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The Basics

OK. Ive heard a lot about this power factor stuff. What exactly is it?

We hope to give you an easy explanation of what power factor is, and to answer

the following most asked questions:

Question #1: What is Power Factor?

Question #2: What Causes Low Power Factor?

Question #3: Why Should I Improve My Power Factor?

Question #4: How Do I Correct (Improve) My Power Factor?

Question #5: How Long Will It Take My Investment in Power Factor

Correction to Pay for Itself?

Question #6: What is the Next Step?

Question #1:

What is Power Factor?

Super. Im ready to find out what power factor is.

To understand power factor, well first start with the definition of some basic terms:

KW is Working Power (also called Actual Power or Active Power or Real Power).

It is the power that actually powers the equipment and performs useful

work.

KVAR is Reactive Power.

It is the power that magnetic equipment (transformer, motor and relay)

needs to produce the magnetizing flux.

KVA is Apparent Power.

It is the vectorial summation of KVAR and KW.

Lets look at a simple analogy in order to better understand these terms.

Lets say you are at the ballpark and it is a really hot day. You order up a

mug of your favorite brewsky. The thirst-quenching portion of your beer

is represented by KW (Figure 1).

Unfortunately, life isnt perfect. Along with your ale comes a little bit of

foam. (And lets face itthat foam just doesnt quench your thirst.) This

foam is represented by KVAR.

The total contents of your mug, KVA, is this summation of KW (the beer)

and KVAR (the foam).

Figure 1

So, now that we understand some basic terms, we are ready to learn about power factor:

Power Factor (P.F.) is the ratio of Working Power to Apparent Power.

Looking at our beer mug analogy above, power factor would be the ratio

of beer (KW) to beer plus foam (KVA).

P.F. = KW

KW +KVAR

. = Beer

Beer +Foam

P.F. = KW

KVA

Thus, for a given KVA:

The more foam you have (the higher the percentage of

KVAR), the lower your ratio of KW (beer) to KVA (beer

plus foam). Thus, the lower your power factor.

The less foam you have (the lower the percentage of

KVAR), the higher your ratio of KW (beer) to KVA (beer

plus foam). In fact, as your foam (or KVAR) approaches

zero, your power factor approaches 1.0.

Our beer mug analogy is a bit simplistic. In reality, when we calculate

KVA, we must determine the vectorial summation of KVAR and KW.

Therefore, we must go one step further and look at the angle between

these vectors.

Lets look at another analogy

Mac here is dragging a heavy load (Figure 2). Macs Working Power (or

Actual Power) in the forward direction, where he most wants his load to

travel, is KW.

Unfortunately, Mac cant drag his load on a perfect horizontal (he would

get a tremendous backache), so his shoulder height adds a little Reactive

Power, or KVAR.

The Apparent Power Mac is dragging, KVA, is this vectorial summation

of KVAR and KW.

Figure 2

The Power Triangle (Figure 3) illustrates this relationship between KW, KVA, KVAR,

and Power Factor:

The Power Triangle

KVA

KVAR

KW

P.F. = KW = COS

KVA

KVAR = SIN

KVA

KVA = KW

2

+ KVAR

2

= KV * I * 3

Figure 3

Note thatin an ideal worldlooking at the beer mug analogy:

KVAR would be very small (foam would be approaching zero)

KW and KVA would be almost equal (more beer; less foam)

Similarlyin an ideal worldlooking at Macs heavy load analogy:

KVAR would be very small (approaching zero)

KW and KVA would be almost equal (Mac wouldnt have to

waste any power along his body height)

The angle (formed between KW and KVA) would approach

zero

Cosine would then approach one

Power Factor would approach one

So.

In order to have an efficient system (whether it is the beer mug or Mac dragging

a heavy load), we want power factor to be as close to 1.0 as possible.

Sometimes, however, our electrical distribution has a power factor much less than

1.0. Next, well see what causes this.

Question #2:

What Causes Low Power Factor?

Great. I now understand what power factor is. But Ive been told mine is low.

What did I do to cause this?

Since power factor is defined as the ratio of KW to KVA, we see that low power

factor results when KW is small in relation to KVA. Remembering our beer mug

analogy, this would occur when KVAR (foam, or Macs shoulder height) is large.

What causes a large KVAR in a system? The answer isinductive loads.

Inductive loads (which are sources of Reactive Power) include:

Transformers

Induction motors

Induction generators (wind mill generators)

High intensity discharge (HID) lighting

These inductive loads constitute a major portion of the power consumed in

industrial complexes.

Reactive power (KVAR) required by inductive loads increases the amount of

apparent power (KVA) in your distribution system (Figure 4). This increase in reactive

and apparent power results in a larger angle (measured between KW and KVA). Recall

that, as increases, cosine (or power factor) decreases.

KVA

KVAR

KVA

KVAR

KW KW

Figure 4

So, inductive loads (with large KVAR) result in low power factor.

Question #3:

Why Should I Improve My Power Factor?

Okay. So Ive got inductive loads at my facility that are causing my power factor

to be low. Why should I want to improve it?

You want to improve your power factor for several different reasons. Some of the

benefits of improving your power factor include:

1) Lower utility fees by:

a. Reducing peak KW billing demand

Recall that inductive loads, which require reactive power, caused

your low power factor. This increase in required reactive power

(KVAR) causes an increase in required apparent power (KVA),

which is what the utility is supplying.

So, a facilitys low power factor causes the utility to have to

increase its generation and transmission capacity in order to handle

this extra demand.

By raising your power factor, you use less KVAR. This results in

less KW, which equates to a dollar savings from the utility.

b. Eliminating the power factor penalty

Utilities usually charge customers an additional fee when their

power factor is less than 0.95. (In fact, some utilities are not

obligated to deliver electricity to their customer at any time the

customers power factor falls below 0.85.) Thus, you can avoid

this additional fee by increasing your power factor.

2) Increased system capacity and reduced system losses in your electrical

system

By adding capacitors (KVAR generators) to the system, the power

factor is improved and the KW capacity of the system is increased.

For example, a 1,000 KVA transformer with an 80% power factor

provides 800 KW (600 KVAR) of power to the main bus.

1000 KVA = (800 KW)

2

+ ( ? KVAR)

2

KVAR =600

By increasing the power factor to 90%, more KW can be supplied

for the same amount of KVA.

1000 KVA = (900 KW)

2

+ ( ? KVAR)

2

KVAR =436

The KW capacity of the system increases to 900 KW and the

utility supplies only 436 KVAR.

Uncorrected power factor causes power system losses in your

distribution system. By improving your power factor, these losses

can be reduced. With the current rise in the cost of energy,

increased facility efficiency is very desirable. And with lower

system losses, you are also able to add additional load to your

system.

3) Increased voltage level in your electrical system and cooler, more efficient

motors

As mentioned above, uncorrected power factor causes power

system losses in your distribution system. As power losses

increase, you may experience voltage drops. Excessive voltage

drops can cause overheating and premature failure of motors and

other inductive equipment.

So, by raising your power factor, you will minimize these voltage

drops along feeder cables and avoid related problems. Your

motors will run cooler and be more efficient, with a slight increase

in capacity and starting torque.

Question #4

How Do I Correct (Improve) My Power Factor?

All right. Youve convinced me. I sure would like to save some money on my

power bill and extend the life of my motors. But how do I go about improving (i.e.,

increasing) my power factor?

We have seen that sources of Reactive Power (inductive loads) decrease power

factor:

Transformers

Induction motors

Induction generators (wind mill generators)

High intensity discharge (HID) lighting

Similarly, consumers of Reactive Power increase power factor:

Capacitors

Synchronous generators (utility and emergency)

Synchronous motors

Thus, it comes as no surprise that one way to increase power factor is to add

capacitors to the system. This--and other ways of increasing power factor--are listed

below:

1) Installing capacitors (KVAR Generators)

Installing capacitors decreases the magnitude of reactive power (KVAR or

foam), thus increasing your power factor.

Here is how it works (Figure 5)

Reactive power (KVARS), caused by inductive loads,

always acts at a 90-degree angle to working power (KW).

Capacitance

(KVAR)

Working

Power

(KW)

Reactance

(KVAR)

Figure 5

Inductance and capacitance react 180 degrees to each other.

Capacitors store KVARS and release energy opposing the

reactive energy caused by the inductor.

The presence of both a capacitor and inductor in the same

circuit results in the continuous alternating transfer of

energy between the two.

Thus, when the circuit is balanced, all the energy released

by the inductor is absorbed by the capacitor.

Following is an example of how a capacitor cancels out the effect of an

inductive load.

2) Minimizing operation of idling or lightly loaded motors.

We already talked about the fact that low power factor is caused by the

presence of induction motors. But, more specifically, low power factor is

caused by running induction motors lightly loaded.

3) Avoiding operation of equipment above its rated voltage.

4) Replacing standard motors as they burn out with energy-efficient motors.

Even with energy-efficient motors, power factor is significantly affected

by variations in load. A motor must be operated near its rated load in

order to realize the benefits of a high power factor design.

Question #5

How Long Will It Take my Investment in Power Factor

Correction to Pay for Itself?

Super, Ive learned that by installing capacitors at my facility, I can improve my power

factor. But buying capacitors costs money. How long will it take for the reduction in my

power bill to pay for the cost of the capacitors?

A calculation can be run to determine when this payoff will be. As an example,

assume that a portion of your facility can be modeled as in Figure 6 below. Your current

power factor is 0.65.

Following are the parameters for your original system:

163 KW load

730 hours per month

480 Volt, 3 phase service

5% system losses

Load PF =65%

PSE Rate Schedule:

Energy Rate =$4.08 per KWH

Demand Charge =$2.16 per KW

PF Penalty =$0.15 per KVARH

Figure 6

Well calculate the total amount the utility charges you every month as follows:

First, well calculate your energy usage:

163 KW X 730 Hours/Month X $4.08/KWH =$4,854.79/Month

Next, well calculate your demand charge:

163 KW X $2.16/KW =$352.08/Month

Finally, well calculate your Power Factor Penalty:

190 KVAR X 730 Hours/Month X $0.15/KVARH =$208/Month

Now, lets say that you decide to install a capacitor bank (Figure 7). The 190

KVAR from the capacitor cancels out the 190 KVAR from the inductive motor. Your

power factor is now 1.0.

Following are your parameters for your system with capacitors:

Corrected PF =1.0

Figure 7

You can calculate your loss reduction:

Loss Reduction =1-(0.65

2

/ 1.00

2

) =0.58

Therefore, your system loss reduction will be as follows:

0.58 X 0.05 (losses) =0.029 System Loss Reduction

Your total KW load will be reduced as follows:

163 KW X 0.029 =4.7 KW

Now we can calculate your savings in energy usage:

4.7 KW X 730 Hours/Month X $4.08/KWH =$141.00/Month

Next, well calculate your savings in demand charge:

4.7 KW X $2.16/KW =$10.15/Month

Finally, remember that your Power Factor Penalty is zero.

Lets calculate how long it will take for this capacitor bank to pay for itself.

Capacitor Cost =$30.00/KVAR

Your savings per month are as follows:

$141.00 Energy Usage

$ 10.15 Demand Charge

$208.00 PF Penalty Charge

$359.15 Total

Your payback will be at the following time:

$30.00/KVAR X 190 KVAR/$359/Month =16 Months

Installation of your capacitors will pay for themselves in 16 months.

Question #6

What is the next step?

Terrific. I think I should take a look at the power factor at my facility and see

what I can do to improve it. So what do I do next?

PowerStudies.com can assist you in determining the optimum power factor

correction for your facility. We can also help you to correctly locate and provide tips on

installing capacitors in your electrical distribution system.

Feel free to call us, fax us, e-mail us, and continue to check us out on the web.

We would be happy to talk to you about your specific application.

Telephone: (253) 639-8535

Fax: (253) 639-8685

E-mail: fuhr@powerstudies.com

Web: www.powerstudies.com

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