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Evaluation

Introduction
Cement evaluation plays an important role in the cementing process. By cement evaluation, the
quality of zonal isolation is conrmed. In cases where zonal isolation is not achieved, the evalu-
ation helps diagnose the problems that led to the poor zonal isolation. Consequently, methods
and slurry design used for the primary cementing are reviewed and improved for the next well.
Results also help in deciding whether remedial work is required. Cement evaluation and QC are
processes completed during and after every step of primary cementing.
During the design, using Schlumberger CemCADE design software, the design engineer uses
well data and cementing parameters to predict the results with selected cement systems, select-
ing the one providing the desired zonal isolation. During execution, the operation is monitored
and analyzed. Finally, in the evaluation, cement evaluation logs are acquired for nal conrmation
of hydraulic zonal isolation.
Thus, cement evaluation is a continuous process beginning with the design and continuing
with execution analysis, post-treatment analysis and analysis of cement evaluation logs to deter-
mine zonal isolation.
Design
In the design the well data are entered into CemCADE software to ensure optimum WELLCLEAN
mud removal, pipe centralization, cement slurry for downhole conditions, ow rate, etc. The
execution, as designed, is simulated and theoretical mud removal and zonal isolation are
assessed. If results are not satisfactory, the design is revised and the simulation is rerun.
See page 29 for more information on CemCADE software and WELLCLEAN mud removal.
Execution analysis
The purpose of primary cementing is to achieve zonal isolation. The slurry composition and the
execution procedure are designed to provide complete zonal isolation. The properties of the
cement sheath are optimized to isolate all productive zones, as well as those containing water
and nuisance gas.
The rst QC step and evaluation during the execution determines if the materials were mixed
according to the design and if the displacement process followed the prescribed procedure. This
evaluation is made using plots of the slurry density, solids fraction, ow rate and pumping
pressure during the execution.
See page 84 for more information on CemCAT monitoring software.
Postcementing analysis
If the execution analysis indicated abnormal values of any monitored parameters, a thorough
analysis is performed after the operation. The data acquired during the cementing operation are
loaded into CemCADE cementing design and evaluation software and the execution data can be
overlaid and compared with the simulation run during the design. The simulation can also be
rerun using density and volumes of uid mixed and pumped to determine if mud removal para-
meters were met.
Cementing Services and Products

Evaluation 89
90 Cementing Services and Products
Cement evaluation logs are acquired for nal conrmation of hydraulic zonal isolation and
tops of cement.
Using the analysis from both steps, any problem areas can be highlighted with special attention
to the depths on the evaluation logs where isolation is a concern.
Cement evaluation services
Cement evaluation services are used in the nal evaluation of cement integrity and zonal isolation.
Used in conjunction with the execution and the postcementing analyses, evaluation logs can help
identify poor isolation and the reasons for that poor isolation. If remedial work is necessary, eval-
uation logs assist in its design to achieve the required isolation for well completion and pro-
duction of desired uids. Any problem identied in these analyses is targeted for improvement in
the design or execution phases for future wells.
Cement evaluation services also play an important role in conrming the pipes integrity,
support and isolation from formation uids, because exposing pipe to formation uid can even-
tually lead to corrosion if the lack of isolation is not corrected.
Cement evaluation services are divided into two major groups:

Acoustic logging can be either sonic services, with tools that provide a log of amplitude
measurements and Variable Density* sonic waveforms, or ultrasonic services, with tools that
provide a map of the cement distribution around the pipe.

Other logging tools provide indirect evaluation through measurements of pressure, temperature,
nuclear activity and noise.
SoniCalc software is a tool that allows the logging engineer to import well and cementing data
for use in tool setup and interpretation of cement bond logs (CBLs) and USI UltraSonic Imager
cement evaluation logs. Tool setup parameters are provided so that tool setup and computed
output are correct for the well being logged, improving logging service quality. These data also
assist in interpreting evaluation logs and in determining if remedial treatments may be required.
Only acoustic tools are discussed in this catalog.
Sonic services
CBLs, with amplitude and/or attenuation and Variable Density waveform data, have been the pri-
mary method for cement quality evaluation for many years. The principle of the cement bond
measurement is to record the transit time and amplitude (or attenuation) of a 20-kHz acoustic
wave after propagation through the well uid and the pipe wall.
The measurement is the amplitude in millivolts of the tubular rst arrival (E1) at a receiver
with 0.91-m [3-ft] or shorter spacing. The amplitude of the signal is a function of the attenuation
by the shear coupling of the cement sheath to the pipe. The attenuation rate depends on the
cement acoustic impedance, cement thickness, pipe diameter, pipe thickness and percentage of
bonded circumference.
A receiver with 1.52-m [5-ft] spacing is used to record the Variable Density waveform for bet-
ter discrimination between sonic waves traveling through pipe and those through formation. This
measurement is generally used to qualitatively assess the cement-to-formation bond.
SlimAccess tool
The SlimAccess* wireline logging tool is designed for slim, complex-geometry boreholes. It gen-
erates, records and digitizes acoustic waves and provides CBL amplitude, Variable Density mea-
surement and attenuation measurement for cement bond evaluation. It is also used for openhole
applications such as seismic correlation, porosity measurement and evaluation of lithology. It has
a short-spacing 0.30-m [1-ft] transmitter-receiver for cement evaluation in fast formations.
Besides the primary transmitter-receivers used for CBL and Variable Density measurement, the
SlimAccess tool also uses a second set of transmitter-receivers for backup. It is a monopole sonic
tool with a diameter of 6.35 cm [2
1
2 in.], which enables it to be run in 14-cm [5
1
2-in.] casing.
Evaluation 91
The SlimXtreme* tool is the version of the SlimAccess tool for use in slim, complex-geometry
boreholes under HPHT conditions.
Applications

Determine quality of pipe to cement bond

Determine quality of formation-to-cement bond

Identify cement top

HPHT wells (SlimXtreme tool)


Benets

Logging in pipe as small as 14 cm [5


1
2 in.]

Log quality minimally affected by environmental conditions


Features

0.30-m [1-ft] receiver for cement evaluation in fast formation

6.35-cm [2
1
2-in.] diameter

Low sensitivity to environmental conditions

Combinable with ultrasonic imaging tool for enhanced interpretation


SCMT Slim Cement Mapping Tool
The SCMT* Slim Cement Mapping Tool is a sonic tool that provides a radial cement attenuation
variation map from a 0.61-m [2-ft] eight-segment receiver, as well as conventional 0.91-m [3-ft]
amplitude (attenuation) and 1.52-m [5-ft] Variable Density data. In addition, the 0.61-m [2-ft]
mapping receivers are effective for cement evaluation in fast formations where the 0.91-m
receiver might give ambiguous results. Because of its slim size (4.29-cm [1
11
16-in.] diameter), the
tool can be run through tubing. The SCMT tool can be run in combination with the PS Platform*
new-generation production services platform or the RST* Reservoir Saturation Tool for complete
well and reservoir evaluation in one trip.
The principal application of the SCMT log is cement quality and integrity evaluation around
the entire circumference of the pipe.
Applications

Determination of quality of pipe-to-cement bond

Qualitative evaluation of cement-to-formation bond

Identication of cement top


Benets

Tubing does not have to be removed from well (no rig required).

Interpretation is valid, even in fast formations.

Time is saved when the tool is run in combination with other tools.
Features

Combinable with PS Platform suite or RST tool for well, reservoir and cement integrity
evaluation in the same run

Combinable with PipeView* multinger caliper tool for PS Platform tool string, for cement
and pipe integrity evaluation in the same run giving complete well integrity diagnosis

4.29-cm [1
11
16-in.] diameter

8-segment receiver for bond variation mapping

0.61-m [2-ft] receiver


Ultrasonic services
USI UltraSonic Imager
The USI UltraSonic Imager provides an accurate and reliable high-resolution, comprehensive,
real-time answer product revealing pipe-to-cement bond quality and downhole pipe condition.
Using ultrasonic technology, the USI tool sends ultrasonic pulses between 200 kHz and 700 kHz
that travel through the well uid and strike the casing, providing 360 azimuthal coverage using
a single rotating transducer. The transducer receives reected signals that have undergone mul-
tiple reections between the casing internal and external interfaces. The signal decays at a rate
dependent on the acoustic impedance of the material in the annulus.
USI log maps of the acoustic impedance of the material in the annulus are generated using
very advanced processing techniques. From the acoustic impedance values, the material in the
annulus is identied and maps are prepared showing the nature (gas, liquid, solid) of the mate-
rial in the annulus. High-resolution maps of pipe wall thickness, internal radius and inner wall
rugosity are provided for accurate evaluation of the pipe condition. The results are displayed in
real time as quantitative, self-explanatory interpreted cement and pipe integrity maps.
The combination of the USI tool with CBL and Variable Density tools provides enhanced
assessment of cement-to-pipe and cement-to-formation bond quality.
Applications
Cement integrity

Hydraulic zonal isolation evaluation

Remedial work decision-making and assessment of effectiveness

Primary cementing process improvement

Identication of gas invasion

Determination of casing support before sidetrack

Cement top identication and free pipe identication for pipe retrieval
A SCMT log showing possible channel and its position aids in decision to squeeze and
in design of the squeeze cementing treatment.
92 Cementing Services and Products
A USI log with optional Variable Density data provides the best identication of uncemented
channels and aids in decisions to squeeze and in design of the squeeze cementing treatment.
Pipe integrity

Quantication of internal and external corrosion, wear, metal loss and/or scale buildup

Identication and quantication of pipe distortion

Selection of optimal packer setting depth


Benets

Detailed channel identication and location

Remedial cementing optimization

Microannulus identication

Accurate, effective real-time answers

Rig time saving by acquiring cement and pipe integrity data in one run

Continuous improvement of cementing process


Features

Cement map showing cement quality and presence of channels

Pipe integrity data

Wellsite product for enhanced three-dimensional (3D) visualization

100% azimuthal coverage by a single, rotating transducer

5 radial and 3.81-cm [1


1
2-in.] vertical resolution in high-resolution mode

Combinable with inclinometry tools to aid image orientation in deviated wells

Combinable with CBL tools for enhanced evaluation


Evaluation 93
The USI log provides several presentations reecting different applications. The easily read-
able, color-coded images make cement coverage in the annulus easy to interpret. Problems such
as channels in cement and tubular damage can be seen directly on the images, thus revealing
the status of zonal isolation for decisions about remedial work. Enhanced eld products allow
visualization of the cement distribution and quality, as well as a 3D view of pipe condition to further
facilitate remedial work decisions. QC log presentations are used for data validation.
Cement integrity evaluation is essential, not only for zonal isolation conrmation and help in
the remedial work decision and design, but also for the determination of the causes of poor
cementing procedures. All acoustic logs are sensitive to cement-to-pipe bond. Some measure-
ment methods are affected by downhole conditions more than others and in different ways. For
this reason, a USI log and CBL combination is advisable to help diagnose zonal isolation problems
at the cement/pipe interface and the cement/formation interface. A full analysis of the cement
evaluation logs will assist in diagnosing the problem and provide information to improve the
cementing.
Thus, USI logs and CBLs with Variable Density data should be acquired together because their
responses area complementary, especially in the presence of

microannulus (liquid or gas)

thin cement sheath

fast formation

double strings of casing

heavily corroded casing

inside deposits (cement, rust)

high-attenuation mud

lightweight cement.
The table shows the USI log and the CBL response under the different conditions.
94 Cementing Services and Products
Effects on Evaluation Logs
USI Log CBL
Resolution 5 radial and 3.81 cm [1
1
2 in.] vertical 360 by 0.91 m [3 ft]
Well-bonded cement Cement (high acoustic impedance) Low amplitude or high attenuation;
characteristic Variable Density log
Lightweight cement Acoustic impedance based on properties Complicates interpretation
of the cement; special processing may be required
for very low density cement
Dry microannulus and/or Affected: Resolved by special processing Complicates interpretation
debonded cement
Mud layer Slightly affected Complicates interpretation
Wet microannulus Slightly affected Complicates interpretation
Contaminated cement Shown as solid with low acoustic impedance if set Complicates interpretation
Mud channel Displayed as channel lled with liquid Complicates interpretation
Gas channel Shown as channel lled with gas Complicates interpretation
Formation bond Not discriminated Qualitatively indicated on Variable Density plot
Outer casing/ Slightly affected Strongly affected if cement sheath is thin
hard formation
Casing condition Very sensitive: Corrosion, wear and deformed casing Slightly affected: No indication on log of quality
can be quantied in alternate acquisition mode
Evaluation 95
The USI log measures the bonding between the pipe and the cement, and the Variable Density
display indicates the bonding between the cement and the formation. The advantage of the USI
log over the traditional CBL is at the cement-pipe interface. The USI log

identies liquid-lled microannulus

identies microdebonding

identies channels as small as 3.05 cm [1.2 in.]

evaluates thin cement sheath.


The processed USI log and CBL with Variable Density data can be displayed side by side for
complete visual cement evaluation in real time at the wellsite. This feature helps the completion
engineer make sound decisions on remedial actions. The combination also helps cementing
companies in the continuous improvement and enhancement of their cementing systems and
methods for best hydraulic isolation and cement integrity results.
Nonstandard environment
The evaluation of ultralightweight cement systems or logging in heavy mud or nonstandard casing
sizes may require advanced interpretation.
For further information about cement evaluation services, please refer to www.slb.com/oileld.