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English for Communication

Trainer Manual
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FOREWORD
Welcome to a journey unlike any other! Your students have taken their frst step to
becoming more effective English speakers, and this programme is entirely developed
to help them at every step. Through a marriage of state-of-the-art technology and
instructor-led training (ILT), you will frst clearly understand your learners present level
of English communication, and then you will help them to take gradual but signifcant
strides to correct and build a more solid foundation in the language. Our technology +
instructor formula is revolutionary, but it will also require contribution from your side in
terms of attention and effort in order to help your students to attain results that are both
signifcant and noticeable.
Today, leading linguists believe that Indians are especially gifted with the ability to
assimilate and retain complex speech patterns. This is because of our rich linguistic
landscape, which supports 234 major mother tongues or languages, each with 10000
or more speakers, and several other minor languages with less than 10000 speakers
each (India Census, 2001). In total, there are 415 living languages in India, but if we
count the different dialects as separate languages, then the number is in the range of
15002000! As a result, the experts say that about 60% of the sounds and speech
patterns that learners need to acquire new languages are already embedded in them,
and these sounds and speech patterns simply need to be transferred in a structured
manner. For many of your students, English might be the second language, which is a
signifcant achievement because people in many developed countries speak only one
language. However, even if English is their third or fourth language, their minds are
better prepared and more ready to adjust to the nuances and contours of English.
Our approach in this course rests on three essential pillars: Exposure, Confdence,
and Practice. We believe that the frst step to building English skills should be similar to
the way a child learns language you will frst help your students to receive adequate
exposure through this programme, but then you should emphasise to them that they
should take it upon themselves to continue to receive exposure to the language long
after they have mastered this programme. You should explore traditional and creative
ways to help your students to continue practising their new language skills.
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We also believe that you should help your students to approach all learning with
confdence. Assure them that they should not have any fear of the inevitable mistakes
that all learners make. Especially in the area of language, you may be surprised to know
that even native speakers are prone to recurring errors. Therefore, your students are
not only expected to make mistakes, but such errors are (almost) necessary for
building a solid foundation in the language. Indeed, the errors your students
make can be seen quite positively as an indication of their willingness to become
fuent in the language, even if they still need to cover some distance before they
actually become fuent.
Lastly, and this is fundamental at this stage of your students relationship with the
English language, you must emphasise to your students that they must practise. We
have made the structure for them (both at the instructor and technical level), but they
will need to bring with them the determination to understand, apply, and practise their
new-found approach to develop clearer English pronunciation, correct grammar, and
improved comprehension skills. Assure your students that this practice will pay off.
The way the brain acquires new languages is a feld of vast academic research, with
continued experimentation and ongoing breakthroughs. However, whatever solutions
neurologists and linguists discover in the long term, every solution is certain to contain
an element dedicated to the importance of practice and repetition. Therefore, you
should emphasize to your students that they must go through all the exercises at the
recommended pace and practice, practice, practice.
That said, fasten your seatbelt and prepare yourself for accelerated training!
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in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means,
without the prior written permission of Liqvid eLearning Services
Pvt. Ltd.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction to Communication 1. .............................................................15
Consonant Sounds 2. ...............................................................................17
Vowel Sounds 3. .......................................................................................21
Vowel Shades 4. .......................................................................................26
Sound Clusters 5. ......................................................................................28
Indianisms 6. .............................................................................................30
Syllables 7. ................................................................................................31
Syllable Stress 8. ......................................................................................32
Nouns 9. ....................................................................................................34
Indefinite Articles 10. ...................................................................................35
The Definite Article 11. ...............................................................................37
Adjectives 12. .............................................................................................40
Making Comparisons 13. ............................................................................42
Space and Time 14. ....................................................................................43
More Prepositions 15. ................................................................................44
Expressions 16. ...........................................................................................46
Subject-Verb Agreement 17. ......................................................................47
The Present Tense 18. ................................................................................49
More of the Present Tense 19. ...................................................................52
The Past Tense 20. ....................................................................................54
More About the Past 21. .............................................................................55
The Future Tense 22. .................................................................................56
Back to the Future 23. .................................................................................57
Modals and Mood 24. .................................................................................59
Fluency 25. ..................................................................................................60
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Voice 26. ....................................................................................................61
Reported Speech 27. .................................................................................63
Intonation and Modulation 28. ....................................................................65
Word Stress and Modulation 29. .................................................................66
Listening Styles 30. ....................................................................................67
Learning to Listen 31. .................................................................................68
Modulating Speech 32. ..............................................................................69
Mastering Fluency 33. ................................................................................70
Enhancing Vocabulary 34. ..........................................................................71
Fun Learning 35. ........................................................................................73
Winding Up 36. ............................................................................................74
Advanced
Joining Sentences, Filler Words 37. ...........................................................84
Narrating Events, Filler Words 38. .............................................................87
Adding Extra Information, Word Stress 39. .................................................93
Actions that Happened, Giving New Information 40. ...............................100
Possibilities and Conclusions, Conversational Fillers 41. .........................103
Possibility and Probability, Implied Meaning 42. .......................................107
Time Comparison, Contrasting Ideas 43. ..................................................110
Talking About Right and Wrong, Marking Speech Sections 44. ...............112
Pointing out Mistakes, Polite Disagreement 45. ........................................116
Intensifying an Adjective, Apologising Politely 46. ....................................118
Expressing Quantities, Intonation Patterns 47. ........................................121
Time Expressions, Intonation Patterns 48. ..............................................124
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INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH FOR COMMUNICATION
Welcome to English for Communication. This programme will help your students to take
significant strides so that they can quickly join the realm of people who speak polished
English. English for Communication has been designed for learners who have a beginners
competency in the language and who aim to achieve an intermediate proficiency level.
English for Communication is an integrated course that will enhance your students ability
to speak English fluently in daily life. You will help them to achieve this objective through a
rigorous programme of blended learning, which is a unique blend of instructor-led training
(ILT) and computer-based training (CBT). The sessions are designed so that the course
follows a parallel structure, in which concepts are first introduced in the ILT session, and
then reinforced with practice and an innovative approach to learning in the CBT session.
Teaching Material
The teaching material for each session comprises:
ILT component
Classroom Learning Software (Trainer CD)
Cue cards for Trainers
Trainer manual with Session Plans and background information to help
prepare for a session
Learner workbook (Courseware)
CBT component
CBT software (Students CD)
Instructional Strategy
This course comprises of ILT and CBT sessions. The ILT sessions are to be taught
in class-room whereas the CBT sessions are meant for students to practise the
concepts they have learnt in the class-room sessions. Each CBT session should
be completed in half the time taken for an ILT session.
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BLENDED LEARNING
The process of learning a language might be simple, but it is also arduous. The first
part of learning in the English for Communication process is the classroom session ably
supported with technology, and the second is the e-learning session in which you will use
the learner software. The learning will progress in a natural way, from the general to the
specific learning. The concept is that learning should flow smoothly, beginning with theory
made interesting, then the use of the software, followed by application of the learning in
interactive activities in both classroom and e-learning sessions.
The idea is to apply the learning in ways that will make the sessions enjoyable for your
students, and the language work easy to remember. Learning and studies have been with
us ever since we were children, but for your students to remember and master what they
learn here, we need to make the learning creative and fun. This is what we have attempted
to do in this course.
TRAINING versus TEACHING
We are aware just as the learners may also be aware of the differences between
teaching and training and the plus and minus factors of each. Training is definitely a self-
motivated exercise. Your students will get from this programme as much as they wish to,
in direct proportion to the effort they put into the learning. On the flip side, though, training
adults requires the ability to help them unlearn old skills and replace them with more
correct ones. This is the difficult part, and the part in which you, as the trainer, will play a
significant role.
WORKING ON THE SOFTWARE
The English for Communication software has been developed after years of research into
the specific language needs of Indian learners. It both complements and supplements
classroom learning, with its unique features, online trainers / protagonists, and learning
tools. Do reassure learners who are not computer savvy about the user-friendly nature
of the software. Remind them that they should follow the content pattern laid down in the
courseware and avoid jumping the gun by going ahead of the class.
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RECAP AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Every session should start with a recap of the previous session and should introduce the
Learning Objectives of the session.
STAYING ON TRACK AND ADHERING TO TIMELINES
English for Communication sessions are carefully planned to maintain a balance between
information sharing, activities, and practice. Learners respond positively to the activities
and interactions. You might find that class time is consumed in these interactions, leaving
little time for other topics that are planned for the session. Keep the timelines in mind when
conducting any activity or going through the topics. Stay in control of the situation. Make a
checklist of the topics/activities to be covered so that you can ensure that you remain on
track.
MOTIVATION
There is a challenge in all training, particularly one that is as meaningful as the one
you are about to impart, that is, giving your students the opportunity to better their lives
considerably through English language enhancement. This, in todays context, is perhaps
the single largest factor for all kinds of work success. Keep reminding the learners of the
benefits that await them as they master the English language. Make English learning
as enjoyable for them as you possibly can.
FEEDBACK METHODOLOGY
Feedback, and the way you give it, really contributes to the success of a training
programme.
What is feedback?
Feedback is structured information that one person offers to another, about the impact of
their actions and behaviour. Feedback is a type of communication that we give or receive.
A powerful and important means for communication, feedback connects us, and our
behaviour, to the world around us.
Feedback is a way to let people know how effective they are in what they are trying to
accomplish, or how they affect you. It provides a way for people to learn how they interact
with the world around them, and it helps us to become more thoughtful or reflective in
our actions. If we know how other people see us, we can overcome problems in how we
communicate and interact with them.
Giving learners feedback means letting them know, in a timely and ongoing way, how
they are performing. Feedback should encourage self-reflection, raise self-awareness,
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and help students plan for future learning and practice. Of course, there are aspects to
feedback; namely, giving and receiving
REMEMBER, giving regular feedback to encourage, enthuse, and correct learning will help
to improve the outcome and define the goals. Good feedback is an offer of information, not
a judgment of character or potential. You will need to sensitise the class as well, the very
first time you give feedback. Tell learners that they will receive:
Individual feedback from the trainer
Peer or group feedback
Computer-based feedback
Carry Over Plans for continuous learning
HOW TO CONDUCT ROLE PLAYS
Ask for volunteers. Give them time to prepare their script. Meanwhile, explain to the rest
of the class the parameters on which they have to give feedback to the participants. Plan
the role plays so that they happen one by one, and give feedback at the end of each role
play.
FREE SPEECH ACTIVITIES
This Trainer Manual has an Appendix with a number of free speech activities you can
use during your sessions. While a number of sessions already have built-in activities, you
could refer to the Appendix to introduce fresh activities. Use these during a session when
theres extra time left to reinforce the concepts taught.
English for Communication: COURSE CONTENT
This course has been carefully crafted to strike a balance between how we speak and what
we say. Developing better communication skills is the overall objective of the programme.
With this aim in mind, the course is structured in three phases:
Pronunciation: The focus here is on production of consonant and vowel sounds, syllables,
syllable stress, intonation, modulation, and fluency. The objective is to learn to speak in a
globally-accepted, neutral accent, and minimise regional influences and speech patterns.
Grammar: In this phase, learners are encouraged to interact and speak in grammatically
correct sentences and reduce Indianisms in their speech. The topics covered in this
section include Articles, Adjectives, Subject-Verb agreement, Prepositions, and Verbs and
Tenses.
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Trainer Manual
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Speech Enhancement: The focus is on intonation and voice modulation with the objective
of learning to speak in a globally accepted, neutral accent with a minimum of regional
influences in speech patterns. Practice fluency through building fluency games and
exercises, role plays, and regular discussions moderated by the instructor.
Vocabulary: From vocabulary building tips to introduction to phrasal verbs, idiomatic
expressions and proverbs, the focus is on building an active and adequate vocabulary.
Listening and Comprehension
This phase focuses on enhancing active listening and comprehension skills.
OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE
Communication Skills
Forms of Communication
Understand communication.
Be aware of the importance of speaking globally accepted English.
Voice and Accent Enhancement
Pronunciation
Correct enunciation of consonant sounds and vowel sounds
Syllable and syllable Stress
Intonation and modulation
Reduce mother tongue influence (MTI) in speech
Language Enrichment and Speech Fluency
Grammar
Use correct grammar.
Rectify Indianisms in speech.
Build proficiency in functional grammar in the areas of:
Articles
Adjectives
Prepositions
Subject-verb agreement
Verbs & tenses
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Vocabulary Enhancement
Practice the list of 3000 of the most frequently used words in the English language.
The focus here is on pronunciation and developing comfort with these standard
words, not traditional vocabulary building.
Understand word usage in sentences.
Speech Fluency
Moderate the rate of speech through simple passages.
Practise fluency through building fluency games and exercises, role plays, and
regular discussions moderated by the instructor.
Listening Skills
Build listening and comprehension skills.
Notes for Conducting a Session
Read the Trainer Notes in the Trainer Manual and the Cue Cards before conducting the
session, and focus on the main objectives of the session. These objectives are given in
the Session Plan. While conducting the session, keep the session objective as well as
the duration in mind.
Use the Classroom Software to drive the session. Begin the lesson by launching the
Classroom Software and navigating to the session. Navigate through the session with the
help of the courseware.
Conduct Pair Activities and Free Speech Activities involving as many learners as possible
and give individual feedback to each learner. There is a sample answer for each of the
activities to provide reference/feedback.
The Learner Workbook or Courseware is designed to mirror the concepts taught in the
Classroom Software. So concepts and activities can be described and discussed in detail
on the screen and then completed in the Courseware.
Use the Cue Cards for concise instructions to help you during a session. The Cue Cards are
designed with topics that are arranged chronologically. The instructions follow a sequence
of DO, EXPLAIN, and SAY. The instructions in the DO section are directives you need to
follow for each screen in the software. The EXPLAIN section contains any information
that needs further explanation from you. The SAY section has the verbiage you might find
useful while delivering content in the EXPLAIN section.
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Trainer Manual
English Edge: Intermediate
You can refer to the Trainer Manual for background notes on grammar concepts.
Audios are built into the Classroom Software. The audio button allows you to repeat audios
as often as needed to ensure understanding. Follow the guidelines on the screen. Follow
the instructions in the Cue Card for conducting the sessions diligently; there are occasions
when you will be asked to play the audio after learners have completed the exercise, as
reinforcement.
One solved answer is given as an example with all activities. Alternatively, you can give
some examples and then encourage learners to give their own inputs.
On clicking the SHOW ANSWER button, answers to the questions are displayed. If
there are many possible answers, only a few are displayed as examples. Allow creativity
and flexibility in answers, as long as the grammar constructs are correct. For Speaking
activities, one Sample Answer is provided as reference/feedback.
CBT Practice and familiarization with CBT content for each session is another important
requirement. It is essential to go through the CBT content relevant to that session. During
the initial sessions, you might need to go through the questions and ensure that learners
understand what needs to be done during their self-paced practice session. Demonstrate
the activities wherever possible. The CBT provides focused practice on concepts learnt in
the ILT session, which helps reinforce and consolidate learning.
In the next session, check with learners if they have practised the CBT. This is important.
Give them feedback and troubleshoot any issues and concerns. Ensure that they look at
the CBT as a fun and enriching activity.
Feedback is usually given to the entire class, since most activities have built-in answer
screens.
Intermediate
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Introduction to Communication
Session plan
Communication
First language influence
The right mouth movements for correct pronunciation
What is communication?
Communication can be defned as the sharing and exchange of thoughts and
information. All the activities that a person performs when he wishes to convey
his message to others are nothing but ways to achieve effective communication.
This includes, but is not limited to the clarity and completeness of the message,
the individuals facial expressions, eye contact, body posture and external physical
appearances.
Defnitions of communication
Refer to the following defnitions of communication when you want to lead the discussion
in a particular direction.
Communication is the process of exchanging information, usually via a common
system of symbols.
Communication is the exchange of information between two points.
The successful transmission of information through a common system of
symbols, signs, behaviour, speech, writing, or signals.
Communication is the transference of ideas from one individual to another
individual. Generally, this takes place using a medium of exchange, such as
words, images, sounds, touches, or even smells.
Communication is the process of exchanging information and ideas. An
active process, it involves encoding, transmitting, and decoding the intended
messages.
Communication table:
Effective communication requires a sender, a receiver and a medium, which is usually
a language which is common between the sender and the receiver.
It is said that of all the communication between people, less than 10% is verbal
while the rest is non-verbal. Of verbal communication, there is the auditory, which
involves the faculties of listening, or is perceived through or resulting from the sense
of hearing. Speaking and tone are inter-related and it is important to stress the
importance of tone to learners at all times.
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Of non-verbal communication, sign language is the frst and most basic of all
communication, and is used at all times through gestures, signs, facial expression
and even eye movement. Touch, though used selectively, is also important. Eye
contact helps the speaker hold the attention of the listener and ensure his/her
involvement. Along with body language, it communicates or provides a variety
of information about the speaker self-confdence, honesty, aggressiveness,
compliance, etc.
Points to remember for effective communication
Clarity of thought: Expressed through clear speech.
Clarity of voice: Volume and speed.
Listening skills: Listen to understand.
Tone: What it represents, its appropriateness.
Body language: Intended to reinforce speech.
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Consonant Sounds
Session Plan
Introduction to consonant sounds
Production and articulation of consonant sounds
Our frst langauge infuences our pronunciation in every language. Our grasp of the
English language is developed to the extent that we can express our thoughts and
successfully convey a general idea. To make our English more effective, however,
requires a focused effort to overcome regional infuences.
How Sounds are Formed
All sounds originate from the voice box. Vowel sounds come out of the voice box, without
interference from any part of the mouth. Consonant sounds emanate directly from the
voice box too, but need the help of another mouth part, such as the teeth, palate (the roof
of the mouth), or tongue.
Sounds such as aaaa or eeee are vowel sounds, while paa, kaa or taa and seee or
mee are combinations of consonant and vowel sounds.
Begin by explaining what consonants are: all letters of the alphabet that are not vowels,
are consonants. We will refer to consonant sounds and not to letters. For example,
we will say puh for papa and not pee for papa. English is not a phonetic language.
This means that the way a letter in the English language is spoken and the way it is
pronounced, is entirely different. Therefore, when we speak of consonants, we will speak
only of the sounds of each of these letters.
A word is formulated around its consonant sounds. Consonant sounds are the smallest
units of sound. They give our speech clarity, making us easily comprehensible. These
sounds are affected by our regional and frst language infuences.
Consonant sounds are like the human skeleton, which acts as a framework. Vowel
sounds can be compared to the fesh, which gives shape to the frame.
Our regional infuences affect our consonant sounds, and thereby affect the clarity
of our speech. Recognizing these speech errors, especially the incorrect vowel and
consonant sounds, will help learners to be sensitive to others and become capable of
correcting their own speech sounds.
Practise articulating the following consonant sounds: p, b, t, d, k, s, z, sh, zh, f, v, w, j,
and th.
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The p sound:
You need to close the lips tight, stopping the air at the lips, and then open the lips.
There should be a puff of air that comes out, producing the p sound.
The b sound:
Keep the lips closed, stopping the air at the lips, and then open the lips.
There should not be a puff of air. This will produce a voiced b sound.
The c or the k sound:
Raise the back of the tongue to touch the soft palate at the roof of the mouth.
Stop the air and then release it quickly.
Pronounce the sound softly.
The t sound:
Place the tip of the tongue behind the upper front teeth.
Stop the air briefly at the gum ridge, and then release it in a puff.
The d sound:
Place the tip of the tongue behind the upper front teeth.
Stop the air briefly at the gum ridge, and then release it.
The f sound:
Be careful not to pronounce it like the Hindi Ph.
To make this sound, loosely bite the lower lip with the two top front teeth and
gently blow.
You do not use your voice when making this sound, only air comes out of the
mouth.
The v sound:
Listen to the words west and vest.
Try not to confuse the v sound with the w sound.
To make this sound, loosely bite the lower lip with the two top front teeth and
gently blow.
You also use your voice when making this sound.
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Trainer Manual
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The w sound:
Round your lips as if you are whistling.
Put the back of your tongue close to the roof of your mouth without touching the
top of your mouth. Use your voice.
Try not to pronounce words beginning with w like words with v.
The th sound:
There are two different th sounds in English (That, Thank)
Both th sounds are made by putting your tongue between your teeth so that the
tip of your tongue is touching the tips of your top teeth.
In that and breathe, we use our voice when we make the th sound.
The sound in thank and breath is made without using our voice.
The sh sound:
Put your finger on your lips and say shhhhhhh...
The sides of your tongue should touch the upper teeth.
The tongue should be flat and up towards the roof of the mouth. Round your lips
and lightly blow air over the top of your tongue.
Push the air out to make a voiceless sound
The s sound:
Pretend to be a snake with your tongue raised to your upper gum ridge ssssssssss
Place the tip of your tongue on the alveolar ridge (the hump behind the upper
front incisors).
The sides of the tongue should touch the sides of the teeth. The air travels over
the center of the tongue.
This is a voiceless sound. The z sound is identical, except that it is a voiced
sound.
The Zh sound:
Pronounced in the same way, only the sound is a buzz.
Push out the lips.
Raise the front of the tongue to the upper gum ridge, making a voiced buzzing
sound.
The sh sound is identical, except that it is voiceless.
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The J sound:
The tongue is in the same position as the t sound and d sound, with the tip of the
tongue right behind the upper front teeth.
Then the sound gets released in the same place inside the mouth as the sh
sound and zh sound.
The area right behind the tip of the tongue is so near to the tooth ridge that
friction happens.
Push the air out, making a voiced sound.
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Vowel Sounds
Session Plan
What are vowel sounds?
How to articulate vowel sounds correctly
Production and articulation of vowel sounds
Written Vowels and Vowel Sounds
Remind learners that they were taught in school that there
are fve vowels, and indeed thats correct. What they may not
have learnt, however, is that there are a large number of vowel
sounds originating from them. For instance, a word that begins
with the letter e may be pronounced quite differently from
another, such as egg, eagle, early and erupt. Ask learners to
say the words over and they will notice there is little sound
similarity between the four, but the starting letter is the same. The point to be made
here is that English has fve written vowels, but a large number of vowel sounds.
Importance of Pronouncing Vowels Correctly
Indian English often refects the sounds of our frst languages, so it is natural that we
speak English with an accent. Its not wrong to do that, but in a world thats fast-moving
and competitive, this factor could hinder understanding between two parties. It would be
unfortunate to let a factor like the lack of language expression and comprehension come
between us and our career progress, especially when there is ample room to unlearn
and correct.
Explain to learners that even though there are only 26 letters in the English alphabet,
there are 44 sounds. Of these, 20 emanate from the 5 vowels alone.
Among the 20 vowel sounds, there are 12 monophthongs (pure vowel sounds) and 8
diphthongs (containing a combination of two vowel sounds).
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Given below is a chart explaining how the various monophthongs are articulated:
Sound Type of sound Articulation
Examples of
words containing
the sound
/ / Short Vowel Sound
Lips loosely spread.
Tongue lax with less
tension than / I /
Give, Pill, Sit, Quick,
Will, Bit, Wit
/ e / Short Vowel Sound
Lips loosely spread and
slightly wide apart.
Any, Never,
Session, Credit,
Internet Efforts,
Message, Met,
Except
/ / Short Vowel Sound
Lips neutrally open and
slightly wider apart than /
eh /
Address, Action,
Application, Add,
Salary, Understand
/ / Long Vowel Sound
Open lip-rounding, wide
open jaws, back of tongue
low.
Cord, Option,
Awesome, Login,
Cost, Content,
Monitor, Offce
/ / Short Vowel Sound
Lips neutrally open. Open
jaws. Centralized quality.
Luck, Stuck,
Buck, Urban, Cub,
Understand, Under
/ / Short Vowel Sound
Lips loose, but closely
rounded. Tongue not as
tense as in / u: /
Cook, Shook,
Crook, Butcher,
Cooker,
Understood, Stood
/ /
(schwa) Short Vowel Sound
Lips neutrally open. Open
jaws. Centralized quality.
Aback, Another,
Abandon, India
Academy, America
Around
/ i: / Long Vowel Sound
Lips spread. Tongue tense
(front raised) with sides
touching upper molars.
Deal, Greet, Appeal,
Feel, Meal, Heat,
Seem, People,
Steep, Sleep
/ : / Long Vowel Sound
Lips neutrally open and
jaws far apart. Centre to
back of tongue fully open.
Laugh, Rather,
Chart, Ask, Article,
Transfer, Market,
Alarm, Answer
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/ : / Long Vowel Sound
Medium lip rounding.
Tongue drawn back,
making no contact with
upper molars.
Door, Store, Floor,
Restore, Implore,
Explore
/ : / Short Vowel Sound
Lips neutrally spread.
Tongue slightly higher than
// (no frm contact with
upper molars)
Earth, Sir, Herd,
Gather, Curt, Either,
Revert, Neither,
Perk, Manner
/ u: / Long Vowel Sound
Lips closely rounded. Back
of tongue high. Tense
compared with /u/
Fool, Stool, Too,
Soon, Spoon,
Prune, Prude, Rude
To produce diphthongs, your tongue, lips (and sometimes your jaw) have to move.
Sometimes the journey your tongue makes is short and very controlled; in some of the
diphthongs; it has to move a long distance in your mouth, involving a lot of jaw movement
too.
Diphthongs present greater diffculty to people learning English because the tongue
travels between two fxed locations.
The frst three diphthongs have the vowel sound / i / as in pit or if as the fnishing
position. To make this sound, your tongue has to be high and towards the front of your
mouth and your lips kept relaxed.
Sound Type of sound Articulation
Examples of
words containing
the sound
/ e / Diphthong
The starting position is /e/
with tongue in mid position
at front of mouth as in egg,
bed or Ted. Therefore
you move the tongue up to
make the diphthong.
Day Stay
Clay Say
Lay Play
/ a / Diphthong
The starting position is the
/ AA / sound as in car. To
make the diphthong you
need a big jaw movement,
less opening as you move
the tongue up and front.
Ice-cream Iced-tea
Iceland Sty
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Trainer Manual
/ / Diphthong
The starting position is
the /OH/ sound in door
or or. Your tongue needs
to be low, but you need to
pull it back and make your
mouth round. To make the
diphthong, you relax the lip
rounding and move your
tongue forward and up.
Ploy
The next three diphthongs have the neutral schwa sound, which occurs in grunting
noises and the weak forms of the and a, as the fnishing position. To make the neutral
vowel sound keep your tongue fxed in the centre of your mouth, lips fairly relaxed and
just grunt!
Sound Type of sound Articulation
Examples of
words containing
the sound
/ / Diphthong
The starting position is / i /
as in if or pit with tongue
front and high and lips
relaxed.
Coin, Joining, Point,
Joint, Appointment
/ e / Diphthong
The starting position is / e
/ as in egg or bed with
tongue in mid position at
front of mouth. To make the
diphthong, using a small
controlled movement, pull
your tongue slightly back
from mid front to the mid
central position in your
mouth.
Hair, Pair, Share,
Stare
/ / Diphthong
The starting position is /u/
with tongue pulled back but
small mouth aperture as in
hook, book or look.
Tourist, Poor, Tour
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Trainer Manual
English Edge: Intermediate
The last two diphthongs have the back vowel / u/ (tongue pulled back but small tight
mouth aperture as in hook, book or look) as the fnishing position.
Sound Type of sound Articulation
Examples of
words containing
the sound
/ / Diphthong
The starting position is the
schwa, as in the weak form
of the or a. To start in
this way, the tongue should
be fxed in mid central
position in your mouth
with lips relaxed. To make
the diphthong, it is a short
controlled movement in the
opposite direction: from the
centre to the back moving
your relaxed lips into a
tighter small round aperture.
Your cheeks should move in
a bit!
Modem, Flow,
Explorer, Port,
Rolled, Phone, Told
/ a / Diphthong
The starting position is
the vowel sound /ae/ as
in at bad or rat with
tongue front but also low
(i.e. mouth open). To make
the diphthong the journey
for your tongue from front
low (mouth very open) to
back high (small tight mouth
aperture) is a very long
excursion. Your jaw will
move a lot too.
How Now Brown
Cow
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Vowel Shades
Session Plan
The schwa sound
Vowel shades and pronunciation.
Vowel sounds can be categorized in two broad buckets:
Lip Vowels
Tongue Vowels
Lip Vowels are those vowel sounds that are crafted by the shaping of the lips. Note
that the lips have to change shape in order to craft these sounds.
The lip vowels are: aa - aw - oh - oo
Tongue Vowels are vowel sounds that are made by the movement of the tongue.
Feel the tongue move as you enunciate these sounds:
aa - ay - ee - I
Vowel Shades
Written English has fve proper vowel letters, A, E, I, O, and U. Yet spoken English has
some 20 shades of vowel sounds. Accordingly, each vowel letter symbolizes multiple
sounds on any written page. For example, the long A of 'rate' and the short A of 'rat'
are the two shades of the vowel A. This discrepancy underlies the complexity of English
pronunciation.
Look at the variation and combinations of vowel sounds in these sets of words. Learners
often use the incorrect vowel shade, sometimes changing the meaning of the word.
aa u er /ae e ay / / i ee /ai/
(Bath but bird) (bat bet bay) (bit beet) (by)
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Trainer Manual
English Edge: Intermediate
Schwa
The schwa is the vowel sound in many lightly pronounced unaccented syllables in
words of more than one syllable. It is sometimes signifed by the pronunciation "uh" or
symbolized by an upside-down rotated e.
A schwa sound can be represented by any vowel. In most dialects, for example, the
schwa sound is found in the following words:
The a is schwa in adept.
The e is schwa in synthesis.
The i is schwa in decimal.
The o is schwa in harmony.
The u is schwa in medium.
The y is schwa in syringe.
Authorities vary somewhat in the range of what is considered a schwa sound, but the
above examples are generally accepted.
Some browser fonts will show the schwa symbol . Others may show a box, a question
mark, or a capital Y.
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Sound Clusters
Session Plan
Voiced and unvoiced consonants
Sound clusters and drill
Introduction to sound clusters
Tell learners that they learnt that consonants do the work of making speech crisp
and clear, just like the function of treble in a music system. When you whisper, it
is consonants that carry forward the sound and the meaning. Apart from giving
clarity and sharpness to language, consonant sounds also convey logic.
Voiced and unvoiced consonants:
Explain to learners that English consonant sounds are divided into two broad
buckets, which are
Voiced Consonants
Unvoiced Consonants
Difference between voiced and unvoiced consonants
Consonants are said to be voiced if they vibrate the vocal cords. Touch your throat
and say ZZZ and SSSS. You will feel a distinct difference in vibration. Z is voiced,
S is unvoiced. Unvoiced consonants are consonant sounds that are produced
without any human voice. Unvoiced consonants take more effort or muscle tension
to produce.
Every language has its own music and rhythm. The consonant drill will help to
understand and articulate this rhythm. Ask learners to try and repeat the drill with
the same speed and rhythm as the expert voice that they will hear.
UNVOICED VOICED
p b
f v
s z
th th
t d
ch j
sh zh
k g
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Trainer Manual
English Edge: Intermediate
TIP:
Remember, we need to speak consonant sounds softly, and not hard as we do in
regional Indian languages.
Consonant Clusters
A consonant cluster is a group or sequence of consonants that appear together in
a syllable without a vowel between them.
Explain to learners that it is important to be able to differentiate between
consonant clusters and diagraphs. A diagraph is a group of two or more
consonants which actually stand for one sound, such as sh in shirt and ch in
church.
Words such as spray, straight, practice and English contain consonant clusters.
Alliterations: Sentences that have words that begin with the same sound are
called alliterative sentences. Poets use a lot of alliteration to make their poetry
effective or to create different moods within the poem.
There are many small rhymes in the English language with alliterative sentences
that are diffcult to pronounce. These rhymes are called tongue twisters.
Reciting tongue twisters helps to remove frst language infuence and to practise
articulation of sounds.
TIP:
Learners must practice beyond their class and the WBT to improve their
pronunciation and remove their frst language infuence. They must practise
constantly and be ever alert about not repeating MTI errors.
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Indianisms
Session Plan
What are Indianisms?
How direct translation affects our language
Learning about the incorrect practice of using Hindi fillers
This section warns us of the perils of translating directly from Hindi. This is why
we come up with terms such as What is your good name and backside. The
course goes on to discuss the use of the present continuous tense, words that
end in ing, such as having, and the use of Hindi fller words such as achha,
haan, ki, toh. Such fller words should be avoided in order to improve our
communication.
Phrases such as good name are Indianisms. Indianisms are words, phrases,
and expressions that have become part of colloquially spoken English in India.
Some of these expressions have resulted from direct translation from ones frst
language to English. Others have resulted because of the differences between
English and Hindi grammar. For instance, there are no articles in Hindi and the
word order in sentences is quite different. So a person trying to translate directly
might use inappropriate words, phrases, and sentence constructions. Such
Indianisms are widely used, and they have almost become accepted as colloquial
speech.
Discuss regional errors. Mention that while its okay to laugh at the way that we
speak, (not at the way others speak), its important to remember that its not our
fault, but is related to the language we have been used to speaking all of our lives.
Make sure that students do not think that you are targeting one particular region
or state. In other words, the main idea is to grasp that Indian English has certain
sounds that are carried over from ones primary language (Hindi). These sounds
need to be neutralized to enable more effective communication.
TIP:
Tell learners that the only way to deal with Indianisms is to listen as much as possible to
English spoken correctly. When dealing with the slides based on regional errors, keep a
light note pointing out again that no region is being targeted.
Copyright Liqvid eLearning Services Pvt Ltd. | 31
Syllables
Session Plan
Phonetic symbols
What are syllables?
Syllable break-up
Pronunciation and syllable stress are perhaps the most exciting parts of accent
neutralization. One of the problems of incorrect expression is that even when
corrected, we often do not know how to sustain that correction. When we go
wrong in our spelling, looking at the corrected spelling can remind us; in the case
of pronunciation, this luxury does not exist.
People pronounce words differently depending on which syllable they stress.
Syllables are small chunks of sound; they are the smallest units of sound in a
word. All words have at least one syllable. Usually each letter makes a sound
(phoneme) and a group of letters makes the block of sound (syllable). All words
are made from at least one syllable.
Syllables can be just one letter or a group of lettersit's the sound that matters.
Every syllable must have a vowel or a vowel sound e.g. pen, can, gym (in the last
word, y creates a vowel sound.) The mouth changes shape only once when saying
a particular syllable.
Most syllables are combinations of consonants and vowels. But a vowel alone
can be a syllable e.g. a-go, o-ver. If a syllable ends with a consonant, it is called
a closed syllable. If a syllable ends with a vowel, it is called an open syllable.
Patterns of syllables can be shown with C and V (C for 'consonant', V for 'vowel').
Closed syllables are shown as CVC, open syllables CV. Some languages like
English have many kinds of closed syllables.
River (2 Ri-ver; CV-CVC)
Doctor (2 Doc-tor; CVC-CVC)
Happy (2 Hap-py; CVC-CV)
Computer (3 Com-pu-ter; CVC-CV-CVC)
Beautiful (3 Beau-ti-ful; CV-CV-CVC)
pronunciation (5 Pro-nun-ci-a-tion; CV-CVC-CV-V-CVC)

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Syllable Stress
Session Plan
The importance of syllable stress
Syllable stress in nouns and verbs
How suffixes change stress patterns in words
Syllable Stress
Remind learners about the idea behind breaking a word into syllables the
idea is that there is only one syllable in a word that gets stressed. Tell learners
that they can do this by saying that syllable slightly louder and by holding the
vowel sound a little longer.
They can also accomplish this by changing the tone of their voice on that
particular syllable.
In English, syllable stress plays a key role in developing pronunciation. It also
creates the correct pattern of rhythm.
Communication problems are occasionally a result of incorrect pronunciation (misplaced
stress), not sounds spoken with a regional influence (consonants/vowels). So with correct
stress, even if we have trouble with individual sounds, the listener can usually understand
us. (If you say di-VEL-lp with a harsh d and p, but the syllable stress is correct, chances
are you will still be understood though the listener may detect an accent in your speech.)
On the other hand, if we misplace the stress in a word, the listener wont be able
to understand the word and will spend a second trying to figure it out, creating a
communication gap. (If you say DEV-lop-ment, there are greater chances of your being
misunderstood and having to repeat the word.)
Rules of syllable stress
One word has only one stress. Two stresses cannot be in one word. It is true
that there can be a "secondary" stress in some words. But a secondary stress is
much smaller than the main [primary] stress, and is only used in long words.
We can only stress vowels, not consonants.
Here are some more, rather complicated, rules that can help you understand
where to put the stress. But do not rely on them too much. It is better to try to
"feel" the music of the language and to add the stress naturally.

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Trainer Manual
English Edge: Intermediate
I. Stress on frst syllable
rule example
Most 2-syllable nouns PRESent, EXport, CHIna, TAble
Most 2-syllable adjectives PRESent, SLENder, CLEVer, HAPpy
II. Stress on last syllable
rule example
Most 2-syllable verbs to preSENT, to exPORT, to deCIDE, to beGIN
III. Stress on the second from end syllable
rule example
Words ending in -ic GRAPHic, geoGRAPHic, geoLOGic
Words ending in -sion and -tion teleVIsion, reveLAtion
IV. Compound words (words with two parts)
rule example
For compound nouns, the stress is on the first part BLACKbird, GREENhouse
For compound adjectives, the stress is on the
second part
bad-TEMpered, old-
FASHioned
For compound verbs, the stress is on the second
part
to underSTAND, to
overFLOW
For a few words, native English speakers don't always agree on where to put
the stress. For example, some people say teleVIsion and others say TELevision.
Another example is: CON-tro-ver-sy and con-TRO-versy.
There are many two-syllable words in English whose meaning and class change
with a change in stress. The word present, for example is a two-syllable word.
If we stress the frst syllable, it is a noun (gift) or an adjective (opposite of
absent). But if we stress the second syllable, it becomes a verb (to offer). More
examples: the words export, import, contract and object can all be nouns or verbs
depending on whether the stress is on the frst or second syllable.
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Nouns
Session Plan
Count and non-count nouns
The differences between count nouns and non-count nouns
COUNT NOUNS / COUNTABLE NOUNS
Count nouns have both a singular and a plural form. These nouns can be counted.
Count nouns name individual items that can add up; this means there can be one
or more of the items being counted.
NON-COUNT NOUNS / UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS
Non-count nouns refer to things that cannot be counted because they are thought
of as a whole that cannot be cut into parts. Non-count nouns are substances,
concepts, etc. that cannot be divided into separate elements.
Examples: weather, happiness
This bakery sells the best bread in town.
Which is your favourite bread, brown or white?
NOUNS THAT ARE BOTH COUNT AND NON-COUNT
Some nouns can be both count and non-count. Sometimes a word means one
thing as a non-count noun and another as a count noun.
Example: I just can't seem to keep track of the time I've spent on this project.
I have read this book twenty-two times.
Normally, the non-count meaning is abstract and general and the count meaning
is concrete and specifc.
A special case of the use of non-count nouns in a count sense has to do with
classifcation. Sometimes a usually non-count noun can be understood as one
item separate and distinct from other items of the same category. The nouns that
function in this way often denote foods and beverages: food(s), drink(s), wine(s),
bread(s), coffee(s), fruit(s), and so on. Examples:
There are several French wines to choose from. (= kinds of wine)
I prefer Sumatran coffees to Colombian. (= kinds of coffee)
We use a variety of different batters in our bakery. (= kinds of batter)
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Indefinite Articles
Session Plan
The indefinite article Definitions
The correct use of a and an
The rules governing the use of indefinite articles
The Article
There are two types of articles:
Indefinite Articles
The Definite Article
Indefnite Articles
Indefnite means general. We use indefnite when we mean not sure or not certain.
Indefnite articles are derived from the word one. An indefnite article (a or an) is
used with singular count nouns.
Example: A boy
Its raining, take a raincoat.
An elephant
Would you like an apple or an orange?
If the noun is modifed by an adjective, the choice between a and an depends on
the initial sound of the adjective that immediately follows the article.
Example: a broken egg
a red umbrella
an unusual problem
an interesting story
a European country
The indefnite article a
The indefnite article a is the same for all genders.
a boy, a girl, a cat
The indefnite article has no plural form.
A boy boys
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Trainer Manual
We use an if the following word starts with a vowel sound.
Words starting with a consonant sound Words starting with a vowel sound
a boy an aunt
a school an old school
a girl an American girl
Mind the pronunciation of the following words.
a unit an uncle
This u sounds like a consonant, so we
use a.
This u sounds like a vowel, so we use an.
Use of indefnite articles a and an
before phrases of time and measurements (per week/weekly)
We have English classes 4 times a week.
I visit my parents twice a year.
Our car can do 220 kilometres an hour.
Tomatoes are Rs. 20 a kilo.
before phrases of jobs
My father is a chartered accountant.
before phrases of religion
Yoko is a Buddhist Monk.
Usually after half/quite
We need half a pound of sugar.
Do you have half an hour?
This is quite a good story.
Rules for using Indefnite Articles
Use Indefnite articles when:
Making a general statement.
Referring to something not mentioned before.
Naming a profession, nationality or religion.
Conveying the meaning per or every.
As a weakened form of one.
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The Definite Article
Session Plan
About the definite article
The correct use of the
Rules governing the use of the definite article
When not to use the definite article
The defnite article the
We use indefnite to mean unsure or uncertain. In contrast, defnite means
particular. The defnite article shows that the noun is being used in a defned or
restricted sense. This signals that the noun is defnite, that it refers to a particular
member of a group. It is used before singular and plural nouns when the noun is
particular or specifc.
The defnite article the is the same for all genders in singular and in plural.
the boy, the girl, the cat, the computers.
While using the defnite article, if the following word begins with a vowel sound,
we pronounce the as [ ] or th-i; on the other hand, if the following word begins
with a consonant sound, we say [ ], or th-uh
[ ] [ ]
Words starting with a consonant sound
Words starting with a vowel
sound
the girl the English girl
the book the entire book
the school the old school
the unit the uncle
When the defnite article is used before a superlative adjective, we say [ ]
The biggest; the highest.
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Trainer Manual
Refer to the examples in the following table to help learners understand when we
use the defnite article and when we don't.
Without the defnite article With the defnite article
general words (indefnite) general words (defnite)
Life is beautiful.
I like fowers.
I've read a book on the life of Indira
Gandhi.
I like the fowers you sent me.
names of people and relations family names in the plural
Pinky and Janiya live in Delhi.
Aunt Gauri lives in Kolkata.
The Chopras live in Gandhi Nagar.
public buildings, institutions, means
of transport (indefnite)
public buildings, institutions,
means of transport (defnite)
Mandeep doesn't like school.
We go to school by bus.
Some people go to church on
Sundays.
The school that Mandeep goes to is
close by.
The bus usually reaches by 8.30
AM, but it is late today.
The church is closed for
renovation.
names of countries in the singular;
summits of mountains; continents;
towns
names of countries in the plural;
mountain ranges; regions
Germany, France;
Mount Whitney, Mount McKinley;
Africa, Europe;
Cairo, New York
the United States of America, the
Netherlands; the Highlands, the
Rocky Mountains, the Alps; the
Middle East, the west of Australia
single islands groups of islands
Corfu, Bermuda, Sicily
the Bahamas, the British Isles, the
Canaries
parks; lakes; streets names oceans; seas; rivers
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Trainer Manual
English Edge: Intermediate
Central Park, Hyde Park;
Lake Michigan, Loch Ness;
42nd Street, Oxford Street
the Statue of Liberty, the Tower (of
London), the Isle of Wight;
the Atlantic (Ocean);
the Mediterranean (Sea);
the Nile, the Rhine, the Suez Canal
months, days of the week (indefnite) months, days of the week (defnite)
The weekend is over on Monday
morning.
July and August are the most
popular months for holidays.
I always remember the Monday
when I had an accident.
The August of 2001 was hot and
dry.
names of musical instruments the guitar, the flute
names of planets the earth, the sun

We use the seasons of the year (spring, summer, autumn, winter) with or without
the defnite article.
in summer or in the summer
Sometimes we use the article and sometimes we do not. It often depends on the
context. Watch the following example:
The student goes to school.
The mother goes to the school.
In the frst sentence we do not use the defnite article, in the second we do. The
student goes to school for its primary purpose, so we do not use the article.
The mother might go to talk to a teacher, for example. She visits the school for a
different reason. That's why we use the defnite article in the second sentence.
Explain the use of the defnite article to learners. We use the defnite article for
the following:
Referring to something mentioned before
Referring to something unique
Referring to something when it is considered obvious what is meant
Referring to something as a class
TIP: More often than not, people use articles when they are not required. Remind
learners of the rules for when not to use the articles, when you give them
feedback.
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Adjectives
Session Plan
What are adjectives?
Categories of adjectives

Adjectives describe nouns by answering one of these three questions: What kind is it?
How many are there? Which one is it? An adjective can be a single word, a phrase, or a
clause. Consider these examples:
What kind is it?
Pinky decided that the mouldy old bread would make an unappetizing
sandwich.
What kind of bread? Mouldy and old! What kind of sandwich? Unappetizing!
A person with money to spend will never long for weekend shopping partners.
What kind of person? One with money to spend!
A towel that is wet and smelly is more repelling than a person with body odour.
What kind of towel? One that is wet and smelly.
How many are there?
Seven hungry football enthusiasts stormed into the house.
How many hungry football enthusiasts? Seven!
Which one is it?
The students who neglected to prepare for the English class hid in the
cafeteria.
Which students? Not the good students but the lazy ones.
Know how to punctuate a series of adjectives.
To describe a noun fully, you might need to use two or more adjectives.
Sometimes a series of adjectives requires commas, but sometimes it doesn't.
What makes the difference?
If the adjectives are coordinate, you must use commas between them. If, on the
other hand, the adjectives are non-coordinate, no commas are necessary. How do
you tell the difference?
Coordinate adjectives can pass one of two tests. When you rearrange their
location in the series or when you insert and between them, they still make sense.
Look at the following example:
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Trainer Manual
English Edge: Intermediate
The tall, creamy, delicious milkshake melted on the counter.
The series of adjectives still makes sense even though the order has changed.
And if you insert and between the adjectives, you still have a logical sentence:
The tall and creamy and delicious milkshake melted on the counter while the
inattentive waiter firted with the pretty cashier.
Non-coordinate adjectives do not make sense when you rearrange their location
in the series or when you insert and between them. Consider this example:
Jeanne's two fat Siamese cats hog the electric blanket on cold winter evenings.
If you switch the order of the adjectives, the sentence becomes gibberish.
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Making Comparisons
Session Plan
Using the comparative form of adjectives
Using the superlative form of adjectives
Irregular comparisons
Forming comparative and superlative adjectives
To make comparisons, you will often need comparative or superlative adjectives.
You use comparative adjectives if you are discussing two people, places, or
things. You use superlative adjectives if you have three or more people, places, or
things. Look at these two examples:
Jeet, who is very ambitious, works harder than Rahul, who is more intelligent.
Mike needs to get a scholarship to college, so he works the hardest in the class.
You can form comparative adjectives in two ways. You can add -er to the end of
the adjective, or you can use more or less before it. Do not, however, do both! You
violate the rules of grammar if you claim that you are more taller, more smarter, or
less faster than your older brother.
One-syllable words generally take -er at the end, as in these examples:
Small - smaller
Two-syllable words vary. Check out these examples:
Lazy - lazier
Handsome more handsome
Use more or less before adjectives with three or more syllables:
Colourful less colourful
Compassionate - more compassionate
You can form superlative adjectives in two ways as well. You can add -est to the
end of the adjective, or you can use most or least before it. Do not, however, do
both! You violate another grammatical rule if you claim that you are the most
brightest, most happiest, or least angriest member of your family.
One-syllable words generally take est at the end, as in these examples: coldest,
tallest
Two-syllable words vary. Check out these examples:
Crispy - crispiest
gorgeous - most gorgeous
Use most or least before adjectives with three or more syllables:
Comfortable most comfortable
Expensive most expensive
Always use the defnite article the before a superlative.
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Space and Time
Session Plan
P repositions of place / space
Prepositions of time
A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence.
The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the
preposition.
A preposition usually indicates the relationship of its object to the rest of the
sentence.
Types of prepositions
Prepositions of place / space
Prepositions of time
Prepositions of place / space
In : expresses confinement.
Example: My uncle is in jail.
Ill ride in your car.
On : means attached to or adjacent to something.
Example: Dinners on the table.
She had a strange smile on her face.
On is also used to designate names of streets, avenues, etc.
Example: My friends house is on Aurangzeb Road.
At : refers to a specific point in space.
Example: Theres a guest at the door. Would you let him in please?
Change trains at Nizamuddin station.
At also indicates in the direction of.
Example: He pointed at the machine and said Whats that?
I looked at Ravi as he entered the room.
At is also used for specifc addresses.
Example: My mother lives at E-24, The Mall Road.
To : indicates in a direction or toward. It signifies orientation toward a goal.
Example: The young mother goes to her babys creche every day.
Kavita goes to offce early on Tuesdays.
Exception to is never used before home, e.g., one does not go to home.
We simply go home.
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More Prepositions
Session Plan
More about prepositions
How phrasal verbs are used
Of prepositions as linking words.
Some more prepositions:
In addition to in, on, at and to, we shall also learn about under, over, above and
below.
under, over I.
under and over indicate a direct, vertical relationship or nearness.
Example: The injured girl had a bad cut under the left eye.
My mother was leaning over the gas stove when her sari caught fire.
above, below II.
above and below indicate that one object is on a higher or lower level
than the other.
Example: My son's grades are above average this semester.
I can see the rat hiding under the pile of documents in the store.
The Use of Since and For:
The present perfect is often used with since and for to denote periods of time up
to the present.
If you use since with present perfect or present perfect continuous, you are
signalling when something started. If you use for, you are signalling how long
something has been going on. Compare:
She has been living in Shimla since July 2002.
She has been living in Shimla for the last six years.
Phrasal verbs: A phrasal verb is a verb plus a preposition or adverb which creates
a meaning different from the original verb. While the components of some phrasal
verbs can be used separately and still be phrasal verbs, others cannot.
call off (separable): cancel something that has been scheduled.
call on (inseparable): ask someone for an answer in class.
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Trainer Manual
English Edge: Intermediate
calm down (separable): become calm / less agitated or upset; help someone
become calm / less agitated or upset.
Why are you so upset? Calm down!
I know Raja is upset, but can you calm him down?
(not) care for (1. inseparable): like; want.
A: Would you care for something to drink?
care for (2. inseparable): take care of; supply care to; attend / watch.
Aniyas father got out of the hospital last week. The family is taking care of
him at home.
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Expressions
Session Plan
Prepositional phrases
Idiomatic expressions
Proverbs
A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any
associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun,
an adjective, or an adverb.
Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a preposition:
The children climbed the mountain without fear.
In this sentence, the preposition without introduces the noun "fear." The
prepositional phrase "without fear" functions as an adverb describing how the
children climbed.
The car crawled slowly along the road.
The preposition "along" introduces the noun phrase "the road" and the
prepositional phrase "along the road" acts as an adverb, describing where the car
crawled.
I found your shoes under the porch.
Here the preposition "under" introduces the prepositional phrase "under the
porch," which acts as an adverb modifying the verb found.
An idiom is a phrase whose meaning cannot be deduced from the literal
defnition, but refers instead to a fgurative meaning that is known only through
common use.
This set of words commonly used in a group changes the defnition of each of the
words that exist. As an expression, the word-group becomes a team, so to speak.
That is, the collocated words develop a specialized meaning as a whole and we
have an idiom.
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Subject-Verb Agreement
Session Plan
The concept of the first, second, and third person.
Subject-verb agreement
Agreement or consistency is a basic rule of grammar. The first and most important rule in
subject-verb agreement is that the verb must agree with the form/number of the subject.
'Form/number' means whether a word is singular (referring to one) or plural
(referring to two or more).
The verb is the most important part in a sentence. If you can fnd the verb(s),
then you will have no trouble fnding the subject(s). Once you fnd a verb, just ask
yourself 'who' or 'what'.ular S
First Person I we
Second Person you you
Third Person he, she, it they
The function of the subject is to denote the actor, i.e., the person, event, etc. that
is causing the happening denoted by the verb.
Remember:
When the subject in the third person is singular, the verb takes an s/-es:
He goes.
She goes.
Ram sings, Sheila dances.
Rules for Subject Verb Agreement:
A verb must agree in form with its subject, whether the subject precedes or I.
follows the verb.
Example: The students are sitting outside the building.
When the subject of a sentence is composed of two or more nouns or pronouns II.
connected by 'and' (called a compound subject), use a plural verb.
Example: She and her friends are at the school carnival.
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A plural verb is used when a compound subject follows it.
Example: In the room, there are a boy, a girl, and a dog.
DOESN'T is a contraction of 'does not' and should be used only with a singular
subject (only with Third Person Singular he, she, it)
Example: My brother doesn't enjoy parties at all!
DON'T is a contraction of 'do not' and should be used only with a plural
subject.
(Only with First Person Singular and Plural, Second Person Singular and Plural,
Third Person Plural I, we, you, they)
Example: I don't want to go to the same restaurant every Friday!
If two nouns, in spite of being joined by 'and', suggest one idea or refer to the III.
same person or thing, the verb used is singular.
Example: One hundred rupees is too much to spend on a newspaper!
When two or more subjects are joined by 'or', 'either or', 'neither, nor', or 'not IV.
onlybut also', the verb agrees with the nearest subject.
Example: The cousins or Chaachi herself is going to arrange the party.
A collective noun takes a singular verb when referring to a group as a unit, and V.
a plural verb when the members of a group are thought of as individuals or as
parts of the group.
Example: The committee has decided to forgive the student.
The committee have yet to sign the document.
A 'plural' form subject with a singular subject meaning takes a singular verb VI.
Example: The news is on at nine.
Measles is a deadly disease.
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The Present Tense
Session Plan
Verbs and helping verbs
The simple present tense
The present continuous tense
A verb is a word that shows action or a state of being. The verb is the heart of
a sentence. Recognizing the verb is the most important step in understanding
the meaning of a sentence. Unlike most of the other parts of speech in English,
verbs change their forms. Sometimes endings are added (learn, learn-ed) and
sometimes the word becomes completely different (teach, taught).
One of the most important things about verbs is their relationship to time. A verb
indicates the time of an action, event, or condition by changing its form. Verbs
tell if something has already happened, if it will happen later, or if it is happening
now.
For things happening now, we use the present tense of a verb, for something that
has already happened we use the past tense, and for something that will happen
later, we use the future tense. By 'tense' we understand the correspondence
between the form of the verb and our concept of time (present, past or future). A
verb gives clues about the time of an event. Most English verbs are regular, but
there are over 200 main verbs that are irregular.
THE PRESENT TENSE
The Simple Present Tense I.
We use the simple present tense when:
The action is general
The simple present tense indicates that the speaker believes that a fact was true
before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is
correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things.
Example: I celebrate Holi every year.
The action is habitual
The simple present tense is used to express the idea that an action is repeated
or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or
something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets
or usually does not do.
Example: Rita plays football, do you?
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The statement is always true
Example: The moon goes round the earth.
The simple present is formed by using the base form of the verb, adding an "s" to
the 3rd person singular expression (I work, but he/she/it works.)
THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
We use the present continuous when:
The action is in progress now
We use the present continuous with normal verbs to express the idea that
something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show
that something is not happening now.
Examples: You are learning English now.
I am not singing in front of so many people.
Longer actions in progress now
In English, "now" can mean: this second, today, this month, this year, this
century, and so on. Sometimes, we use the present continuous to say that we are
in the process of doing a longer action which is in progress; however, we might
not be doing it at this exact second.
Examples: (All of these sentences can be said while eating dinner in a restaurant.)
I am studying to become a doctor.
I am not studying to become a dentist.
I am reading the book Tom Sawyer.
Near future
Sometimes, speakers use the present continuous to indicate that something will or will
not happen in the near future.
Examples: I am meeting some friends after work.
Repetition and irritation with "always"
The present continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the
idea that something irritating or shocking often happens. Notice that the meaning is
like simple present, but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or
"constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing."
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Trainer Manual
English Edge: Intermediate
Note:
Its time to conduct an assessment test to check learners progress. Consult
Appendix A and B, for notes on how to conduct the Mid-Assessment test.
You will be required to
Make an audio recording in which each student will read a passage and
speak for four minutes on a given topic.
Test students for listening and comprehension.
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More of the Present Tense
Session Plan
Common errors in the use of the present continuous tense
The present perfect tense

When not to use the present continuous tense
It is important to remember that non-continuous verbs cannot be used in any
continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for mixed verbs
cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using the present continuous
with these verbs, you must use the simple present.
Examples:
She is loving this chocolate ice cream. (Not Correct)
She loves this chocolate ice cream. (Correct)
Adverb placement
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always,
only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
You are still watching TV.
Are you still watching TV?
The present perfect
Use the present prefect to talk of:
Unspecifed time before now
We use the present perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before
now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the present perfect with specific
time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I
lived in Japan, etc.
Example: I have seen that movie twenty times.
An experience
You can use the present perfect to describe your experience. You can also use this tense
to say that you have never had a certain experience.
Examples: I have been to France. (You have had the experience of going to France
maybe once or several times.)
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I have been to France three times. (You can add the number of times at the
end.)
I have never been to France. (You have never had the experience of going to
France.)
Change over time
We often use the present perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period
of time.
Example: You have grown since the last time I saw you.
Accomplishments
We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and
humanity. You cannot mention a specifc time.
Example: Man has walked on the Moon.
Waiting for an action to be completed
We often use the present perfect to say that an action which we expected has
not happened. Using the present perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the
action to happen.
Example: James has not fnished his homework yet.
Time expressions with present perfect
When we use the present perfect it means that something has happened at some
point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is
not important.
Example: Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
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The Past Tense
Session Plan
The simple past tense
The past continuous tense
The Past Tense:
The simple past tense is used to describe an action, an event, or condition that occurred
in the past, sometime before the moment of speaking.
The simple past tense is used to
talk about an event in the past
Example: We did not hear the telephone.
express what 'happened' repeatedly (a sequence of actions).
Example: We went to the swimming pool every day.
Simple past is formed for regular verbs by adding ed to the root of a word.
Example: He walked to the store.
A negation is produced by adding did not and the verb in its infnitive form.
Example: He did not walk to the store.
Question sentences are started with did.
Example: Did he walk to the store?
The past continuous tense
The past continuous verb tense, which is also known as the past progressive
tense, is one of four tenses that are used in the past. The past continuous verb
tense is used in the following situations:
the action happened at a specific time
We were studying English yesterday at 10:00 PM.
the action happened at a specifc time "10:00 PM"
there was an interruption while performing the action
I was eating dinner when the phone rang.
"eating" is the action was being performed
"the phone rang" is the action that interrupted.
two actions were happening at the same time.
to state a change in a situation.
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More About the Past
Session Plan
The past perfect tense
Staying with the same tense
Some common errors
The past perfect tense
The past perfect verb tense is used:
to state "how many"
to clarify the order of two past non-continuous events
to state a past action was completed before an other action
interchangeably with the past perfect continuous verb tense
with the exact time or an unexpected time can be stated (unlike when using the
simple present prefect verb tense)
The past perfect tense is used to clarify the order of two past actions.
The frst action uses the past perfect tense. The second action uses that past
simple tense.
Example: I wasn't hungry when I came home from school. I had eaten on my way
home from school.
The past perfect tense is used to state an action that occurred in the past was
completed, before a 2nd action in the past started.
Example: I was very tired when my friends came to pick me up. I had worked all day.
We slept only a few hours, when we had to wake up to go to school.
The past perfect tense can be used to answer the question "how many".
Example: I had lived in Europe ten years ago.
Staying with the same tense
Tell learners that a common error is to jump from one tense to another during
speech. This is a simple but common error. If we speak of something in the past
tense, its only right to continue in the same tense. Unfortunately, many of us
jump tenses from the past to the present and often back again to the past.
For instance, when starting a story, we might begin:
Akbar was a fne emperor. He has a brilliant mind.
While the correct way of expressing this opinion would be:
Akbar was a fne emperor. He had a brilliant mind.
Emphasize that learners should try to stay with the same tense when speaking.
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The Future Tense
Session Plan
The future tense
Practise listening for comprehension
The future tense
Use the simple future tense when
a decision is made spontaneously at the time of speaking.
making a prediction about the future, there is no firm plan, we talk of what we
think will happen.
the main verb is 'be' even if we have a firm plan or decision before speaking.
The simple future tense is used to express something that is expected to take place in
the future. The simple future tense is used to refer to actions that will take place after the
act of speaking.
Examples:
I am going to stop smoking.
The wedding will be a splendid affair.
Raghu goes to college next week.
The future tense in English is expressed by using other tenses or by the context.
In the example Raghu goes to college next week' the term Raghu goes' is
present tense. It is the context in this casecreated by the phrase 'next week'
which tells us that we are being informed about the future.
Varieties of the FUTURE TENSE
I shall run (so that Ill arrive on time)
I will run (so dont try to stop me)
I shall be running (to work for the foreseeable future to keep ft)
I shall have run (twelve miles by tomorrow morning)
I shall have been running (to work each morning for two weeks by next Friday)
I run (tomorrow because thats the day of the race)
In some instances of these future varieties shall and will are auxiliaries deriving
from the Old English to wish or to want.
In order to assess whether an action or a state of existence is expressed in the
past, present or future tense, it is important to have an idea of a fxed point in time
from which the action or state is valued.
For example I shall have been running implies a point in the future from which
the past of that time is being viewed.
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Back to the Future
Session Plan
The future continuous tense 1.
The future perfect tense 2.
Practise listening for comprehension 3.

The future continuous tense
The future continuous tense is used to talk of an action that will be in progress
at some point of time in the future.
We use the future continuous to:
Talk of actions that will be in progress in the future
Example: Dont come home at 8:00 oclock. I will be watching the cricket match
then.
Talk of planned actions in the future
Example: My sister will be arriving by the evening fight.
To express the future continuous we use will be +verb+ing
The future perfect tense
Completed action before something in the future.
The future perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another
action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specifc
time in the future.
Examples:
By next November, I will have received my promotion.
Will she have learned enough Chinese to communicate before she moves to
Beijing?
Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in bold) are in
simple present rather than simple future. This is because the interruptions are in
time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.
Duration before something in the future (non-continuous verbs)
With non-continuous verbs and some non-continuous uses of mixed verbs, we
use the future ferfect to show that something will continue up until another action
in the future.
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Examples:
I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.
Although the above use of future perfect is normally limited to non-continuous
verbs and non-continuous uses of mixed verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach,"
and study are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-
Continuous Verbs.
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Modals and Mood
Session Plan
What modals are
The use of: will, shall, may, might, could, should, would.
Modals are special verbs which behave very irregularly in English.
Modals of ability
(be) able to: less used than can
Can: ability, asking for and giving permission, offer, request, instruction,
capability, with be to make criticisms
Could: possibility or uncertainty (can also use might), request (more polite than
can), suggestion, asking for and giving permission, with comparative adjectives
to express possibility or impossibility
Have (got) to: necessity, impersonal, not for personal feelings, but for a rule or
situation. If you are unsure whether to use must or have to, it is usually safer to
use have to.
May: to express although in clauses, possibility or uncertainty (formal), asking for
and giving permission (less usual, more formal)
May as well/might as well: describes the only thing left to do, something which
the speaker is not enthusiastic about
Need: as a normal verb, in questions (less usual)
Ought to: expectation (can use should), recommendation (can use should),
criticism (can use should)
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Fluency
Session Plan
Learning what fluency is
Tips to improve fluency
Why is it that most of those who even have a master's degree in English find it difficult
to express their thoughts, ideas and feelings in fluent spoken English, though they do it
without much difficulty in written English?
Language fuency
Language fluency is proficiency in a language, most typically a foreign language or
another learned language. In this sense, "fluency" actually encompasses a number of
related but separable skills:
Readin g: the ability to easily read and understand texts written in the language;
Writin g: the ability to formulate written texts in a language;
Comprehensio n: the ability to follow and understand speech in a language;
Speakin g: the ability to speak in a language and be understood by its speakers.
To some extent, these skills can be separately acquired. Generally, the later in life
a learner approaches the study of a foreign language, the harder it is to acquire
auditory comprehension and fuent speaking skills. Reading and writing a foreign
language are skills that can be acquired more easily after the primary language
acquisition period of youth is over, however.
Reading fuency
Reading fuency is often confused with fuency with a language. Reading
fuency is the ability to read text accurately and quickly. Fluency bridges word
decoding and comprehension. Comprehension is understanding what has been
read. Fluency is a set of skills that allows readers to rapidly decode text while
maintaining high comprehension (National Reading Panel, 2001).
The frst benchmark for fuency is being able to "sight read" some words. The
idea is that children will recognize at sight the most common words in the written
form of their native language and that instant reading of these words will allow
them to read and understand text more quickly.
As children learn to read, the speed at which they read becomes an important
measure.
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Voice
Session Plan
The active voice
The passive voice
The use of by in the passive voice
Active Form
In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the
thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active.
[Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action]

Passive Form
In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the
sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end
of the sentence. You can use the passive form if you think that the thing
receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized. You can also
use the passive form if you do not know who is doing the action or if you do
not want to mention who is doing the action.
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Thing receiving action + be + past participle of verb + by + thing doing action
Active / Passive Overview
Active Passive
Simple
present
Once a week, Tara cleans the
house.
Once a week, the house is
cleaned by Tara.
Present
continuous
Right now, Sarla is writing the
letter.
Right now, the letter is being
written by Sarla.
Simple past Sameer repaired the car.
The car was repaired by
Sameer.
Past
continuous
The salesman was helping the
customer when the thief came
into the store.
The customer was being
helped by the salesman when
the thief came into the store.
Present
perfect
Many tourists have visited that
temple.
That temple has been visited
by many tourists.
Past perfect
Gautam had repaired many
cars before he received his
mechanics license.
Many cars had been repaired
by Gautam before he received
his mechanics license.
Simple future
will
Someone will finish the work
by 5:00 P.M.
The work will be finished by
5:00 P.M.
Simple future
be going to
Sita is going to make a
beautiful dinner tonight.
A beautiful dinner is going to
be made by Sita tonight.
Future
continuous
will
At 8:00 P.M. tonight, Jaya will
be washing the dishes.
At 8:00 P.M. tonight, the dishes
will be being washed by Jaya.
Future
continuous
be going to
At 8:00 P.M. tonight, Jaya is
going to be washing the
dishes.
At 8:00 P.M. tonight, the dishes
are going to be being washed
by Jaya.
Future perfect
will
They will have completed the
project before the deadline.
The project will have been
completed before the deadline.
Future perfect
be going to
They are going to have
completed the project before
the deadline.
The project is going to have
been completed before the
deadline.
Used to Jessie used to pay the bills.
The bills used to be paid by
Jessie.
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Reported Speech
Session Plan
The difference between direct and reported speech
Rules for converting a sentence in direct speech to reported speech
Rules for converting a question in direct speech to reported speech
Indirect Speech also referred to as reported speech refers to a sentence
reporting what someone has said. It is almost always used in spoken English.
If the reporting verb (i.e. said) is in the past, the reported clause will be in a past
form. This form is usually one step back into the past from the original.
For example:
He said the test was difficult.
She said she watched TV every day.
Jack said he came to school every day.
If simple present, present perfect or the future is used in the reporting verb (i.e.
says) the tense is retained.
For example:
He says the test is difficult.
She has said that she watches TV every day.
Jack will say that he comes to school every day.
If reporting a general truth, the present tense will be retained. For example: The
teacher said that phrasal verbs are very important.
Changing pronouns and time signifers
When changing from direct speech to reported speech, it is often necessary to
change the pronouns to match the subject of the sentence.
For example:
She said, I want to bring my children. = She said she wanted to bring her
children.
Jatin said, My wife went with me to the show. = Jatin said his wife had gone
with him to the show.
It is also important to change time words (signifers) when referring to present,
past or future time to match the moment of speaking.
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For example:
She said, I want to bring my children tomorrow. = She said she wanted to bring
her children the next day.
Jatin said, My wife went with me to the show yesterday. = Jatin said his wife
had gone with him to the show the day before.
Indirect Questions
When reporting questions, it is especially important to pay attention to sentence
order. When reporting yes / no questions, connect the reported question using
if. When reporting questions using question words (why, where, when, etc.), use
the question word.
For example:
She asked, Do you want to come with me? = She asked me if I wanted to
come with her.
Danish asked, Where did you go last weekend? = Dave asked me where I had
gone the previous weekend.
He asked, Why are you studying English? = He asked me why I was studying
English.
Advanced Reporting Verbs
He said, I live in Paris. He said he lived in Paris.
He said, I am cooking dinner. He said he was cooking dinner.
He said, I have visited London twice. He said he had visited London twice.
He said, I went to New York last week.
He said he had gone to New York the
week before.
He said, I had already eaten. He said he had already eaten.
He said, I am going to find a new job. He said he was going to find a new job.
He said, I will give Jaya a call. He said he would give Jaya a call.
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Intonation and Modulation
Session Plan
The role of pitch and intonation in effective communication.
How to vary pitch and intonation.
INTONATION
Intonation is the variation of pitch whilst speaking. Intonation and stress are two
main elements that contribute to the clarity of language.
All languages use pitch, as intonation, for emphasis, to convey surprise or irony,
or to pose a question.
Rising intonation means that the pitch of the voice increases over time; falling
intonation means that the pitch decreases with time. A dipping intonation falls
and then rises, whereas a peaking intonation rises and then falls.
The classic example of intonation is the question-statement distinction. For
example
A rising intonation for echo or declarative questions: He found it on the street?
A falling intonation for wh- questions and statements: Where did he find it?
He found it on the street.
Yes or no questions often have a rising end, but not always: Did he find it on the
street?
Pitch is an auditory sensation -- when we hear a regularly vibrating sound, such
as a note played on a musical instrument, we hear a high pitch if the rate of
vibration is high and a low pitch if the rate of vibration is low.
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Word Stress and Modulation
Word Stress
There are two very simple rules about word stress:
One word has only one stressed syllable. There can be a secondary stress in I.
some words. But a secondary stress is much smaller than the main or primary
stress, and is only used in long words.
We can only stress vowels, not consonants. II.
There are several other rules for word stress:
RULE STRESSED SYLLABLE EXAMPLE
Most 2-syllable nouns First Present, Export, China,
Table
Most 2-syllable adjectives First Present, Slender, Clever,
Happy
Most 2-syllable verbs Last to present, to export, to
decide, to begin
Words ending in -ic Penultimate (second from
last)
Graphic, geographic,
geologic
Words ending in -sion and
-tion
Penultimate (second from
last)
television, revelation
Words ending in -cy, -ty,
-phy and -gy
Ante-penultimate (third
from last)
democracy, dependability,
photography, geology
Words ending in -al Ante-penultimate (third
from last)
CrItical, geological
Compound nouns First part Blackbird, Greenhouse
Compound adjectives Second part bad-tempered, old-
fashioned
Compound verbs Second part to understand, to overflow
Modulation
Explain that in most jobs and felds today, people ask and answer a lot of
questions. We notice this when we realize how well or how poorly someone we
meet tackles questions.
Whether dealing with a boss, with customers or in any kind of personal
relationship, the way that we ask questions and the way that we answer them
either helps us or hinders us.
Its a good idea to list all kinds of questions and practise asking them in a way
that uses modulation correctly. This also helps you add extra finesse to your
speech.
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Listening Styles
Session Plan
The difference between hearing and listening
Active and passive listening
Barriers to active listening
Michael Lombardo and Robert Eichinger defne listening as:
knowing what others have said and meant to say, and leaving people
comfortable that they have had their say.
This does not necessarily mean you agree with what was said, but rather that you
used the following basic listening skills:
You didnt interrupt
You are able to paraphrase
You listened for underlying meaning
You are accepting of differing views
Ask learners how often they have had a discussion, conference or phone call
when they felt they werent really heard? Or have they ever ended a conversation
and then felt unclear as to the message or werent really sure what they
committed to? Maybe they were going over a shopping list instead of truly
listening?
Here are some listening tips to help you stay focused and engaged:
Keep your mouth closed (if your mouth is open, your ears are closed)
Keep eye contact (this helps with attention levels)
Take notes (this will help with paraphrasing)
Dont frown or fidget
Let the person know if you have accepted or rejected what they said and why
Dont suggest words or finish sentences when a pause occurs
Listen; dont solve or judge
Ask questions to clarify understanding
If time is an issue, let the person know and schedule additional time
Let the person know if you need more facts or discussion before making a
decision
Be aware of your non listening behaviours (pencil tapping, raised eyebrows,
blank stares, zoning out)
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Learning to Listen
Session Plan
Listening to two passages:
A healthy lifestyle
Summer camps
Practising improving your listening and comprehension skills.
Listening comprehension is understanding speech - the spoken word. Listening
comprehension, as with reading comprehension, can be described in levels.
Lower levels of listening comprehension would include understanding only the
facts explicitly stated in a spoken passage that has very simple syntax and
uncomplicated vocabulary.
Advanced levels of listening comprehension would include implicit understanding
and drawing inferences from spoken passages that feature more complicated
syntax and more advanced vocabulary.
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Modulating Speech
Session Plan
The correct rate of speech
Pauses
Thought groups
Points that can be explained to learners:
Rate of speech becomes a problem in any situation when the listener does not
understand. The speaker either may have to repeat himself, or some information
gets ignored.
In a healthcare setting, this can be a real danger as instructions may get
confusing and patient compliance may slip.
Young children and senior citizens may also process information more slowly.
If you are listening to a fast speaker, and do not understand the information, ask
for the confusing parts to be repeated if possible.
If you are the fast speaker, and you know this is a problem, start by listing the
reasons why you want to slow down.
Tips to control rate of speech
Start by taking some slow, deep breaths. Then count slowly to ten, prolonging
the vowels if needed.
Say your ten digit telephone number at that slow rate.
Visualize someone writing it down from a telephone message. Can he write it
correctly at that pace?
Try saying some basic sentences at that slow pace, such as How do you do?
Its nice to meet you.
Then slowly recite a shopping list. Slightly prolong the vowels.
Often your listener will not even realize what you are doing. You will not sound
stupid, just clearer.
Talk about a topic that is not important to you, such as a minor interest or a
description of a person you casually noticed earlier. Speak at this more relaxed
rate.
Record yourself if possible, and listen to it.
Enlist some others to help you by discretely indicating when you are going too
fast again. This may happen when making a presentation or when under other
stress.
Change does not happen overnight; be patient.
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Mastering Fluency
Session Plan
How to master fluency
Practice exercises to improve fluency
Get used to hearing everyday language at normal speed.
Apart from listening to the course recordings, you could watch flms with
subtitles, listen to a foreign radio station, or watch foreign language TV stations
if you have satellite or cable TV. Even if you dont understand much of what is
being said, it is a good way of getting used to sounds and intonations. Choose
programmes according to your own interests, youll learn much more effectively
about subjects youre keen on.
International news is a good thing to listen to, particularly if you have already
heard the news in English that day. Pictures will give you clues. Youll fnd that
you are picking up a lot of vocabulary by making use of the subtitles especially
for expressions that occur regularly.
And most of all, have fun!
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Enhancing Vocabulary
Session Plan
How to improve your vocabulary
The difference between homophones and homonyms
Language learning is also about intuition
Tell learners that guesswork is an important strategy in learning a new language
and you will probably be pleasantly surprised at how often youre right.
When listening to recorded material, you arent expected to understand
everything the frst time round. If you play the same piece several times, you will
most probably understand something new each time.
Speak, speak and speak!
Practise speaking as often as you can even speaking to yourself is good
practice.
Read aloud whenever possible: it will help you memorize vocabulary and
structures. Going through the same dialogue several times is a good idea too.
Build your vocabulary
A wide vocabulary is the key to successful language learning but dont try to
learn too much at once.
Its best to study frequently, for short periods of time.
Take a maximum of six or seven items of vocabulary and learn them.
Put them into sentences to fx them in your mind, and then come back to them
later.
Homophones and Homographs
A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same as another word but differs
in meaning. The words may be spelt the same, such as rose (fower) and rose
(past tense of rise), or differently, such as two and too, or know and no.
The prefx, homo means the same. Phone means sound. Graph in
homograph means writing.
Homophones are often used to create puns and to deceive the reader (as in
crossword puzzles) or to suggest multiple meanings. The last usage is common
in poetry and creative literature.
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His death, which happend in his berth,
At forty-odd befell:
They went and told the sexton, and
The sexton tolld the bell.
Homographs are words that are spelt the same but have different meanings (and
may or may not have different pronunciations).

Meaning Spelling Pronunciation Examples
Homonyms different same same bank/bank
Homophones different different same blue/blew
Homographs different same different minute/minute
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Fun Learning
Session Plan
Fluency
Intonation
As wed seen in earlier sessions,
FLUENCY
Fluency actually encompasses a number of related but
separable skills:
Reading: the ability to easily read and understand texts written in the language;
Writing: the ability to formulate written texts in the language;
Comprehension: the ability to follow and understand speech in the language;
Speaking: the ability to speak in the language and be understood by its
speakers.
INTONATION
In linguistics, intonation is variation of pitch whilst speaking which is not used to
distinguish words. Intonation and stress are two main elements of language clarity.
All languages use pitch, as intonation for emphasis, to convey surprise or irony, or to
pose a question.
So, practice fluency & intonation through building fluency games and
exercises, role plays, and regular discussions, and above all, HAVE FUN!!!
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Winding Up
Session Plan
Revisit all grammar concepts learnt
Say to the students:
Your learning does not stop here.
Tell learners that they must keep up their efforts and practice constantly.
Keep adding words to your vocabulary list and use them.
Learners must continue to follow the vocabulary building tips.
Keep your English alive with constant use.
Learners must realize that language skills improve with constant use.
The right intonation and modulation make all the difference to the
impressions you make.
Do not be shy to use your newly acquired pronunciation and intonation. That will
make the difference between speaking the language and speaking it well.
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APPENDIX A
Appendix A.1
MID-ASSESSMENT RECORDING
Duration: 60 minutes
In preparation for confdent English speaking, tell the learners that they would
have to read a passage for a minute each and then speak, without preparation,
on a topic for two minutes, which will then convert into a conversation for
the next two minutes, giving you a total of fve minutes of audio recording to
assess.
Topics should include any one of the following:
What qualities make a good friend?
I hate it when my boss
Family and Friends
Things that motivate me
My favourite holiday
Tell the learners that they must frst introduce themselves and mention
the date. Do not stop recording once the learner has read the passage and
spoken on a topic for two minutes. Then, draw the learner into a conversation
with simple, easy questions, which you should be able to derive from their
topic of free speech. Allow each learner to speak for fve minutes before you
stop recording.
At the end of the recording, thank all learners for their effort. Say that, in the
next session, you would like to give them feedback on their mid-assessment
recording.
Use the Mid-assessment Feedback Form (Appendix B) to give feedback in the
same way as you did in the Pre-Assessment session.
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Appendix A.2
ASSESSMENT TOOL
Appendix A.3
ONE MINUTE READING PASSAGE
One day Nasruddin borrowed a pot from his neighbour Ali. The next day he
brought it back with another little pot inside. Thats not mine, said Ali. Yes, it
is, said Nasreddin. While your pot was staying with me, it had a baby.
Some time later Nasruddin asked Ali to lend him a pot again. Ali agreed, hoping
that he would once again receive two pots in return. However, days passed and
Nasreddin had still not returned the pot. Finally Ali lost patience and went to
demand his property. I am sorry, said Nasruddin. I cant give your pot back,
since it has died. Died! screamed Ali, how can a pot die? Well, said
Nasruddin, you believed me when I told you that your pot had had a baby.
(Story courtesy of John and Muriel Higgins)
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Pre-Assessment topics:
Free Speech (3 minutes per learner)
What qualities make a good friend?
Family and friends
Things that motivate me
Mid-Assessment topics:
Free Speech (3 minutes per learner)
The value of family
Science has done more harm than good
TV brings families together
Post-Assessment topics:
Free Speech (3 minutes per learner)
Smoking in Public Places
What I enjoy most about my work is
What I love doing with my friends
Appendix A.4
LISTENING & COMPREHENSION PASSAGES WITH MULTIPLE-CHOICE
QUESTIONS
Pre-Assessment Listening and Comprehension
I work in a huge offce. It has 50 employees, with people who reside all over Delhi
and the NCR. Like most offces, my offce is a place where I can concentrate on
my work and relax at the same time. My desk has three drawers where I can store
all the necessary equipment pens, pencils, staplers, paper clips, erasers, etc. I
have a very comfortable offce chair to sit on and use the desk to display pictures
of my family between the computer and the telephone. My offce is very well-lit.
I also have a blue-coloured lamp near my computer which I use in the evening
after 6 p.m. My colleague, Anil, sits to my right. I dont like him much. His desk is
very untidy. He uses his desk to store fles that he hasnt looked through in ages!
I wish I could move my seat to the far end of the room. Anil and I sit close to the
smoking room. I do enjoy smoking, perhaps, that is why I havent really spoken
to my supervisor about changing my seat!
QUESTIONS (Tick the correct answer)
I. What is the name of the colleague who has an untidy desk?
Anil a.
Sunil b.
Amit c.
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Aman d.
II. How many drawers does the desk have?
Two a.
Three b.
Five c.
Four d.
III. What is the colour of the lamp and where is it placed?
blue, near the computer a.
blue, to the right of the computer b.
blue, to the right of the lamp c.
blue, on the computer d.
IV. Where are the family pictures displayed?
on the computer a.
to the left of the computer b.
to the right of the computer c.
between the computer and the telephone d.
V. What equipment is stored in the drawers?
pens, pencils, staplers and paperclips a.
pens, pencils, staplers, staples and erasers b.
pens, pencils, staplers, staples, highlighters, paperclips and erasers c.
pens, pencils, staplers, paperclips, erasers, etc. d.
VI. What does Anil use his desk for?
to store files, which he doesnt need anymore a.
to display stationery (paperclips, pencils, staplers, etc.) b.
to store important files, which he needs to go through every day c.
to display pictures of his family d.
THE ANSWERS
I. (a) Anil
(b) three drawers II.
(a) blue, near the computer III.
(d) between the computer and the telephone IV.
(d) pens, pencils, staplers, paper clips, erasers, etc. V.
(a) to store files that he doesnt need anymore VI.
Mid-Assessment Listening and Comprehension
I have been working in this offce for the last two years. I joined this offce as
Assistant Manager Accounts & Finance; I was promoted to Senior Manager
Accounts & Finance in March of last year, 2005. Anil, my colleague, was also
promoted to Senior Manager Operations at the same time.
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Now I also have a secretary, Anita, who takes care of all my appointments and
important papers and fles. Most secretaries usually have an older computer
and just a telephone on their desk. My secretary has a laptop, a good telephone,
a printer, a fax machine, and most importantly, a coffee machine. My secretary
is very particular about keeping her work station clean, but she is very absent-
minded. Once Anita called up customer service at the bank and scolded them for
not having receiving the bank statement on time, not realizing that she had been
looking at the printer all along, instead of the fax machine!
QUESTIONS (Tick the correct answer)
What is Anils role in the organization? I.
Senior Manager a.
Senior Manager - HR b.
Manager - Operations c.
Senior Manager - Operations d.
II. Whose secretary is Anita?
Anil a.
Aman b.
The Speaker / Narrator c.
Sunil d.
III. When was Anil promoted to Manager Operations?
in the year 2005 a.
in May of last year b.
in March of 2005 c.
in March of this yea d. r
IV. What does Anita do?
takes care of the laptop and the fax machine a.
makes appointments and coffee b.
makes appointments and takes care of important papers and files c.
fights with the customer service staff at the bank d.
V. According to the speaker / narrator, which, out of the following, is
the most important machine at the secretarys desk?
the laptop a.
the coffee machine b.
the printer c.
the fax machine d.
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VI. What equipment does Anita work with?
a laptop, an old telephone, a fax machine a.
a laptop, a telephone, a fax machine, a coffee machine, a printer b.
a laptop, a good telephone, a printer, a fax machine, a coffee machine c.
a computer, a telephone, a fax machine, a coffee machine d.
THE ANSWERS
(d) I. Senior Manager - Operations
(c) II. The Speaker / Narrator
(c) III. in March of 2005
(c) IV. makes appointments and takes care of important papers and files
(b) V. the coffee machine
(c) VI. a laptop, a good telephone, a printer, a fax machine, a coffee
machine
Post-Assessment Listening and Comprehension
Its funny, the way one gets used to ones work place. The computer, the pen-
stand, the fle holder, the desk calendar are all part of ones work station and one
establishes a certain level of comfort with them. So much so, that if you walk into
your offce and fnd the usually untidy fles neatly arranged, you get an uneasy
feeling. You wonder if, by chance, youve walked to the wrong desk!
Add to the work station and the stationery, the old, familiar faces you come
across every day, and your joy is complete. You have an offce where you can take
shelter from the big, bad world full of strange, unknown people. This is a place
where you belong and have a defnite identity.
Projects, meetings and deadlines keep you on your toes, the occasional parties
and birthday cakes are the add-ons, the icing. All in all, you are cosy in your own
nest, far from the troubles of life.
Questions
I. What are the narrators feelings about getting used to ones office?
It is sad. a.
It is boring b.
It is funny c.
It is tiring. d.
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II. What are some of the things of ones work station?
The computer, the pen-stand, the file holder, the desk calendar. a.
The computer, the pen-stand, the file holder. b.
The pen-stand, the file holder, the desk calendar. c.
The computer, the pen-stand, the glass holder, the desk calendar. d.
III. If you find your desk very neat one day, you wonder if-
Someone wants to help you. a.
Youve walked to the wrong desk. b.
You should make everything untidy again. c.
You should change your place. d.
IV. What gives you joy at office?
The old furniture. e.
The nice wall paper. f.
The computer at your work station. g.
The old familiar faces. h.
V. What keeps you busy in office?
Projects, meetings, deadlines and workshops a.
Meetings and deadlines. b.
Parties and shopping. c.
Projects, meetings and deadlines. d.
VI. Your office is-
A beautiful place. a.
A cosy house. b.
A cosy nest c.
A happy place. d.
Answers:
It is funny. I.
The computer, the pen-stand, the file holder, the desk calendar. II.
Youve walked to the wrong desk. III.
The old familiar faces. IV.
Projects. Meetings and deadlines. V.
A cosy nest. VI.
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Appendix: B
MID-ASSESSMENT FEEDBACK FORM
Name:_________________________Batch ID: _________________________
Batch Timing:____________________ Date:____________________________
AREAS REMARKS / FEEDBACK
Pronunciation
Grammar
Vocabulary
Fluency
Overall feedback:
Advanced
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Joining Sentences, Filler Words
Session Plan
Page Topic Objective Duration
Page 1 Objectives
Explain the objectives of the
session.
2 minutes
Grammar 20 minutes
Relative clauses and relative pronouns.
Page 2 Grammar activity 1
Identify relative clauses in
sentences.
5 minutes
Page 3 Relative pronouns
Learn about relative
pronouns: who, which, that,
whose, and where.
10 minutes
Page 4 Grammar activity 2
Use relative pronouns
appropriately.
5 minutes
Page 5 Grammar activity 3
Use relative pronouns in
sentences.
5 minutes
Pronunciation 20 minutes
Intonation patterns with fller words.
Page 67
Intonation patterns
with filler words /
Intonation practice
Practice intonation patterns
using filler words to express
your meaning clearly.
15 minutes
Speaking 15 minutes
Role play
Page 89
Role play:
discussing kidney
donation
Develop skills for discussion,
analysis and empathising.
15 minutes
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Writing 10 minutes
Punctuation
Page 10 Writing practice
Learn the correct usage
of capital letters, commas,
periods, and speech marks
in a text.
10 minutes
Session Summary 3 minutes
Relative Pronouns
Relative pronouns are words such as who, that, which, whose, whom, and where.
They are a part of either the subject or the object of a relative clause.
A relative pronoun is a pronoun that marks a relative clause within a larger sentence.
It is called a relative pronoun because it relates to the word that it modifes.
A relative pronoun links two clauses into a single complex clause. To this extent, it
is similar in function to a subordinating conjunction. Unlike a conjunction, however, a
relative pronoun stands in place of a noun. Compare these two sentences:
This is a house. Hari built this house.
This is the house that Hari built.
Sentence (2) consists of two clauses, a main clause (This is the house) and a relative
clause (that Hari built). The word that is a relative pronoun. Within the relative clause,
the relative pronoun stands for the noun phrase it references in the main clause.
Subject: Hari is the boy who bought the car.
Indirect object: Hari is the boy to whom Lalita gave a gift.
Hari built the house in which I now live.
Hari is the boy whose friend built my house.
In English, different pronouns are sometimes used if the antecedent is a human
being, as opposed to a non-human or an inanimate object (as in who/that).
This is a bank. It is the only bank that would accept my identification.
She is a bank teller. She helped us open an account.
With relative pronouns, these sentences would read like this:
This is the only bank that would accept my identification.
She is the bank teller who helped us open an account.
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In these sentences, the words that and who are the relative pronouns. The word that
is used because the bank is a thing; the word who is used because she is a person.
Relative Clauses
A relative clause is a subordinate clause that modifes a noun. For example, the noun
phrase the man who wasnt there contains the noun man, which is modifed by the
relative clause who wasnt there. Relative clauses are introduced by a special class of
pronouns called relative pronouns; in the previous example, who is a relative pronoun.
Pronunciation and Intonation
We can convey a variety of meanings and emotions depending on our tone of voice.
We can also convey different emotions by using pauses and fllers.
Fillers and Pauses
Often, when we are speaking, we pause to think of suitable ways to convey our
meaning. We also use fllers, which are sounds or words that are spoken to fll up
gaps in speech.
Different languages have different characteristic fller sounds. In English, the most
common fller sounds are mmm uh uh-huh, er, oh, and um. Other fller words
such as yeah, like, yknow, actually and basically are used colloquially.
Some of the emotions that we can convey by combining fller words and a particular
tone of voice are:
Questioning
Hesitating
Agreeing
Being cautious
Being non-committal not being able to commit to something
Agreeing enthusiastically
Writing: Punctuation In Texts
Its important to understand the use of correct punctuation in texts. Our everyday
writing becomes more meaningful and easier to comprehend when we take care of
routine punctuationcapitalization and end punctuation such as the comma, period,
and speech marks.
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Narrating Events, Filler Words
Session Plan
Page Topic Objective Duration
Page 1 Objectives
Explain the objectives of the
session.
2 minutes
Grammar 20 minutes
The correct tense for narrating past events.
Page 2 Grammar activity 1
Correctly sequence sentences in
a narration about past events.
5 minutes
Page 3
Tenses for
flashbacks
Learn about the use of the Past
Perfect Simple and the Past
Perfect Continuous tenses.
10 minutes
Page 4 Grammar activity 2
Fill in the missing parts in a story
using sentences in the appropriate
tense.
5 minutes
Page 5 Grammar activity 3
Complete the sentences using the
correct form of the verb.
5 minutes
Pronunciation 20 minutes
Intonation patterns with filler words.
Page 67
Intonation patterns
to express
emotions
Practise intonation patterns
using filler words to express your
meaning clearly.
15 minutes
Speaking 15 minutes
Role play
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Page 8-9
Role play: inter-
viewing suspects
Develop investigating skills by
interviewing suspects in a murder.
15 minutes
Writing
10 minutes
Punctuation
Page 10
Punctuation
practice
Learn the correct usage of the
colon, semicolon, brackets, dash,
apostrophe, and ellipsis in a text.
10 minutes
Session Summary 3 minutes
THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE TENSE
Past perfect simple for single events
We use the Past Perfect Simple tense to go further back in time when we are already
talking about the past. Using the Past Perfect Simple helps clarify that something had
already happened at the time we are talking about.
We form the Past Perfect Simple by using the auxiliary verb had and the -ed form of
the regular verb (the past participle).
For example:
I had already done the cooking by the time she came home.
I was late for office; by the time I arrived, the customer had already left.
The Past Perfect Simple can be used to show how often something happened in the
past.
For example:
Id visited the museum many times before.
It can also be used to express unfulflled wishes or dreams.
For example:
If I had got that job, I would have bought a new house.
Note: If I had done something, I would have done something else.
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Trainer Manual English Edge: Advanced
Positive
Statements
Negative State-
ments
Questions
Short
answers
positive
Short an-
swers
negative
Id studied ... I hadnt studied ... Had I studied ...? Yes, I had.
No, I
hadnt.
Hed studied
...
He hadnt studied
...
Had he studied ...? Yes, he had.
No, he
hadnt.
Shed studied
...
She hadnt
studied ...
Had she studied ...?
Yes, she
had.
No, she
hadnt.
It had studied
...
It hadnt studied
...
Had it studied ...? Yes, it had.
No, it
hadnt.
Youd studied
...
You hadnt
studied ...
Had you studied ...? Yes you had.
No, you
hadnt.
Wed studied
...
We hadnt
studied ...
Had we studied ...? Yes we had.
No, we
hadnt.
Theyd
studied ...
They hadnt
studied ...
Had they studied
...?
Yes they had.
No, they
hadnt.
THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Past perfect continuous for activities
We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and
continued up until another time in the past. For fve minutes and for two weeks are
both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous. Notice that this
is related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however, the duration does not continue
until now, it stops before something else in the past.
Forming the Past Perfect Continuous tense: [had been + present participle]
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Examples:
You had been waiting there for more than two hours when she fnally arrived.
Had you been waiting there for more than two hours when she fnally arrived?
You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she fnally arrived.
Usage List of Past Perfect Continuous Forms
USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Past
Examples:
They had been talking for over an hour before Tania arrived.
She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business.
How long had you been waiting to get on the bus?
Mohit wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work.
Jeetu had been teaching at the university for more than a year before he left for Asia.
How long had you been studying German before you moved to Frankfurt?
I had not been studying German very long.
USE 2 Cause of Something in the Past
Using the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to
show cause and effect.
Examples:
Rajat was tired because he had been jogging.
Samir gained weight because he had been overeating.
Gita failed the fnal test because she had not been attending class.
Past Continuous vs. Past Perfect Continuous
If you do not include a duration, such as for fve minutes, for two weeks or since
Friday, many English speakers choose to use the Past Continuous rather than the
Past Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the
sentence. Past Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Past Perfect
Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the past. Study the
examples below to understand the difference.
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Examples:
He was tired because he was exercising so hard.
This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he was exercising at that exact
moment.
He was tired because he had been exercising so hard.
This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he had been exercising over a
period of time. It is possible that he was still exercising at that moment OR that he had
just finished.
Pronunciation and Intonation
In an earlier session, we introduced learners to intonation patterns using fller words
and tone of voice. In this session, learners will practise conversations to convey a
variety of emotions such as:
Questioning
Informing
Empathising
Being cautious
Being enthusiastic
Being sympathetic
Feeling relieved
Expressing pain
English Edge: Advanced
Trainer Manual
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Notes
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Adding Extra Information, Word Stress
Session Plan
Page Topic Objective Duration
Page 1 Objectives
Explain the objectives of the
session.
2 minutes
Grammar 20 minutes
Non-defning relative clauses for adding extra information.
Page 2 Grammar activity 1
Use clauses to complete
sentences.
5 minutes
Page 3
Adding background
information
(Non-defning
relative clauses)
Learn the function and usage of
non-defning relative clauses and
defning relative clauses. Learn
about relative pronouns.
10 minutes
Page 4 Grammar activity 2
Identify the non-defning relative
clauses and separate them from
the rest of the sentence with
commas. Identify the relative
pronouns.
5 minutes
Page 5 Grammar activity 3
Use relative pronouns in
sentences.
5 minutes
Pronunciation 20 minutes
Word stress to contrast with another possibility.
Page 67
Word stress to
present contrasts /
Intonation practice
Practice intonation patterns using
word stress to express your
meaning clearly: contrast with
another possibility.
15 minutes
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Speaking 15 minutes
Role play
Page 8
Role play:
Describing people
Use relative clauses to describe
people and things at a school
reunion.
5 minutes
Writing 10 minutes
Email writing
Page 9 Memo writing
Identify the different components
of a memo and understand how to
write a memo.
10 minutes
Session Summary 3 minutes
Page 25
Grammar Non-defning relative clauses for adding extra information
Objective
Learn about non-defning relative clauses for adding extra information.
Relative Clauses
The difference between Defning relative clauses and Non-defning relative clauses is
that the former add essential meaning to a sentence, while the latter dont.
Defning relative clauses and contact clauses
Defning relative clauses function as adjective equivalent which is essential to the
meaning of the sentence.
Defining relative clauses define nouns in order to distinguish similar persons or
things.
Defining relative clauses relate to known facts in order to explain something
new.
Contact clauses are common in spoken English.
Defining relative clauses are not separated by commas.
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Defining relative clauses A.
Related
word,
part of
main
clause
Relative
pronoun +
subject
Part of
relative clause
Second
part of main
clause
Explanation or rule
The man who/that (S)
has sent me
this letter
is my
friends
brother.
The man is my
brothers friend is the
main clause.
The car which/that (S) is over there
is one of his
three cars.
Which/that are the
relative pronouns.
A friend whose car was stolen
drives one
of his cars
now.
They refer/relate to
the previous word.
The car
whose
bumper/
the bumper
of which
is deformed
is his
favourite
car.
Together with the
words is deformed
they form the
relative clauses
The man who/that I met yesterday
needs some
help from
the police.
who/whose/who(m)
relate to
persons or people.
The theft which/that I told you about
Happened 3
weeks ago.
whichandwhose
relate to
things and animals.
thatcan relate to
both.
The car
in which the
thieves
had escaped
contained
Rs. 10,000.
When a preposition is
used together
with a relative
pronoun the
preposition
is followed by
which or who(m)
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The
money
that he had put in
was meant
for his son.
When a preposition is
used together with
the relative
pronoun that the
preposition
is put at the end of
the relative clause
The son ----- he
had brought
to hospital
needed the
money for a
therapy.
If the relative pronoun
who/which/that
is used in object case
it can be left out.
These relative clauses
without relative
pronouns are called
contact clauses.
The place where they stole his car
was near the
hospital.
where relates to a
certain place
The time When they stole his car was 9 a.m.
when relates to a
certain time
The
reason
Why they
stole this old
car
Is not
known.
why relates to a
certain reason
Note:
In spoken English there is no difference between the relative pronoun who
(subject case) and who (object case). Whom is very formal and is only
used in written English.
That normally follows words like something, anything, everything,
nothing, all that.......
When the relative pronouns who(m), which or that (in object case)
are omitted, the relative clause becomes a contact clause.
Use that with a preposition at the end of the relative clause.
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You can easily find out whether a relative pronoun is an object because it is
normally followed by another subject + verb.
Whose can be used for the possession of persons, of which is used to
express a part of a thing.
While whose precedes the relative clause, of which follows the
referential word in the relative clause.
The woman whose name I always forget has called.
The little town in MP the name of which I always forget will be our next
holiday destination.
The construction with noun + of which is often regarded a bit clumsy,
especially if the referential noun is a longer expression.
Therefore more and more often whose replaces of which when talking
about things.
Non-defining relative clauses B.
Non-defining relative clauses do not help us to identify someone or something.
They give additional, interesting information which is not essential to the
meaning of the sentence.
The information given in the non-defining relative clauses can be accompanied
(really or virtually) by the phrase by the way. The commas have a similar
function to brackets.
Non- defining relative clauses are mostly used in written English.
Related
word, part
of main
clause
Relative
pronoun +
subject
Part of
relative
clause
Second part of
main clause
Explanation or rule
This car, which he loves,
had a crash
last week.
which and
whose/...of which
relate to
things and animals.
that is not used in
non-defining relative
clauses.
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His car, in which he
drove so
many km,
was totally
damaged.
When a preposition is
used together with
the relative pronoun
who(m), which the
preposition
is put in front or at
the end of the relative
clause
The remains,
for which the
police
called
a junk
dealer,
were found in
the ditch.
When a preposition is
used together with
the relative pronoun
who(m), which the
preposition
is put in front or at
the end of the relative
clause
Dads friend, who he
visited
at the
hospital,
was not hurt
very much.
If the relative pronoun
who(m) / which
is used in object case,
it cant be left out.
This bend,
where many
people
died,
is secured by
traffic lights.
where relates to a
certain place
At night,
when most
accidents
happen,
the road is
blocked now.
when relates to a
certain time
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Pronunciation
Word stress for presenting contrasts
In spoken English, we use word stress to emphasise some points in a sentence.
(Word stress is also called sentence stress, because some words in a sentence are
being stressed.) We usually stress the Content words in a sentence and leave the
Structure words unstressed. The Content words are the nouns, verbs, adjectives,
adverbs, and negative auxiliaries (cant, dont, arent, etc.). The Structure words are
pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, articles, and auxiliary verbs (do, be, have, must,
can, etc.).
However, we also stress some words in a sentence to contrast them with another
possibility.
For example:
Ram: Youve been to Sri Lanka, havent you?
Mohan: No, we havent, but they have.
Here, the words we and they are stressed to present the contrast We havent been
to Sri Lanka, but they have.
Sheila: Smitas offered to help with my work.
Arjun: Why didnt she offer to help me?
Here, the word me is stressed to contrast with the other possibility: Smita offered to
help Shiela, but didnt offer to help Arjun.
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Actions that Happened, Giving New Information
Session Plan
Page Topic Objective Duration
Page 1 Objectives
Explain the objectives of the
session.
2 minutes
Grammar 20 minutes
Express actions that happened by using passive verbs.
Page 2 Grammar activity 1
Identify examples of the passive
voice, which is used to talk about
things that happened to people.
5 minutes
Page 3 Passive verb forms
Learn about the use of the active
and passive.
10 minutes
Page 4 Grammar activity 2
Complete a story with
appropriate phrases in the
passive.
5 minutes
Page 5 Grammar activity 3
Complete the sentences using
the phrases in the passive.
5 minutes
Pronunciation 20 minutes
Rising and falling tones for presenting new information.
Page 67
Rising and falling
tones
Practice intonation patterns
using a rising tone for presenting
new information and a falling
tone for repeating known
information.
15 minutes
Speaking 15 minutes
Free speech
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Page 8 Speaking
Use the passive voice tense
to relate experiences that
happened to you.
15 minutes
Writing 10 minutes
Punctuation
Page 9 Letter writing
Write a cover letter to send with
a CV.
10 minutes
Session Summary 3 minutes
Passive Voice
We use the passive voice when we want to place emphasis on the receiver of the
action and not on who did the actions.
There are two ways of talking about an action. The frst one is from the point-of-view
of the doer of the action and the other is from the point-of-view of the receiver of the
action. The frst is in the active form and the second is in the passive form.
You can recognize passive-voice expressions because the verb phrase will always
include a form of be, such as am, is, was, were, are, or been. The presence of a
be verb, however, does not necessarily mean that the sentence is in passive voice.
Another way to recognize passive-voice sentences is that they may include a by
the... phrase after the verb; the agent performing the action, if named, is the object of
the preposition in this phrase.
Generally, we prefer using the active voice in day-to-day conversations and speaking,
as well as in informal/business writing. However, in certain types of writing, one might
deliberately choose the passive voice.
When we compare prose and essays with scientifc writing; the active form is more
commonly used in the former, and the passive in the latter. You need to be aware
that sometimes the use of the passive voice can create awkward sentences. Also,
overuse of the passive voice throughout an essay can cause your prose to seem
fat and uninteresting. In scientifc writing, however, passive voice is more readily
accepted since using it allows one to write without using personal pronouns or the
names of particular researchers as the subjects of sentences. This practice helps
to create the appearance of an objective, fact-based discourse because writers
can present research and conclusions without attributing them to particular agents.
Instead, the writing appears to convey information that is not limited or biased by
individual perspectives or personal interests.
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Choosing Active Voice
In most nonscientifc writing situations, active voice is preferable to passive for the
majority of your sentences. Even in scientifc writing, overuse of passive voice or
use of passive voice in long and complicated sentences can cause readers to lose
interest or to become confused. Sentences in active voice are generallythough not
alwaysclearer and more direct than those in passive voice.
Sentences in active voice are also more concise than those in passive voice because
fewer words are required to express action in active voice than in passive.
Choosing Passive Voice
While active voice helps to create clear and direct sentences, sometimes writers
fnd that using an indirect expression is rhetorically effective in a given situation,
so they choose passive voice. Also, as mentioned above, writers in the sciences
conventionally use passive voice more often than writers in other discourses. Passive
voice makes sense when the agent performing the action is obvious, unimportant, or
unknown, or when a writer wishes to postpone mentioning the agent until the last part
of the sentence or to avoid mentioning the agent at all. The passive voice is effective
in such circumstances because it highlights the action and what is acted upon rather
than the agent performing the action.
PRONUNCIATION
Word stress
Using the correct word stress (also called sentence stress) will help you convey your
meaning clearly. Word stress helps you understand spoken English, especially when
spoken rapidly.
Rising tone for presenting new information
We use a rising tone for presenting new information and a lower tone for repeating
known information.
Example:
Atul: Mothers coming to stay with us next week.
Bina: But were going to Jaipur (new information is stressed) next week. (already
given, so not stressed)
Atul: Ill catch up with you in Jaipur next month.
Bina: But were going to Jaipur (already given, so not stressed) next week. (new
information is stressed)
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Possibilities and Conclusions, Conversational Fillers
Session Plan
Page Topic Objective Duration
Page 1 Objectives
Explain the objectives of the
session.
2 minutes
Grammar 20 minutes
Must, might, and cant to express possibilities and conclusions.
Page 2 Grammar activity 1
Identify the correct modal: must,
might, cant.
5 minutes
Page 3
Possibilities and
conclusions
Learn about the use of the modal
verbs must, might, and cant for
drawing conclusions or making
deductions.
10 minutes
Page 4 Grammar activity 2
Join sentences to make
conclusions with the words
otherwise and because.
5 minutes
Page 5 Grammar activity 3
Rewrite sentences using the
modals must, might, and cant.
5 minutes
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Pronunciation 20 minutes
Avoiding filler words in everyday conversations.
Page 67
Conversational
fillers / Intonation
practice
Avoid using filler words that do not
convey extra meaning.
15 minutes
Speaking 15 minutes
Free speech
Page 8
Role play:
possibilities and
conclusions
Role play Discuss possibilities
and draw conclusions.
15 minutes
Writing 10 minutes
Punctuation
Page 9
Writing a job
acceptance letter
Write a job acceptance letter. 10 minutes
Session Summary 3 minutes
Modal Verbs of Probability, Possibility and Ability
Modal Verbs of Probability
Listed below are examples and uses of modal verbs of probability. Modal verbs of
probability are used to express an opinion of the speaker based on information that
the speaker has.
Example: He must be at work, its 10 oclock. In this case, the speaker is 100% sure
that the person is at work based on the speakers knowledge that the person in
question usually works at during the day.
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Examples Usage
They must be in Simla by now.
She must have done well on the test.
Use must plus the verb when you are 100%
(or almost 100%) sure that something is the
case.
She might come this evening.
Dhruv may invite Jamila to the match.
Hari might have gone to France.
Use might or may to express an opinion
that you think has a good possibility of being
true.
Jane could be at work.
Paresh could have arrived late.
Use could to express a possibility which is
one of many. This form is not as strong as
might or may. It is just one of a number of
possibilities.
You cant be serious!
They cant have worked until late.
Use cant to express an opinion that you
are 100% sure is NOT true.
Notice that the past form remains cant have
done
Must
Must is most commonly used to express certainty. It can also be used to express
necessity or strong recommendation, although native speakers prefer the more
flexible form have to. Must not can be used to prohibit actions, but this sounds very
severe; speakers prefer to use softer modal verbs such as should not or ought not
to dissuade rather than prohibit.
Examples:
This must be the right address! CERTAINTY
Students must pass an entrance examination to study at this school. NECESSITY
You must take some medicine for that cough. STRONG RECOMMENDATION
Jayanti, you must not play in the street! PROHIBITION
REMEMBER: Must not vs. Do not have to
Must not suggests that you are prohibited from doing something. Do not have to
suggests that someone is not required to do something.
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Examples:
You must not eat that. IT IS FORBIDDEN, IT IS NOT ALLOWED.
You dont have to eat that. YOU CAN IF YOU WANT TO, BUT IT IS NOT NECESSARY
Might
Might is most commonly used to express possibility. It is also often used in
conditional sentences. English speakers can also use might to make suggestions or
requests, although this is less common in American English.
Examples:
Your purse might be in the living room. POSSIBILITY
If I didnt have to work, I might go with you. CONDITIONAL
You might visit the botanical gardens during your visit. SUGGESTION
Might I borrow your pen? REQUEST
REMEMBER: Might not vs. Could not
Might not suggests you do not know if something happens. Could not suggests
that it is impossible for something to happen.
Examples:
Hari might not have the key. Maybe he does not have the key.
Hari could not have the key. It is im possible that he has the key.
CANT
Can is used to express ability (as in I can speak English, meaning I am able to
speak English or I know how to speak English), permission (as in Can I use your
phone? meaning Do you permit me to use your phone?), willingness (as in Can
you pass me the cheese? meaning Please pass me the cheese), or possibility
(There can be a very strong rivalry between siblings, meaning There is sometimes
a very strong rivalry between siblings). (Some of these senses may be perceived as
incorrect in some dialects; in particular, formal American English often prefers to use
may when the sense is permission and could when the sense is willingness.) The
negative of can is the single word cannot or the contraction cant.
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Possibility and Probability, Implied Meaning
Session Plan
Page Topic Objective Duration
Page 1 Objectives
Explain the objectives of the
session.
2 minutes
Grammar 20 minutes
Will and would to express possibility and probability.
Page 2 Grammar activity 1
Identify the correct modal: will,
would.
5 minutes
Page 3
Possibilities and
probability
Learn to use the modal verbs
will and would for talking about
probability and possibility.
10 minutes
Page 4 Grammar activity 2
Choose the correct modal: will,
would.
5 minutes
Page 5 Grammar activity 3
Rewrite sentences to convey
likelihood.
5 minutes
Pronunciation 20 minutes
Practise intonation to convey implied meaning.
Page 67
Intonation patterns
to express
implied meaning /
Intonation practice
Use a rising tone to convey
implied meaning.
15 minutes
Speaking 15 minutes
Role play
Page 8
Role play:
possibilities and
probabilities in the
future
Role play Use will/wont
and would/wouldnt to describe
possibilities and probabilities in
the future.
15 minutes
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Writing 10 minutes
Punctuation
Page 9
Writing a letter of
complaint.
Write a letter of complaint. 10 minutes
Session Summary 3 minutes
Will and Would
We use will to talk about possibilities: things we really expect to happen. We use
would to talk about things we are just imagining as possiblethey might not really
happen.
WOULD
Would is originally the past tense of will, and it (or its contracted form d) is still used
in that sense: In the 1960s, people thought we would all be fying to the moon for a
holiday by the year 2020.
Its more common use, however, is to convey the conditional mood, especially in
counterfactual conditionals; that is, to express what would be the case if something
were different: If they wanted to do it, they would have done it by now. There is not
always an explicit if clause in this use: Someone who likes orange and hates green
would probably prefer eating oranges to grapes means the same as, If someone
liked orange and hated green, he or she would probably prefer oranges to grapes.
Would can also be used with no modal or temporal meaning, to affect either
politeness or formality of speech:
I would like a glass of water, please.
Would you be a dear and get me a glass of water?
It would seem so. subjunctive mood
All of these uses can be described as displaying remoteness: either remoteness of
time (the past), remoteness of possibility (a conditional), or remoteness of relationship
to the addressee (politeness or formality).
Will
I cant see any taxis so Ill walk.
Ill do that for you if you like.
Ill get back to you frst thing on Monday.
Profts will increase next year.
Instant decisions
Offer
Promise
Certain prediction
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Would
Would you mind if I brought a colleague with me?
Would you pass the salt please?
Would you mind waiting a moment?
Would three o`clock suit you? Thatd be fne.
Would you like to play golf this Friday?
Would you prefer tea or coffee? Id like tea
please.
Asking for permission
Request
Request
Making arrangements
Invitation
Preferences
Note:
Its time to conduct an assessment test to check learners progress. Consult Appendix
A and B, for notes on how to conduct the Mid-Assessment test.
You will be required to
Make an audio recording in which each student will read a passage and speak
for four minutes on a given topic.
Test students for listening and comprehension.
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Time Comparison, Contrasting Ideas
Session Plan
Page Topic Objective Duration
Page 1 Objectives
Explain the objectives of the
session.
2 minutes
Grammar 20 minutes
Time comparison structures.
Page 2 Grammar activity 1
Identify true and false
statements about what things
were like in the past and how
they are now.
5 minutes
Page 3
Comparing things
across time
Understand the use of the Past
simple to describe what things
were like in the past and the
Present perfect to talk about
how things have changed.
10 minutes
Page 4 Grammar activity 2
Use time comparison
structures.
5 minutes
Page 5 Grammar activity 3
Rewrite sentences using the
comparative form.
5 minutes
Pronunciation 20 minutes
Practise intonation to convey contrasts.
Page 67
High key to present
contrasts / Intonation
practice
Use a rising tone to contrast
something with what has
already been said.
15 minutes
Speaking 15 minutes
Role play
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Page 8
Role play: Comparing
things over time
Role play: discuss how things
were in the past and how they
are now.
15 minutes
Writing 10 minutes
Punctuation
Page 9 Writing a memo Write a procurement memo. 10 minutes
Session Summary 3 minutes
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Talking About Right and Wrong, Marking Speech Sections
Session Plan
Page Topic Objective Duration
Page 1 Objectives
Explain the objectives of the
session.
2 minutes
Grammar 20 minutes
Language for talking about right and wrong.
Page 2 Grammar activity 1
Identify things that should/
shouldnt have been done.
5 minutes
Page 3
Should have
versus shouldnt
have
Understand the use of should
have and shouldnt have for
talking about right and wrong.
10 minutes
Page 4 Grammar activity 2
Fill in the blanks using should
have, shouldnt have, should
have been, or shouldnt have
been.
5 minutes
Page 5 Grammar activity 3
Rewrite sentences using
should have, shouldnt have,
should have been, or shouldnt
have been.
5 minutes
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Pronunciation 20 minutes
Intonation for marking sections in speech.
Page 67
Marking sections in
speech / Intonation
practice
Use low and high keys to mark
sections in speech.
15 minutes
Speaking 15 minutes
Free speech
Page 8 Speaking
Speaking activity: describe
what Ajay should have or
should not have done to get a
good job.
15 minutes
Writing 10 minutes
Letter to the editor
Page 9
Writing a letter to
the editor
Write a letter to the editor of a
newspaper.
10 minutes
Session Summary 3 minutes
Should
Should is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It can
also be used to express obligation as well as expectation.
Examples:
When you go to Mumbai, you should visit the Prince of Wales Museum.
recommendation
You should focus more on your family and less on work. advice
I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM. obligation
By now, they should already be in Dubai. expectation
Using Should in Present, Past, and Future
Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart
below to learn how should behaves in different contexts.
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Modal Use Positive Forms
1. = Present 2. = Past
3. = Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present 2. =
Past 3. = Future
You can
also use:
should
recommendation,
advisability
People with high 1.
cholesterol should
eat low-fat foods.
Frank should have 2.
eaten low-fat foods.
That might have
prevented his heart
attack.
You really should 3.
start eating better.
Sarah shouldn't 1.
smoke so much.
It's not good for
her health.
Sarah shouldn't 2.
have smoked
so much. That's
what caused her
health problems.
Sarah shouldn't 3.
smoke when
she visits Renu
next week. Renu
hates when
people smoke in
her house.
ought to
should
obligation
I should be at work
before 9:00.
We should return the
video before the video
rental store closes.
"Should" can
also express
something between
recommendation and
obligation. "Be supposed
to" expresses a similar
idea and can easily be
used in the past or in
negative forms.
NO NEGATIVE
FORMS
be
supposed
to
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should
EXPECTATION
Rita should be in 1.
New York by now.
Rita should have 2.
arrived in New York
last week. Let's call
her and see what
she is up to.
Rita should be in 3.
New York by next
week. Her new job
starts on Monday.
Rita shouldn't be 1.
in New York yet.
Rita shouldn't 2.
have arrived in
New York until
yesterday.
Rita shouldn't 3.
arrive in New
York until next
week.
ought to,
be
supposed
to
Should is a modal verb like can or must. Look at the following examples:
Positives
You should take it easy.
She should go to bed early.
We should go somewhere exciting for our holiday.
Negatives
You shouldn't get angry.
He shouldn't work so much.
I shouldn't do it if I were you.
Questions
Should we tell her the truth?
What should I do?
Shouldn't we try to fnish it now?
Pronunciation
High and low keys for marking sections of speech
We use a low key when we want to signal that one section of speech is ending. In
contrast, we use a high key to signal the beginning of the next section.
Example:
So with this, we end our frst session. Our next session is tomorrow.
First (low key) signals the end of one section of speech and next (high key) signals
the beginning of the next section.
I thought it was fun living in Mumbai. Living in Kolkata isnt quite as interesting.
Mumbai (low key) signals the end of one section of speech and Kolkata (high key)
signals the beginning of the next section.
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Pointing out Mistakes, Polite Disagreement
Session Plan
Page Topic Objective Duration
Page 1 Objectives
Explain the objectives of the
session.
2 minutes
Grammar 20 minutes
Language for pointing out mistakes.
Page 2 Grammar activity 1
Identify things that should/
shouldnt have been done.
5 minutes
Page 3
Pointing out
mistakes
Learn about the modals neednt
have, could have, and might
have.
10 minutes
Page 4 Grammar activity 2
Identify what people neednt
have, could have, and might
have done.
5 minutes
Page 5 Grammar activity 3
Fill in the blanks in sentences
using neednt have, could have,
and might have.
5 minutes
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Pronunciation 20 minutes
Intonation for disagreeing politely.
Page 67
Disagreeing politely
/ Intonation practice
Use a rising tone to convey
polite disagreement.
15 minutes
Speaking 15 minutes
Role play
Page 8 Role play
Role play to discuss what
Saurabh neednt/could/might
have done
15 minutes
Writing 10 minutes
CV
Page 9 Writing a CV Write a CV. 10 minutes
Session Summary 3 minutes
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Intensifying an Adjective, Apologising Politely
Session Plan
Page Topic Objective Duration
Page 1 Objectives
Explain the objectives of the
session.
2 minutes
Grammar 20 minutes
Adjectives and intensifiers.
Page 2
Grammar
activity 1
Identify the adjectives and
the words used to make the
adjectives sound stronger.
5 minutes
Page 3
Normal and
extreme
adjectives
Learn about words to make
normal and extreme adjectives
sound stronger.
10 minutes
Page 4
Grammar
activity 2
Fill in the blanks with an
appropriate intensifier to make
an adjective stronger.
5 minutes
Page 5
Grammar
activity 3
Fill in the blanks in sentences
with an appropriate adjective.
5 minutes
Pronunciation 20 minutes
Intonation for saying sorry.
Page 6
Intonation for
apologising
Use the correct intonation for
apologising politely.
15 minutes
Speaking 15 minutes
Free speech
Page 7
Speaking
activity
Free speech using intensifiers
and adjectives to describe an
incident.
15 minutes
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Writing 10 minutes
Email
Page 8
Writing -
request for
rescheduling
an interview.
Write an email requesting for
rescheduling an interview.
10 minutes
Session Summary 3 minutes
Adjective Intensifers
There are some words which can be used to 'intensify' many adjectives 'very'
'really' 'totally' 'absolutely' 'completely' 'utterly' 'entirely'.
Examples:
It's very tall.
We're really happy.
She's totally exhausted.
I'm absolutely horrifed.
He's completely hopeless.
You look utterly miserable.
I'm entirely satisfed.
Certain adjectives have their own 'special' intensifers which are often used with them.
Here are some common ones:
Blind drunk: He was blind drunk and behaved really badly.
Bone dry: I must have a drink. I'm bone dry.
Brand new: I've just bought a brand new car.
Crystal clear: The sea near Rhodes is crystal clear.
Dead easy: That exam was dead easy. I've certainly passed.
Dead lucky: He's won three lottery prizes this year. He's dead lucky.
Dead right: I agree entirely. You are dead right.
Dirt cheap: I bought my car for a dirt cheap price from an old lady who had
hardly driven it.
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Trainer Manual
Fast asleep / sound asleep: I was in bed and fast asleep by nine. I was sound
asleep and I didn't hear anything.
Paper thin: These office walls are paper thin. You can hear everything said in
the next office.
Pitch black: There's no moon. It's pitch black out there.
Razor sharp: Be careful with that knife it's razor sharp.
Rock hard: It's impossible to dig this soil it's rock hard.
Stone deaf: He can't hear a thing. He's stone deaf.
Wide awake: I was wide awake by six.
Wide open: Who left the door wide open?
Intensifers
An intensifer is an adverb which is used to modify adjectives and adverbs, but not
usually used to modify verbs. Read the following examples:
I am very happy.
The flm was quite good.
You did that rather well.
Must you leave so soon?
In these examples, very modifes the adjective happy, quite modifes the adjective
good, rather modifes the adverb well, and so modifes the adverb soon.
The following words are commonly used as intensifers:
fairly
quite
rather
so
too
very
In addition, the word really is often used as an intensifer in informal English.
e.g. The flm was really good.
You did that really well.
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Expressing Quantities, Intonation Patterns
Session Plan
Page Topic Objective Duration
Page 1 Objectives
Explain the objectives of the
session.
2 minutes
Grammar 20 minutes
Quantifiers to express the quantity of a noun.
Page 2 Grammar activity 1
Identify quantifiers to express
the quantity of a noun.
5 minutes
Page 3 Quantifiers
Learn about quantifiers that
precede and modify a noun.
10 minutes
Page 4 Grammar activity 2
Fill in the blanks with an
appropriate noun/noun phrase.
5 minutes
Page 5 Grammar activity 3
Form sentences with an
appropriate quantifier.
5 minutes
Pronunciation 20 minutes
Intonation patterns for various functions.
Page 6 Intonation patterns
Use the correct intonation for
reminding, warning, declining an
offer, and asking for permission.
15 minutes
Speaking 15 minutes
Free speech
Page 7 Speaking activity Free speech using quantifiers. 15 minutes
Writing 10 minutes
Email
Page 8
Components of an
email
Identify the functions of various
components of an email.
10 minutes
Session Summary 3 minutes
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Trainer Manual
Quantifers
Like articles, quantifers are words that precede and modify nouns. They tell us how
many or how much. Selecting the correct quantifer depends on your understanding
the distinction between Count and Non-Count Nouns. For our purposes, we will
choose the count noun books and the non-count noun talking:
The following quantifers will work with count nouns:
many books
a few books
few books
several books
a couple of books
none of the books
The following quantifers will work with non-count nouns:
not much talking
a little talking
little talking
a bit of talking
a good deal of talking
a great deal of talking
no talking
The following quantifers will work with both count and non-count nouns:
all of the books/talking
some books/talking
most of the books/talking
enough books/talking
a lot of books/talking
lots of books/talking
plenty of books/talking
a lack of books/talking
In formal academic writing, it is usually better to use many and much rather than
phrases such as a lot of, lots of and plenty of.
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There is an important difference between "a little" and "little" (used with non-count
words) and between "a few" and "few" (used with count words). If I say that Tara has
a little experience in management that means that although Tara is no great expert
she does have some experience and that experience might well be enough for our
purposes. If I say that Tara has little experience in management that means that she
doesn't have enough experience. If I say that Chetan owns a few books on ancient
Indian culture that means that he has some books not a lot of books, but probably
enough for our purposes. If I say that Chetan owns few books on ancient Indian
culture, that means he doesn't have enough for our purposes and we'd better go to
the library.
Unless it is combined with of, the quantifier "much" is reserved for questions and
negative statements:
Much of the snow has already melted.
How much snow fell yesterday?
Not much.
Note that the quantifer "most of the" must include the defnite article the when it
modifes a specifc noun, whether it's a count or a non-count noun: "most of the
instructors at this college have a doctorate"; "most of the water has evaporated." With
a general plural noun, however (when you are not referring to a specifc entity), the "of
the" is dropped:
Most vocational institutes have their own admissions policy.
Most students apply to several institutes.
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Time Expressions, Intonation Patterns
Session Plan
Page Topic Objective Duration
Page 1 Objectives
Explain the objectives of the
session.
2 minutes
Grammar 20 minutes
Time expressions and prepositions.
Page 2 Grammar activity 1
Identify the appropriate time
expression.
5 minutes
Page 3 Time expressions
Learn about prepositions and
prepositional phrases with
expressions of time.
10 minutes
Page 4 Grammar activity 2
Replace the incorrect time
prepositions with appropriate
prepositions.
5 minutes
Page 5 Grammar activity 3
Fill in the blanks with the
appropriate time expression.
5 minutes
Pronunciation 20 minutes
Intonation patterns for various functions.
Page 6
Intonation patterns for
various functions
Use the correct intonation
for expressing decisiveness,
incredulity, firmness, and
disbelief.
15 minutes
Speaking 15 minutes
Role play
Page 7 Role play
Role play using time
expressions.
15 minutes
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Writing 10 minutes
Letter
Page 8 Resignation letter Write a resignation letter. 10 minutes
Session Summary 3
minutes
Prepositions to express one point in time
On is used with days:
I will see you on Monday.
The week begins on Sunday.
At is used with noon, night, midnight, and with the time of day:
My plane leaves at noon.
The movie starts at 6 p.m.
In is used with other parts of the day, with months, with years, with seasons:
He likes to read in the afternoon.
The days are long in August.
The book was published in 1999.
The flowers will bloom in spring.
Prepositions to express extended time
To express extended time, English uses the following prepositions: since, for, by,
fromto, fromuntil, during, (with) in
She has been gone since yesterday. (She left yesterday and has not returned.)
I'm going to Paris for two weeks. (I will spend two weeks there.)
The movie showed from August to October. (Beginning in August and ending
in October.)
The decorations were up from spring until fall. (Beginning in spring and ending
in fall.)
I watch TV during the evening. (For some period of time in the evening.)
We must finish the project within a year. (No longer than a year.)