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Collision Theory How fast?

• Particles must collide with each • Rate = amount of reactant used

other with enough energy to react (or products formed) / time Chemistry
• Temperature, surface area, • Measure the amount of gas given Rates of Reaction
catalysts, concentrations of off a reaction every 10 seconds, or
substances Answers
weigh the reaction every 10

The Effect of a catalyst The effect of concentration The effect of Temperature

• It lessens the amount of energy • The particles are closer together • The particles have more energy,
needed, therefore making the and therefore collide more often therefore move faster, colliding
reaction cheaper more frequently and with more
• Catalysts are often efficient for energy
only one reaction • 10oc
• 10oc

Reversible Reactions Making Ammonia – Haber process Chemistry

• When the reactants react to make • Nitrogen and Hydrogen • A metal that is found pure, not in an ore,
products, which then react again to • Iron, 450oc, 200 atmospheres e.g. gold.
make reactants • They are recycled and put through • Zinc, iron, copper, lead, tin
• It reaches equilibrium the process again • Aluminium, magnesium, potassium
• By altering concentration on • Reduction is the removal of oxygen in a
• 20% BUT It is quick and there are
conditions no waste products • Iron (III) oxide, coke, 4% impurities
(makes it hard and brittle, only used for
cast iron but produces steels)
Chemistry Chemistry Chemistry
• CnH2n+n • Because the substances in it burn • The oil is vaporised, and sent into a
• Saturated Hydrocarbons are hydrogen in different conditions. fractional distillation column. Here they’re
and carbon only and they contain as much • Fractional distillation separated by gasses with different boiling
hydrogen as possible on each molecule. points condensing at different levels,
• Compounds containing only
Alkanes are saturated, Alkenes are lowest boiling points (small carbon chains)
unsaturated (they contain one or more
carbon and hydrogen. at the top (gas) and highest at the bottom
double bond).( • Molecular formula and structural (for making roads – long carbon chains).
formula These are more difficult to burn.

Chemistry Chemistry
• They stop the suns heat escaping the • Incomplete combustion takes place in
earth atmosphere causing global warming. places with little air supply (like engines).
• Global dimming is particulates of carbon It can produce carbon particles and
and hydrocarbons reflecting the suns rays. carbon monoxide. Also fuels that contain
• We can reduce the amount of sulphur in sulphur can produce sulphur dioxide.
the fuels or in the exhaust gasses after • Sulphur dioxide causes acid rain,
they are burnt. Carbon particles cause global dimming
and carbon dioxide causes global