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CHAPTER 13

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CHAPTER THIRTEEN - TPHHAHATAR IHABA
MY FAMILY AND (OTHER) ANIMALS - MOR CEMBR H BHBOTHBE
In Chapter Thirteen you will learn how to do the following:
1. to talk about your family
2. to talk about animals
You will learn the following points of grammar:
1. pronouns
2. the animate accusative
3. miscellaneous nouns
4. prepositions which take the accusative case
Activity One - Hepnoe sa(anne
Writing Eill in the missing words to find out the Russian for relations`. You have
already met most of the common words used to describe members of the family, but to
remind you, they are given again (in no logical order) below.

Parents _
Eather _
Uncle _
Son _
Aunt _
Grandson _
Grandfather _
Granddaughter _
Wife _
Nephew _
Grandmother _
Niece _
ua1t (uaua), o1en (nana), aena, uya, (out, cmn, aymxa, (e( ((e(ymxa), nnyuxa,
nnyx, 11n, (n(n, nueunnnnna, nueunnnnx, po(n1eun
Activity Two - B1opoe sa(anne
Writing Using the following information, work out the Russian for the phrases below:
(nompo(nmn pa1 (first male) cousin npa(e( great grandfather
npannyuxa great granddaughter npanpannyx great great grandson
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1. (first female) cousin
2. great grandmother
3. great grandson
4. great great granddaughter
5. great great grandfather
Activity Three - Tpe1te sa(anne
Writing Establish the identity of the following in Russian.
1. cecrpa moero orna +ro mox
2. myx moen aymkn +ro mon
3. out moen rrn +ro
4. ctn moero xn +ro
5. out moero ctna +ro
6. ctn moero nnyka +ro
7. cecrpa moero nnemxnnnka +ro
8. oren moero orna +ro
9. mart moen aymkn +ro
10. out moen cecrpt +ro
Activity Four - He1np1oe sa(anne
Reading Read the following description of the family below and identify the relations
to whom the young speaker, Klara, is referring. Then answer the questions on the next page
in Russian.
3ro mon npae, Hropt Hannonnu. On ronopnr, uro emy enxnocro nxrt ner, no nnkro ne snaer,
kora n re on ponncx. On tnmnn unen Kommynncrnueckon naprnn, n ero nmnmax rema -
Bennkax Okrxptckax connanncrnueckax penonmnnx. Pantme on paoran npenoanarenem, a
renept on nc npemx cnnr oma n cnymaer pano. K coxanennm, y nero ouent cnaoe spenne,
no+romy on axe ne moxer unrart. Ero xena, mox npaaymka, yxe anno ymepna. Ero crapmnn
ctn, mon e, roxe ymep, no mox aymka em xnna. E sonyr Anekcanpa Herponna, en
cemtecxr rpn roa. Faymka cnnr pxom c npaeom n kypnr cnrapery. 3a nnmn cronr mox
mama, e sonyr Anna. Ona yntaercx n pasronapnnaer co cnoen cecrpon, Hnnon, koropax cronr
cnena or ne. Mama - mamnnncrka, a rrx - akrpnca. Trx paoraer n erckom rearpe n
nenrpe Mocknt. E myxa sect ner, rak kak on n komannponke n Iepmannn. Hx out, Harama,
oera, kak ncera, n xnnct n nynonep. Mon par, Fopnc, ne moxer repnert Haramy, noromy
uro ona - |emnnncrka. Fopx cronr pxom c mamon n sa mnon. Ha nm oukn or connna. Kcrarn,
x uyrt tno ne satna ckasart: menx sonyr Knapa, n mne nenanart ner.
tnmnn former pasronapnnart (I) to talk, chat
unen member cnon ones own
Kommycrnueckax naprnx Communist Party cnena or ( gen) to the left of
rema theme ercknn rearp children`s theatre
Bennkax Okrxptckax connan- Great October Socialist n komannponke on a business trip
ncrnueckax penonmnnx Revolution (1917) oer(a) n ( acc) dressed in
cnatn weak, poor repnert to bear, endure
spenne vision oukn or connna sunglasses
ymepert (past ymep/na) to die kcrarn incidentally
crapmnn older, oldest uyrt (tno) ne almost
xnn(a) alive satrt (pf) to forget
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1. Kak sonyr npaea Knapt? 8. Kro rakax Hnna?
2. Kakax ero nmnmax rema? 9. Kem paoraer mart Knapt?
3. Kem on pantme paoran? 10. Ie paoraer Hnna?
4. Houemy ero xent ner sect? 11. Bo uro oera Harama?
5. Houemy on ne moxer unrart? 12. Houemy Fopx ne nmnr Haramy?
6. Kak sonyr aymky Knapt? 13. Ckontko ner Knape?
7. Ckontko en ner? 14. Kak sonyr mart Knapt?
Activity Five - Hn1oe sa(anne
Listening Listen twice to the following descriptions of Ivan`s family and fill in the
missing details below. Relevant vocabulary is given on the following page.
1 2 3 4
Name
Age
Relationship
to Ivan
Place of
residence
Job
Interests
Married/
single
Spouse`s
name & age
Children and
relevant
information
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Activity Six - mec1oe sa(anne
Speaking Pairwork. Devise conversations based on the following information. Eirst
you play the role of A, then reverse roles.
A B
heonn Banenrnna
+nnr n Boponexe +nnr n Xaaponcke
26 21
Paoraer mnennapom Paoraer yunrentnnnen
Hrpaer na rpomone Hnmer crnxn
+enar 3amyxem
+eny sonyr Hpnna Myxa sonyr kon
25 22
unraer erekrnnt Konneknnonnpyer mapkn
noe eren Onn penok
Harame 4, Hnany 5 +anne 2
A B
Makcnm Enrennx
+nnr n Tyne +nnr n Kannnnnrpae
32 38
Paoraer +nekrpomonrpom Paoraer ncnxonorom
Cmorpnr |yron 3annmaercx caonocrnom
+enar Pasneena
+eny sonyr Cnernana Ftnmero myxa sonyr Hropt
34 43
Hor naponte necnn Htr noky
Tpoe eren eren ner
Pomany 3, 3yapy 5, 3nnane 8
rema theme, subject mnkpopanon large housing estate
oer(-a, -t) n ( acc) dressed in (administrative unit)
samyxem sa ( instr) married (of a woman) nmecre c ( instr) together with
xenar na ( prep) married (of a man) monoxe menx na ( acc) younger than me by
crapme menx na ( acc) older than me by mt c Conen Sonya and I
mopxk sailor nocemt c nononnnon eight and a half
noe/rpoe/uernepo eren two/three/four children ynneuenne hobby
x nepecennncx n ( acc) I moved to karanne na ntxax skiing
xnpypr surgeon mnennap porter
sannmartcx nrkon to take part in track rpomon trombone
arnernkon and field athletics erekrnn detective (story)
cnpnnrep sprinter +nekrpomonrp electrician
er c aptepamn 100 metres hurdles nert (nom, nomt, nor to sing
na cro merpon nom, nore, nomr)
nxrnnernnn penok five-year old child naponax necnx folk song
koroptn who, which konneknnonnponart (III) to collect
x naemct, uro I hope that ncnxonor psychologist
on craner ( instr) he will become sannmartcx (I) caonocrnom to garden
nsnecrntn well known pasnen/pasneena divorced
arner athlete tnmnn former
Hnrep (colloquial) St Petersburg
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A B
Maprapnra hen
+nnr n hnnenke +nnr n Kyprane
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Paoraer nnxenepom Paoraer mexannkom
Cnymaer komnakr-nckn Pasnonr nonyraen
3amyxem Pasnen
Myxa sonyr Anpen Ftnmym xeny sonyr Honnna
34 24
Crponr moenn camonron Hepenonr ckaskn (c anrnnnckoro xstka na
pyccknn)
Onn penok noe eren
Pocrncnany 9 Bapnape 1, hmmnne 4
Activity Seven - Ce(tuoe sa(anne
Reading Look at the photograph below and say whether the following statements
are True (H) or Ealse (H).
1. R pyccknn. R xnny n Mockne.
2. Menn sonyr xopx Fym.
3. Mox out monoxe uenn.
4. Mne nanart ner.
5. Mox xena xnnr co unon.
6. Pycckne uacro ronopxr oo une.
Activity Eight - Boctuoe sa(anne
Writing The above examples illustrate the personal pronoun n in all six cases (1.
Nominative, 2. Accusative, 3. Genitive, 4. Dative, 5. Instrumental, 6. Prepositional).
Make up six sentences about each of the following, using the personal pronouns listed below:
(i) your friend (rt), (ii) your teacher (nm), (iii) George Bush (on), (iv) the British queen
(ona), (v) you and your family (um), and (vi) your neighbours (onn). Note that you do not
need to stick rigidly to the model above.
Nom x rt on ona mt nt onn
Acc menx rex (n)ero* (n)e* nac nac (n)nx*
Gen menx rex (n)ero* (n)e* nac nac (n)nx*
Dat mne ree (n)emy* (n)en* nam nam (n)nm*
Instr mnon roon (n)nm* (n)en* namn namn (n)nmn*
Prep (oo) mne (o) ree (o) nm (o) nen (o) nac (o) nac (o) nnx
* The sound n precedes all forms of the prepositions on, ona and onn, whenever they follow a preposition; e.g.
nx nero (for him), c nen (with her), k nnm (towards them). Compare: x nmnm ero - I love him; x nnrepecymct
nm - I am interested in them; mt nomoraem en - we help her.
komnakr-nck CD nepenonrt (II) (nepenoxy, nepenonmt) to translate
moent (f) camonra model airplane c ( gen) na ( acc) from ... into ...
pasnonrt (II) (pasnoxy, pasnonmt) to breed nnrt (ntm, ntmt, ntr, ntm, ntre, ntmr) to drink
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Activity Nine - enn1oe sa(anne
Speaking Role-play. You play the role of A and you partner plays B. Then reverse
roles.
1. Say hello to your partner. Reply appropriately in each case.
Eind out his/her name and age.
Ask him/her if he/she is married.
If so, find out more about his/her
husband or wife.
Ask who (else) lives with him/her.
Ask him/her where they live.
2. Say hello to your partner.
Reply appropriately in each case. Ask him/her about his/her family
(brothers, sisters, parents, husband/wife,
children).
Eind out where he/she works.
Ask him/her if he enjoys his/her work.
Eind out about his/her hobbies.
Activity Ten - ecn1oe sa(anne
Reading/Listening Read the following biography carefully and then listen to the
description by Ivan`s elderly and forgetful mother of her son`s life. Make a list of any
inaccuracies which you note in her description.
Hmx, oruecrno, |amnnnx uop Makcnmonnu Hannon
Apec n Poccnn Mockna, Mnxankonckax ynnna, .5, kn.322
Bospacr 39
Opasonanne Okonunn |nnonornuecknn |akyntrer Mockonckoro
rocyapcrnennoro ynnnepcnrera
(nnocrpannte xstkn: anrnnncknn n nemenknn)
Hpo|eccnx nnnomar (n Hocontcrne Poccnnckon ueepannn n
Konenrarene)
Ponrenn Oren (78), na nencnn, tn rexnnkom
Mart (81), na nencnn, tna npoanmnnen
Cemtx Hnkonan (17), hapnca (14), Hropt (12)
+ena - Cnernana (40), cekperapt-mamnnncrka
Vnneuennx urenne, nymnsmarnka
(on) okonunn (ynnnepcnrer) he graduated (from nncarent writer
university) nocon amabassador
|nnonornuecknn |akyntrer faculty of languages Oprannsannn Oe- United Nations
and literature nnnntx Hannn Organisation
Mockoncknn rocyapcrn- Moscow State rexnokpar technocrat
enntn ynnnepcnrer University (on) xoren, urot on cran (he) wanted him to
nnocrpanntn xstk foreign language nrunkom become a pilot
Hocontcrno Poccnnckon the Embassy of the nackontko mne nomnnrcx as fas as I can remember
ueepannn Russian Eederation onako however
rexnnk technician nao npnsnartcx it must be admitted
npoanmnna shop assistant namxrt (f) memory
cekperapt-mamnnncrka secretary net you know, you see
nymnsmarnka numismatics (collection nemnoxko a little
or study of coins etc.) n monoocrn in ones youth
(on) nasnan ero n uecrt ( gen) he called him after ornnuno excellently
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Activity Eleven - O(nnna(na1oe sa(anne
Speaking Role-play. One of you thinks of a mutual acquaintance or friend. The other
has to guess who it is, with the help of the questions and answers below. Stick initially to the
full phrase, using the pronouns 1non (etc.) or nam (etc.) and uon each time, as appropri-
ate. Then repeat the exercise, based on a different friend, using the more natural sounding on
(etc.) or ona (etc.), which are listed on the following page. (Once again the questions are
grouped in accordance with grammatical case.)
Nominative
Ie xnnr 1non snakomtn / 1non snakomax? Mon snakomtn / uon snakomax .
Or: . nam / nama . " " " "
Ie paoraer 1non snakomtn / 1non snakomax? " " " "
Or: . nam / nama . " " " "
Kem paoraer 1non snakomtn / 1non snakomax? " " " "
Or: . nam / nama . " " " "
Tnon snakomtn xenar/ 1non snakomax samyxem? a/ner, mon snakomtn / uon snakomax
(ne) xenar / samyxem.
Or: Bam / nama .
Kro 1non snakomtn / 1non snakomax no Mon snakomtn / uon snakomax
nannonantnocrn? Ho nannonantnocrn .
Or: Bam / nama .
Accusative
Kro em snaer 1noero snakomoro / 1nom . snaer uoero snakomoro / uom
snakomym? snakomym
Or: . namero / namy .
Kak onro on/ona snaer 1noero snakomoro / On /ona snaer uoero snakomoro /
1nom snakomym? uom snakomym .
Or: . namero / namy .
Genitive
V 1noero snakomoro / 1noen snakomon ecrt a, y moero snakomoro / uoen
ponrenn / ern? snakomon ecrt .
Her, y moero snakomoro / uoen
snakomon ner orna / marepn, eren
V 1noero snakomoro / 1noen snakomon ecrt a, y moero snakomoro / uoen
partx nnn ccrpt? snakomon ecrt onn par / na,
Or: V namero / namen . rpn, uertpe para n ona cecrpa / ne,
rpn, uertpe cecrpt
Her, y moero snakomoro / uoen
snakomon ner (nn) para, (nn)
cecrpt
Kak sonyr para, parten / cecrpy, cecrp Fpara, parten / cecrpy, cecrp
1noero snakomoro / 1noen snakomon? moero snakomoro / uoen snakomon
Or: . namero / namen . sonyr .
Dative
Ckontko ner 1noeuy snakomomy / 1noen Moeuy snakomomy / uoen
snakomon? snakomon .
Or: . nameuy / namen .
Tnoeuy snakomomy / 1noen snakomon npannrcx a/ner, uoeuy snakomomy / uoen
|yron (rennnc, amnnron, rnmnacrnka)? snakomon (ne) npannrcx .
Or: . nameuy / namen .
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Instrumental
Kro xnnr c 1nonu snakomtm / 1noen snakomon? C uonu snakomtm / uoen snakomon
Or: . c namnu / namen . xnnr .
Kro paoraer nmecre c 1nonu snakomtm / .paoraer nmecre c uonu
1noen snakomon? snakomtm / uoen snakomon
Or: . c namnu / namen .
Prepositional
Pacckaxn(re) mne ontme o 1nou snakomom /
1noen snakomon .
Or: . o nameu / namen .
Possessive pronouns
SINGULAR
Masculine
Nom mon rnon ero e nam nam nx
Acc mon/moero* rnon/rnoero* ero e nam/namero* nam/namero* nx
Gen moero rnoero ero e namero namero nx
Dat moemy rnoemy ero e namemy namemy nx
Instr monm rnonm ero e namnm namnm nx
Prep (o) mom (o) rnom (o) ero (o) e (o) namem (o) namem (o) nx
Neuter
Nom mo rno ero e name name nx
Acc mo rno ero e name name nx
Gen moero rnoero ero e namero namero nx
Dat moemy rnoemy ero e namemy namemy nx
Instr monm rnonm ero e namnm namnm nx
Prep (o) mom (o) rnom (o) ero (o) e (o) namem (o) namem (o) nx
Feminine
Nom mox rnox ero e nama nama nx
Acc mom rnom ero e namy namy nx
Gen moen rnoen ero e namen namen nx
Dat moen rnoen ero e namen namen nx
Instr moen rnoen ero e namen namen nx
Prep (o) moen (o) rnoen (o) ero (o) e (o) namen (o) namen (o) nx
PLURAL
All genders
Nom mon rnon ero e namn namn nx
Acc mon/monx* rnon/rnonx* ero e namn/namnx* namn/namnx* nx
Gen monx rnonx ero e namnx namnx nx
Dat monm rnonm ero e namnm namnm nx
Instr monmn rnonmn ero e namnmn namnmn nx
Prep (o) monx (o) rnonx (o) ero (o) e (o) namnx (o) namnx (o) nx
* Genitive Accusative for all animate nouns (except for feminine singular). See Activity Thirteen.
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Activity Twelve - nena(na1oe sa(anne
Speaking/Writing As stated above, the Accusative form of all animate nouns (as
well as pronouns and adjectives), except the feminine singular, is the same as the Genitive.
Answer the following questions, paying particular attention to this grammatical rule, where
appropriate.
1. Kak sonyr rnoero orna?
2. Kak sonyr npemtep-mnnncrpa Bennkopnrannn?
3. Kak sonyr npesnenra Poccnn?
4. Kakoro komnosnropa rt ontme ncero nmnmt?
5. Kakoro akrpa rt ontme ncero nmnmt?
6. Ha koro rt noxox(a)?
Activity Thirteen - Tpnna(na1oe sa(anne
Writing Imagine that you have just made a new penfriend in Russia and that you are
sending him/her your first letter. You should write in particular about yourself, your hobbies,
your family and your friends, but also ask him/her appropriate questions. Try to stick to
vocabulary which you know and do not be too ambitious. Your letter should begin oporon
./ oporan . and finish with a phrase such as Bcero (oporo! (All the best).
Note that Russian also has a reflexive pronoun cnon (with the same declension as uon or 1non)
which is used to refer back to noun and pronoun subjects; e.g.
Nom y menx cnon mamnna - I have my own car
Acc x norepxn(a) cnon ymaxnnk - I have lost my wallet*
Gen ona kynnna post nx cnoen cecrpt - she bought roses for her sister*
Dat on nomoran cnoeuy pary - he used to help his brother**
Instr rt nrpan(a) co cnonun pystxmn - you used to play with your own friends
Prep x ronopnn(a) o cnoen ouepn - I was talking about my own daughter
` Although cnon (etc.) is preferred in sentences of this type, uon, 1non, nam and nam (etc.) may be used as
an alternative. Sometimes the pronoun may be omitted altogether, especially when speaking about people; e.g.
x nmnm para - I love my brother; on pasronapnnan c cecrpon - he was talking to his sister.
`` Cnon (etc.) cannot, however, be replaced by ero, e or nx when it refers back to noun or pronoun subjects;
cf. on nomoran (cnoeuy) pary - he used to help his (own) brother and on nomoran ero pary - he used to help
his (i.e. someone else`s) brother, or ona nnnr cnon om - she can see her (own) house and ona nnnr e om
- she can see her (i.e. someone else`s) house.
Activity Fourteen - He1mpna(na1oe sa(anne
Reading/Writing The relative pronoun xo1opmn (which, who) has the same endings
as any normal hard adjective and agrees with its antecedent in gender and number (although
its case depends on the grammar of the relative clause); e.g. x snam uenoneka, xo1opmn
ronopnr no-arckn - I know a person who speaks Danish or nor uenonek, xo1oporo x
snam - here`s the person (whom) I know. Read the following sentences and identify (i) the
appropriate missing noun from the box below, and (ii) the gender, case and number of the
relative pronoun.
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1. uenonek, koroptn nrpaer n |yron - +ro
2. +enmnna, koropax ncnonnxer ponn n rearpe - +ro
3. uenonek, koroptn xnnr n Mockne - +ro
4. +enmnna, y koropon ecxrt eren - +ro
5. Myxunna c ertmn, y koroporo ner xent - +ro
6. hmn, koropte xnnyr sa rpannnen - +ro
7. Vuennk, c koroptm mt yunmcx n onom knacce - +ro
8. uenonek, or koroporo nonyuamr entrn - +ro
nnoc1pannm, o(noxuaccnnx, ax1pnca, cnoncop, o1en-o(nnouxa, ua1t-reponnn,
qy1ounc1, uocxnnu
Activity Fifteen - Hn1na(na1oe sa(anne
Writing One of the most difficult concepts to translate into Russian is also`, too` or
as well (as)`. Complete the following grid, using the expressions in bold below. (Note that,
in accordance with crossword tradition, gaps do not appear between phrases consisting of
two or more words.)
1oae (also, too)
e.g. - Tt anrnnuannn? - roxe. (Are you English? Me too.)
ny n napk. Ona roxe nr rya. (I am going to the park. She is also going there.)
(More colloquial than , used most commonlv where the subfects in the two sentences or two
parts of the sentence are different)
(a) 1axae (also, too, likewise)
e.g. Ona nsyuaer |pannyscknn xstk, a rakxe nemenknn. (She studies Erench as well as German.)
Kpome pycckoro ona nsyuaer rakxe n xnoncknn. (She studies Japanese in addition to Russian.)
(More formal than , but more versatile in its usage)
n (also, as well, and)
e.g. ny n napk. H ona nr rya. (I am going to the park. She is also going there.)
On ronopnr n no-anrnnnckn. (He also speaks English.)
(a em (n) (also, too, as well (as))
e.g. On rnyn(tn), a em n nennn(tn). (He is stupid, and lazy too.) (Colloquial)
x 1ouy ae, xpoue 1oro, ouee 1oro, cnepx 1oro (furthermore, moreover, besides, also)
e.g. . K romy xe, on nmnn cnom ponny. (. Eurthermore, he loved his country.)
(More or less interchangeable phrases, frequentlv used at the start of a sentence)
n(oanox (furthermore, moreover, besides, in addition, also)
e.g. On ncera rpynr, a noanok em n nxr. (He is rude and he also lies.) (Colloquial)
ncnonnxrt (I) ponn to perform roles nnocrpanen foreigner mart-reponnx heroine of
yuennk pupil onoknaccnnk classmate motherhood
nonyuart (I) entrn to receive money oren-onnouka single father mocknnu(ka) Muscovite
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Activity Sixteen - mec1na(na1oe sa(anne
Reading Read the following passage with the help of the vocabulary at the foot of the
page. Then answer the questions in English.
Kaxoe nero mt c parom Konen n rren Maprapnron esnm k aymke n eymke n
ropo Kypran, n ankym Cnnpt. opora rya ns Mocknt sannmaer npakrnueckn rpn nx. B
noese mt nrpaem n kaprt, unraem xypnant, cmorpnm n okno n nom pycckne naponte
necnn. Mox nmnmax necnx nastnaercx Mnnentknn rt mon. Mne ouent npanxrcx cnona n
menonx. Mon par ronopnr, uro cnona anantnte n nennrepecnte, no on ne nonnmaer, uro
rakoe nacroxmax nmont.
Mt npnesxaem n Kypran pano yrpom. eymka ncrpeuaer nac, noka aymka neur nam
nnnt na sanrpak. Mt nouyem y aymkn n eymkn n knaprnpe n nenrpe ropoa, a na
cneymmnn ent mt nce nmecre ornpannxemcx na auy, n epennm, re mt npononm nc
nero. V aymkn n eymkn cnox aua. Mne ouent npannrcx xnrt na aue, no Konx xanyercx
na ro, uro +nekrpnuecrno uacro ne paoraer n ner ropxuen not.
V nac n epenne mnoro snakomtx - Hropt, Herx, Karx, Ianx n Hnna. Mt c pexramn
kynaemcx, karaemcx na nenocnnee n conpaem rpnt n xrot. Beuepom mt otuno nom
necnn nnn unraem crnxn y kocrpa. Hnora eymka pacckastnaer nam o Bennkon
Oreuecrnennon Bonne, a aymka nnauer. E oren n mart nornnn no npemx nonnt, a par
tn ceptsno panen.
B epenne y ncex ecrt xnnornte, ocoenno coakn, kort n ntnnxra. V cocea Anekcanpa
Hnanonnua ecrt kosn n kosa. V kost kaxoe nero poxaercx kosnnok. Kosnxra, no-moemy,
ouent mnnte n pyxenmnte xnnornte, no x ontme ncero nmnm xepexr, ocnxr n nonn. K
coxanennm, y nac oma, n Mockne, ner xnnorntx, noromy uro mama ymaer, uro n namen
knaprnpe n rak cnnmkom recno.
Ionopxr, uro n necy ecrt mnoro snepen, n rom uncne onenen, meneen n axe cnnpcknx
rnrpon. onaxt nnena menenny c menexaramn, no rnrpon, nanepnoe, yxe ner. Konx
menx ynepxer, uro n necy rakxe noxrcx nonkn. On ouent onrcx nonkon, no+romy on ram c
namn ne rynxer. Kak ronopnrcx, nonkon oxrtcx - n nec ne xonrt.
anknn far away kynartcx (I) to go bathing pyxenmntn friendly
cmorpert (II) to look out of karartcx (I) na to go cycling pano early
n okno the window nenocnnee xepenok foal
opora sannmaer the journey takes conpart (I) to gather, pick (pl xepexra)
naponax necnx folk song xroa berry, soft fruit ocnnok foal (of ass)
mnnentknn dear, darling rpn mushroom (pl ocnxra)
cnono word kocrp bonfire nonn (indeclinable) pony
anantntn trite, banal nnakart (nnauy, to weep, cry cnnmkom too (many)
nacroxmnn real nnauemt) recno cramped
nmont (f) love nornnyrt (pf) to die snept (m) wild
npnesxart (I) to arrive (onn) nornnn they died animal
ncrpeuart (I) to meet no npemx ( gen) during, at the onent (m) deer
neut (neky, to cook, bake time of menet (m) bear
neumt, nekyr) tn panen was wounded x ynnen(a) I saw
nnn pancake y ncex (ecrt) everyone has onaxt once
nouenart (III) to spend the xnnornoe animal, pet menenna she-bear
night ocoenno especially menexonok bear cub
na cneymmnn the next day n rom uncne including (pl menexara)
ent ( acc) nanepnoe probably
ornpannxrtcx (I) to set off ntnnnok chicken ynepxrt (I) ( acc) to assure
npononrt (II) to spend (time) (pl ntnnxra) nonk wolf
xanonartcx (III) to complain about kosn/kosa goat oxrtcx ( gen) to be afraid of
na ( acc) poxartcx (I) to be born (omct, onmtcx)
ro, uro the fact that kosnnok kid nonrtcx (II) to inhabit
penok child (children; (pl kosnxra) kak ronopnrcx as the saying
(pl pexra) lads) mnntn dear goes
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1. How long does the journey take?
2. Name three of the activities which occupy the children`s time on the train.
3. Why does Kolya not like the song Milen`kii ty moi`?
4. How long do the children spend at the dacha?
5. Why does Kolya not like living at the dacha?
6. Name three activities that the children undertake during the day.
7. Why does the grandmother sometimes cry in the evening?
8. Which are the most popular animals in the village?
9. What are the narrator`s favourite animals?
10. Why do the children not have pets in Moscow?
11. Why does Kolya not play in the forest?
12. What do you think the Russian proverb nonkon oxrtcx - n nec ne xonrt means?
Activity Seventeen - Ceuna(na1oe sa(anne
Reading Read the following traditional folk song. If you are musically inclined, you
may also wish to sing it in pairs.
MHHEHBKHH TB MOH MY DEAREST
- Mnnentknn rt mon, Mv dearest,
Bostmn menx c coon! Take me with vou'
Tam, n kpam ankom, In that far-awav land
Fyy ree xenon. I will be vour wife.
- Mnnax mox, Mv dear,
Bsxn t x rex. I would take vou.
Ho ram, n kpam ankom, But in that far-awav land
Ecrt y menx xena. I have a wife.
- Mnnentknn rt mon, Mv dearest,
Bostmn menx c coon! Take me with vou'
Tam, n kpam ankom, In that far-awav land
Fyy ree cecrpon. I will be vour sister.
- Mnnax mox, Mv dear,
Bsxn t x rex. I would take vou.
Ho ram, n kpam ankom, But in that far-awav land
Ecrt y menx cecrpa. I have a sister.
- Mnnentknn rt mon, Mv dearest,
Bostmn menx c coon! Take me with vou'
Tam, n kpam ankom, In that far-awav land
Fyy ree uyxon. Ill be a stranger to vou.
- Mnnax mox, Mv dear,
Bsxn t x rex. I would take vou.
Ho ram, n kpam ankom, But in that far-awav land
uyxax rt mne ne nyxna. A stranger is not what I need.
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GRAMMAR
1. Pronouns
THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS (I, YOU, HE, SHE, WE, YOU, THEY)
Nom x rt on ona mt nt onn
Acc menx rex (n)ero* (n)e* nac nac (n)nx*
Gen menx rex (n)ero* (n)e* nac nac (n)nx*
Dat mne ree (n)emy* (n)en* nam nam (n)nm*
Instr (co) mnon roon (n)nm* (n)em (en)* namn namn (n)nmn*
Prep (oo) mne (o) ree (o) nm (o) nen (o) nac (o) nac (o) nnx
* The sound n precedes all forms of the prepositions on, ona and onn, whenever they follow a
preposition; compare:
(acc) x nepm n nero - I believe in him; x nmnm ero - I love him
(gen) +ro or ne - this is from her; x omct e - I am afraid of her
(dat) ona nr k nemy - she`s going to his place; ona nomoraer emy - she helps him
(instr) on ronopnr c nen - he speaks to her; on nnrepecyercx em - he`s interested in her
Note that prepositions are not followed by the Nominative and that the Prepositional case by
definition always requires the sound n; e.g.
(prep.) mt uacro ymaem o nnx - we often think about them
THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS (MY/MINE, YOUR/YOURS, HIS, HER/HERS, OUR/OURS, YOUR/
YOURS, THEIR/THEIRS)
SINGULAR
Masculine
Nom mon rnon ero e nam nam nx
Acc mon/moero* rnon/rnoero* ero e nam/namero* nam/namero* nx
Gen moero rnoero ero e namero namero nx
Dat moemy rnoemy ero e namemy namemy nx
Instr monm rnonm ero e namnm namnm nx
Prep (o) mom (o) rnom (o) ero (o) e (o) namem (o) namem (o) nx
Neuter
Nom mo rno ero e name name nx
Acc mo rno ero e name name nx
Gen moero rnoero ero e namero namero nx
Dat moemy rnoemy ero e namemy namemy nx
Instr monm rnonm ero e namnm namnm nx
Prep (o) mom (o) rnom (o) ero (o) e (o) namem (o) namem (o) nx
Feminine
Nom mox rnox ero e nama nama nx
Acc mom rnom ero e namy namy nx
Gen moen rnoen ero e namen namen nx
Dat moen rnoen ero e namen namen nx
Instr moen rnoen ero e namen namen nx
Prep (o) moen (o) rnoen (o) ero (o) e (o) namen (o) namen (o) nx
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PLURAL
All genders
Nom mon rnon ero e namn namn nx
Acc mon/monx* rnon/rnonx* ero e namn/namnx* namn/namnx* nx
Gen monx rnonx ero e namnx namnx nx
Dat monm rnonm ero e namnm namnm nx
Instr monmn rnonmn ero e namnmn namnmn nx
Prep (o) monx (o) rnonx (o) ero (o) e (o) namnx (o) namnx (o) nx
THE REFLEXIVE POSSESSIVE PRONOUN CBOH (-\5 9)
Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural
Nom cnon cno cnox cnon
Acc cnon/cnoero* cno cnom cnon/cnonx*
Gen cnoero cnoero cnoen cnonx
Dat cnoemy cnoemy cnoen cnonm
Instr cnonm cnonm cnoen cnonmn
Prep (o) cnom (o) cnom (o) cnoen (o) cnonx
* The Genitive case is used whenever animate nouns are in the Accusative (except where the
nouns are feminine singular). This form is known as the Animate Accusative:
ona xopomo snaer moero para - she knows my brother well
mt ne nonnmaem namero npenoanarenx - we don`t understand our teacher
kak sonyr namero ctna? - what`s your son called?
rt nnnmt moero penka? - can you see my child?
but on ynaxaer cnom rrm - he respects his aunt
THE RELATIVE PRONOUN KOTOPBH (WHO, WHICH)
Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural
Nom koroptn koropoe koropax koropte
Acc koroptn/koroporo koropoe koropym koropte/koroptx
Gen koroporo koroporo koropon koroptx
Dat koropomy koropomy koropon koroptm
Instr koroptm koroptm koropon koroptmn
Prep (o) koropom (o) koropom (o) koropon (o) koroptx
THE INTERROGATIVE/RELATIVE PRONOUNS
KTO (WHO), HTO (WHAT) AND HEH (WHOSE)
Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural
Nom kro uro uen ut utx utn
Acc koro uro uen/utero ut utm utn/utnx
Gen koro uero utero utero uten utnx
Dat komy uemy utemy utemy uten utnm
Instr kem uem utnm utnm uten utnmn
Prep (o) kom (o) um (o) utm (o) utm (o) uten (o) utnx
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THE DETERMINATIVE PRONOUN BECB (ALL)
Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural
Nom nect nc* ncx nce**
Acc nect/ncero nc ncm nce/ncex
Gen ncero ncero ncen ncex
Dat ncemy ncemy ncen ncem
Instr (co) ncem (co) ncem (co) ncen (co) ncemn
Prep (oo) ncm (oo) ncm (oo) ncen (oo) ncex
* nc also means everything and is followed by a (neuter) singular verb; e.g nc (tno) n nopxke - everything
is (was) OK
** nce also means everyone/everybody and is followed by a plural verb; e.g. nce (tnn) n ynnnepcnrere - they
are (were) all at the university
Activity Eighteen - Boceuna(na1oe sa(anne
Writing Eill in the appropriate form of the personal pronoun.
1. Mon par ne nmnr . (x)
2. Ona uacro ronopnr co . (x)
3. Onn ne nonnmamr. (mt)
4. 3ro nopapok or . (ona)
5. nnkora ne ymam o . (onn)
6. nmnm . (rt)
7. Ckontko ner? (nt)
8. nnxy . (on)
9. Mox cecrpa xnnr c . (on)
10. Mt nm k . (ona)
Activity Nineteen - enn1na(na1oe sa(anne
Writing Eill in the appropriate form of the possessive pronoun.
1. para sonyr Hrp. (mon)
2. Kak sonyr rrm? (nama)
3. Ckontko marepn ner? (rnox)
4. 3naere nn nt orna? (mon)
5. Ona pasronapnnaer o cemte. (nama)
6. B ropoe ner knno. (nx)
7. V ne mamnna. (cnox)
8. On nmnr eren. (cnon)
9. Mt nm k aymke. (cnox)
10. Ona ronopnr c ccrpamn. (mon)
Activity Twenty - na(na1oe sa(anne
Writing Complete the following sentences using the appropriate form of xo1opmn.
1. +enmnna, xnnr n ome X 5, uacro nomoraer moen mame.
2. snam anrnnuannna, nrpaer n amepnkancknn |yron.
3. Mne npannrcx om, naxonrcx y pekn.
4. Bkona, o x ronopm, nastnaercx Hron-Konnex.
5. kynnna n Ancrpannn pano, yxe ne paoraer.
6. enymka, c rt ncera ronopnmt, ne snaer moero para.
7. Mne ne npanxrcx cnrapert, rt kypnmt.
8. ne snam mantunka, sonyr Herx.
9. Ona ne nmnr yunrentnnny, sonyr Anna Hannonna.
10. Tpomon, na nrpaer mon e, yxe ouent craptn.
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Activity Twenty-One - na(na1t nepnoe sa(anne
Writing Translate the following into Russian.
1. Whose is this computer?
2. Whose are these pencils?
3. Whose is this book?
4. About whose wife is he speaking?
5. With whose sister does she live?
6. In whose house does he live?
7. Who are you speaking about?
8. What are you speaking about?
9. Who were you with yesterday?
10. I don`t know what you are afraid of.
Activity Twenty-Two - na(na1t n1opoe sa(anne
Writing Complete the following sentences using the appropriate form of nect.
1. Mt npononm nero n Cnnpn.
2. On cen xne.
3. npemx
4. On unraer nonte knnrn.
5. Onn mnoro snamr o xnnorntx n necy.
6. Vunrentnnna co cnonmn yuennkamn.
7. npoexan no Poccnn.
8. Bo mnpe.
9. 3ro noapok or monx pysen.
10. crpana ronopnr rontko o |yrone.
11. On npan no ornomennxx.
2. Miscellaneous noun types
MASCULINE NOUNS ENDING IN -OHOK, -HOK
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nom penok* pexra menexonok menexara
Acc penka pexr menexonka menexar
Gen penka pexr menexonka menexar
Dat penky pexram menexonky menexaram
Instr penkom pexramn menexonkom menexaramn
Prep (o) penke (o) pexrax (o) menexonke (o) menexarax
* The form pen1a frequently means lads`. The normal plural of penox (child) is (e1n (children). Note the
special forms (noe/1poe/ue1nepo (e1en.
Nom ern
Acc eren
Gen eren
Dat erxm
Instr ertmn
Prep (o) erxx
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MASCULINE NOUNS ENDING IN -AHHH, -RHHH (E.G. APMRHHH - ARMENIAN)
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nom anrnnuannn anrnnuane apmxnnn apmxne
Acc anrnnuannna anrnnuan apmxnnna apmxn
Gen anrnnuannna anrnnuan apmxnnna apmxn
Dat anrnnuannny anrnnuanam apmxnnny apmxnam
Instr anrnnuannnom anrnnuanamn apmxnnnom apmxnamn
Prep (o) anrnnuannne (o) anrnnuanax (o) apmxnnne (o) apmxnax
NEUTER NOUNS ENDING IN -R (E.G. HMR, BPEMR, HHAMR |FLAME])
Singular Plural
Nom nmx nmena
Acc nmx nmena
Gen nmenn nmn
Dat nmenn nmenam
Instr nmenem nmenamn
Prep (o) nmenn (o) nmenax
3. Summary of prepositions taking the Accusative
n(o)/na (motion towards) x ny n napx I`m going to the park
(to) on nr na xonnep1 he`s going to a concert
(expressions of time etc.) n nn1nnny / n 1o1 (ent on Eriday / on that day
(in, on, for, at) n uecnn / n 1pn uaca in a month / at three o`clock
on npnexan na ne(eum he came for a month
na Poa(ec1no at Christmas
ornernrt na nonpoc to answer (literally: replv to) a question
sa . o (. before) sa ne(eum o konna a week before the end
sa (during) sa cy1xn in the space of twenty-four hours
(behind - motion) cecrt sa c1ou to sit at the table
(for) cnacno sa nouomt thanks for the help
nnarnrt sa 1onapm to pay for the goods
uepes (in .|`s time]) uepes ne(eum / uecnn in a week(`s time) / in a month
(over, across) uepes oxean across the ocean
(through, by means of) uepes (pysen through the friends
nasa (ago) ne(eum / ro( nasa a week / year ago
no (each) no (na / (noe in pairs / twos
no (under - motion) nocrannrt no c1ou to put under the table
cknost (through) cmex cknost cusm laughter through tears
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