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DCM for matrix

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Peter Mutschler, Member IEEE, and Matthias Marcks

AbstractUntil now, direct control methods are mainly investigated and used in conjunction with voltage source converters. In

this paper, we develop a direct current control method for matrix

converters. There are two objectives for the direct current control:

the desired current has to be impressed into the load, and the current, drawn from the mains, should be in phase with the voltage

and should be (nearly) sinusoidal. This implies active damping of

the 400-Hz resonance of the line filter. The method is implemented

on a DSP and tested on a 10-kVA matrix converter.

Index TermsDirect control, matrix converter.

I. INTRODUCTION

OR THE LAST 30 years or so, the forced commutated cycloconverter occasionally became the subject of research

activities, mostly with a high scientific quality. However, despite these efforts and in contrast to the naturally commutated

(thyristor-equipped) cycloconverter, there was no breakthrough

in practical applications for the forced commutated cycloconverter. One of the reasons may be the lack of appropriate power

semiconductors. Todays power semiconductors are optimized

to high-volume-selling voltage source inverters. With only these

devices available, the chance for a breakthrough of forced commutated cycloconverters or matrix1 converters may probably

continue to be low.

Yet some day, reverse blocking insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) or, even better, bi-directional power semiconductor

switches may become available. Under this condition, matrix

converters may become competitive, especially as the lack of

energy storing passive components supports the trend of future

integration.

Fig. 1 shows an ideal matrix converter with three input

and three output current sources

voltage sources

. Fig. 2(a) and (b) illustrates the generation of the

and the average input curaverage output voltages

, respectively, where the duty cycles of the nine

rents

(

column,

row). Deswitches are indicated by

started

velopment of suitable modulation functions

Manuscript received April 7, 2001; revised August 27, 2001. Abstract published on the Internet January 9, 2002.

P. Mutschler is with the Department of Power Electronics and Control of

Drives, Darmstadt University of Technology, 64283 Darmstadt, Germany

(e-mail: pmu@srt.tu-darmstadt.de).

M. Marcks is with Continental Teves AG, 60441 Frankfurt, Germany (e-mail:

matthias.marcks@contiteves.com).

Publisher Item Identifier S 0278-0046(02)02886-1.

1Each output phase of a cycloconverter originates from a bridge-connection

whereas an output phase of a matrix converter is derived from a midpoint-connected converter circuit.

Fig. 1.

with the works of Gyugyi in 1970 [1] and 1976 [2]. Many

authors extended and improved the first approaches. In

1983, Braun [3] presented a space-vector-based modulation,

which extended the utilization of the converter especially

concerning the reactive power. Venturini and Alesina presented an analytical optimization procedure in 1988 [4]

and 1989 [5], which also increased the voltage utilization

of the converter. Their approach was extended by Marcks

[6], using a numerical optimization. Fig. 3 illustrates the

generation of the output voltages using the numerically

. Sinusoidal input

optimized modulation functions

currents are synthesized simultaneously from the impressed

sinusoidal output currents.

II. PRINCIPLES

FOR

MATRIX CONVERTERS

OF A

on the assumption that the inputs to the matrix converter

and the

are symmetrical, sinusoidal voltage sources

load is represented by symmetrical, sinusoidal current sources

. In reality, a filter is necessary between the

mains and the matrix converter in order to avoid overvoltages

at the inputs of the converter and to reduce the amount

of high-frequency current injected into the mains. In our

experimental setup, the resonance frequency of the filter is

near 400 Hz.

Fig. 4 shows the converter including the input filter and the

voltage and current transducers necessary for signal processing.

Switching of the converter or transients in the mains

can excite resonant oscillations of the filter. Damping of

the resonant oscillations can be done by additional lossproducing resistors in the filter or by a control method,

Fig. 2.

Fig. 3.

active damping.

Active damping of a 400-Hz oscillation calls for a high bandwidth of the related control loop. It is well known that direct

control methods, which are applied to voltage source converters,

show a high-quality dynamic performance [8], [9]. Therefore,

in this paper, a direct control method for matrix converters is

proposed.

The control method has to fulfill two objectives.

363

2) The current, drawn from the mains, should be in phase

with the voltage and should be (nearly) sinusoidal. This

implies active damping of the 400-Hz filter resonance.

To develop a direct control method, first the transfer characteristic of the matrix converter from input to output voltages is

2Typically, the load may be an induction machine. In the steady state, the

impressed currents should be sinusoidal.

364

Fig. 4.

Analyzed system.

OUTPUT VOLTAGE v

AS A

TABLE I

FUNCTION OF MODE AND INPUT VOLTAGE v

voltage v .

studied. For all 27 modes (switching states) of the matrix converter, Table I lists the space vector of the output voltage

. The modes can be assigned to the four following groups.

have the

Group1) In modes 0, 1, and 2, output vectors

same magnitude as the input voltage vector , they rotate

120 , and 240 , respectively.

have the same

Group2) In modes 35, output vectors

magnitude as , rotate in the opposite direction, and

have a displacement of 0 , 120 , and 240 , respectively.

Group3) In modes 623 , output vectors have a fixed angular

(no rotation), but a magnitude varying

position of

with a line-to-line voltage.

Group4) In modes 2426, a zero vector is generated, i.e., no

coupling between input and output.

First, the control of the output current vector is considered. In

, an output

order to reduce the control error

has to be applied to an inductive load, which

voltage vector

.3 The direction

has the same direction as the current error

3This is true for a purely inductive load. For an induction machine, the induced

EMF vector e has to be considered also. This is neglected for simplicity here.

is discretized into six sectors of

120 whereas the direction of the input voltage is discretized

into 12 sections. These 12 sections form the columns and the

27 modes are the rows of the matrix in Fig. 5. The elements of

the matrix in Fig. 5 indicate the sector ( direction) of the corre. Let us assume the following

sponding output voltage vector

example. The direction of the current error may be in sector 6

330 ). Then we need an output voltage vector that is

(210

also within sector 6. The direction of the input voltage vector

may be somewhere between 180 and 210 in our example

(shaded area in Fig. 5). Fig. 5 shows that, under this condition,

modes 1, 4, 12, 13, and 23 produce an output voltage vector with

the desired direction (i.e., sector 6). Generally, there are always

at least three modes that reduce the output current error. If the

control of the output current would be the only objective, this

could be easily satisfied every time. Actually, the input current

has to be controlled simultaneously, which implies the active damping of the input filter.

As previously discussed, the control law for output current

is quite simple: the applied output voltage vector has to have

the same direction as the vector of the output current error.

, a -controller is used

To control the line side current

to determine the sector of the desired input current vector (see

the Appendix). To complete the control of the line side current

, we study the transfer characteristic of the matrix converter

from output to input current.

For all modes, Table II lists the space vector of the input current as a function of the output current . The direction of is

is discretized

discretized into six sectors and the direction of

into 12 sections. With this discretization, Fig. 6 follows from

Table II. The elements of the matrix in Fig. 6 indicate the sector

of the input current, as a function of the output currents segment

and the mode. If, for example, the control of the line side current wishes an input current within sector 2 and the angle of the

current vector is somewhere between 120 and 150

output

( shaded area in Fig. 6), then modes 5, 10, 13, and 16 would

satisfy the line-side current controller. If at the same time the situation for the output current controller is as discussed for Fig. 5,

then mode 13 is the only one that satisfies both controllers simultaneously. The flowchart of the control is given in Fig. 7. If

both the line-side and the load-side control error are small, then a

group-4 mode, which produces a zero-vector, is applied. If there

is no mode satisfying both the line side as well as the load-side

controller, then the controller having the larger weighted error

is served only. Depending on the magnitude of the control error,

i.e., low, medium or large, the line-side controller selects within

group 3 a mode which produces a vector in the desired direction and a low, medium, or large amplitude, respectively. A

similar algorithm is used for the load-side controller as well.

The upper part of Fig. 8 represents the mains, line-filter, converter, and the load. In the lower part, the block diagram of the

control is shown. The reference value for the line-side current,

, is generated in the following way. The amplitude of the

i.e.,

measured line current is low-pass filtered to remove distortions.

A phase-locked loop (PLL), which is a filter for the phase, generates a smooth phase signal, which is combined with the am-

365

TABLE II

INPUT CURRENT i AS A FUNCTION OF MODE AND OUTPUT CURRENT i

represents smooth, sinusoidal quantities. In

reference value

the block Mode selection, the previously discussed Figs. 57

act together and select the mode, which is used by the converter.

A more detailed description of the control is given in [6].

III. RESULTS

Subsequent to intensive simulations, an experimental setup

was built. The three-phase input voltage is 400 V/50 Hz and

the rating of the matrix converter is 10 kVA. Each bi-directional

switch uses two antiparallel IGBTs (Toshiba MG50Q1BS1) and

diodes (Endrich EPUF 2301000). The design allows a maximum switching frequency of 20 kHz. The inductance and capacitance of the line filter is 4 mH and 48 F, respectively, per

phase. A detailed description of the matrix converter, especially

its commutation behavior, is given in [6]. An extension to zero

current switched matrix converters is discussed in [7].

366

current i .

Fig. 9. Measured line- and load-side currents. Control cycle: 50

frequency: 1 Hz.

Fig. 7.

Mode selection.

s.

Load

As load, an induction motor at standstill is used. The control is done by a TMS320C30 signal processor with a 33-MHz

clock. In order to avoid time-consuming searches in the tables

according to Figs. 5 and 6, a lookup-table is used, which consists of all possible combinations of 12 line-side voltage sections

with 6 load-side sectors and 12 load-side current sections with

6 line-side sectors. This look-up table consists of

elements. The control routines are written in C, and the

cycle time is 50 s.

Fig. 9(b) illustrates the load-side currents at a very low fre, all three

quency of 1 Hz and an amplitude of 15 A. At

currents are zero and the current error is large, so that the control algorithm prefers the load side. Due to this, within the first

5 ms, there is a poor control of the line-side currents.

As can be seen from Fig. 9(a), the 50-Hz line-side currents are

considerably distorted also in steady state. The distortion of the

line-side currents could be reduced, if a shorter cycle time of the

controller could be realized. The average switching frequency

frequency: 1 Hz.

367

s. Load

was not possible to reduce the control cycle time of 50 s with

the TMS320C30 (33 MHz) in the experimental setup, Fig. 10

shows simulation results with a control cycle time of 25 s. With

a 25- s control cycle time, the average switching frequency of

each bi-directional switch is 13.3 kHz in Fig. 10.

From the two line-side currents plotted in Fig. 10(a), it can

be clearly seen that the reduction in cycle time also reduces the

distortion in the currents considerably. To get a cycle time of

25 s or less, some control functions could be realized by an

application-specific IC (ASIC) or by a CPLD. However, at the

experimental setup, everything is realized by software in order

to get a highly flexible controller.

All measurement results in this paper are based on a 50- s

cycle time. As a blocked induction machine (standstill) is used

as load, the load-side fundamental voltage and power is rather

small in all measurements. Consequently, the fundamental

line-side currents are small too, as the line-side displacement

between fundamentals of voltage and current is about zero.

With this low fundamental line-side current, the distortion is

easily overestimated in the figures.

Fig. 11 is an example for a step-change in the amplitude of

the load-side current. The load-side frequency is 30 Hz. At

ms, the reference value for the amplitude of the load-side

currents is increased from 10 to 15 A. The load-side control

performs well.

Next, a step change in the load-side frequency is shown in

ms, the reference value of the load-side freFig. 12. At

quency is reduced from 30 to 5 Hz. Please note that the line-side

distortion could be reduced with a reduced control cycle time.

In the previous figures, the output frequency was lower than

the line-side frequency (50 Hz). Of course, it is no problem to

produce an output frequency higher than the input frequency

with the proposed control method. Fig. 13 shows a simulated

example with an output frequency of 130 Hz. The control cycle

is 25 s in Fig. 13, which gives smooth input currents (just like

in Fig. 10.)

The lower part of Fig. 14 shows the voltage between both neutral points of the load and the filter capacitors. It can be seen that

Fig. 11.

Fig. 12.

theless, the sum of the three voltages

as long as the load itself has identical impedances in all three

phases. This has been proved by simulation alsoo. As long as the

loads neutral point is isolated, the sum of the current in the load

368

Fig. 15.

Fig. 14.

is zero and the sum of the line currents is zero as well. The fundamentals of the line and the load currents form a symmetrical

three-phase system, if the line voltage and the load impedance

are symmetrical.

IV. CONCLUSION

The new direct control method for matrix converters was

implemented on a TMS320C30 DSP and was successfully

tested with a 10-kVA matrix converter. The load-side current

control performs rather well; the distortion of the line-side

currents could be considerably reduced if a shorter cycle time

of the control algorithm could be achieved. To reduce the

control cycle time, some of the control functions should be

transferred to hardware, like a CPLD or an ASIC.

APPENDIX

In this Appendix, the control of the line-side current

is

is imdiscussed. Due to the inductive load, the load current

pressed. For a certain , Table II lists the input current for

each mode. The job of the line-side current controller is to select

is

the input current in such a way that the line-side current

, there is the oscilclose to its reference value. Between and

lating transfer characteristic of the line-side filter. To get a first

idea of the oscillations, we carry out an experiment in our mind

according to Fig. 15. At the beginning, an input vector

is

oscillates along the axis, but

this oscillation cannot be seen in Fig. 15. Some time later, the

. Due to this excitation,

moves along

input changes to

an elliptical trajectory. The center of the ellipse is the tip of

and its long axis is determined by the derivative

at the

were to be applied for a sufficiently

instant of switching. If

would come close to the tip of

long time, the trajectory of

by natural damping. However, long before the oscillation

and the trahas died away in Fig. 15, the input changes to

changes to an ellipse around the tip of

. Fig. 15

jectory of

only should show that the short time behavior of the current

does not follow the applied current

but it follows any direcat the

tion depending on the actual speed and location of

switching instance. This needs a special controller, described in

the following.

The state variables describing the line filter are the inductor

and the capacitor voltages . In Fig. 15, only the

currents

are displayed. We have no method to display all

currents

state variables simultaneously. Therefore, we introduce a simplification and use a single-phase representation of the line filter

then

as shown in Fig. 16(a). If the voltages are normalized by

Fig. 17. Intersection of state trajectory and switching line. (a) Unstable.

(b) Stable.

state plane is a counterclockat (

, as shown in

wise circle with the midpoint

Fig. 16(b). The single-phase representation of the control loop

is given in Fig. 16(c). At first, the

for the line-side current

linear controller (dashed line) is assumed to be a unity gain

block. There is some delay (e.g., control cycle time) between

and the real change of the mode in

the zero crossing of

, the transfer

the matrix converter. For high frequencies

. For this

function of the line filter is approximately

situation, Fig. 17 shows the trajectories in the state plane of a

is used for the voltages to

single-phase filter. An offset of

axis. If the refershift the midpoints of the circles to the

is not zero, then the whole figure has to be

ence value for

axis. Fig. 17(a) illustrates that the system is

shifted along the

destabilized by the delay. To stabilize the system, the switching

line must be rotated clockwise around the origin, as shown in

Fig. 17(b). In Fig. 17(b), the crossing between the state trajectory and the switching line depends not only on the inductor

[as in Fig. 17(a)] but also on the capacitor voltage .

current

With

derivative of the current. Then the crossing between the state

trajectory and the switching line depends on the inductor current

and its derivative. This is realized by a linear PD-controller

in Fig. 8.

REFERENCES

[1] L. Gyugyi, Generalized theory of static power frequency changers,

Ph.D. dissertation, Salford Univ., Manchester, U.K., 1970.

[2] L. Gyugyi and B. R. Pelly, Static Power Frequency Changers. New

York: Wiley, 1976.

[3] M. Braun, Ein dreiphasiger Direktumrichter mit Pulsbreitenmodulation zur getrennten Steuerung der Ausgangsspannung und der

Eingangsblindleistung, Ph.D. dissertation, Darmstadt Univ. Technol.,

Darmstadt, Germany, 1983.

369

design of 9-switches direct PWM ACAC converters, in Proc. IEEE

PESC88, 1988, pp. 12841291.

, Analysis and design of optimum amplitude nine-switch direct

[5]

PWM ACAC converters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 4, pp.

101112, Jan. 1989.

[6] M. Marcks, Direkte Regelung eines Matrixumrichters sowie die

Mglichkeit zum stromlosen Schalten, Ph.D. dissertation, Darmstadt

Univ. Technol., Darmstadt, Germany, 1998.

[7]

, A new double resonant zero current switching matrix converter,

in Proc. 6th Eur. Conf. Power Electronics and Applications (EPE95),

vol. 2, Seville, Spain, 1995, pp. 2.1002.105.

[8] P. Mutschler and E. Flach, Digital implementation of predictive direct

control algorithms for induction motors, in Conf. Rec. IEEE-IAS Annu.

Meeting, vol. 1, St. Louis, MO, 1998, pp. 444451.

[9] E. Flach, Direkte Regelung des Drehmomentmittelwertes einer Induktionsmaschine, Ph.D. dissertation, Darmstadt Univ. Technol., Darmstadt, Germany, 1999.

Germany, in 1944. He received the Dipl.-Ing. (M.S.)

and Dr.-Ing. (Ph.D.) degrees in electrical engineering

from Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt, Germany, in 1969 and 1975, respectively. He

conducted his Ph.D. research in the Laboratory of

Power Electronics and Control of Drives, Darmstadt

University of Technology, and the Collaborative

Research Centre High Voltage Direct Current

Transmission (HVDC). on HVDC subjects.

In 1975, he joined Brown Boveri Company (later

Asea Brown Boveri ABB), Mannheim, Germany, where he worked in the R&D

Department. First, he developed control and protection systems for HVDC

plants. Since 1977, he has mainly developed microprocessor-based control

and protection equipment for a variety of applications, including converter-fed

drives for railways and trams, motor control and battery management for electric cars, and OEM converters for general industrial applications. The first fully

microprocessor-controlled in series produced converter at the German market

was developed by his group. In 1988, he became a full Professor at Darmstadt

University of Technology and took over the chair of Power Electronics and

Control of Drives. His research activities include ac drives, especially servo

drives and linear drives, soft-switching and high-frequency converters, as well

as converters and control for renewable energy (photovoltaic, wind turbines).

Dr. Mutschler is member of VDE, ETG, and the IEEE Power Electronics,

IEEE Industry Applications, and IEEE Industrial Electronic Societies.

in 1966. He received the Dipl.-Ing. (M.S.) and

Dr.-Ing. (Ph.D.) degrees in electrical engineering

from Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt, Germany, in 1992 and 1998, respectively. He

carried out his Ph.D. dissertation in the Laboratory of

Power Electronics and Control of Drives, Darmstadt

University of Technology, on A direct control

method for self commutated matrix converters and

resonant switching (ZCS) of matrix converters.

From 1997 until 2001, he was with the R&D department of a company producing industrial automation machines. In 2001, he

joined Continental Teves AG, Frankfurt, Germany, where he is presently developing basic electronics for automotive safety systems.

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