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Version 1.

1: July 2007 27-1
























SECTION 27


ROAD LIGHTING













Version 1.1: July 2007 27-2
CONTENTS
Page no

27. ROAD LIGHTING 3

27.1. Scope 3
27.2. General Arrangements 3
27.3. Control Unit 4
27.4. Columns 5
27.5. Lanterns 5
27.6. Lamps and Control Gear 5
27.7. Cables and Wires 6
27.8. Earthing 6
27.9. Distribution Feeder Pillars 6
27.10. Internal Wiring to Columns (Up to 12 m High Columns) 7
27.11. Photo Electric Control 7
27.12. Numbering of Columns 7
27.13. Column Foundations 7


TABLES

Table 27.1: Dimensions of block foundations
Table 27.2: Dimensions of pedestals
Table 27.3: Dimensions of pedestals

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27. ROAD LIGHTING
27.1. Scope
This Section covers the standard requirements for lighting columns, lanterns, wiring and
accessories. Installations shall conform to the general requirements of BS 5489.

27.2. General Arrangements
27.2.1 Urban Major Arterials (Wide Reserve)

Applicability: Road widths of 7.3 m, speed limits of 80 km/h and traffic volumes of 4 000 to
10 000 vehicles per day.

Columns shall be positioned in the side footpaths opposite one another at a spacing of 30 to
35 m with outreach bracket arms to give a mounting height of 10 to 12 m. Maximum
outreach bracket arm length shall be 2.5 m. Lanterns shall be 400 W mercury or 250 W high
pressure sodium cut-off type.

27.2.2 Urban Major Arterials (Narrow Reserve)

Applicability: Road widths of 7.3 m, speed limits of 80 km/h and traffic volumes of 4 000 to
10 000 vehicles per day.

Columns shall be positioned in each side footpath opposite one another and within the central
reserve in a staggered arrangement. Spacing of columns in the footpaths shall be 40 to 46 m
and columns in the central reserve shall be placed half way between them.

Columns shall have single outreach bracket arms in footpaths and double outreach brackets in
the central reserve to give a mounting height of 10 m. Maximum outreach bracket arm length
shall be 2.5 m.

Lanterns shall be 400 W mercury or 250 W high pressure sodium cut-off type.

27.2.3 Minor Arterials

Applicability: Road widths of 7.3 m, speed limits of 60 to 70 km/h and traffic volumes of
2 000 to 4 000 vehicles per day.

Columns shall be positioned within the central reserve at a 30.0 m spacing with double
outreach bracket arms to give a mounting height of 10 m. Maximum outreach bracket arm
length shall be 2.5 m.

The lanterns shall be 400 W mercury or 250 W high pressure sodium cut-off type.




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27.2.4 Service Roads and Footpaths

Applicability: Service roads and footpaths associated with arterials.

Columns shall be positioned in the side footpaths to the service roads at a spacing of 40 to
50 m with bracket arms of width one quarter of the height of the columns, which shall be 8 m
to 10 m to suit adjacent building heights.

The lanterns shall be 125/250 W mercury or 70/150 W high pressure sodium cut-off type.

27.2.5 Distributor/Collectors

Applicability: Low speed roads with typical widths of 6.4 m and traffic volumes of less than
2 000 vehicles per day.

Columns with an outreach bracket arm shall be positioned in a staggered arrangement with a
27 to 32 m spacing in each side footpath to give a mounting height of 8 m. Maximum
outreach bracket arm length shall be 2.0 m.

The lanterns shall be 80/125 W mercury or 70/150 W high pressure sodium semi-cut-off
type.

27.2.6 Local Roads

Applicability: Lane widths of 3.2 m and less than 50 vehicles per day.

Columns with outreach bracket arms shall be positioned in one side footpath at a spacing of
36 m to 44 m to suit access paths. Maximum outreach bracket arm length shall be 1.5 m.

The lanterns shall be 80/125 W mercury semi-cut-off type.

27.2.7 General notes

Lamp and lantern specifications in the preceding sections are mandatory.

Stated spacings are mandatory unless the Contractor can show justification for altering the
spacing, based at least on brightness and glare analyses and on considerations of flicker
frequency at the prevailing traffic rate. The requirements and methods prescribed in
BS EN 13201 Parts 2 and 3 shall be the determining factor in deciding whether a specific
deviation from these requirements constitutes an acceptable solution.

Power supply considerations shall be taken into account when choosing lamp or lantern
power ratings. In general, unless a stable supply can be assured, the lower rating units shall
be preferred.

For installation heights above 12 m, mercury vapour lights shall be preferred, while at lower
heights the sodium lamps shall be used.
27.3. Control Unit
Each road lighting column shall be provided with a two-piece photo-electric (PE) control
unit. The PE relay shall be housed in the base compartment of the column and the remote

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detector head shall be mounted on the lantern. The wiring between the relay and detector
head shall be single or multi core 1.5 mm
2
butyl rubber cables to a 'plug in' terminal block
provided in a separate compartment within the lantern. The detector head, with pre-wired
tails, shall be connected to the lantern terminal block.

27.4. Columns
Lighting columns shall be of galvanized tubular steel or aluminium or of synthetic materials
such as fibreglass. The columns shall be base-plate mounted and supplied with suitable
holding down bolts, which shall be installed during construction of concrete foundations by
means of a template. Columns shall be complete with spigots and clamps for lantern
mounting.

Columns shall be provided with a compartment of adequate size to accommodate a fused cut-
out unit, lamp control gear, photo-electric relay and non ferrous gland plate. The
compartment shall have an earth stud and a weatherproof, lockable access door with six sets
of keys. The entry point to the compartment shall be no less than 2.0 m above ground level.

The compartment shall be provided with a non-hygroscopic hardwood or marine ply or rigid
synthetic baseboard on which the equipment shall be mounted. If a synthetic base is used, it
shall provide at least a similar level of stiffness and electrical resistance to the specified wood
types. Suitable materials include bakelite, polytetraflouroethelene (PTFE) or PVC.

27.5. Lanterns
Lanterns shall be of the totally enclosed type of sound and robust construction, weatherproof
and dustproof to IP65 and suitable for side entry and obtained from an approved supplier.

The optical compartment shall be equipped with an adjustable lamp holder, a tubular lamp,
reflectors and heat resistant glass or a polycarbonate bowl. The lantern shall be designed for
cut-off and semi-cut-off distribution with remote gear. A terminal block shall be provided in
the gear compartment of the lantern to which the lantern mounted photo electric detector head
tails shall terminate.

27.6. Lamps and Control Gear
Lamps shall be mercury vapour complying with BS EN 60188 or high pressure sodium
vapour complying with BS EN 62035 for 240 volt operation.

The lamps shall comprise 70 W, 150 W, 250 W and 400 W ratings with minimum average
luminous outputs of 5 750, 13 800/14 300, 25 000 and 47 000 lumens for respective wattages.

The lamp control gear shall comply with BS EN 61347 and BS EN 60923. Ballast chokes
shall where possible have voltage tapping steps of 5 and 10%.

The control gear shall be power factor corrected to a minimum of 0.85 lagging to
BS EN 61048. It shall have radio and TV interference suppression.


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Where applicable, lamps shall be provided with external igniters.

27.7. Cables and Wires
All cables and wires shall be supplied, installed, connected up, tested and commissioned in
accordance with the regulations of the Electricity Corporation of Ghana, the Drawings and
the following:

27.7.1 Main and Sub Main Distribution Cables

1 000 volt grade multicore, stranded copper conductors, PVC insulated, single wire
armoured, PVC sheathed (Black) overall to BS 6346 installed direct in the ground, or in
ducts, or cleated to cable tray or concrete service trench walls.

The voltage drop across supply cables shall not exceed the maximum value specified by the
Engineer. Such value shall be measured at the lantern head under full-load conditions at a
supply voltage within 10% of the maximum rated supply voltage.

27.7.2 Wiring in Columns

300/500 volt grade single core or twin and earth stranded copper conductors, butyl rubber
(85) insulated.

27.7.3 Insulation testing

All completed installations shall be tested with an insulation tester at a voltage of at least
500 volts, and must show an insulation resistance of at least 10 M between earth and
ground and between neutral and ground.

27.7.4 Joints in Underground Cables

Underground joints in distribution cables shall not be permitted.

Where joints in underground cables are denoted on the Drawings they shall be provided by
means of weatherproof surface turret boxes. They shall be suitable for incoming and outgoing
415 and 240 volt circuit cables as denoted on the Drawings.

27.8. Earthing
The whole of the external lighting installation shall be efficiently bonded back to sub-station
earth bars via switchboards, feeder pillars, cable armouring and earth wire of flexible cables
as indicated on the Drawings and in accordance with local Regulations.

27.9. Distribution Feeder Pillars
The feeder pillars shall be to IP65 protection and equipped with an incoming isolator and
outgoing circuit breakers. The circuit breakers shall be contained within a metal clad
distribution board with space for additional spare outgoing ways.


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The feeder pillars shall be of similar design to existing feeder pillars and shall be erected on
suitable concrete foundations with cable access provided.

27.10. Internal Wiring to Columns (Up to 12 m High Columns)
Cables shall be connected to terminals on terminal blocks mounted adjacent to the cut-out on
the backboard in the base compartment of the column. Items of equipment mounted on the
columns shall not be connected by loop-in wiring.

Cable tails shall be left sufficiently long to readily reach into the fuse cut-out unit in the base
of the columns. One earth lead from the column earth terminal to the earthing point shall be
provided at the cut-out position.

Wiring in columns between control gear and lantern shall be by 2.5 mm
2
single or 3 core
butyl rubber cables. Where the earth conductor is separate it shall be coloured green.

27.11. Photo Electric Control
Photo electric control at each column shall be by the two piece type. The unit shall comprise
a relay with test button and a remote detector head with prewired tails.

The photo electric control shall be pre-calibrated to operate ON at 60 lux and OFF at 120 lux.

27.12. Numbering of Columns
Each column shall be identified by means of a 50 mm x 70 mm non ferrous metal plate,
stamped with its number in numerals 25 mm high and fixed to the column 150 mm above
access door using blind rivets or stainless cheese head screws. Suitable alternate methods
may be used with the approval of the Engineer. The numbering system shall be consistent
with the existing numbering system and the Drawings.

27.13. Column Foundations
Columns shall be placed on buried concrete foundations with embedded steel reinforcement.

In all cases, concrete foundations shall be designed for a wind speed of 40 m/sec. Bulk or
pedestal-and-flange foundations are allowed. In all cases, concrete shall protrude at least
100 mm above the surrounding terrain.

Concrete shall be class C20/25. Test cubes shall be prepared during casting and evaluated at
28 days to prove the integrity of concrete. Where foundations are not cast in a continuous
process and from a single mix, multiple samples shall be taken to prove the integrity of each
mixture used at the time of casting.

Contractors shall comply with either of the following specifications. If other foundations
geometries or dimensions are to be used, the Contractor shall use a foundation design
approved by the Engineer for the purpose, taking account of the actual soil conditions at each

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site. Such designs may take account of actual anticipated air density and soil conditions, with
a mean return of 50 years. The design shall be submitted to and approved by the Engineer
before any construction activities based on the design may commence.


27.13.1 Block foundations

Block foundations shall have a constant horizontal cross-section. Any convenient plan view
geometry with at least two axes of symmetry (circular, triangular or polygonal plan view) can
be used, provided that the following dimensions (Table 27.1) are complied with.

Table 27.1: Dimensions of block foundations

Parameter 12 m Column 18 m Column
Column height (m) < 12.0 < 18.0
Head load (m
2
) < 0.7 < 0.3
Foundation volume (m
3
) > 1.25 > 2.25
Foundation plan area (m
2
) > 1.80 > 3.25
Foundation plan radius (mm) > 775 > 1050
Reinforcement depth (mm) > 600 > 600

Column height is the maximum column height and shall be measured from mean ground
level within 1.0 m of the base of the column to the highest point on the column or fixtures.

Foundation volume is the minimum total volume of contiguous reinforced concrete.

Foundation plan area is the minimum cross-sectional area of the foundation block in any
plane along its depth.

Foundation plan radius is the minimum radius of the foundation along any radial line from
the axis of symmetry of the column. In the case of a rectangular plan view, the minimum
radius occurs at right angles to the nearest face of the concrete block.

Reinforcement depth is the minimum depth to which the steel reinforcement bars to which the
column is bolted shall penetrate the concrete block. Reinforcement bars shall be of high yield
strength steel with a minimum yield strength of 450 N/mm
2
and a minimum diameter of
20 mm. The spacing between adjacent attachment bolts for the tower shall be no less than
300 mm. Double nuts or locknuts shall be used for attachment bolts.

27.13.2 Pedestal-and-flange foundations

In this geometry, a pedestal with a small cross-sectional area protrudes above ground level. A
horizontal flange with significantly greater cross-section is buried below ground. Both the
concrete itself and the mass of soil above the flange contribute to the resistance to
overturning.

This geometry provides an advantage in terms of above-ground profile, especially in the case
of narrow separation islands between opposing traffic, but shall not be used in sandy soil,
specifically when the bearing strength of the column is below 150 kPa. Granular soils with a
density of over 1600 kg/m
3
or cohesive soils described as stiff or very stiff (unconfined
compressive strength of at least 150 kPa) are suitable.

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Flanges and pedestals shall have a constant horizontal cross-sectional area (no taper). The
flange has a significantly greater diameter than the pedestal. Any convenient plan view
geometry with at least two axes of symmetry (circular, triangular or polygonal plan view) can
be used, provided that the limiting dimensions (Tables 27.2 and 27.3) are complied with.
Attachment bolts shall have a minimum diameter of 20 mm. Yield strength shall be at least
450 N/mm
2
and the reinforcement shall protrude into the concrete by at least 1.0 m.

Table 27.2: Dimensions of pedestals: Columns

Parameter 12 m Column 18 m Column
Pedestal height (mm) > 750 > 750
Pedestal plan area (mm
2
) > 0,55 > 0,55
Minimum radius (mm) > 370 > 370
Concrete volume (m
3
) > 0,42 > 0,42


Table 27.3: Dimensions of pedestals: Flanges

Parameter 12 m Column 18 m Column
Flange depth (height) (m) > 0,25 > 0,25
Flange plan area (m
2
) > 2,6 > 6,0
Minimum radius (m) > 0,85 > 1,25
Concrete volume (m
3
) > 0,65 > 1,50
Burial depth (upper surface) (m) > 0,65 > 0,65

Pedestal height is the minimum height from the upper surface of the flange to the upper
surface of the pedestal.

Plan area is the minimum plan sectional area of the pedestal or flange.

Minimum radius is the minimum horizontal distance from the axis of symmetry of the
column to any edge of the pedestal or flange.

Concrete volume is the minimum allowed concrete volume, including reinforcement.

Flange depth is the minimum thickness of the flange at any point within its planform.

Burial depth is the minimum distance between the upper surface of the flange and the ground
surface at any point within 2.0 m (horizontally) of the column.