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11 vizualizări19 paginiNotes on Harmonics generated in power sustem disrtibution

Aug 22, 2014

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Notes on Harmonics generated in power sustem disrtibution

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11 vizualizări

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Notes on Harmonics generated in power sustem disrtibution

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Electricity generation is normally produced at constant frequencies of

50 Hz or 60 Hz and the generators e.m.f. can be considered

practically sinusoidal. However, when a source of sinusoidal voltage is

applied to a nonlinear device or load, the resulting current is not

perfectly sinusoidal. In the presence of system impedance this current

causes a non-sinusoidal voltage drop and, therefore, produces voltage

distortion at the load terminals, i.e. the latter contains harmonics.

Power system harmonics are defined as sinusoidal voltage and

currents at frequencies that are integer multiples of the main

generated (or fundamental) frequency. They constitute the major

distorting components of the mains voltage and load current

waveforms.

In the early 1800s, French mathematician, Jean Baptiste Fourier

formulated that a periodic nonsinusoidal function of a fundamental

frequency f may be expressed as the sum of sinusoidal functions of

frequencies which are multiples of the fundamental frequency.

For the periodic nonsinusoidal voltage wave form, the simplified

Fourier expression states:

v(t) = V0 + V1 sin(t) + V2 sin(2t) + + Vn sin(nt) +. (1)

V0 represents the constant or the DC component of the waveform.

V1, V2, V3, , Vn are the peak values of the successive terms of the

expression. The terms are known as the harmonics of the periodic

waveform.

FIGURE 1 Nonsinusoidal voltage waveform

FIGURE 2 Creation of Nonsinusoidal waveform by adding the fundamental and third

harmonic frequency waveforms.

The fundamental (or rst harmonic) frequency has a frequency of f,

the second harmonic has a frequency of 2f, the third harmonic has a

frequency of 3f, and the nth harmonic has a frequency of nf. If the

fundamental frequency is 50 Hz (as in the India), the second harmonic

frequency is 100 Hz, and the third harmonic frequency is 150 Hz.

The ability to express a nonsinusoidal waveform as a sum of

sinusoidal waves allows us to use the more common mathematical

expressions and formulas to solve power system problems. In order to

nd the effect of a nonsinusoidal voltage or current on a piece of

equipment, we only need to determine the effect of the individual

harmonics and then vectorially sum the results to derive the net

effect. Figure 2 illustrates how individual harmonics that are

sinusoidal can be added to form a nonsinusoidal wave form.

The Fourier expression in Eq. (1) has been simplied to clarify the

concept behind harmonic frequency components in a nonlinear

periodic function.

()

) ( ) ( )

()

()

()

where an and bn are the coefcients of the individual harmonic terms

or components. Under certain conditions, the cosine or sine terms can

vanish, giving us a simpler expression.

If the function is an even function, meaning f(t) = f (t), then the sine

terms vanish from the expression. If the function is odd, with

f(t) = f(t), then the cosine terms disappear.

Half Wave Symmetry:

From figure 3, we can say that () , system (main) voltage, possesses

half-wave symmetry. i.e.,

() (

) Or () (

)

i.e. the shape of the waveform over a period t + T /2 to t + T is the

negative of the shape of the waveform over the period t to t + T /2.

Consequently ,the voltage waveform of figure below has half wave

symmetry

FIGURE 3 Nonlinear waveform with halfwave symmetry by adding the fundamental

and third harmonic frequency waveforms.

From the following derivation, it is shown that the Fourier series of

any function which has half-wave symmetry contains only odd

harmonics.

Let us consider the Coefficients

()

()

() +

Which we may represent as

)

Now we substitute the new variable

in the integral

() (

)

But is , and thus,

Hence

()

After noting the form of

( )

()

The factor ( )indicates that

is zero if n is even.

Thus

()

A similar investigation shows that

therefore

()

Thus, For symmetrical waveforms, with half wave symmetry, all

the even numbered harmonics are nullified.

2. ODD AND EVEN ORDER HARMONICS

As their names imply, odd harmonics have odd numbers (e.g., 3, 5, 7,

9, 11), and even harmonics have even numbers (e.g., 2, 4, 6, 8, 10).

Harmonic number 1 is assigned to the fundamental frequency

component of the periodic wave.

Harmonic number 0 represents the constant or DC component of the

waveform. The DC component is the net difference between the

positive and negative halves of one complete waveform cycle. The DC

component of a waveform has undesirable effects, particularly on

transformers, due to the phenomenon of core saturation.

The majority of nonlinear loads produce harmonics that are odd

multiples of the fundamental frequency. Certain conditions need to

exist for production of even harmonics. Uneven current draw between

the positive and negative halves of one cycle of operation can generate

even harmonics. The uneven operation may be due to the nature of

the application or could indicate problems with the load circuitry.

3. HARMONIC PHASE ROTATION AND PHASE ANGLE RELATIONSHIP

In a balanced three-phase electrical system, the voltages and currents

have a positional relationship as shown in Figure 4. The three voltages

are 120 apart and so are the three currents. The normal phase

rotation or sequence is acb, which is counter clockwise and

designated as the positive-phase sequence.

For harmonic analyses, these relationships are still applicable, but the

fundamental components of voltages and currents are used as

reference. All other harmonics use the fundamental frequency as the

reference.

The fundamental frequency current components in a three-phase

power system have a positive-phase sequence (counter clockwise).

ia1 = Ia1 sin wt

ib1 = Ib1 sin (wt-120)

ic1 = Ic1 sin (wt-240)

The negative displacement angles indicate that the fundamental

phasors ib1 and ic1 trail the ia1 phasor by the indicated angle. Figure 5a

shows the fundamental current phasors.

The expressions for the third harmonic currents are:

ia3 = Ia3 sin 3wt

ib3 = Ib3 sin 3(wt-120) = Ib3 sin (3wt-360) = Ib3 sin 3wt

ic3 = Ic3 sin 3(wt-240) = Ic3 sin (3wt-720) = Ic3 sin 3wt

The expressions for the third harmonics show that they are in phase

and have zero displacement angle between them. Figure 5b shows the

third harmonic phasors. The third harmonic currents are known as

zero sequence harmonics due to the zero displacement angle between

the three phasors.

The expressions for the fth harmonic currents are:

ia5 = Ia5 sin 5wt

ib5 = Ib5 sin 5(wt-120) = Ib5 sin(5wt-600) = Ib5 sin(5wt-240)

ic5 = Ic5 sin 5(wt-240) = Ic5 sin(5wt-1200) = Ic5 sin(5wt-120)

Figure 5c shows the fth harmonic phasors. Note that the phase

sequence of the fth harmonic currents is clockwise and opposite to

that of the fundamental. The fth harmonics are negative sequence

harmonics.

FIGURE 5 (a) Fundamental phasors. (b) Third harmonic phasors. (c) Fifth harmonic phasors.

(d) Seventh harmonic phasors.

Similarly the expressions for the seventh harmonic currents are:

ia7 = Ia7 sin 7wt

ib7 = Ib7 sin 7(wt-120) = Ib7 sin(7wt-840) = Ib7 sin(7wt-120)

ic7 = Ic7 sin 7(wt-240) = Ic7 sin(7wt-1680) = Ic7 sin(7wt-240)

Figure 5d shows the seventh harmonic current phasors. The seventh

harmonics have the same phase sequence as the fundamental and are

positive sequence harmonics. Similar way phase sequence of even

harmonics current phasors can be calculated.

Table 1 categorizes the harmonics in terms of their respective

sequence orders.

4. CAUSES OF VOLTAGE AND CURRENT HARMONICS

A pure sinusoidal waveform with zero harmonic distortion is a

hypothetical quantity and not a practical one. The voltage waveform,

even at the point of generation, contains a small amount of distortion

due to nonuniformity in the excitation magnetic eld and discrete

spatial distribution of coils around the generator stator slots. The

distortion at the point of generation is usually very low, typically less

than 1.0%.

The generated voltage is transmitted many hundreds of miles,

transformed to several levels, and ultimately distributed to the power

user. The user equipment generates currents that are rich in

harmonic frequency components, especially in large commercial or

industrial installations.

As harmonic currents travel to the power source, the current

distortion results in additional voltage distortion due to impedance

voltages associated with the various power distribution equipment,

such as transmission and distribution lines, transformers, cables,

buses, and so on.

Figure 6 illustrates how current distortion is transformed into voltage

distortion. Not all voltage distortion, however, is due to the ow of

distorted current through the power system impedance.

Static uninterruptible power source (UPS) systems can generate

appreciable voltage distortion due to the nature of their operation.

Normal AC voltage is converted to DC and then reconverted to AC in

the inverter section of the UPS. Unless waveform shaping circuitry is

provided, the voltage waveforms generated in UPS units tend to be

distorted.

As nonlinear loads are propagated into the power system, voltage

distortions are introduced which become greater moving from the

source to the load because of the circuit impedances. Current

distortions for the most part are caused by loads. Even loads that are

linear will generate nonlinear currents if the supply voltage waveform

is signicantly distorted.

When several power users share a common power line, the voltage

distortion produced by harmonic current injection of one user can

affect the other users. This is why standards are being issued that will

limit the amount of harmonic currents that individual power users

can feed into the source.

The major causes of current distortion are nonlinear loads due to

adjustable speed drives, fluorescent lighting, rectier banks, computer

and data-processing loads, arc furnaces, and so on. One can easily

visualize an environment where a wide spectrum of harmonic

frequencies are generated and transmitted to other loads or other

power users, thereby producing undesirable results throughout the

system.

FIGURE 6 Voltage distortion due to current distortion. The gradient graph indicates how

distortion changes from source to load.

5. HARMONIC SIGNATURES

Many of the loads installed in present-day power systems are

harmonic current generators. Combined with the impedance of the

electrical system, the loads also produce harmonic voltages. The

nonlinear loads may therefore be viewed as both harmonic current

generators and harmonic voltage generators. Prior to the 1970s, speed

control of AC motors was primarily achieved using belts and pulleys.

Now, adjustable speed drives (ASDs) perform speed control functions

very efciently. ASDs are generators of large harmonic currents.

Fluorescent lights use less electrical energy for the same light output

as incandescent lighting but produce substantial harmonic currents

in the process. The explosion of personal computer use has resulted

in harmonic current proliferation in commercial buildings.

A. FLUORESCENT LIGHTING

Figure 8 shows a current waveform at a distribution panel supplying

exclusively uorescent lights. The waveform is primarily comprised of

the third and the fth harmonic frequencies. The individual current

harmonic distortion makeup is provided in Table 2. The waveform also

contains slight traces of even harmonics, especially of the higher

frequency order. The current waveform is at topped due to initiation

of arc within the gas tube, which causes the voltage across the tube

and the current to become essentially unchanged for a portion of each

half of a cycle.

FIGURE 8 Nonlinear current drawn by uorescent lighting

B. PERSONAL COMPUTER

Figures 10 show the nonlinear current characteristics of a personal

computer. Tables 3 provide the harmonic content of the currents. The

predominance of the third and fth harmonics is evident. The current

THD for both devices exceeds 100%, as the result of high levels of

individual distortions introduced by the third and fth harmonics. The

total current drawn by a personal computer and its monitor is less

than 2 A, but a typical high-rise building can contain several hundred

computers and monitors. The net effect of this on the total current

harmonic distortion of a facility is not difcult to visualize. So far we

have examined some of the more common harmonic current

generators. The examples illustrate that a wide spectrum of harmonic

currents is generated. Depending on the size of the power source and

the harmonic current makeup, the composite harmonic picture will be

different from facility to facility.

FIGURE 10 Nonlinear current drawn by single personal computer.

C. Variable Speed Drives / UPS:

Variable speed controllers, UPS units and DC converters in general

are usually based on the three-phase bridge, also known as the six-

pulse bridge because there are six pulses per cycle (one per half cycle

per phase) on the DC output.

The six pulse bridge produces harmonics at (6n 1), i.e. at one more

and one less than each multiple of six. In theory, the magnitude of

each harmonic is the reciprocal of the harmonic number, so there

would be 20% fifth harmonic and 9% eleventh harmonic, etc.

The magnitude of the harmonics is significantly reduced by the use of

a twelve-pulse bridge. This is effectively two six-pulse bridges, fed

from a star and a delta transformer winding, providing a 30 degrees

phase shift between them.

The 6n harmonics are theoretically removed, but in practice, the

amount of reduction depends on the matching of the converters and is

typically by a factor between 20 and 50. The 12n harmonics remain

unchanged. Not only is the total harmonic current reduced, but also

those that remain are of a higher order making the design of the filter

much easier.

Often the equipment manufacturer will have taken some steps to

reduce the magnitudes of the harmonic currents, perhaps by the

addition of a filter or series inductors. In the past this has led some

manufacturers to claim that their equipment is G5/3 compliant.

Since G5/3 is a planning standard applicable to a complete

installation, it cannot be said to have been met without knowledge of

every piece of equipment on the site.

A further increase in the number of pulses to 24, achieved by using

two parallel twelve-pulse units with a phase shift of 15 degrees,

reduces the total harmonic current to about 4.5%. The extra

sophistication increases cost, of course, so this type of controller

would be used only when absolutely necessary to comply with the

electricity suppliers limits.

6. EFFECT OF HARMONICS ON POWER SYSTEM DEVICES

Transformers

Harmonics can affect transformers in two ways.

Voltage harmonics produce additional losses in the transformer core

as the higher frequency harmonic voltages set up hysteresis loops,

which super impose on the fundamental loop.

Each loop represents higher magnetization power requirement and

higher core losses.

The harmonic currents increase the net RMS current flowing in the

transformer winding which results in additional

losses.

Winding eddy current losses are also increased winding eddy current

are circulating current s induced in the conductor by the leakage

magnetic flux.

Eddy current due to harmonics an significantly increase the

transformer winding temperature.

Transformer that are required to supply large nonlinear loads must be

derated to handle the harmonics.

This derated factor is based on the percentage of the harmonic current

in the load and the rated winding eddy current losses.

Also, transformers that supply large third harmonic generated loads

should have neutral oversized.

Alternators:

In alternators, the primary source orcause, of harmonics in the emf

wave form is due to the non-sinusoidal field flux wave form.

Due to non-uniform distribution of the field flux and armature

reaction in ac machines, the current and voltage waves may get

distorted. Such wave forms are referred to as non-sinusoidal or

complex wave forms.

The sinusoidal components of a complex wave are called harmonics.

In an alternator field flux wave is symmetrical, i.e. field flux wave has

equal positive and negative half cycles and as a consequence field flux

wave cant contain even field space harmonics.

Thus no even harmonics can be generated-hence the output emf is

free from even harmonics.

Since the negative of the wave is a reproductionof the positive half, the

even harmonics are absent.

AC Motors

Application of distorted voltage to a motor results additional losses in

the magnetic core of the motor.

Hysteresis and eddy current losses in core increase as higher

frequency harmonic voltages are impressed on the motor windings.

Hysteresis losses increase with frequency and eddy current losses

increase as the square of the frequency.

Also harmonic currents produce additional

windings which must be accounted for.

Large motors supplied from adjustable speed drives (ASD,s) are

usually provided with harmonic filters to prevent motor damage due to

harmonics.

Capacitor Banks

Capacitor banks are designed to operate at a maximum voltage of 110

% of their rated voltages and at 135% of their rated kVARS.

When large levels of voltage and current harmonics are present, the

ratings are quite often exceeded, resulting in failures.

Because the reactance of a capacitor bank is inversely proportion to

frequency, harmonic currents can find their way into a capacitor

bank.

Capacitor bank acts as sink, absorbing stray harmonic currents and

causing over loads and subsequent failure of the bank.

A more serious condition with potential for substantial damage occurs

due to a phenomenon called harmonic resonance.

Resonant conditions are created when the inductive and capacitive

reactances become equal at one of the harmonic frequencies.

If a high level of harmonic voltage or current corresponding to the

resonance frequency exists in a power system, considerable damage to

the capacitor bank as well as other power system devices can result.

Cables

Current flowing in a cable produces

contains harmonic current, additional losses are introduced.

The effective resistance of the cable increases with frequency because

of the phenomenon known as skin effect.

Skin effect is due to unequal flux linkage across the cross section of

the conductor which causes AC currents to flow only on the outer

periphery of the conductor.

Protective Devices

Harmonic currents influence the operation of protective devices.

Fuses and motor thermal overload devices are prone to nuisance

operation when subjected to nonlinear currents.

This factor should be given due consideration when sizing protective

devices for use in a harmonic environment.

Electromechanical relays are also affected by harmonics.

Depending on the design an electromechanical relay may operate

faster oy slower than the expected times for operation at the

fundamental frequency alone.

Neutral conductor over-heating in distridution system

In a three-phase system, when each phase is equally loaded, current

in the neutral is zero. When the loads are not balanced only the net

out of balance current flows in the neutral. In the past, installers have

taken advantage of this fact by installing half-sized neutral

conductors.

However, the positive sequence and negative sequence harmonics as

categorized in above table 1 cancel out, the harmonic currents that

are an odd multiple of three times the fundamental, the triple-N

harmonics, add in the neutral as these are zero sequence currents.

70% third harmonic current in each phase results in 210% current in

the neutral.

Case studies in commercial buildings generally show neutral currents

between 150% and 210% of the phase currents, often in a half-sized

conductor.

7. REMEDIES TO REDUCE HARMONICS PROBLEMS

(1) Over sizing Neutral Conductors

In three phase circuits with shared neutrals, it is common to oversize

the neutral conductor up to 200% when the load served consists of

non-linear loads. For example, most manufacturers of system

furniture provide a 10 AWG conductor with 35 amp terminations for a

neutral shared with the three 12 AWG phase conductors.

In feeders that have a large amount of non-linear load, the feeder

neutral conductor and panel board bus bar should also be oversized.

(2) Using Separate Neutral Conductors

On three phase branch circuits, another philosophy is to not combine

neutrals, but to run separate neutral conductors for each phase

conductor. This increases the copper use by 33%. While this

successfully eliminates the addition of the harmonic currents on the

branch circuit neutrals, the panel board neutral bus and feeder

neutral conductor still must be oversized.

Oversizing Transformers and Generators: The oversizing of equipment

for increased thermal capacity should also be used for transformers

and generators which serve harmonics-producing loads. The larger

equipment contains more copper.

(3) Passive filters

Passive filters are used to provide a low impedance path for harmonic

currents so that they flow in the filter and not the supply. The filter

may be designed for a single harmonic or for a broad band depending

on requirements.

Simple series band stop filters are sometimes proposed, either in the

phase or in the neutral. A series filter is intended to block harmonic

currents rather than provide a controlled path for them so there is a

large harmonic voltage drop across it.

This harmonic voltage appears across the supply on the load side.

Since the supply voltage is heavily distorted it is no longer within the

standards for which equipment was designed and warranted. Some

equipment is relatively insensitive to this distortion, but some is very

sensitive. Series filters can be useful in certain circumstances, but

should be carefully applied; they cannot be recommended as a general

purpose solution.

(4) Isolation transformers

As mentioned previously, triple-N currents circulate in the delta

windings of transformers. Although this is a problem for transformer

manufacturers and specifiers the extra load has to be taken into

account it is beneficial to systems designers because it isolates triple-

N harmonics from the supply.

The same effect can be obtained by using a zig-zag wound

transformer. Zig-zag transformers are star configuration auto

transformers with a particular phase relationship between the

windings that are connected in shunt with the supply.

(5) Active Filters

The solutions mentioned so far have been suited only to particular

harmonics, the isolating transformer being useful only for triple-N

harmonics and passive filters only for their designed harmonic

frequency. In some installations the harmonic content is less

predictable.

In many IT installations for example, the equipment mix and location

is constantly changing so that the harmonic culture is also constantly

changing. A convenient solution is the active filter or active

conditioner.

The active filter is a shunt device. A current transformer measures the

harmonic content of the load current, and controls a current

generator to produce an exact replica that is fed back onto the supply

on the next cycle. Since the harmonic current is sourced from the

active conditioner, only fundamental current is drawn from the

supply. In practice, harmonic current magnitudes are reduced by

90%, and, because the source impedance at harmonic frequencies is

reduced, voltage distortion is reduced.

(6) K-Rated Transformers

Special transformers have been developed to accommodate the

additional heating caused by these harmonic currents. These types of

transformers are now commonly specified for new computer rooms

and computer lab facilities.

(7) Special Transformers

There are several special types of transformer connections which can

cancel harmonics. For example, the traditional delta-wye transformer

connection will trap all the triplen harmonics (third, ninth, fifteenth,

twenty-first, etc.) in the delta.

Additional special winding connections can be used to cancel other

harmonics on balanced loads. These systems also use more copper.

These special transformers are often specified in computer rooms with

well balanced harmonic producing loads such as multiple input

mainframes or matched DASD peripherals.

(8) Filtering

While many filters do not work particularly well at this frequency

range, special electronic tracking filters can work very well to

eliminate harmonics.

These filters are presently relatively expensive but should be

considered for thorough harmonic elimination.

(9) Special Metering

Standard clamp-on ammeters are only sensitive to 50 Hertz current,

so they only tell part of the story. New true RMS meters will sense

current up to the kilohertz range. These meters should be used to

detect harmonic currents. The difference between a reading on an old

style clamp-on ammeter and a true RMS ammeter will give you an

indication of the amount of harmonic current present.

The measures described above only solve the symptoms of the

problem. To solve the problem we must specify low harmonic

equipment. This is most easily done when specifying electronic

ballasts. Several manufacturers make electronic ballasts which

produce less than 15 % harmonics. These ballasts should be

considered for any ballast retrofit or any new project. Until low

harmonics computers are available, segregating these harmonic loads

on different circuits, different panel boards or the use of transformers

should be considered. This segregation of dirty and clean loads is

fundamental to electrical design today. This equates to more branch

circuits and more panel boards, thus more copper usage.

Reference Books:

1. Power Quality by C Sankaran

2. Power System Harmonics, Second Edition J. Arrillaga, N.R. Watson

3. Engineering Circuit Analysis, Seventh Edition, William H.Hayt,Jr,

Jack E.Kemmerly, Steven M. Durbin

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