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÷ªÙÞœüŒî¦ô¢Ù 25 --Vöµj 2006

Ðû¦è[ª šïj°ë]ô¦ò°ëÂ

-2

25 --Vöµj 2006 Ðû¦è[ª šïj°ë]ô¦ò°ë - 2 M. SURESAN Î ú£ÙòÅ°ù£éö˺x ÍFo ÷ªìÙ
M. SURESAN

M. SURESAN

Î

ú£ÙòÅ°ù£éö˺x ÍFo ÷ªìÙ ÷«æ°xè¶ ÷«åö¶ Íô³ ÑÙè¯Lqì Í÷ú£ô¢Ù ö¶ë]ª. Ó÷ôÁ àµí‡pì ÷«åLo ÚÛ«è¯, î¦üŒ‰x àµí‡pìåªxÞ¥ ÷«Ja àµð§pLq ÷ú£ªhÙC. Ð ·ôÙè[ª ú£Ùë]ô¦sÄö˺xì« ·ôÙè[ª í£ë]lÄ꟪Lo Ñí£óµ«Tþ§hÙ. ÖÚÛæ¨ ví£êŸu¤ÛÙÞ¥ ൛ípC, ÏÙÚÁæ¨ í£ôÁ¤ÛÙö˺ íÆ£ö°û¦ ÷uÚ¨h íÆ£ö°û¦ ÷«åõû¦oè[E ൛ípC. ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£éö˺ þ»Þœú£ª Ú¥î¦õÙç¶ Ð ÍÙø‹Eo ò°Þ¥ û¶ô¢ªaÚÁî¦L. î¦Ú¥uEo ÖÚÛ í£ë]lÄA ìªÙ# ÷ªôÁ í£ë]lÄAö˺ڨ ÷«ô¢aè¯EÚ¨ î¦uÚÛô¢éÙ ú£«vê¦õìª E¸ôlPÙ#ÙC.

ÎóŸªìÎóŸªìÎóŸªìÎóŸªìÎóŸªì ÓÙêŸÓÙêŸÓÙêŸÓÙêŸÓÙêŸ Bú£ªÚÛªÙæ°ô¢ª?Bú£ªÚÛªÙæ°ô¢ª?Bú£ªÚÛªÙæ°ô¢ª?Bú£ªÚÛªÙæ°ô¢ª?Bú£ªÚÛªÙæ°ô¢ª?

Where (wh word) + is (helping verb) + he (subject) + going (main verb)?

Questions (a), (b)õìª report ඛú-å-í£±pè[ª NªÞœê¦ ÷«ô¢ªpõª à¶ú£«h question ö˺E wh word ìª Íö°

ÑÙà¶ú‡, NªÞœê¦ question part ìª statement word order (verb + subject) ö˺ڨ ÷«¸ôa-óŸ«L.

ÏÚÛ\è[ 'that' ô¦ë]ª.

ç¶ñªöËÀ – 1 àŸ«è[Ùè…. ·ôÙè[ª ú£ÙòÅ°-ù£-éö˺x

ÚÛ«è¯ Question word

Visala: Where are you starting off so early? (ÓÚÛ\è…Ú¨ ÍÙêŸ ê•Ùë]- ô¢Þ¥
Visala: Where are you
starting off so early?
(ÓÚÛ\è…Ú¨ ÍÙêŸ ê•Ùë]-
ô¢Þ¥ ñóŸª-õª-ë¶-ô¢ª-꟪-
û¦o÷±?)
Vinod: To our maths lec-
turer's.
(÷« ÷«uëÇÂq öµÚÛa-ô¢ô ÏÙæ¨Ú¨.)
To our maths lecturer's
– Ïö° lecturer's ö˺ö°Þ¥
's î¦è…ê¶ 'to' ÷³Ùë]ô¢
ÑÙ# – î¦RxÙ-æ¨Ú¨ Íû¶ Íô¢nÙ
÷ú£ªhÙC.
= ÷«
To my friend's
Which maths lecturer do you want to go to?
friend ÏÙæ¨Ú¨
Visala: What do you want
from him?
(ÎóŸªì ë]Þœ_ô¢ ìªÙ# ÔÙ Ú¥î¦-L?/-ÓÙ-
ë]ªÚÛª?)
(÷« ›úo-꟪ö˺x à¦ö°÷ªÙC ÎóŸªì ë]Þœ_-ô¢¸Ú
îµüŒê¦ô¢ª, ÍÙë]ª-ÚÛE û¶ìª ÚÛ«è¯ ÍÚÛ\è…¸Ú îµüŒ‰-
꟪û¦o.)
Visala: How much does he charge?
Vinod: I want to have tuition from him.
(ÎóŸªì ÓÙêŸ Bú£ª-ÚÛªÙ-æ°ô¢ª?)
(ÎóŸªì ë]Þœ_ô¢ û¶ìª å«uù£ûËÂÚÛª à¶ô¦-õ-ìª-ÚÛªÙ-
åªû¦o.)
Vinod: I have to find out. That's what I am
going for.
Visala: Which maths lecturer do you want to
go to?
(û¶ìª ÚÛìª-ÚÁ\-î¦L. ÍÙë]ª-ÚÛû¶ Ïí£±pè[ª îµüŒ‰-
꟪û¦o.)
(Ô ÷«uëÇÂq öµÚÛa-ô¢ô ë]Þœ_ô¢ÚÛª îµü‹xõ-ìª-ÚÛªÙ-åª-
û¦o÷±?)
Visala: When do you think you can come
back?
Vinod: Mr. Ganak. He is the best in the town.
(Óí£±pè[ª AJT ô¦Þœ-õ-ìª-ÚÛªÙ-åª-û¦o÷±?)
(ÞœéÚ þ§ôÂ. ÒüÉÁx ÎóŸªû¶ Þ•í£p-î¦è[ª.)
Vinod: Why do you want to know?
Visala: Who suggested him to you?
(ìªîµyÙ-ë]ªÚÛª êµõª-ú£ª-ÚÁ-î¦-õ-ìª-ÚÛªÙ-åª-û¦o÷±?)
(ÎóŸªì ÞœªJÙ# F·Ú-÷ô¢ª àµð§pô¢ª?)
Vinod: Most of my friends go to him, so I am
going to him too.
Visala: Vikram has invited us to lunch. We
have to start here at least by 10.
Reporting Speech
1
Direct Speech
Reporting Verb (Present)
Reporting Verb (Past)
1.
Krishna: Where is your father?
Krishna is asking/ asks
(Oª û¦ìo-Þ¥-·ô-ÚÛ\è[?)
Sathya
where her father
Krishna asked Sathya
where her father was.
is.
Sathya: Why do you want to know?
Sathya
asks in reply why
(ÓÙë]ªÚÛª êµõª-ú£ª-ÚÁ-î¦-õ-ìª-ÚÛªÙ-åª-û¦o÷±?)
he wants to know.
Sathya asked in reply why
he wanted to know.
2.
Madhavi: What are your goals?
Madhavi asks Prasanth
what his goals are.
Madhavi asked Prasanth
what his goals were.
Prasanth: What do you advise?
Prasanth questions her
what she advises.
Prasanth questioned her
what she advised.
she advises. Prasanth questioned her what she advised. ví£øŒo: 1. They have been able to keep

ví£øŒo: 1. They have been able to keep their promise Structure: have been above to + P.V.

2. He might have been

able to do the job structure: might have been able to + P.V.

3. She must have been

able to persuade him to marry her. structure: must have been able to + P.V. šíj

î¦Ú¥uõ í£²Jh Íô¦nEo, Ñí£-óµ«-Þ¥Eo N÷-JÙ-àŸ-Þœ-õô¢ª.

– ÓúÃ. -ìª-DlûËÂ, ÚÛô¢«oõª

áî¦ñª: 1. They have been able to keep their promise = They have kept their promise.

(î¦üŒ‰x êŸ÷ª ÷«åìª Eõ-òµ-åªd-ÚÁ-Þœ-L-Þ¥ô¢ª– Eõ-òµ-åªd-ÚÛª- û¦oô¢ª)

2. He might have been able to do the job =

Perhaps (ñø‹)he did the job/ did not do the job.

(ÍêŸè[ª Îí£E à¶óŸª-ÞœLT ÑÙè[÷àŸªa, ÞœêŸÙö˺ à¶ú‡ ÑÙè[÷àŸªa ö¶ë¯ à¶óŸª-ÚÛ-ð¼ô³ ÑÙè[÷àŸªa ÚÛ«è¯.)

3. She must have been able to persuade him

to marry her.

(êŸììª šíRx-à¶-ú£ª-ÚÁ-÷ªE Î ÍêŸ-è…Ú¨ ìàŸa-âµí‡p ÑÙè¯L– ÍÙë]ª¸Ú ÍêŸè¯îµªìª šíRx à¶ú£ª-ÚÛª-û¦oè[ª)

Compare: The roads are wet. It must have rained during the night.

(NvÚÛîª ÷ªìLo õÙàÂÚ¨ í‡Là¦è[ª. í£CÙ- æ¨ÚÛö°x ÷ªìÙ ñóŸª-ö¶l-ô¦L.)

Vinod: OK. I'll be back in time.

(ú£·ôjì ú£÷ª-óŸ«-E¸Ú AJ-Þ•-þ§hö¶.)

Study carefully the conversation above. You find a number of 'wh' questions in it.

Ú¨Ùë]æ¨ lesson ö˺ ÷ªìÙ êµõª-ú£ª-ÚÛªÙC:

ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£éÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£éÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£éÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£éÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£éÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é 189

(indirect

speech ö˺ڨ

÷«ô¢aè[Ù) ÷ªìÙ àŸ«ú‡ÙC 'wh'

questions ìª Jð¼ôÂd ඛú-å-í£±pè[ª question ìª

statement form ö˺ڨ ÷«¸ôaþ§hÙ.

Question:

a) Where is he?

'wh' questions ìª

report à¶óŸªè[Ù,

Ð question ö˺ word order (÷«åõ Í÷ª-JÚÛ)

Where (wh word) + is (verb)+ he (subject) b) Where is he going?

Ð question word order:

order ìª report

ඛú-å-

í£±pè[ª

Wh

word

šíæ¨d

NªÞœê¦

Part ìª

state-

ment word order ö˺ڨ

÷«¸ôa-óŸªè[Ù Þœ÷ª-EÙ-àŸÙè….

Let

us

now

try

to

report the conversation between Visala and Vinod at the beginning of the lesson. Note that we have to report both statements and 'wh' Question (table -2).

ç¶ñªöËÀ –2ö˺ àŸ«ø‹ô¢ª ÚÛ믖 Question structure

ìª statement structure Þ¥ ÷«ô¢aåÙ Óö°ÞÁ. Exercise: Ð Lesson ö˺E NªÞœê¦ conversa- tion between Visala and Vinod ìª report à¶óŸªÙè…– Reporting verb, present tense, past

tense ö˺ ÚÛ«è¯. Oªô¢ª practice à¶óŸªåÙ ÍÙç¶ ô¦óŸªåÙ ÷«vêŸî¶ª Ú¥ë]ª. Oªô¢ª ô¦ú‡ÙC, Oª friends Ó÷-J-êÁ-ûµjû¦ GÞœ_-ô¢Þ¥ ·ôÙè[ª ÷´è[ª þ§ô¢ªx ÷«÷´- õªÞ¥ ÷«æ°x-è[ª-꟪-ìoåªx practice à¶óŸªÙè….

p r a c t i c e à¶óŸªÙè…. 2 Reporting Speech Reporting Verb (Present) Reporting
2
2

Reporting Speech

Reporting Verb (Present)

Reporting Verb (Past)

Direct Speech

1. Visala: (to Vinod) Where are you starting off so early?

Visala asks Vinod where he is starting off so early.

Visala asked Vinod where he was starting off so early.

Vinod: To our maths lecturer's

Vinod replies that it is to their maths lecturer's.

Vinod replied that it was to their maths lecturer's.

2. Visala: What do you want from him?

Visala asks Vinod what he wants from him.

Visala asked Vinod what he wanted from him.

Vinod: I want to have tuition from him.

Vinod tells her he wants to have tuition from him.

Vinod told her he wanted to have his tuition from him.

3. Visala: Which maths lecturer do you want to go to.

Visala asks Vinod which maths lecturer he wants to go to.

Visala asked Vinod which maths lecturer he wanted to go to.

Vinod: Mr. Ganak. He is the best in the town.

Vinod says/ replies that he wants to go Mr. Ganak (and adds that) he is the best in the town.

Vinod replied that he want- ed to go to Mr. Ganak (and added that) he is the best in the town.

(ôÁè[xFo êŸè…Þ¥ Ñû¦oô³. ô¦vA ÷ô¢{Ù ÚÛªJú‡ ÑÙè¯L– ÚÛªJ-ú‡ÙC). ví£øŒo: 1. Gup Íô¢nÙ ÔNªæ˺ N÷-JÙ#, ë¯EE Ô NëÅ]ÙÞ¥ Ñí£-óµ«-T-þ§hôÁ êµL-óŸª-â¶-óŸªÙè….

2. Past participle (V3) N÷-JÙ#, Ñë¯--ô¢-

éõª êµLóŸª-â¶-óŸªÙè….

– þ§ï‡°B Në¯u-÷ªÙ-CôÂ, íÆ£ê¶hí£±ô¢Ù

áî¦ñª: 1. Gup Íû¶ ÷«å û¦ÚÛª êµL-ú‡-ìÙ-êŸ-÷-ô¢ÚÛ« ö¶ë]ª. Guppy Íû¶C ÖÚÛ ô¢ÚÛ-iì à¶í£.

2. Past participle: Object Ñìo Verb Past par-

ticiple ÚÛª ‘ñè…ì’ ÍE Íô¢nÙ ÷ú£ªhÙC.

a)) The man seen here yesterday.

(Eìo ÏÚÛ\ àŸ«è[-ñ-è…ì ÷uÚ¨h – ú£·ôjì êµõª-Þœªö˺ Eìo ÏÚÛ\è[ Oªô¢ª/ Ù/ î¦üŒ‰x àŸ«ú‡ì ÷uÚ¨h.)

/ ٠/ î¦üŒ‰x àŸ«ú‡ì ÷uÚ¨h.) b) The money stolen from the bank. (ò°uÙÚ ìªÙ#

b) The money stolen from the bank.

(ò°uÙÚ ìªÙ# ë•ÙT-LÙ-àŸñè…ì è[ñªs.)

Past participle, verb Ú¥ë]ª.

are, was, shall be, have been, etc.,) + Past

participle Íô³ê¶ verb Í÷±-꟪ÙC. Íí£±pè[ª verb,

passive voice.

a) Salaries were paid yesterday.

Be form (am, is,

(@ê¦õª Eìo Ï÷y-ñ-è¯fô³/ àµLxÙ-àŸ-ñ-è¯fô³.)

b) The college will be closed from tomorrow

onwards.

(Ú¥ö¶@ ¸ôí£æ¨ ìªÙ# ÷´óŸª-ñ-è[ª-꟪ÙC.)

Past participle ìª adjective Þ¥ î¦è[ê¦Ù. ÍÙç¶

ë¶ûµj¬oû¦ ÷JgÙ-àŸ-è¯-EÚ¨ î¦è[ê¦Ù.

a) The murdered man was related to her.

(àŸÙí£ñè…ì ÷uÚ¨h ÎÚÛª àŸªådÙ.)

b) The ruined fort = PCÇ-õ-iì ÚÁå

b) The ruined fort = PCÇ-õ-iì ÚÁå Spoken English ð§êŸ î¦uþ§õ ÚÁú£Ù Ú¨xÚÂ

Spoken English ð§êŸ î¦uþ§õ ÚÁú£Ù Ú¨xÚ à¶óŸªÙè…

URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm