max

=

T R

J

=

T R

1

2

R

4

=

5000

1.57

= 3183 psi (7.13)

max

=

max

G

=

3200 psi

12 10

6

psi

= 265 (microradians) (7.14)

BA

=

T L

G J

=

5000 50

12 10

6

(

1

2

1

4

)

= 0.0133 rad = 0.76

(7.15)

78

7.5 TORSION FAILURE MODES

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 7.9. Three failure modes of a torqued specimen: (a,b): material failure in solid shaft, (c): wall

buckling in thin walled tubular shaft.

7.5. Torsion Failure Modes

Shafts should be designed against possible failure modes. Three practically important ones are

sketched in Figure 7.9. Specimen (a) and (b) display two classical material failure modes in a solid

shaft, whereas (c) illustrates a wall buckling failure that may occur for hollow shafts if the wall is

too thin. Only the rst two modes are discussed here, since the last one requires knowledge of shell

buckling, which falls outside of the scope of this course.

7.5.1. Principal Stresses and Maximum Shear

As discussed in 7.2.2, the stress matrix at a point P(x, , ) referred to a cylindrical coordinate

system with axes reordered as (x, , ) takes the simple form

0 0

0 0

0 0 0

, =

x

=

x

=

max

R

,

max

=

T R

J

. (7.16)

We can observe that all points are in plate stress because all stresses with a subscript vanish,

although the shaft is not a thin plate. It is also in plane strain because the transverse strains (that

is, strain components with a subscript):

,

x

and

, are zero.

Since the shear stress is proportional to , we consider a point on the outer surface = R, where

=

max

. The Mohrs circle for stresses in the (x, ) plane passing through P(x, R, ) is shown

in Figure 7.10(a). By inspection we see that

(a) The principal stresses are

1

=

max

(tension) and

2

=

max

(compression). These occur

at 45

(b) The maximum inplane shear is

max

, which occurs on the shaft cross sections.

Consideration of 3D effects does not change these ndings because the zero principal stress is the

intermediate one. Thus the circle plotted in Figure 7.10(a) is the outer one, and the maximum

overall shear stress

overall

max

is the same as the maximum inplane shear stress, that is,

i nplane

max

.

79

Lecture 7: TORSION OF CIRCULAR SECTIONS

T

T

45

surface (plane of cross section)

Brittle material failure

surface (=helicoid)

max

max

max

1

=

max

2

(a) Mohr's circle for (x,) plane

at =R (outer shaft surface)

(b) Material failure surfaces for two

extreme cases: ductile vs. brittle

max

radius

of circle

is

Figure 7.10. By inpection of the Mohr circle, maximum normal and shear stresses at a point on the

outer shaft surface determine the kind of material failure.

7.5.2. Material Failure: Ductile Versus Brittle

We are now in a position to explain the two material failure modes shown in Figure 7.9(a,b).

If the material is ductile, it fails by maximum shear

max

reaching yield, followed by post-yield

plastic ow. The failure surface is the cross section, as sketched in Figure 7.9(a). The picture in

7.11(a) shows a mild steel specimen taken to failure by torque.

If the material is brittle, it fails by maximum tensile stress, which is

1

=

max

. Since this occurs at

45

from the longitudinal direction, the fracture is more complicated and will look (at least near the

shaft outer surface) like a helicoid, as sketched in Figure 7.9(b). The photographs in Figure 7.11

show two fractured specimen fabricated of brittle materials: cast iron and chalk, respectively.

(b) Brittle failure by tensile

normal stress (cast iron)

(c) Brittle failure by tensile

normal stress (chalk)

(a) Ductile failure by shear

(mild steel)

Figure 7.11. Actual material failure observed in torqued specimen.

If the material is not isotropic, the failure process can be more involved than the two extreme cases

dicussed above. For example, wood and laminate composites may fail by delamination across

layers or bers.

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