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Second Edition, August 2007



OISD & STD & 116
Second Edition, August 2007
Oi' Indust() S*+et) Di(ecto(*te
%o,e(n-ent o+ Indi*
"inist() o+ !et(o'eu- # N*tu(*' %*s
Second Edition, August 2007

Prepared by
7th Floor, New Delhi House 27-Barakhamba Road
New Delhi - 110001

!"D #!$ !ND%"&R' "(F)&' D!R)*&R(&)+ publi,atio-s are
prepared .or use i- the oil a-d /as i-dustry u-der 0i-istry o. Petroleum 1
Natural 2as3 &hese are the property o. 0i-istry o. Petroleum a-d
Natural 2as a-d shall -ot be reprodu,ed or ,opied a-d loa-ed or
e4hibited to others without writte- ,o-se-t .rom !"D3
&hou/h e5ery e..ort has bee- made to assure the a,,ura,y a-d
reliability o. the data ,o-tai-ed i- these do,ume-ts, !"D hereby
e4pressly dis,laims a-y liability or respo-sibility .or loss or dama/e
resulti-/ .rom their use3
&hese do,ume-ts are i-te-ded o-ly to suppleme-t a-d -ot to
repla,e the pre5aili-/ statutory re6uireme-ts3
&he oil i-dustry i- !-dia is o5er 100 years old3 7ariety o. pra,ti,es ha5e bee-
i- 5o/ue be,ause o. ,ollaboratio- 8 asso,iatio- with di..ere-t .orei/- ,ompa-ies
a-d /o5er-me-ts3 "ta-dardisatio- i- desi/- philosophies 1 operati-/ a-d
mai-te-a-,e pra,ti,es at a -atio-al le5el was hardly i- e4iste-,e3 &his ,oupled
with .eedba,k .rom some serious a,,ide-ts that o,,urred i- the re,e-t past i- !-dia
a-d abroad, emphasised the -eed .or the i-dustry to re5iew the e4isti-/ state o. art
i- desi/-i-/, operati-/ a-d mai-tai-i-/ oil a-d /as i-stallatio-s3
9ith this i- 5iew, il !-dustry "a.ety Dire,torate #!"D+ was established i-
1:;< sta..ed .rom withi- the i-dustry .or .ormulati-/ a-d impleme-ti-/ a series o.
sel. re/ulatory measures aimed at remo5i-/ obsoles,e-,e, sta-dardisi-/ a-d
up/radi-/ the e4isti-/ sta-dards to e-sure operatio-s3 !"D ,o-stituted a
-umber o. ,ommittees ,omprisi-/ o. e4perts -omi-ated .rom the i-dustry to draw
up sta-dards a-d /uideli-es o- 5arious areas o. ,o-,er-3
&he prese-t do,ume-t o- =Fire Prote,tio- Fa,ilities .or Petroleum Re.i-eries
1 il82as pro,essi-/ pla-ts= is First Re5isio- o. the do,ume-t prepared by the
*ommittee o- =Fire Prote,tio-= whi,h was ori/i-ally published i- 1::13 (ttempts
ha5e bee- made to i-,orporate the latest te,h-olo/i,al ,ha-/es, e4perie-,e
/ai-ed i- its impleme-tatio- duri-/ last >-? years a-d rele5a-t ,ha-/es i- the li/ht
o. 5arious -atio-al a-d i-ter-atio-al ,odes a-d pra,ti,es3
!t is hoped that the pro5isio- o. this do,ume-t, i. impleme-ted ob@e,ti5ely will
/o a lo-/ way i- impro5i-/ the sa.ety i- the oil 1 /as i-dustry3
&his do,ume-t will be re5iewed periodi,ally .or impro5eme-ts based o- the
-ew e4perie-,es a-d better u-dersta-di-/3 "u//estio-s .rom users8i-dustry
members may be addressed to A
&he *o-ordi-ator
*ommittee o- =Fire Prote,tio-=
il !-dustry "a.ety Dire,torate
Floor, New Delhi House
27-Barakhamba Road
New Delhi 110001
/ Fi(st Edition - "*(c0, 11112

N*-e Design*tion $ O(g*nis*tion St*tus
13 0303Bapoor
R3P3 Bhatla
#upto C13123:>+
)-/i-eers !-dia $imited
#w3e3.3 1313:?+
)-/i-eers !-dia $imited
23 (3(3 Rai,hur Hi-dusta- Petroleum
*orporatio- $imited
C3 "3 Neelka-tha- 0adras Re.i-eries
>3 P3D3 Doshu5a *o,hi- Re.i-eries
?3 "u-il Bumar !-dia- il *orporatio-
<3 73P3 7aidhya Hi-dusta- Petroleum
*orporatio- $imited
73 "3N3 0ukhar@ee Bharat Petroleum
*orporatio- $imited
;3 (3B3 Das Bo-/ai/ao- Re.i-eries
1 Petro,hemi,als $td3
:3 R3P3 "a4e-a il 1 Natural 2as
*orporatio- $td3
103 H3B3 B3 "i-/h !BP *o3 $td3 0ember
113 7i@ay 03 Ra-alkar il !-dustry "a.ety
!- additio- to the abo5e, se5eral other e4perts .rom i-dustry ,o-tributed i- the preparatio-, re5iew a-d
.i-alisatio- o. the do,ume-t3
/ Second Edition - "*(c0 20072
N*-e O(g*nis*tion
"hri (r5i-d Bumar )-/i-eers !-dia $imited, New Delhi
"hri (3(3 Rai,hur Hindustan Petroleum *orporatio- $imited, 0umbai3
"hri "3 P3 2ar/ 2(!$ #!-dia + $imited, Pata #%P+3
"hri 23 B3 &olmore !-dia- il *orporatio- $imited, New Delhi3
"hri 23 *3 Bu-du Indian Oil Corporation $imited, Pa-ipat3
"hri "3N3 0ukhar@ee Bharat Petroleum *orporatio- $imited3 0umbai3
"hri P3 B3 Bora Bongaigaon Refineries 1 Petro,hemi,als $td, Bo-/ai-/ao-3
"hri (3B3 Das Kochi Refineries $imited, Bo,hi3
"hri B3 73 "i-/h Hindustan Petroleum *orporatio- $imited, 7iEa/3
"hri D3P3B3Hepat Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited, Chennai.
"hri D3 B3 7arsh-ey il !-dustry "a.ety Dire,torate, New Delhi3
"hri P3 Bulshreshtha il !-dustry "a.ety Dire,torate, New Delhi3
!- additio- to the abo5e, se5eral other e4perts .rom i-dustry ,o-tributed i- the preparatio-, re5iew
a-d .i-alisatio- o. the do,ume-t3
130 !-trodu,tio- :
230 ",ope :
C30 De.i-itio-s :
>30 Fire Prote,tio- philosophy 10
>31 2e-eral ,o-sideratio-s 11
>32 Desi/- ,riteria 11
?30 Fire 9ater "ystem 12
?31 Basis .or Firewater system 1C
?32 Firewater Flow Rate 1C
?3C Header Pressure 1C
?3> Firewater "tora/e 1 0ake up 1C
?3? Firewater Pumps 1>
?3< Firewater Distributio- Network 1?
?37 Hydra-ts a-d 0o-itors - Details 1<
?3; 0aterial "pe,i.i,atio-s 17
?3: Fi4ed 9ater "pray "ystem 1;
?310 Fi4ed 9ater "pri-kler "ystem 1:
<30 Foam "ystems 1:
<31 &ypes o. Foam 1:
<32 $ow )4pa-sio- Foam 1:
<3C Foam *o-5eyi-/ "ystems 1:
<3> Floati-/ Roo. &a-k Prote,tio- usi-/ .oam 20
<3? Fi4ed Roo. &a-k Prote,tio- usi-/ .oam 21
<3< Floati-/ ,um Fi4ed Roo. &a-k Prote,tio- usi-/ .oam 21
<37 Dyke (rea8"pill Fire Prote,tio- usi-/ .oam 21
<3; Foam (ppli,atio- Rate 21
<3: Duratio- o. Foam Dis,har/e 21
<310 Foam Fua-tity Re6uireme-t 21
<311 Foam *ompou-d "tora/e 22
730 *lea- (/e-t based Prote,tio- "ystem 22
731 Re,omme-ded %se o. *lea- (/e-t 22
732 Fua-tity a-d "tora/e o. *lea- (/e-t 22
73C Floati-/ Roo. &a-k Prote,tio- usi-/ *lea- (/e-t 2C
73> *o-trol Room a-d *omputer Room Prote,tio- 2C
;30 *arbo- Dio4ide "ystems 2C
;31 Re,omme-ded %se o. *2 system 2C
;32 *2 "ystem Desi/- 2C
:30 Dry *hemi,al )4ti-/uishi-/ "ystem 2>
:31 Re,omme-ded use o. Dry ,hemi,al e4ti-/uishi-/ system 2>
:32 Desi/- o. Dry *hemi,al )4ti-/uishi-/ "ystem 2>
1030 First (id Fire-.i/hti-/ 1 0is,ella-eous )6uipme-t 2>
1031 *riteria to determi-e the Fua-tity -eeded 2>
1032 0is,ella-eous )6uipme-t 2?
1130 0obile Fire-.i/hti-/ )6uipme-t 2<
1131 Fire &e-ders 2<
1132 ther 0obile )6uipme-t 2<
113C ther Fire Fi/hti-/ )6uipme-t 2<
1230 "tora/e o. Fire Fi/hti-/ (/e-ts 27
1C30 Dete,tio- system a-d (larm 2;
1C31 (reas to be ,o5ered with dete,tors 2;
1>30 *ommu-i,atio- "ystem 2;
1?30 !-spe,tio- 1 &esti-/ o. Fire Prote,tio- "ystem 2:
1?31 Fire 9ater Pumps C0
1?32 Fire 9ater Ri-/ 0ai- C0
1?3C Fire 9ater "pray "ystem C0
1?3> Fi4ed Foam "ystem C0
1?3? *lea- (/e-t based )4ti-/uishi-/ "ystem C0
1?3< 0obile Fire Fi/hti-/ )6uipme-t a-d (,,essories C0
1?37 D*P 8 *2 8 Foam type Fire )4ti-/uishers C1
1?3; *ommu-i,atio- "ystem C1
1?3: Dete,tors C1
1<30 Fire Fi/hti-/ r/a-isatio- C1
1730 Fire Prote,tio- &rai-i-/ C1
1;30 0utual (id C2
1:30 Fire )mer/e-,y Pro,edures C2
2030 Fire "tatio-8*o-trol Room C2
2130 Passi5e Fire Prote,tio- 0easures 8 ther "a.ety measures CC
2230 Fire Prote,tio- system (udit CC
2C30 Re.ere-,es CC
A N N E 5 U R E S
I &ypi,al e4ample .or ,al,ulatio- o. Fire 9ater Flow Rate
II &ypi,al e4ample .or ,al,ulatio- o. Foam *ompou-d
III Broad spe,i.i,atio-s .or Fire Fi/hti-/ )6uipme-t
I6 Fire &rai-i-/ 2rou-d - Fa,ilities
6 &ypi,al (rra-/eme-t o. 0utual (id
6I &ypi,al e4ample o. .ire ,ase i- a lar/e Floati-/ Roo. &a-k
a.ter si-ki-/ o. .loati-/ roo.
6II (utomati, (,tuated Rim-seal Prote,tio- "ystem .or lar/er
Floati-/ Roo. &a-ks
6III Brie. des,riptio- o. .ire-.i/hti-/ .oam
"OIS here!" e#pressl" disclaims an" lia!ilit" or responsi!ilit" for loss or damage resulting from use of
the OIS Standards$ %uidelines$ Recommended Practices."
)5e- thou/h petroleum re.i-eries a-d oil8 /as
pro,essi-/ i-stallatio-s are /e-erally lo,ated
i- remote areas, e4perie-,e shows that
reside-tial8i-dustrial u-its ,ome up i- ,lose
pro4imity with the passa/e o. time3 He-,e,
these i-stallatio-s whi,h store, pro,ess a-d
ha-dle lar/e 6ua-tity o. .lammable materials,
pose threat to surrou-di-/s as well, i- additio-
to their ow- sa.ety3 "u,h ,o-ditio-s, there.ore,
-e,essitate the i-trodu,tio- o. i--built .ire
prote,tio- .a,ilities3
!t is impra,ti,al a-d prohibiti5ely ,ostly to
desi/- .ire prote,tio- .a,ilities to ,o-trol
,atastrophi, .ires3 %sual re6uireme-t o. a-
e..e,ti5e .ire prote,tio- system is to pre5e-t
emer/e-,ies .rom de5elopi-/ i-to ma@or threat
to the i-stallatio-s a-d surrou-di-/s3
&he re6uireme-t o. .ire .i/hti-/ .a,ilities,
des,ribed i- the .ollowi-/ ,hapters is based
o- the ,o-sideratio- that the .ire .i/hti-/
ser5i,es .rom ,ity .ire bri/ade a-d8or .rom
other -ei/hbouri-/ i-dustries will -ot be
240 SCO!E
i+ &his sta-dard ,o5ers the desi/- ,riteria
a-d details o. the 5arious .ire prote,tio-
.a,ilities to be pro5ided i- petroleum
re.i-eries a-d oil8/as pro,essi-/ pla-ts3
ii+ &his sta-dard also ,o5ers the .a,ilities
lo,ated withi- the re.i-eries a-d oil8 /as
pro,essi-/ pla-ts whi,h may i-,ludeA
$P2 stora/e, ha-dli-/ a-d
bottli-/ pla-ts,
0arketi-/ 1 Pipeli-e &ermi-als
with their loadi-/ 8 u--loadi-/8
pumpi-/ a-d ha-dli-/ .a,ilities
iii+ &his sta-dard does -ot ,o5er the .a,ilities
lo,ated outside the premises o. Re.i-eries
1 /as pro,essi-/ pla-ts su,h as $P2
mou-ded stora/e, ha-dli-/ 1 bottli-/
pla-ts, $N2 stora/e Petroleum Depots,
&ermi-als, $ube Ble-di-/ pla-ts 1
Pipeli-e !-stallatio-s located out side3
Howe5er, this sta-dard shall be appli,able
to those o. abo5e me-tio-ed .a,ilities
lo,ated outside the premises u-der the
same ma-a/eme-t a-d i- ,lose pro4imity
to the re.i-eries 1 /as pro,essi-/ pla-ts3
For su,h ,ases, ,ommo- .irewater stora/e
a-d pumpi-/ .a,ilities may be ,o-sidered.
therwise, to prote,t the .a,ilities lo,ated
outside the .ollowi-/ !"D sta-dards shall
$P2 stora/e, ha-dli-/ 1 bottli-/
pla-ts --- u-der !"D-"&D-1>>
1 !"D-2DN-1<:3 0ou-ded
stora/e G u-der !"D-"&D-1?03
Petroleum Depots, &ermi-als,
(F", $ube Ble-di-/ pla-ts 1
Pipeli-e !-stallatio-s --- u-der
*e-tral &a-k Farm #*&F+ ---
!"D-"&D G 1173
2roup 2atheri-/ "tatio- #22"+,
il *olle,ti-/ "tatio-s #*"+ ---
u-der !"D-"&D-1;:3
( pla-t where ,rude oil is re,ei5ed
a-d pro,essed to produ,e 5arious
i-termediates a-d .i-ished produ,ts3
( pla-t where oil8-atural /as is
,olle,ted a-d pro,essed to produ,e
il8$P2 a-d other petroleum
.ra,tio-s3 Drilli-/ a,ti5ities a-d
.a,ilities upstream o. the *hristmas
tree o. a well are -ot ,o5ered u-der
this de.i-itio-3
iii2 L!% 3OTTLIN% !LANT
( pla-t where $P2 is stored a-d .illed
i-to ,yli-ders3 Re,eipt a-d despat,h
o. $P2 by rail, road a-d pipeli-e are
also ,o-sidered u-der this de.i-itio-3
&hese i-,lude lo,atio-s where
Petroleum ,rude8Produ,ts/LPG are
re,ei5ed by ta-ker, pipeli-es, ta-k
wa/o-s a-d ta-k tru,ks a-d stored or
ble-ded i- bulk and despat,hed by
ta-kers, pipeli-es, ta-k wa/o-s, ta-k
tru,ks, portable ta-ks or ,o-tai-ers3
$ube oil i-stallatio-s i-,ludi-/ lube
ble-di-/ pla-t 8 2rease ma-u.a,turi-/
pla-ts a-d ,a--.illi-/ .a,ilities also
.orm part o. su,h i-stallatio-s.
For the purpose o. this "ta-dard,
i-stallatio- i-,ludes all the .a,ilities as
listed i- C#i+ to C#i5+ whi,h are lo,ated
i- a Re.i-ery or il82as Pro,essi-/
&he mi-imum temperature at whi,h
the li6uid /i5es so mu,h 5apour that
this 5apour, whe- mi4ed with air,
.orms a- i/-itable mi4ture a-d /i5es a
mome-tary .lash o- appli,atio- o. a
small pilot .lame u-der spe,i.ied
,o-ditio-s o. test3
*2 %ene(*' C'*ssi+ic*tion o+ !et(o'eu-
Petroleum produ,ts are ,lassi.ied
a,,ordi-/ to their ,losed ,up F$("H
P!N&" as .ollowsA
*lass =(= PetroleumA $i6uids ha5i-/
.lash poi-t below 2C de/rees *3
*lass =B= petroleumA $i6uids ha5i-/
.lash poi-t o. 2C de/rees * a-d abo5e
but below <? de/rees *3
*lass =*= petroleum A $i6uids ha5i-/
.lash poi-t o. <? de/rees * a-d abo5e
but below :C de/rees *3
)4,luded PetroleumA $i6uids ha5i-/
.lash poi-t o. :C de/rees * a-d
$i6ue.ied /ases i-,ludi-/ $P2, do -ot
.all u-der this ,lassi.i,atio- but .orm a
separate ,ate/ory3
92 C'*ssi+ic*tion +o( 0e*ted :(oducts 8
(t lo,atio-s where the ha-dli-/
temperatures are hi/her tha- the .lash
poi-t o. the produ,t i- ,ir,umsta-,es
where produ,t ha-dled is arti.i,ially
heated to abo5e its .lash poi-t, ,lass
=*= produ,t shall be ,o-sidered as
*lass =B= produ,t a-d *lass =B=
produ,t shall be ,o-sidered as *lass
=(= produ,t3
*lass ( FiresA i-5ol5e ,ombustible
materials o. or/a-i, -ature, su,h as
wood, paper, rubber a-d ma-y
plasti,s, et,3, where the ,ooli-/ e..e,t
o. water is esse-tial .or e4ti-,tio- o.
*lass B FiresA i-5ol5e .lammable
li6uids, petroleum produ,ts, or the
like, where a bla-keti-/ e..e,t is
*lass * Fires A i-5ol5e .lammable
/ases u-der pressure i-,ludi-/
li6ue.ied /ases a-d e-er/ised
ele,tri,al e6uipme-t where it is
-e,essary to i-hibit the bur-i-/ /as at
a .ast rate with a- i-ert /as, powder or
5apourisi-/ li6uid .or
*lass D FiresA i-5ol5e ,ombustible
materials su,h as ma/-esium,
alumi-um, Ei-,, sodium, potassium3
&he bur-i-/ metals are rea,ti5e to
water a-d water ,o-tai-i-/ a/e-ts,
a-d i- ,ertai- ,ases ,arbo- dio4ide,
halo/e-ated hydro,arbo-s a-d
ordi-ary dry powders3 &hese .ires
re6uire spe,ial media a-d te,h-i6ue
to e4ti-/uish3
4+ S0*''8 i-di,ates pro5isio-s that are
ma-datory i- -ature3
4i+ S0ou'd8 i-di,ates that pro5isio- is
re,omme-datory as per /ood
e-/i-eeri-/ pra,ti,es3
4ii+ "*)8 i-di,ates pro5isio-s that are
4iii+ C'e*n Agent8 ele,tri,ally -o--
,o-du,ti5e, 5olatile or /aseous .ire
e4ti-/uisha-ts that does -ot lea5e a
residue upo- e5aporatio- a-d meets
the re6uireme-ts /i5e- i- the latest
NFP( 2001 o- ,lea- a/e-t .ire
e4ti-/uishi-/ systems i- li-e with
e-5iro-me-tal ,o-sideratio- o. Byoto
&he Fire Prote,tio- Philosophy is
based o- $oss Pre5e-tio- a-d
*o-trol3 !t ,o-siders that a
hydro,arbo- pro,essi-/ pla-t ,arries
i-here-t pote-tial haEard3 ( .ire i- o-e
part8se,tio- o. the pla-t ,a- e-da-/er
other se,tio-s o. pla-t as well3 !. .ire
breaks out, it must be ,o-trolled 8
e4ti-/uished as 6ui,kly as possible to
mi-imise the loss to li.e a-d property
a-d to pre5e-t .urther spread o. .ire3
&he siEe o. pro,ess pla-t, pressure
a-d temperature ,o-ditio-s, siEe o.
stora/e, pla-t lo,atio- a-d terrai-
determi-e the basi, .ire prote,tio-
-eed3 $ayout o. a- i-stallatio- shall be
do-e i- a,,orda-,e with !"D-
"ta-dard-11; o- $ayouts to e-sure
ade6uate .ire .i/hti-/ a,,ess, mea-s
o. es,ape i- ,ase o. .ire a-d also
se/re/atio- o. .a,ilities so that the
ad@a,e-t .a,ilities are -ot e-da-/ered
duri-/ a .ire3
0aterial o. ,o-stru,tio- .or
i-.rastru,ture .a,ilities shall ,o-.orm to
Natio-al Buildi-/ *ode#NB*+ 8
statutory re/ulatio-s3
&he .ollowi-/ .ire prote,tio- .a,ilities
shall be pro5ided depe-di-/ upo- the
-ature o. the i-stallatio- a-d risk
& Fire 9ater "ystem
& Foam "ystem
& *lea- (/e-t Fire Prote,tio-
& *arbo- Dio4ide "ystem
& Dry *hemi,al )4ti-/uishi-/
& Dete,tio- a-d (larm system
& *ommu-i,atio- "ystem
& Portable .ire .i/hti-/ e6uipme-t
& 0obile .ire .i/hti-/ e6uipme-t
&he .ollowi-/ shall be the basi, desi/-
,riteria .or a .ire prote,tio- system3
i+ Fa,ilities should be
desi/-ed o- the basis that ,ity .ire
water supply is -ot a5ailable ,lose
to the i-stallatio-3
ii+ Fire prote,tio- .a,ilities shall
be desi/-ed to .i/ht two ma@or
.ires simulta-eously a-y where i-
the i-stallatio-3
Fire water re6uireme-ts will be
de,ided as per /uideli-es /i5e- i-
iii+ (ll the ta-k .arms a-d other
areas o. i-stallatio- where
hydro,arbo-s are ha-dled shall
be .ully ,o5ered by hydra-t
<4241 Fi;ed .*te( S:(*) on sto(*ge T*n>s
i+ *lass =(= Petroleum stora/e i-
abo5e /rou-d ta-ks shall ha5e
.i4ed water spray system, whether
.loati-/ roo. or .i4ed roo.3
ii+ *lass =B= Petroleum stora/e ta-ks
o. .ollowi-/ dime-sio-s shall be
pro5ided with .i4ed water spray3
& Floati-/ roo. ta-ks o. diameter
lar/er tha- C0 03
& Fi4ed roo. ta-ks o. diameter lar/er
tha- 20 03
<4242 Se-i-+i;ed Fo*- s)ste- +o( Sto(*ge
i+ "emi-.i4ed Foam
system shall be pro5ided .or the
.ollowi-/ ta-ksA
&Floati-/ roo. ta-ks stori-/ *lass
=(= a-d *lass =B= petroleum
&Fi4ed roo. ta-ks stori-/ *lass =(=
a-d ,lass =B= petroleum produ,ts3
&Fi4ed roo. ta-ks stori-/ ,lass =*=
petroleum produ,ts, o. diameter
lar/er tha- >0 03
>323C Auto-*tic Actu*ted Ri- se*'
!(otection S)ste- +o( F'o*ting Roo+ t*n>s8
(utomati, (,tuated rim seal .ire
e4ti-/uishi-/ system should be
,o-sidered .or .loati-/ roo. ta-k
diameter o. <0 meters a-d abo5e .or
,lass H(I produ,ts3 Howe5er, i-
li/ht-i-/ pro-e area, .or .loati-/ roo.
ta-k o. diameter <0 meter a-d abo5e,
(utomati, rim seal .ire e4ti-/uishi-/
system shall be pro5ided3 &he
(utomati, (,tuated rim seal .ire
e4ti-/uishi-/ system may be based
o- Foam Floodi-/ or *lea- (/e-t
Floodi-/ me,ha-ism3 &his is i-
additio- to the water spray a-d semi-
.i4ed .oam system o- all the .loati-/
roo. ta-ks stori-/ ,lass ( 1 B
Foam Floodi-/ systemA "ele,tio- a-d
desi/- o. .oam based .ire prote,tio-
system should be as de.i-ed i- latest
"ta-dard .or Foam systems - NFP(-
111 11(3
*lea- (/e-t Floodi-/ systemA
"ele,tio- o. *lea- (/e-t a-d system
desi/- .or .ire prote,tio- should be i-
li-e with the H"ta-dard o- *lea- (/e-t
Fire )4ti-/uishi-/ "ystems G NFP(
2001#)ditio- 200>+ a-d the latestI3
&he ,lea- a/e-t should also ,omply
with the re6uireme-ts o. the HEo-e
Depletio- "ubsta-,es Re/ulatio- 1
*o-trol Rules,2000,0i-istry o.
)-5iro-me-t 1 Forests, 2o5er-me-t
o. !-dia3 $isted *lea- (/e-ts like
&ri.luoroiodide a-d others ,a- be used
as .ire suppressa-t .or .loati-/ roo. rim
seal Fire Prote,tio- "ystem3 $isted
*lea- (/e-ts like Fluoroketo-e a-d
others ,a- be used as .ire
suppressa-t i- *o-trol rooms a-d
*omputer rooms3
4.2.4 Automatic Water Spray for
Pressurised storages including LPG /
i+ $P2 and hydrogen Pressure
stora/e 5essels shall be pro5ided
with automati, water spray
ii+ (utomati, water spray system
shall be pro5ided i- $P2 bottli-/
statio-s, $P2 loadi-/8u-loadi-/
/a-tries a-d $P2 pump a-d
,ompressor areas i- all -ew
re.i-eries a-d .or e4isti-/
re.i-eries this ,o-5ersio- to
automati, shall be do-e i- phased
>323? Water Spray System in Process nit
i+ 9ater spray system shall be
pro5ided .or haEardous lo,atio-s
a-d e6uipme-t i- pro,ess u-it
areas3 "ome o. these areas areA
& %--i-sulated 5essels ha5i-/
,apa,ity lar/er tha- ?0 m
a-d ,o-tai-i-/
,lass ( or B .lammable li6uid3
& 7essels i-a,,essible to .ire
te-der8 mobile e6uipme-t, .ire hydra-ts
& Pumps ha-dli-/ petroleum
produ,ts ,lass =(= unde( :i:e (*c>s4
& Pumps ha-dli-/ produ,ts abo5e
auto-i/-itio- temperature unde( :i:e (*c>s
& (ir .i- ,oolers i- hydro,arbo-
ser5i,e lo,ated *9o,e :i:e (*c>s 8 elevated
& Water spray rings for columns of
height more than 45 M should be provided
>323< .*te( S:(*) +o( E'ect(ic*' Inst*''*tion
9ater spray re6uireme-t with mode o.
operatio- to be ,o-sidered i- li-e with
pro5isio-s o. !"D-"&D-17C3 &he water
to be used should be ,lear a-d -o-
>3237 C'e*n Agent / =*'on su9stitute2 +o(
Cont(o' (oo-s
"ele,tio- o. *lea- (/e-t a-d desi/- o.
Fire prote,tio- system .or pro,ess
,o-trol rooms, ,omputer rooms a-d
pressurised rooms should .ollow the
"ta-dard o- H*lea- (/e-t )4ti-/uishi-/
systems NFP( "ta-dard 2001 #)ditio-
200>+ i-,ludi-/ its sa.ety /uideli-es with
respe,t to HHaEards to Perso--elI,
ele,tri,al ,leara-,e a-d e-5iro-me-tal
.a,tors i- li-e with e-5iro-me-tal
,o-sideratio-s o. Byoto Proto,ol3 *lea-
(/e-ts like i-ert /as, Fluoroketo-e ,a-
be used as .ire suppressa-t i- *o-trol
rooms a-d *omputer rooms3
>323; Loading / unloading Gantry
il loadi-/8u-loadi-/ &a-k &ru,k 1
&a-k 9a/o- 2a-tries shall be pro5ided
with water spray a-d8or .oam system3
Based o- the site re6uireme-t, water
is used .or .ire e4ti-/uishme-t, .ire
,o-trol, ,ooli-/ o. e6uipme-t a-d
prote,tio- o. e6uipme-t as well as
perso--el .rom heat radiatio-3 For
these purposes water i- appropriate
.orm should be used su,h as strai/ht
@et, water .o/, water ,urtai-, water
spray, delu/e8 spri-kler, .or .oam
maki-/ et,3
Fire water system shall ,omprise o.
.ire water stora/e, .ire water pumps
a-d distributio- pipi-/ -etwork alo-/
with hydra-ts a-d mo-itors, as the
mai- ,ompo-e-ts3
?41 3ASIS
n line !ith the design criteria given at
4.2 "ii#$ the .ire water system i- a-
i-stallatio- shall be desi/-ed to meet
the .ire water .low re6uireme-t .or
.i/hti-/ two .ires simulta-eously or
single fire for largest floating roof tan%
roof sin%ing case$ whi,he5er re6uiri-/
lar/est water dema-d3
&wo o. the lar/est .low rates
,al,ulated .or di..ere-t se,tio-s as
show- below shall be added a-d that
shall be take- as desi/- .low rate3 (
typi,al e4ample .or ,al,ulati-/ desi/-
.ire water .low rate is /i5e- i-
i+ Fire 9ater .low rate +o( t*n> +*(-
shall be a//re/ate o. the
&9ater .low ,al,ulated .or ,ooli-/
a ta-k-o--.ire at a rate o. C !pm8m
o. ta-k shell area3
&9ater .low ,al,ulated .or all other
ta-ks .alli-/ withi- a radius o.
#RJC0+ 0 .rom ,e-tre o. the ta-k
o- .ire a-d situated i- the same
dyke area, at a rate o. C !pm8m
ta-k shell area3
&9ater .low ,al,ulated .or all other
ta-ks .alli-/ outside a radius o.
#RJC0+ 0 .rom ,e-tre o. the ta-k
o- .ire a-d situated i- the same
dyke area at a rate o. 1 !pm8m
ta-k shell area3
&9ater .low re6uired .or applyi-/
.oam i-to a si-/le lar/est ,o-e
roo. or .loati-/ roo. ta-k #a.ter the
roo. has su-k+ bur-i-/ sur.a,e
area o. oil, by way o. .i4ed .oam
system, where pro5ided or by use
o. water8.oam mo-itors3
se,tio- <3; .or .oam rates+3
& Fire water .low rate .or
suppleme-tary stream, shall be based o-
usi-/ > si-/le hydra-t outlets a-d 1 mo-itor
simulta-eously3 *apa,ity o. ea,h hydra-t
outlet as C< mC8hr a-d o. ea,h mo-itor as 1>>
mC8hr may be ,o-sidered at a pressure o. 7
ii+ Fire water .low rate +o( L!%
s:0e(e sto(*ge *(e* shall be
a//re/ate o. the .ollowi-/A
& 9ater .low ,al,ulated .or ,ooli-/
$P2 sphere o- .ire at a rate o. 1032 !pm8m2 o.
sphere sur.a,e area3
& 9ater .low ,al,ulated .or all other
spheres .alli-/ withi- a radius o. #RJC0+ metre
.rom ,e-tre o. the sphere o- .ire at the rate o.
1032 !pm8m2 o. sur.a,e area3
& !. the water rate as ,al,ulated
abo5e works out to be more tha- 2000 mC8hr
the layout o. the spheres should be re5iewed3
& 9ater .low .or suppleme-tary
stream shall be ,o-sidered as 2;; mC8hr as
i-di,ated u-der item #i+3
& &he spheres should be laid i- two
separate /roups with ea,h /roup limited to a
ma4imum o. < 5essels &he /roups shall
pre.erably be separated by a dista-,e o.
#RJC0+ metre3
iii+ 9ater .low rate re6uireme-ts .or
.ire .i/hti-/ i- ot0e( -*@o( *(e*s
shall be ,al,ulated based o-
,riteria in terms of lpm/m2 /i5e- i-
se,tio- ?3:3
&he .ire water system shall be
desi/-ed .or a mi-imum residual
pressure o. 730 k/8,m
/ at the
hydrauli,ally remotest poi-t o.
appli,atio- at the desi/-ed .low rate at
that poi-t3
&he .ire water -etwork shall be kept
pressurised at mi-imum 730 k/8,m
at all the time3
9ater .or the hydra-t ser5i,e shall be
stored i- a-y easily a,,essible sur.a,e
or u-der/rou-d li-ed reser5oir or
abo5e /rou-d ta-ks o. steel, ,o-,rete
or maso-ry3 &he stora/e should be
lo,ated as .ar away as possible #-ot
less tha- <0 0+ .rom haEardous areas
to a5oid a-y dama/e i- ,ase o.
.ire8e4plosio-3 &he e..e,ti5e ,apa,ity
o. the reser5oir abo5e the le5el o.
su,tio- poi-t shall be mi-imum >
hours a//re/ate worki-/ ,apa,ity o.
main pumps #e4,ludi-/ sta-dby
pumps+. 9here rate o. make up water
supply is ?0K or more, this stora/e
,apa,ity may be redu,ed to C hours
a//re/ate worki-/ ,apa,ity o. mai-
pumps3 "tora/e reser5oir shall be i-
two e6ual i-ter,o--e,ted
,ompartme-ts to .a,ilitate ,lea-i-/
a-d repairs3
$ar/e -atural reser5oirs ha5i-/ water
,apa,ity e4,eedi-/ 10 times the
a//re/ate water re6uireme-t o. .ire
pumps may be le.t u-li-ed3
!- additio- to .ire water stora/e
e-5isa/ed as abo5e, emer/e-,y water
supply i- the e5e-t o. depletio- o.
water stora/e shall be ,o-sidered3
"u,h water supplies may be
,o--e,ted .rom ,ooli-/ water supply
header a-d8or treated e..lue-t
dis,har/e headers3
Fire water supply shall be pre.erably
.rom .resh water sour,e su,h as ri5er,
tubewell or lake3 9here .resh water
sour,e is -ot easily a5ailable, .ire
water supply may be sea water or
other a,,eptable sour,e like treated
e..lue-t water3
?4<42 "AAE U! .ATER
"uitable pro5isio-s shall be kept .or
make up .irewater duri-/ .ire .i/hti-/
time3 Pro5isio- to be made to di5ert
water .rom 5arious sour,es like )&P,
Pro,ess *ooli-/ 9ater, ri5er, po-ds
et,3 to the .ire water system3
Firewater pumps shall be used
e4,lusi5ely .or .ire .i/hti-/ purposes3
?4?41 T):e o+ !u-:s
Fire water pumps shall be o. the
.ollowi-/ typeA
i+ )le,tri, motor dri5e-
,e-tri.u/al pumps
ii+ Diesel e-/i-e dri5e-
,e-tri.u/al pumps
&he pumps shall be horiEo-tal
,e-tri.u/al type or 5erti,al turbi-e
submersible pumps3
&ach pump shall be ,apable o.
dis,har/i-/ 1?0K o. its rated ,apa,ity
at a mi-imum o. <?K o. the rated
head3 &he shut-o.. head shall -ot
e4,eed 120K o. rated head, .or
horiEo-tal pumps a-d 1>0K i- ,ase o.
5erti,al turbi-e type pumps3
Number o. diesel dri5e- pumps shall
be mi-imum ?0K o. the total -umber
o. pumps #i-,lusi5e o. sta-dby
pumps+30i-imum ?0K o. total .low
re6uireme-t should be a5ailable
throu/h diesel dri5e- pumps all the
time3 Power supply to the ele,tri,
dri5e- pumps should be .rom two
separate .eeders3
?4?42 C*:*cit) o+ -*in !u-:s
&he ,apa,ity a-d -umber o. mai- .ire
water pumps shall be .i4ed based o-
desi/- .ire water rate, worked out o-
the basis o. desi/- ,riteria as per
se,tio- ?323 &he ,apa,ity o. ea,h
pump shall -ot be less tha- >00 m
or more tha- 1000 m
8hr3 (ll pumps
should be ide-ti,al with respe,t to
,apa,ity a-d head ,hara,teristi,s3
?4?47 St*nd9) :u-:s
i+ 9he- total -umber o. 9orki-/
pumps work out to be o-e or two, 100K
sta-dby pumps shall be pro5ided3
ii+ 9he- total -umber o. worki-/
pumps are more tha- two, ?0K sta-dby
pumps shall be pro5ided3
iii+ !- ,ases where two sets o.
.irewater stora/e a-d pumps are pro5ided, the
-umber o. pumps at ea,h lo,atio- shall be
a,,ordi-/ to hydrauli, a-alysis o. pipi-/
?4?4< Boc>e) !u-:s
&he .ire water -etwork shall be kept
pressurised at mi-imum 730 k/8,m
by @o,key pumps3 2 Do,key pumps #1
worki-/ plus 1 sta-dby+ shall be
pro5ided3 &he ,apa,ity o. the pump
shall be su..i,ie-t to mai-tai- system
pressure i- the e5e-t o. leaka/es .rom
5al5es et,3 &he ,apa,ity o. @o,key
pumps shall be ?K mi-imum a-d
ma4imum 10K o. the desi/- .ire water
rate3 !ts head shall be hi/her tha- the
mai- .ire water pumps3 (uto ,ut-i- 8
,ut-o.. .a,ility should be pro5ided .or
@o,key pumps
?4?4? !oCe( Su::') +o( Fi(e .*te( !u-:s
i+ ( dire,t .eeder dedi,ated o-ly to
.ire water pumps shall be laid .rom the sub-
statio- to e-sure reliable power supply3 &he
dire,t .eeder li-e shall -ot ru- alo-/ with other
H& ,ables3
ii+ &he diesel e-/i-es shall be 6ui,k
starti-/ type with the help o. push butto-s
lo,ated -ear the pumps, or at remote lo,atio-3
iii+ )a,h diesel e-/i-e shall ha5e a-
i-depe-de-t .uel ta-k ade6uately siEed .or <
hours ,o-ti-uous ru--i-/ o. the pump3
i5+ 0ai- .ire water pumps shall start
automati,ally a-d se6ue-tially with pressure
swit,hes8P$* o- .ire water mai-s3 &he system
shall e-sure auto start o. the sta-dby pump i-
,ase a pump i- se6ue-,e .ailed to take start3
?4?46 Loc*tion o+ :u-:s
Firewater pumps shall be lo,ated as
.ar away as possible #-ot less tha- <0
0+ .rom haEardous areas to a5oid a-y
dama/e i- ,ase o. .ire8e4plosio-3 &he
lo,atio- a-d i-ter-dista-,es .or
.irewater pump house a-d related
.a,ilities shall .ollow !"D-"&D-11;3
?4641 Loo:ing ! "aintaina#ility
&he .ire water -etwork shall be laid i-
,losed loops as .ar as possible to
e-sure multi-dire,tio-al .low i- the
system3 !solatio- 5al5es shall be
pro5ided i- the -etwork to e-able
isolatio- o. a-y se,tio- o. the -etwork
without a..e,ti-/ the .low i- the rest3
&he isolatio- 5al5es shall be -ormally
lo,ated -ear the loop @u-,tio-s3
(dditio-al 5al5es shall be pro5ided i-
the se/me-ts where the le-/th o. the
se/me-t e4,eeds C00 03
For ease o. mai-te-a-,e, Firewater
pumps should be se/re/ated i- two
/roups by pro5idi-/ a- isolatio- 5al5e
o- ,ommo- dis,har/e header o.
Flushi-/ ,o--e,tio-s with isolatio-
5al5es should be pro5ided at suitable
lo,atio-s i- the .irewater ri-/ mai-3
For bra-,h pipi-/, a- isolatio- 5al5e
should be pro5ided at the take-o..
Perma-e-t ,o--e,tio- should -ot be
take- .rom .ire water li-e 8 system .or
purposes other tha- .ire prote,tio-8 .ire
?4642 C(ite(i* +o( *9o,e $ unde(g(ound
&he .irewater -etwork pipi-/ should
-ormally be laid abo5e /rou-d at a
hei/ht o. atleast C00 mm abo5e
.i-ished /rou-d le5el3 Howe5er, the
.ire water -etwork pipi-/ shall be laid
below /rou-d le5el at the .ollowi-/
pla,es3 Pipes made o. ,omposite
material shall be laid u-der/rou-d3
i+ Road ,rossi-/s3
ii+ Pla,es where the abo5e /rou-d
pipi-/ is likely to ,ause obstru,tio- to
operatio- a-d 5ehi,le mo5eme-t, a-d /et
dama/ed me,ha-i,ally3
iii+ 9here .rost ,o-ditio- warra-ts,
the ri-/ mai- system shall be laid
u-der/rou-d be-eath the .rost layer3
?4647 !(otection +o( unde(g(ound
9here the pipes are laid u-der/rou-d
the .ollowi-/ prote,tio-s shall be
i+ &he mai- shall ha5e at least o-e
meter earth ,ushio- i- ope- /rou-d a-d 13?
metre earth ,ushio- u-der the roads3 !- ,ase
o. ,ra-e mo5eme-t areas, pipes may be
prote,ted with ,o-,rete8steel e-,aseme-t3
ii+ &he mai-s shall be pro5ided with
prote,tio- a/ai-st soil ,orrosio- by suitable
iii+ Pipe supports u-der the pipe li-e
shall be suitable .or soil ,o-ditio-s3
?464< !(otection +o( *9o,e g(ound
9here the pipes are laid abo5e
/rou-d, the .ollowi-/ prote,tio- shall
be pro5idedA
i+ &he .irewater mai-s shall be laid
o- i-depe-de-t sleepers by the side o. road3
&hese shall -ot be laid alo-/ with pro,ess
pipi-/ o- ,ommo- sleepers3
ii+ &he mai-s shall be supported at
re/ular i-ter5als -ot e4,eedi-/ < metre3 !t
should be supported at e5ery C 0 .or pipes
less tha- 1?0 mm diameter3
iii+ &he system .or abo5e /rou-d
portio- shall be a-alysed .or .le4ibility a/ai-st
thermal e4pa-sio- a-d -e,essary e4pa-sio-
loops shall be pro5ided where5er ,alled .or3
?464? SiDing of Fire$ater Net$or%
Fire water distributio- ri-/ mai- shall
be siEed .or 120K o. the desi/- water
rate3 Desi/- .low rates shall be
distributed at -odal poi-ts to /i5e the
most realisti, way o. water
re6uireme-ts i- a- emer/e-,y3
"e5eral ,ombi-atio-s o. .low
re6uireme-ts shall be assumed .or
desi/- o. -etwork3 For lar/e water
re6uireme-t .or .loati-/ roo. ta-k
#(--e4ure-7!+, the -etwork arou-d
ta-k .arm shall be suitably desi/-ed3
&he hydrauli, a-alysis o. -etwork shall
be do-e3
?4646 Fi(e 0)d(*nts
Fire hydra-ts shall be pro5ided i- the
-etwork to e-sure prote,tio- to all the
.a,ilities3 &he lo,atio- o. the hydra-ts
shall be ,are.ully de,ided keepi-/ i-
5iew the easy a,,essibility3 &he
ma4imum dista-,e betwee- two
hydra-ts, howe5er, shall -ot e4,eed
C0 metre arou-d hydro,arbo- stora/e
a-d haEardous areas a-d >? metre i-
other areas3 )a,h hydra-t shall ha5e
two outlets i-,li-ed towards the
/rou-d3 &he outlets shall be o. .emale
i-sta-ta-eous type ha5i-/ a sta-dard
siEe o. <C mm ,o-.ormi-/ to !-dia-
"ta-dards3 item ?3731 .or .urther
details o- hydra-ts3
?4647 Fi;ed C*te( -onito(s
Fi4ed water mo-itors shall be pro5ided
o- the .ire water -etwork #Re.3 "e,tio-
?37 .or details+3 )a,h o. these
,o--e,tio-s shall be pro5ided with
i-depe-de-t isolatio- 5al5es3
?464E L*)out
i+ Fire water mai-s shall -ot
pass throu/h buildi-/s or dyke areas3
ii+ Hydra-ts 8 mo-itors shall -ot
be lo,ated i-side the dyke area3
?4641 E'e,*ted$ osci''*ting$ (e-ote o:e(*ted
&he re6uireme-t o.
ele5ated8os,illati-/8 remote operated
mo-itors may be,ome -e,essary .or
prote,tio- o. ,riti,al e6uipme-t at
hi/her ele5atio- #>? 0 a-d abo5e+ 8
i-a,,essible areas3 &his aspe,t should
be /i5e- due ,o-sideratio-3
?4741 =)d(*nts
i+ Hydra-ts shall be lo,ated
keepi-/ i- 5iew the .ire haEards at di..ere-t
se,tio-s o. the premises to be prote,ted a-d
to /i5e most e..e,ti5e ser5i,e3 (t least o-e
hydra-t post shall be pro5ided .or e5ery C0 0
o. e4ter-al wall measureme-t or perimeter o.
u-it battery limit i- ,ase o. hi/h haEard areas3
Hydra-ts prote,ti-/ utilities a-d mis,ella-eous
buildi-/s i- hi/h haEard areas may be spa,ed
at >? 0 i-ter5als3 &he horiEo-tal ra-/e a-d
,o5era/e o. hydra-ts with hose ,o--e,tio-s
shall -ot be ,o-sidered more tha- >? 03
ii+ &he hydra-ts shall be lo,ated
at a mi-imum dista-,e o. 1? 0 .rom the
periphery o. stora/e ta-k or haEardous
e6uipme-t u-der prote,tio-3 For pro,ess
pla-ts lo,atio- o. hydra-ts shall be de,ided
based o- ,o5era/e o. all areas3 !- the ,ase o.
buildi-/s, this dista-,e shall -ot be less tha- ?
0 a-d more tha- 1? 0 .rom the .a,e o.
buildi-/3 Pro5isio- o. hydra-ts withi- buildi-/s
shall be i- a,,orda-,e with "ta-dard !"
"ta-dard-C;>>3 Hydra-ts 8 0o-itors shall be
lo,ated alo-/ road side berms .or easy
a,,essibility as .ar as possible3
iii+ Double headed hydra-ts with
two separate la-di-/ 5al5es o- >L sta-d post
shall be used3 (ll hydra-t outlets shall be
situated at a workable hei/ht o. about 132
metre abo5e /rou-d le5el3
i5+ Hydra-ts 8 0o-itors shall be
pre.erably lo,ated with bra-,h ,o--e,tio-s
a-d -ot dire,tly o5er mai- header .or easy
?4742 "onito(s
i+ 0o-itors shall be lo,ated at
strate/i, lo,atio-s .or prote,tio- o. ,luster o.
,olum-s, heaters, /assi.iers, et,3, a-d where it
may -ot be possible to approa,h the hi/her
le5els3 ( mi-imum o. 2 mo-itors shall be
pro5ided .or the prote,tio- o. ea,h su,h area3
9ater mo-itors .or prote,tio- o. heaters shall
be i-stalled so that the heater ,a- be isolated
.rom the remai-der o. the pla-t i- a-
ii+ 0o-itors shall be lo,ated to dire,t
water o- the ob@e,t as well as to pro5ide water
shield to .ireme- approa,hi-/ a .ire3 &he
mo-itors should -ot be i-stalled less tha- 1?
0 .rom haEardous e6uipme-t3
iii+ 7ariable .low mo-itors may be
i-stalled at ,riti,al lo,atio-s3
&he re6uireme-t o. mo-itors shall be
established based o- haEard i-5ol5ed
a-d layout ,o-sideratio-s3 &he
lo,atio- o. water mo-itors shall -ot
e4,eed >? 0 .rom the haEard to be
Monitors should be painted !ith
Luminous colour for ease of
identification during emergency3
?4747 'ry/Wet )isers !ith hydrants should be
provided on each floor of
technological structures3
?474< "o9i'e$Fi;ed =ig0 6o'u-e
.*te($Fo*- "onito(s
Pro5isio- .or .i/hti-/ stora/e ta-k .ire
.rom road side throu/h
mobile8.i4ed85ariable .low hi/h 5olume
lo-/ ra-/e mo-itors should be
,o-sidered at ,riti,al stora/e
?474? =ose 3o;es
Pro5isio- o. hose bo4es may be
,o-sidered at ,riti,al lo,atio-s .or
housi-/ hoses a-d -oEEles3
?4746 Water cum Foam monitors for
Gantry area
i+ &a-k 9a/o- 1 &a-k $orry
$oadi-/8 u-loadi-/ /a-try area
should be pro5ided with alter-ate
water ,um .oam mo-itors ha5i-/
multipurpose ,ombi-atio- -oEEles
.or @et spray 1 .o/ arra-/eme-t a-d
.ire hydra-ts lo,ated at a spa,i-/
o. C0 0 o- either sides o. the
(ll the materials re6uired .or .irewater
system usi-/ .resh water shall be o.
appro5ed type as i-di,ated below3
i+ PipesA *arbo- "teel as per !"A
C?;:8 !"A 12C:8!"A1:7; or *omposite
materials as per (P! 1?$R8(P! 1? HR or its
e6ui5ale-t shall be used3
!- ,ase sali-e water8 treated e..lue-t
water is used , the .ire water mai- o.
steel pipes shall be, i-ter-ally ,eme-t
mortar li-ed or /lass rei-.or,ed epo4y
,oated or made o. pipe material
suitable .or the 6uality o. water3
(lter-ati5ely, pipes made o. ,omposite
materials shall be used3
*ast iro- pipes shall -ot be used .or
.ire water ser5i,es3
ii+ !solatio- 7al5esA *ast "teel valves
shall be used i- u-it areas a-d .ire
water pump statio-s3
!- areas also, use o. *ast "teel
5al5es is pre.erable compared to 'ast
ron3 Howe5er, it may be de,ided o-
e,o-omi, ,o-sideratio-s .or ea,h
!solatio- 5al5es ha5i-/ ope-8,lose
i-di,atio- shall be 2ate 5al5es
with8without /ear me,ha-ism
depe-di-/ upo- the siEe3
iii+ Hydra-tA
"ta-dpostA *arbo- "teel
utlet 5al5esA 2u-metal 8 (lumi-ium
$a-di-/ 5al5es A "tai-less "teel 8 (!-
M- (lloy8/u- metal3
i5+ 0o-itorsA *arbo- "teel8 2u- 0etal8
stai-less steel3
5+ Fire HoseARei-.or,ed Rubber $i-ed
Hose as per !" <C< #&ype (+8No--
per,olati-/ "y-theti, Hose #&ype B+3
5i+ !- ,ase o. u-der/rou-d mai-s the
isolatio- 5al5es shall be lo,ated i-
R**8bri,k maso-ary ,hamber3
5ii+ &he abo5e /rou-d .ire water mai-s
a-d the .ire hydra-t sta-dpost shall be
pai-ted with ,orrosio- resista-t LFire
RedL pai-t shade 5() of *+ ,-),3
5iii+ 9ater mo-itor a-d hose bo4 shall also
be pai-ted i- LFire RedL shade )4, *3
?4141 %ene(*'
t is a .i4ed pipe system ,o--e,ted to
a reliable sour,e o. water supply a-d
e6uipped with water spray -oEEles .or
spe,i.i, water dis,har/e a-d
distributio- o5er the sur.a,e o. area to
be prote,ted3 &he pipi-/ system is
,o--e,ted to the hydra-t system
water supply throu/h a- automati,ally
or ma-ually a,tuated 5al5e whi,h
i-itiates the .low o. water3
i+ Fi4ed water spray system should
be pro5ided i- hi/h haEard areas
where immediate appli,atio- o.
water is re6uired
4.2.,$4.2.5$4.2.)$ 4.2.. abo5e+3
ii+ 9ater supply patter-s a-d their
de-sities shall be sele,ted
a,,ordi-/ to -eed3 Fire water spray
system .or e4posure prote,tio-
shall be desi/-ed to operate be.ore
the possible .ailures o. a-y
,o-tai-ers o. .lammable li6uids or
/ases due to temperature rise3 &he
system shall, there.ore, be
desi/-ed to dis,har/e e..e,ti5e
water spray withi- shortest
possible time3
?4142 .*te( S:(*) A::'ic*tion R*tes
&he .ollowi-/ water spray appli,atio-
rates are re,omme-ded .or /e-eral
/uida-,e3 &hese rates may be
re5iewed o- ,ase to ,ase basis a-d
i-,reased, i. re6uired3 9hile
,al,ulati-/ the water rates .or spray
appli,atio- .or ,ases other tha-
ta-ks85essels, the area should be
di5ided i-to suitable se/me-ts so that
ma4imum water re6uireme-t .or spray
appli,atio- should /e-erally -ot
e4,eed 1200 mC8hr3
Application Area .*te( *::'ic*tion (*te
(tmospheri, stora/e C !pm8m
o. ta-k shell
ta-ks area .or ta-k o- .ire
C !pm8m
o. ta-k shell
area .or e4posure
prote,tio- .or ta-ks
lo,ated withi- #RJC0+ 0
.rom ,e-tre o. ta-k-o--
.ire withi- the same
dyke area3
1 !pm8m
o. ta-k shell
area .or e4posure
prote,tio- .or ta-ks
lo,ated outside #RJC0+
metre .rom ,e-tre o.
ta-k-o--.ire withi- the
same dyke area3
Pressure "tora/e 1032 !pm8m
7essels shell area
Pro,ess %-it (rea
- Pumps#7olatile produ,t 203>!pm8m
ser5i,e lo,ated u-der
pipe ra,k+
*olum-s, other 1032 !pm8m

e4tremely haEardous area

$P2 pump house 203> !pm8m

$P2 &a-k &ru,k 1032 !pm8m

1 &a-k 9a/o- loadi-/8
u-loadi-/ /a-tries
$P2 Bottli-/ pla-ts A
- *arousel ma,hi-e 1032 !pm8m

- Filled ,yli-der stora/e 1032 !pm8m

- )mpty ,yli-der stora/e 1032 !pm8m

- $P2 ,yli-der ,old repair3 1032 !pm8m

il &a-k &ru,k 1 1032 !pm8m
&a-k 9a/o- loadi-/8
u-loadi-/ /a-tries
*able &rays 1032 !pm8m

&ra-s.ormers 1032 !pm8m

i+ Fi4ed water spri-kler system is a
.i4ed pipe tailor made system to
whi,h spri-klers with .usible bulbs
are atta,hed3 )a,h spri-kler
riser8system i-,ludes a ,o-trolli-/
5al5e a-d a de5i,e .or a,tuati-/ a-
alarm .or the operatio- o. the
system3 &he system is usually
a,ti5ated by heat .rom a .ire a-d
dis,har/es water o5er the .ire area
ii+ "pri-kler systems are used .or .ire
e4ti-/uishme-t whe- the haEards
lo,ated i-side buildi-/s3 "ome o.
the e4amples bei-/A
a+ *ar parki-/ i- baseme-t
b+ Buildi-/8sheds stori-/
,ombustible a-d .lammable
iii+ &he water .or spri-kler system shall
be tapped .rom pla-t .ire hydra-t
system, the desi/- o. whi,h should
i-,lude the .low re6uireme-t o. the
lar/est spri-kler i-stallatio-3
i5+ &he desi/- .low .or spri-kler
i-stallatio- would depe-d o- the
type o. haEard a-d hei/ht o. piled
stora/e3 &he water .low rate .or
automati, spri-kler system .or ,ar
parki-/ area shall be take- as ?31
o. the area prote,ted by
spri-kler i-stallatio-3 &he desi/-
water .low shall be restri,ted to a
mi-imum 100 mC8hr a-d to a
ma4imum 200 mC8hr3 &he desi/-
.low rate .or other areas shall be
take- as 1032 !pm8m2
o. the area
prote,ted by spri-kler i-stallatio-,
sub@e,t to a mi-imum o. 1?0 mC8hr3
a-d a ma4imum o. >00 m
8 hr3
Hi/her water appli,atio- rates may
be used i. ,alled .or depe-di-/ o-
risk i-5ol5ed3
641 T!ES OF FOA"
For detailed des,riptio- o. Fire
Fi/hti-/ Foam *ompou-ds, please (--e4ure-7!!!3
For ,ombati-/ lar/e hydro,arbo- .ires
parti,ularly i- a ,o-tai-ed area like
stora/e ta-k, .oam has pro5ed use.ul
.or its i-here-t bla-keti-/ ability, heat
resista-,e a-d se,urity a/ai-st bur--
ba,k3 (6ueous Film Formi-/ Foam
#(FFF+ ,ompou-d is te,h-i,ally
superior a-d ,ompatible with other .ire
.i/hti-/ a/e-ts3
)..i,ie-t a-d e..e,ti5e .oam deli5ery
system is a 5ital tool .or its use.ul-ess
i- ,o-trolli-/ the .ire3
&he pro,ess o. addi-/ or i-@e,ti-/ the
.oam to water is ,alled proportio-i-/3
&he mi4ture o. water a-d .oam
,ompou-d #.oam solutio-+ is the-
mi4ed with air i- a .oam maker .or
o-ward tra-smissio- to bur-i-/
&he system ,o-sists o. a- ade6uate
water supply, supply o. .oam
,o-,e-trate, suitable proportio-i-/
e6uipme-t, a proper pipi-/ system,
.oam makers a-d dis,har/e de5i,es
desi/-ed to ade6uately distribute the
.oam o5er the haEard3
*o-5e-tio-al systems are o. the ope-
outlet type i- whi,h .oam dis,har/es
.rom all outlets at the same time,
,o5eri-/ the e-tire haEard withi- the
,o-.i-es o. the system3 &here are
three types o. systemsA
i+ Fi4ed
ii+ "emi.i4ed
iii+ 0obile
64741 Fi;ed Fo*- S)ste-
Fi4ed .oam ,o-5eyi-/ system
,omprises o. .i4ed pipi-/ .or water
supply at ade6uate pressure, .oam
,o-,e-trate ta-k, edu,tor, suitable
proportio-i-/ e6uipme-t .or drawi-/
.oam ,o-,e-trate a-d maki-/ .oam
solutio-, .i4ed pipi-/ system .or
o-ward ,o-5eyi-/ to .oam makers .or
maki-/ .oam, 5apour seal bo4, a-d
.oam pourer3 "uitable dete,tio-
system may be pro5ided to a,ti5ate
the .oam system3
64742 Se-i+i;ed Fo*- S)ste-
"emi-.i4ed .oam system /ets supply o.
.oam solutio- throu/h the mobile .oam
te-der3 ( .i4ed pipi-/ system
,o--e,ted to .oam makers ,um
5apour seal bo4 i- ,ase o. ,o-e roo.
ta-ks a-d .oam maker a-d .oam
pourers i- the ,ase o. .loati-/ roo.
ta-ks ,o-5eys .oam to the sur.a,e o.
64747 "o9i'e Fo*- S)ste-
0obile system i-,ludes .oam
produ,i-/ u-it mou-ted o- wheels
whi,h may be sel. propelled or towed
by a 5ehi,le3 &hese u-its supply .oam
throu/h mo-itors8.oam towers to the
bur-i-/ sur.a,e3
<3C3> Howe5er, ,ertai- other systems as
.ollows are also a5ailableA
Su9-su(+*ce +o*- in@ection8 &his is
a system .or prote,tio- o. .i4ed roo.
stora/e ta-ks3 &his ,omprises o. hi/h
ba,k pressure .oam /e-erator a-d
,o--e,ted throu/h produ,t li-es or
separate li-es -ear the bottom o. the
Unde( t0e Se*' Fo*- *::'ic*tion8
&his is a system .or .loati-/ roo. ta-k
where the .oam tra5els throu/h a
.le4ible pipe i-side the ta-k upto the
,e-ter o. the ta-k roo. a-d e4its at the
seal rim o. the .loati-/ roo. pre,isely
where the .ire is lo,ated thus rapidly
.loodi-/ the seal rim area a-d 6ui,kly
e4ti-/uishi-/ the .ire3
Auto-*tic Actu*ted Fo*- F'ooding
s)ste-8 !- this system all the
,ompo-e-ts a-d i-/redie-ts i-,ludi-/
premi4 solutio- are ,o-tai-ed withi-
the system3 "u,h systems usually
ha5e a premi4 solutio- supply ta-k
pressurised by air or i-ert /as3 &he
automati, se-si-/ o. .ire releases this
pressure a-d pla,es the system i-to
operatio-3 (--e4ure-7!! .or
details with typi,al sket,h+
<3>31 Protection using Semi&Fi*ed Foam
For .loati-/ roo. ta-k, .oam shall be
poured at the .oam dam to bla-ket the
roo.Ns rim seal3 Features o. .oam
system .or .loati-/ roo. ta-k prote,tio-
shall be as .ollowsA
i+ "ystem shall be desi/-ed to
,reate .oam bla-ket o- the
bur-i-/ sur.a,e i- a reaso-ably
short period3
ii+ Foam shall be applied to the
bur-i-/ haEard ,o-ti-uously at a
rate hi/h e-ou/h to o5er,ome
the destru,ti5e e..e,ts o. radia-t
iii+ Foam makers8.oam pourers shall
be lo,ated -ot more tha- 2> 0
apart o- the shell perimeter
based o- <00 mm .oam dam
i5+ ( mi-imum o. two .oam pourers
shall be pro5ided3
64<42 !(otection using Auto-*tic
Actu*ted Fo*- F'ooding s)ste-8
Pro5isio- o. a- automati, rim-seal
prote,tio- system o. .oam .loodi-/
type should be i- li-e with the details
me-tio-ed at >323C, <3C3> a-d at
Foam ,o-5eyi-/ system shall ha5e
same .eatures as o. .loati-/ roo. ta-k
e4,epti-/ that a 5apour seal ,hamber
is re6uired be.ore the .oam dis,har/e
Features o. the .oam system .or .i4ed
roo. prote,tio- shall be as .ollowsA
i+ &he 5apour seal ,hamber shall be
pro5ided with a- e..e,ti5e a-d
durable seal, .ra/ile u-der low
pressure, to pre5e-t e-tra-,e o.
5apour i-to the .oam ,o-5eyi-/
pipi-/ system3
ii+ 9here two or more 5apour seal
,hambers are re6uired these shall
be e6ually spa,ed at the periphery
o. the ta-k a-d ea,h dis,har/e
outlet shall be siEed to deli5er
.oam at appro4imately the same
iii+ &a-ks should be pro5ided with
.oam dis,har/e outlets8 5apour
seal ,hambers as i-di,ated belowA
T*n> Di*-ete( in "4 "ini-u- nu-9e(
o+ +o*- disc0*(ge
upto 20 2
O20 upto 2? C
O2? upto C0 >
OC0 upto C? ?
OC? upto >0 <
O>0 upto >? ;
O>? upto ?0 10
&he estimatio- o. -umber o. .oam
dis,har/e outlet is based o- pourer
,apa,ity o. 1000 !pm at a pressure o.
7 k/8,m
/ upstream o. edu,tor3 &his
,a- be suitably ad@usted .or di..ere-t
5apour seal ,hamber ,apa,ity i-
a,,orda-,e with para <3> #iii+3
Prote,tio- .a,ilities shall be pro5ided
as re6uired .or .i4ed roo. ta-k3
Portable mo-itors8 0edium )4pa-sio-
.oam /e-erator8 .oam hose streams
shall be ,o-sidered .or .i/hti-/ .ires i-
dyke area, spills a-d oil separator3
&he mi-imum deli5ery rate .or primary
prote,tio- based o- the assumptio-
that all the .oam rea,hes the area
bei-/ prote,ted shall be as i-di,ated
below3 !- determi-i-/ total solutio-
.low re6uireme-ts, pote-tial .oam
losses .rom wi-d a-d other .a,tors
shall be ,o-sidered3 For ,o-e roo.
ta-ks ,o-tai-i-/ li6uid hydro,arbo-s,
the .oam solutio- deli5ery rate shall be
at least ? !pm8m
o. li6uid sur.a,e area
o. the ta-k to be prote,ted3 For
.loati-/ roo. ta-ks ,o-tai-i-/ li6uid
hydro,arbo-s .oam solutio- deli5ery
rate shall be at least 12 !pm8m
o. seal
area with .oam dam hei/ht o. <00 mm
o. the ta-k to be prote,ted3 !- ,ase o.
.loati-/ roo. si-ki-/, the rate
,o-sidered should be ;31 !pm8m
li6uid sur.a,e areas3
&he e6uipme-t shall be ,apable o.
pro5idi-/ primary prote,tio- at the
spe,i.ied deli5ery rates .or the
.ollowi-/ mi-imum period o. time3
i+ &a-ks ,o-tai-i-/ li6uid
hydro,arbo-s - *lass =*=
Petroleum 3333C0 mi-utes3
ii+ &a-ks ,o-tai-i-/ *lass =(= 1 =B=
Petroleum or li6uids heated
abo5e their .lash poi-ts --- <0 mi-utes
iii+ 9here the system=s primary purpose is
.or spill .ire prote,tio-3 --- C0 mi-utes
*al,ulatio- o. .oam ,ompou-d stora/e
should be based o- the desi/- ,riteria
as per item >323
&he a//re/ate 6ua-tity o. .oam
solutio- .or a si-/le lar/est ta-k .ire
should be ,al,ulated as sum total
i-di,ated below u-der items #i+, #ii+
a-d #iii+ .or a mi-imum period o. <?
mi-utes3 &he 6ua-tity o. .oam
,ompou-d re6uired should be
,al,ulated based o- CK or <K
i+ Foam solutio- appli,atio- at
the rate o. ? !pm8m
.or the li6uid
sur.a,e o. the si-/le lar/est ,o-e
roo. ta-k or at the rate o. 12 !pm8m
o. rim seal area o. the si-/le
lar/est .loati-/ roo. ta-k whi,he5er
is hi/her3
Howe5er, a .oam solutio- appli,atio-
rate o. ;31 !pm8m
o. the li6uid sur.a,e
o. the lar/est .loati-/ roo. ta-k .or <?
mi-utes may be ,o-sidered .or a roof
si-ki-/ ,ase3 (--e4ure-7! .or
sample ,al,ulatio-+
ii+ -e portable .oam mo-itor o.
>?00 !pm .oam solutio- ,apa,ity3
iii+ &wo hose streams o. .oam ea,h
with a ,apa,ity o. 11>0 !pm o.
.oam solutio-3 ( typi,al e4ample
showi-/ ,al,ulatio- o. .oam
,ompou-d re6uireme-t is /i5e- at
(--e4ure - !!3
& Foam ,ompou-d should be stored i-
,o-tai-ers o. 20-C0 !itre ,apa,ity or
200 8 210 !itre ,apa,ity barrels i- ,ase
o. protei-, .luoroprotei- or (FFF3
Foam ,ompou-d ,a- also be stored i-
o5erhead stora/e ta-k o. suitable
,apa,ity .or 6ui,k .illi-/ o. .oam te-der
8 -urser duri-/ emer/e-,y3
& &ype o. .oam ,ompou-d used ,a- be
protei- or .luoro-protei- or (FFF3
(l,ohol Resista-t Foam ,a- be used
.or spe,i.i, appli,atio-3 0i-imum o.
:0K o. stora/e o. .oam ,ompou-d
shall be o. (FFF type3 0i-imum li.e o.
.oam ,ompou-d shall be take- as per
ma-u.a,turer=s data3
& Foam ,ompou-d should be tested
periodi,ally .or e-suri-/ its 6uality a-d
the deteriorated 6ua-tity repla,ed3
&he deteriorated .oam ,ompou-d ,a-
be used .or .ire trai-i-/ purposes3
& Fua-tity o. .oam ,ompou-d e6ual to
100K o. re6uireme-t as ,al,ulated i-
<311 should be stored i- the
!-stallatio-, sub@e,ted to a mi-imum o.
<0,000 litres3 /o!ever$ .or
i-stallatio-s ha5i-/ ta-ka/es lar/er
tha- <0 0 diameter, mi-imum o.
77000 liters .oam should be stored (--e4ure 7!+ or .oam su..i,ie-t
to .i/ht two ma@or .ires whi,he5er is
7 ,L(AN AG(NT -AS('
*election of 'lean 0gent and system
design for fire protection should be in
line !ith the 1*tandard on 'lean
0gent 2ire &3tinguishing *ystems 4
52P0 266, "2664 &dition# and the
latest7. 8he clean agent should also
comply !ith the re9uirements of the
1:;one <epletion *ubstances
=egulation > 'ontrol =ules 2666$
Ministry of &nvironment > 2orests$
Government of ndia3
&he Prote,tio- "ystem should broadly
,o-sists o. ,o-tai-er, .eed li-es, ri-/
mai-s8 laterals as re6uired, spray
-oEEles, si/-ali-/ e6uipme-t a-d
,ables, heat/smo%e dete,tio- a-d
a,ti5atio- de5i,es3
L&he Prote,tio- "ystem ,a- dete,t,
,o-trol a-d e4ti-/uish the .ire a-d also
simulta-eously /i5e audio 5isual
i-di,atio- o- the ,o-trol pa-elI3
&he *lea- (/e-t system is
re,omme-ded .or automati, rim?seal
fire prote,tio- o. .loati-/ roo. ta-ks "of
diameter )6M and above#$ ,o-trol
rooms a-d ,omputer rooms3 %se of
clean agent should follo! safety
guidelines !ith respect to 1/a;ards to
Personnel7$ electrical clearance and
environmental factors as given in the
*tandard on 1'lean 0gent
&3tinguishing systems 52P0
*tandard 266, "&dition 2664# and the
)a,h haEard area to be prote,ted by
the prote,tio- system shall ha5e a-
i-depe-de-t system3
&he time -eeded to obtai- the /as .or
repla,eme-t to restore the systems
shall be ,o-sidered as a /o5er-i-/
.a,tor i- determi-i-/ the reser5e
supply -eeded3 100K sta-dby
,o-tai-ers shall be ,o-sidered .or
ea,h prote,ted haEard3
"tora/e ,o-tai-ers shall be lo,ated
as -ear as possible to haEard area
but shall -ot be e4posed to .ire3
"tora/e ,o-tai-ers shall be ,are.ully
lo,ated so that they are -ot sub@e,ted
to me,ha-i,al, ,hemi,al or other
(ll the ,ompo-e-ts o. the system
shall be ,apable o. withsta-di-/ heat
o. .ire a-d se5ere weather ,o-ditio-s3
!- additio- to semi-.i4ed .oam system,
*lea- (/e-t automati, dete,tio- a-d
suppressio- system -eeds to be
pro5ided o- Floati-/ roo. ta-ks .or rim
seal .ire prote, >323C+3
&he *lea- (/e-t based prote,tio-
system ,o-sists o. a- i--built .ire-
dete,tio-, ,o-trol a-d a,tuatio-
me,ha-ism3 !. a rim seal .ire o,,urs,
its heat ,auses o-e or more spray
-oEEles to ope- a-d the e4ti-/uishi-/
/as #,lea- a/e-t+ is applied o- the
sur.a,e o. .ire a-d simulta-eously
alarm is also sou-ded3
(--e4ure-7!! .or a typi,al system o.
automati, rim seal prote,tio- usi-/
,lea- a/e-t3
Floati-/ roo. ta-ks o. <0 0 a-d abo5e
diameter should be ,o-sidered .or
prote,tio- by i-stalli-/ su,h system3
'lean agent as per 52P0 266,"2664
&dition# is re,omme-ded .or
prote,tio- o. ,o-trol rooms a-d
,omputer item >3237 .or
the sa.ety /uideli-es+3
2urther$ to a5oid u--e,essary
e4posure to clean agent gas , perso-s
should be e5a,uated .rom the areas
!hen the system ,omes i-to
*arbo- dio4ide is a- odourless a-d
,olourless i-ert /as ha5i-/ a pro5e-
.ire e4ti-/uishi-/ property3 9he-
applied i- a proper ma--er a-d i-
proper 6ua-tities o- a .ire haEard, it
e4ti-/uishes .ire by ,utti-/ o.. the
o4y/e- a-d ,reati-/ a- i-ert
atmosphere arou-d the haEard3 !. the
i-ert atmosphere is mai-tai-ed .or a
reaso-able time the possibility o. .lash
ba,k also is redu,ed3
*arbo- dio4ide is best applied to a .ire
haEard throu/h a .i4ed system
,o-sisti-/ o. *2 stora/e, distributio-
pipi-/ a-d dis,har/e -oEEles3
Fi4ed *2 systems ,a- be pro5ided
.or 5arious haEards3 "ome o. the
haEards whi,h ,a- be e..e,ti5ely
prote,ted are as .ollowsA
a+ %-ma--ed turbo-/e-erators, swit,h
/ear rooms, ,able du,ts, et,3
b+ Re,ord rooms3
,+ Dry type il .illed tra-s.ormers3
&he re6uireme-t .or ea,h item should
be de,ided at the desi/- sta/e3
E4241 &he basi, re6uireme-t o. desi/-i-/
the .i4ed *2 system .or .ire prote,tio-
is to pro5ide a desi/- ,o-,e-tratio- o.
*2 arou-d the haEard .or a
reaso-able time3 &he basi, desi/-
,o-,e-tratio- depe-ds o- the type
a-d lo,atio- o. the haEard3
a+ &otal .loodi-/ system is pro5ided
where there is a perma-e-t
e-,losure arou-d the haEard3 &he
desi/- ,o-,e-tratio-s a-d .loodi-/
.a,tor are /i5e- below .or some o.
the haEards3
=*D*(d 3*sic F'ooding
design +*cto(
*o-,e-tratio- #K+ k/ o. *280
*o-trol rooms, ?0 13<0
"wit,h-/ear rooms,
*able du,t et,3
Re,ord rooms <? 230
b+ 9here the haEard is -ot e-,losed
or is so lar/e that total .loodi-/
system tur-s out to be
u-e,o-omi,al, lo,al appli,atio-
system should be used3 il .illed
tra-s.ormers are su,h e4amples3
&he rate o. dis,har/e .or the lo,al
appli,atio- system may be take-
as 1< k/8mi-8m
o. a- assumed
5olume arou-d the haEard3 &he
assumed walls a-d ,eili-/ o. this
e-,losure shall be at least 03< 0
.rom the haEard3 ( mi-imum
dime-sio- o. 132 m shall be
,o-sidered .or ,al,ulati-/ the
5olume o. the assumed e-,losure3
0i-imum e..e,ti5e dis,har/e time
.or ,omputi-/ 6ua-tities o. *2
shall be C0 se,o-ds3
E4242 Fi4ed *2 system should be desi/-ed
a-d i-stalled i- a,,orda-,e with
;323C Perso-s i- the ,o-.i-ed area -eed to
be e5a,uated be.ore the *2 .loodi-/ system
is operated3
&he e4ti-/uishi-/ system ,omprises o.
supplyi-/ the Dry *hemi,al a/e-t,
ma-ually or automati,ally, throu/h a
distributio- system o-to or i-to the
prote,ted haEard3
Dry ,hemi,al powder e4ti-/uishi-/
system ,a- e..e,ti5ely be used o-
.ollowi-/ haEards3
& )le,tri,al haEard su,h as
tra-s.ormers or oil ,ir,uit
& *ombustible solids ha5i-/
bur-i-/ ,hara,teristi, like
-aphthale-e or pit whi,h melts
while o- .ire3
& *lass =(=,=B=,=*= 1 =D= .ire usi-/
multipurpose dry ,hemi,al3
Re6uireme-t .or ea,h item should
be .i-alised while de,idi-/ desi/-
Basi, re6uireme-t o. desi/-i-/ the dry
,hemi,al e4ti-/uishi-/ system is to
pro5ide .or su..i,ie-t 6ua-tity a-d rate
o. dis,har/e depe-di-/ upo- the
"ystem ,o-sists o. dry ,hemi,al
powder a-d e4pelle-t /as ,o-tai-er
assemblies o. ,apa,ity su..i,ie-t .or
/i5e- haEard with distributio- pipi-/
a-d dis,har/e -oEEles3 "ystem ,a-
be a,tuated ma-ually or automati,ally
o- 5isual or automati, mea-s o.
dete,tio-3 (larm a-d i-di,atio- shall
be pro5ided to show that the system
has operated a-d perso--el respo-se
is -eeded3
Perso--el sa.ety shall i-,lude trai-i-/,
war-i-/ si/-s, dis,har/e alarm,
respiratory prote,tio- a-d prompt
e5a,uatio- o. perso--el3
Followi-/ types o. systems ,a- be
pro5ided to prote,t a haEardA
a3 &otal .loodi-/ system
b3 $o,al appli,atio- system
,3 Ha-d hose li-e system, a-d
d3 PPre-e-/i-eered system NFP(-17 .or limitatio-s 1 pre,autio-s
.or use o. dry ,hemi,al a-d .or system desi/-+
Portable .ire .i/hti-/ e6uipme-t
shall be pro5ided i- Re.i-ery8Pro,ess pla-t as
i-di,ated i- the .ollowi-/ tableA
Desc(i:tion No(-s$c(ite(i* to dete(-ine t0e Gu*ntit) needed
i+ Dry ,hemi,al powder#D*P+
.ire e4ti-/uishers -10 k/
,apa,ityA !"A21718 %$2::
9hile sele,ti-/ the )4ti-/uisher, due ,o-sideratio- should be
/i5e- o- the .a,tors like .low rate, dis,har/e time a-d throw i-
li-e with !"A21:0 8 %$7113
)4ti-/uisher to be lo,ated i- pro,ess u-its, pump houses,
pump area,
$P2 stora/e area, $P2 bottli-/ pla-t, il separator, ta-k tru,k8
ta-k wa/o- loadi-/ areas, substatio-s,
9ork shops, laboratory, power statio- buildi-/s et,3
&he -umber should be determi-ed based o- the ma43 &ra5eli-/
dista-,e o. 1? 0 i- abo5e areas3 (t least o-e .ire e4ti-/uisher
should be pro5ided .or e5ery 2?0 02 o. haEardous operati-/ area3
&here shall be -ot less tha- two e4ti-/uishers at o-e desi/-ated
lo,atio- e3/3 pump house3
ii+ Dry ,hemi,al powder .ire
e4ti-/uishers 2?8?087? k/
,apa,ityA !"A10<?;8 %$2::
&he e4ti-/uishers with the sele,tio- ,riteria 5iE3 .low rate,
dis,har/e time a-d throw me-tio-ed as abo5e, to be lo,ated i-
,riti,al operati-/ areas3
(t least o-e .ire e4ti-/uisher should be pro5ided .or e5ery 7?0 02
o. haEardous operati-/ area3
iii+ *2 e4ti-/uishers
>3?8<3?8:308223? k/
,apa,ity #!"A2;7;8%$1?>+
&o be lo,ated i- substatio-s, power statio-s, o..i,e buildi-/ a-d
,o-trol room3 &he -umber should be determi-ed based o- the
ma43 tra5eli-/ dista-,e o. 1? metre3 (t least o-e .ire e4ti-/uisher
should be pro5ided .or e5ery 2?0 02 o. haEardous operati-/ area3
&here shall -ot be less tha- 2-os3 e4ti-/uishers at o-e desi/-ated
lo,atio- e3/3 ,o-trol room3
i5+Portable ,lea- a/e-t
&o be lo,ated i- ,o-trol rooms, ,omputer rooms, laboratories a-d
o..i,e buildi-/s3
5+ Portable water-,um-.oam
2 -o3 .or Petroleum re.i-ery a-d 1 -o3 .or 2as Pro,essi-/ Pla-t
5i+ "team la-,ers#as a part
o. utility statio-+
For .i/hti-/ i-,ipie-t .ires at .la-/e leaka/es 1 hot pumps3
5ii+ Rubber hose reel #2?mm+ &o be lo,ated i- Pro,ess u-it battery limits a-d other pro,ess
areas .or 6ue-,hi-/ o. i-,ipie-t .ires3
Note 8 ? B/ D*P )4ti-/uisher may be pro5ided at ele5ated lo,atio-s3
1042 "isce''*neous EGui:-ent8 (dditio-ally, .ollowi-/ items may also be ,o-sidered3 &he -umber o.
u-its re6uired .or these shall be de,ided by lo,al ma-a/eme-t, o- ,ase-to-,ase basis3
i+ &hermal ima/i-/ *ameraA (s a- aid to the .irema- duri-/ .ire .i/hti-/ operatio- to lo,ate the seat
o. the .ire a-d to .a,ilitate sear,h a-d res,ue operatio- i- smoky area e3/3 duri-/ ,able /allery3
ii+ Perso-al Prote,ti5e )6uipme-t re6uired duri-/ Fire Fi/hti-/ like 9ater /el based bla-ket, Fire
Pro4imity "uit, "el. ,o-tai-ed breathi-/ apparatus, (ir li-e breathi-/ apparatus, "a.ety Helmets,
Fire Helmets, "tret,her, First (id bo4, Rubber ha-d /lo5es, ,a-ister mask et,3
iii+ &he -umber o. u-it re6uired .or these may be de,ided by lo,al ma-a/eme-t, o- ,ase to ,ase
i5+ 0is,ella-eous )6uipme-t like Portable 2as dete,tors, )4plosi5e meter, 4y/e- meter, Ha-d
operated sire-, Red82ree- Fla/ .or .ire drill, "a.e walk roo. top ladder, emer/e-,y li/hti-/,
portable me/a pho-e et,3
1141 Fire Tenders8
&he e4a,t -umber o. fire tenders shall be
hi/her o. the items #a+ or #b+A
#a+ &he 6ua-tities .irmed up i- ea,h ,ase
based o- two simulta-eous ma@or
.ires taki-/ i-to ,o-sideratio- the
siEe, lo,atio- o. the pla-t a-d
statutory re6uireme-ts3
#b+ &he 6ua-tities i-di,ated below3
i+ C -os3 o. .oam te-ders out o.
whi,h two are .or .ire .i/hti-/ o-e
.or spill8 sta-dby3 &he .oam
te-der should ha5e .oam ta-k
,apa,ity o. C0008C<00 !itre3 a-d
the pump ,apa,ity o. mi-imum
>000 !pm at ;3? k/8,m
ii+ -e D*P te-der ha5i-/ 2 5essels
o. 2000 k/ ,apa,ity ea,h with
Nitro/e- as e4pella-t /as3 &hese
are re6uired .or .i/hti-/ $P282as
( mo-itor should ha5e a 5ariable
throw o. 1?82?8>0 k/8se,3 &he throw
o. the mo-itor shall be >0 to ?0 0
.or the D*P ,har/e3
1142 Ot0e( "o9i'e EGui:-ent
i+ 2 -os3 o. .oam ta-k trailers with
water ,um .oam mo-itors ha5i-/
.oam ta-k ,apa,ity o. 1000 liters
a-d mo-itors ,apa,ity o. mi-imum
2?00 !pm3
ii+ 2 -os3 o. &rolley mou-ted water
,um .oam mo-itors o. ,apa,ity o.
mi-imum >000 lpm3
iii+ 1 to 2 -umbers o. Foam Nurser
#i3e3&railer mou-ted .oam
,ompou-d supply ta-k+ with .oam
,ompou-d ta-k o. 7000 G 1<000
litre ,apa,ity with suitable pump
.or .oam tra-s.er3
i5+ 1 to 2 -os3 o. portable/ trailer .ire
pumps o. ,apa,ity ra-/i-/ .rom
1;00 to 22?0 !pm at dis,har/e
pressure o. 7 k/8,m
1147 Ot0e( Fi(e Fig0ting EGui:-ent
i+)mer/e-,y res,ue e6uipme-t like ,utters,
e4pa-ders, i-.latable li.ti-/ ba/s, leak
pads, prote,ti5e ,lothi-/, breathi-/
apparatus, trolley mou-ted B( set
ii+ Fire HosesA !" <C<A &ype ( or "y-theti,
hose o. &ype B3
T0e 0ose 'engt0 shall be ,al,ulated
as .ollowsA
i+ For i-stallatio- with hydra-ts
upto 100 NosA - -e 1? mtrs
hose le-/th8hydra-t3
ii+ For i-stallatio- with more tha-
100 hydra-tsA
& -e 1? metre hose
le-/th8hydra-t, .or the .irst
100 hydra-tsQ a-d,
& -e 1? 0 hose le-/th .or
e5ery 10 hydra-ts abo5e
&he hose le-/th so ,al,ulated
may be suitably di5ided i-to
hose le-/ths o. 1? 0, 223? 0
or C0 03 . the total
re6uireme-t o. the hoses,
mi-imum ?0K o. hoses shall
be o. type B3
iii+ Fire @eep #s+ with two way radio
,ommu-i,atio- .a,ility a-d towi-/ .a,ility3
i5+ -e ambula-,e .itted with medi,al aid
a-d suitable arra-/eme-ts3
5+ ther a,,essories, .oam maki-/ bra-,h
pipes, -oEEles, et,3 as per re6uireme-ts3
5i+ >L Hoses o. suitable le-/th .or .eedi-/ to
lar/e ,apa,ity mo-itors where5er
!- additio- to abo5e, pro5isio- o. .ollowi-/
e6uipme-t may also be ,o-sideredA
i+ "uitable e6uipme-t .or .i/hti-/ hi/h
le5el .ires3
ii+ 0ultipurpose .ire .i/hti-/ skid may be
used as a si-/le sel. su..i,ie-t u-it o.
ha5i-/ ,apa,ity o. dis,har/i-/ .oam,
water a-d D*P a-d thus per.ormi-/
multiple .u-,tio-s e..e,ti5ely,
i-di5idually or to/ether, sa5i-/ power
a-d time i- ,ombati-/ a .ire3 "u,h a
0ultipurpose .ire .i/hti-/ skid may be
used i- lieu o. o-e .oam te-der8 D*P
te-der as des,ribed i- ,6.,"b#?"i#.
Broad spe,i.i,atio-s o. the .ire .i/hti-/
e6uipme-t listed abo5e are /i5e- i-
&he .ollowi-/ 6ua-tities o. .ire .i/hti-/
a/e-ts shall be stored i- the Re.i-ery as
/i5e- below i- the table3
Desc(i:tion Fu*ntit) to 9e sto(ed
i+ Dry ,hemi,al powderA Rea,tio- product
of urea and Potassium bi,arbo-ate i3e3
Potassium *arbamate or Potassium
(llopho-ate base - as spare ,har/e .or
the D*P te-der8&rolleys3 &he D*P
produ,t should be %$ listed3
9hile sele,ti-/ the dry ,hemi,al powder,
due ,o-sideratio- should be /i5e- to the
typi,al properties 5iE3 (ppare-t De-sity
#03<? J8- 030?+, Fire Rati-/ #1>>B+,
&hermal 2ra5imetri, (-alysis #with
de,ompositio- at arou-d 2?0
*+ a-d
.oam ,ompatibility3
>000 k/ .or the D*P te-der plus ?00 k/ .or
additio-al re6uireme-t3 &his is i- additio- to
the ,har/e loaded o- te-der3
ii+ "ili,o-ised Potassium bi,arbo-ate D*P
powder #!" >C0;A200C8%$ listed+ 8 0o-o-
ammo-ium phosphate based D*P
powder #!"A 1><0:8%$ listed+ .or
re,har/i-/ o. .ire e4ti-/uishers3
(s re6uired based o- shel. li.e3 Howe5er,
mi-imum 10K o. the total ,har/e i- the
e4ti-/uishers should be mai-tai-ed3
iii+ Foam ,ompou-dA #!"A >:;: #Part-!!!+ 8 %$
listed #%$-1<2+
Hi/her o. the 6ua-tities i- A
13 <0,000 litre #e4,ludi-/ that i- .oam
te-der+ .or i-stallatio- ha5i-/ lar/est ta-k
o. diameter as <0 03
23 77,000 litre #e4,ludi-/ that i- .oam
te-der+ .or i-stallatio- ha5i-/ lar/est ta-k
o. diameter as 7: 03 r, #as ,al,ulated i-
C3 !- the i-stallatio- where the lar/est ta-k
diameter is less tha- <0 0, .oam
6ua-tity re6uireme-t #e4,ludi-/ that i-
.oam te-der+ shall be ,al,ulated as per
>3>311 o. !"D-"&D-1173 (--e4ure- !! a-d (--e4ure-7! .or
typi,al ,al,ulatio- .or .oam re6uireme-t+
Huma- bei-/s are e4,elle-t .ire
dete,tors si-,e they possess se-se o.
smell, si/ht, a-d tou,h3 But si-,e huma-
se-ses are also u-reliable due to the
-eed .or .re6ue-t rest a-d rela4atio-, a
-umber o. me,ha-i,al, ele,tri,al a-d
ele,tro-i, de5i,es ha5e bee- de5eloped
to mimi, huma- se-ses i- the dete,tio-
o. /ases 8 smoke 8 heat a-d .lame3
( .lammable /as dete,tor is desi/-ed to
/i5e a war-i-/ o. the prese-,e o.
.lammable /ases or 5apours i- air, well
be.ore they rea,h e4plosi5e
,o-,e-tratio-s3 Normally, the dete,tor
pro5ides 5isible a-d audible alarm
si/-als, but .re6ue-tly it per.orms a
.urther .u-,tio- by i-itiati-/ ,o-trol
a,tio- su,h as i-,reasi-/ 5e-tilatio- or
shutti-/ o.. the sour,e o. /as3 (
.lammable /as dete,tor ,a- also be
used .or tra,i-/ leaks a-d ,he,ki-/ that
5essels or tu--els are /as .ree be.ore
174141 &he .ollowi-/ areas should be pro5ided
with hydro,arbo- /as dete,torsA
&$i/ht hydro,arbo- pumps i-
pro,ess u-its3
&Pro,ess ,ooli-/ tower top
plat.orm i- the u-its ha5i-/
pressurised ,ooli-/ water retur-3
&Fuel /as k-o,k out drum
&"u,tio- side o. .or,ed dra.t air
blowers i. lo,ated where
hydro,arbo- 5apours may be
& $i/ht hydro,arbo- pump
statio-s i. lo,ated below /rade
& $P2 Horto- spheres
& $P2 pump house
& $P2 bulk tru,k loadi-/ area
& $P2 bulk wa/o- loadi-/ area
&$P2 bottli-/, stora/e, repair
&2as ,ompressor
&(ir-i-take poi-t .or ,o-trol
room, i- li-e with !"D-"&D-
&he e4a,t lo,atio- a-d -umber o. poi-ts
should be de,ided o- -eed basis3
174142 Followi-/ areas shall be pro5ided with
"moke8 Flame 8 Heat dete,tors with
alarm a-d8or system to a,tuate rele5a-t
.ire suppressio- systemA
&$P2 spheres
&$P2 .illi-/ sheds
&$P2 pumps8,ompressors
&$P2 loadi-/8u-loadi-/, both i-
ta-k tru,k a-d ta-k wa/o- /a-try
(dditio-ally, .ollowi-/ areas may also
be pro5ided with suitable dete,torsA
&)4tremely haEardous area i-
pro,ess u-its
&Floati-/ Roo. &a-ks, *omputer
room, *erver room, Pro,ess
,o-trol rooms, Re,ord room
&%-ma--ed ele,tri, substatio-s 8
0** rooms
&*able /alleries
&'hemical *torage
)..e,ti5e ,ommu-i,atio- is a- esse-tial
eleme-t i- the .ire prote,tio- system o.
a-y pla-t3 &he .ollowi-/ ,ommu-i,atio-
systems should be pro5ided i- the
Re.i-ery8Pro,ess pla-ts3
i+ &)$)PHN)
Fire "tatio- *o-trol Room shall be
pro5ided with 2 -os3 o. i-ter-al
telepho-es whi,h are e4,lusi5ely mea-t
.or re,ei5i-/ .ire8emer/e-,y ,alls o-ly3
&hese pho-es should ha5e .a,ilities .or
i-,omi-/ ,alls o-ly3 For /e-eral
,ommu-i,atio- a separate telepho-e
should be pro5ided3
Fire "tatio- should also ha5e a dire,t
P1& telepho-e3 Hot li-e, telepho-e .or
,o-ta,ti-/ mutual aid parties shall be
pro5ided where5er possible3
Publi, address system should be
,o--e,ted to all ,o-trol rooms,
admi-istratio- buildi-/ #all .loors+, all
departme-tal heads, se,urity et,3
&elepho-e e4,ha-/e should ,o-trol a-d
take ,are o. this system3
SSTE" $ !A%IN%
(ir raid ,ommu-i,atio- system #with
,i5il de.e-,e+ should be pro5ided i- the
,o-trol room o. .ire statio-3 &he details
o. su,h a system should be worked out
i- asso,iatio- with ,i5il de.e-,e
authorities o. the area3
(lter-ati5ely, /roup ,ommu-i,atio-
system #all ,all system+8 alpha
-umeri,al pa/er system may be
,o-sidered .or /roup emer/e-,y
&he Fire sire-8s should be lo,ated
suitably to ,o5er the whole area with the
operatio-al ,o-trol i- the Fire statio-
,o-trol room3 &hese should be tested at
least o-,e i- a week to keep them i-
worki-/ ,o-ditio-3
Fire sire- ,ode should be as .ollowsA
13 "0
($$ F!R)A No sire-
23 0(
DR F!R)A ( waili-/ sire- .or
two mi-utes3
C3 D!"
("&)RA "ame type o. sire- as
i- ,ase o. 0a@or Fire but the
same will be sou-ded .or three
times at the i-ter5al o. one
mi-utes i3e." !ailing siren 2min
@ gap , min @ !ailing siren
2min @ gap ,min @ !ailing siren
2min# total duration of <isaster
siren to be eight minutes3
>3 ($$
*$)(R #For .ire+A "trai/ht ru-
sire- .or two mi-utes3
?3 &)"&A "trai/ht ru- sire- .or
two mi-utes at .re6ue-,y atleast
o-,e a week3
(ll the Fire &e-ders shall be pro5ided
with a walkie-talkie8 wireless system
whi,h will help i- ,ommu-i,ati-/ with
the people i- ,ase the other system
.ails3 Besides, key perso--el ,o-
ordi-ati-/ emer/e-,y operatio-s should
also be pro5ided with walkie-talkie3
&he .ire alarm system i-,ludes ma-ual
,all poi-ts #break /lass+, automati,
/as8smoke8heat dete,tors, release 1
i-hibit swit,hes .or .ire suppressi-/
,lea- a/e-t a-d ,o-5e-tio-al or mi,ro-
pro,essor based data /atheri-/ pa-els
5iE3 ,e-tral .ire alarm pa-el, mimi,
pa-els 1 asso,iated e6uipme-ts3
0a-ual *all Poi-ts shall be pro5ided at
suitable lo,atio-s like a,,ess poi-t,
approa,h roads, walkways et,3 to ,o5er
the ,riti,al areas3 &hese ma-ual ,all
poi-ts a,ti5ate the audio-5isual alarm i-
the *e-tral .ire alarm pa-el i-stalled i-
.ire statio- a-d i- the repeater pa-el
i-stalled i- the respe,ti5e area ,o-trol
room#s+3 &he lo,atio- o. these poi-ts
shall be ,o-spi,uously marked o- the
a--u-,iatio- pa-el .or proper
ide-ti.i,atio-3 &hese ma-ual ,all poi-ts
may also ha5e suitably wired telepho-e
ha-dset to .a,ilitate ,ommu-i,atio- with
respe,ti5e area ,o-trol room a-d .ire
&he .ire prote,tio- e6uipme-t shall be
kept i- /ood operati-/ ,o-ditio- all the
time a-d the .ire .i/hti-/ system shall be
periodi,ally tested .or proper .u-,tio-i-/
a-d lo//ed .or re,ord a-d ,orre,ti5e
a,tio-s3 !- additio- to routi-e daily
,he,ks8mai-te-a-,e, the .ollowi-/
periodi, i-spe,tio-8testi-/ shall be
1?41 FIRE .ATER !U"!S
i+ )5ery pump should be tested by ru--i-/
it mi-imum two times a week3
ii+ -,e a mo-th ea,h pump should be
,he,ked .or the shut o.. pressure and auto start
operation. bser5atio-s should be lo//ed3
iii+ -,e i- si4 mo-ths ea,h pump should
be ,he,ked .or per.orma-,e3 &his may be do-e
by ope-i-/ re6uired -umber o.
hydra-ts8mo-itors depe-di-/ o- the ,apa,ity o.
the pump a-d by 5eri.yi-/ that the dis,har/e
pressure, .low a-d the motor load are i-
,o-.orma-,e with the desi/- parameters3 For
.low measureme-t suitable de5i,es like
ultraso-i, i-strume-t may be ,o-sidered3
&he ri-/ mai- should be ,he,ked o-,e
a year .or leaks et,3 by operati-/ o-e or
more pumps with the hydra-t poi-ts
kept ,losed as re6uired to /et the
ma4imum operati-/ pressure3
&he ri-/ mai-, hydra-ts, mo-itors,
5al5es should be 5isually i-spe,ted
e5ery mo-th .or a-y pil.era/e, de.e,ts
a-d dama/e3
(ll .ire mai- 5al5es should be ,he,ked
.or operatio- a-d lubri,ated once in si3
months for fresh !ater and once in
three months for saline/&8P !ater.
8hic%ness survey > inspection of
2ire!ater header should be done once
in three years3
*egment ? !ise flushing of main header
should be done once a year3
Fi4ed water ,ooli-/ spray systems o-
stora/e ta-ks should be tested at least
o-,e i- si4 mo-ths3
Delu/e systems o- $P2 spheres a-d
bullets should be tested at least o-,e i-
e5ery three mo-ths, .or proper
"pray system i- $P2 bottli-/ pla-t a-d
should be tested at least o-,e i- e5ery
6uarter3 peratio- of R7s should be
,he,ked o-,e i- three mo-ths3
Foam system o- stora/e ta-ks should
be tested o-,e i- 12 mo-ths3 &his shall
i-,lude the testi-/ o. .oam maker8
&he .oam ,hamber should be desi/-ed
suitably to .a,ilitate testi-/ o. .oam
dis,har/e outside the ,o-e roo. ta-k3
Pipi-/ should be .lushed with water a.ter
testi-/ .oam system3
&hi,k-ess sur5ey 1 i-spe,tio- o. Foam
system pipi-/ should be do-e o-,e i-
three years3
&he systems should be ,he,ked as
/i5e- belowA
a+ (/e-t 6ua-tity a-d pressure o. re.illable
,o-tai-ers should be ,he,ked, si4
b+ &he ,omplete "ystem should be
i-spe,ted .or proper operatio- o-,e
e5ery year latest NFP(
2001#200> )ditio-+ .or details o.
i-spe,tio- o. 5arious systems+3
Foam te-ders should be tested at least
o-,e a week3 &his should i-,lude
ru--i-/ o. pump a-d .oam /e-eratio-
(ll other mobile e6uipme-t should be
,he,ked, ser5i,ed a-d periodi,ally
tested u-der operati-/ ,o-ditio-s, at
least o-,e a mo-th3
&railer mou-ted pumps should be test
ru- at least o-,e a week3
(ll the .ire hoses should be hydrauli,ally
tested at least o-,e i- si4 mo-ths3
D*P te-der should be 5isually i-spe,ted
e5ery week3 &his should i-,lude
,he,ki-/ o. e4pelled /as3
Re,ords shall be mai-tai-ed o. all
mai-te-a-,e, testi-/ a-d remedial8
,orre,ti5e a,tio-s take- where5er
1?37 DC!$ CO2$ FOA" T!E FIRE
!-spe,tio- a-d testi-/ .re6ue-,y a-d
pro,edure should be i- li-e with !"D-
Fire sire-s should be tested at least
o-,e a week3 &esti-/ o. 0a-ual ,all
poi-ts o-,e i- a mo-th, walkie-talkies
e5ery week a-d other ,ommu-i,atio-
systems ,o5ered u-der item 1C30 should
be do-e as per ma-u.a,turerNs
&he operability o. all types o. dete,tors
should be tested o-,e i- e5ery three
mo-ths3 *alibratio- o. /as dete,tors
usi-/ test /as should be do-e o-,e i-
e5ery si4 mo-ths or as per
ma-u.a,turer=s spe,i.i,atio- whi,he5er
is earlier3
( .ull-.led/ed .ire .i/hti-/ or/a-isatio-
shall be pro5ided3 ( typi,al or/a-isatio-
.or the .ire a-d sa.ety departme-t .or a
lar/e siEe, Re.i-ery82as Pro,ess Pla-t
is /i5e- belowA
&he Fire Prote,tio- 8 Fi/hti-/
or/a-isatio- shall be ma--ed by
perso--el ha5i-/ suitable pro.essio-al
6uali.i,atio- 1 trai-i-/. For ease o.
ide-ti.i,atio- o. the .ire .i/hters, the ,rew
members should be pro5ided separate
(ll the pla-t perso--el shall be trai-ed o-
.ire pre5e-tio- a-d .ire .i/hti-/ aspe,ts3
Fire .i/hti-/ skill up/radatio- 8 re.resher
trai-i-/ shall be /i5e- periodi,ally3 &he
.ire ,rew belo-/i-/ to the .ire .i/hti-/
departme-t shall be /i5e- i-te-si5e
trai-i-/ .or the use o. all e6uipme-t a-d
i- 5arious .ire .i/hti-/ methods .or
ha-dli-/ di..ere-t types o. .ires3
( .ire trai-i-/ /rou-d with the .ollowi-/
mi-imum trai-i-/ .a,ilities should be set
up A

D208*H!)F 0(N(2)R
F!R) 1 "(F)&'
"R 02R80(N(2)R
# F!R) PR&)*&!N+
"R 0(N(2)R38
0(N(2)R #"(F)&'+
"R3F!R) FF!*)R
#F!R) 0(!N&3+
02R8D'302R 8
"R3 FF!*)R
)(*H "H!F& "R3 F! R) FF!*)R 1 F!R)
&re-,h .ire simulatio- .a,ilities
( small ope- top ta-k .ire simulatio-
Pa- .ire simulatio- .a,ility3
Pipeli-e .la-/e leak .ire simulatio-
Fire suits a-d breathi-/ apparatus3
( mo,k .ire drill should be ,o-du,ted
o-,e i- a mo-th to rehearse the .ire
emer/e-,y pro,edure a-d to keep the
.ire .i/hti-/ team trai-ed a-d alert a-d
.a,ilities i- top order3
( layout o. typi,al .ire trai-i-/ /rou-d a-d
a brie. write up o- the .a,ilities i- the
trai-i-/ /rou-d are /i5e- i- (--e4ure-!73
Re.i-eries8pro,ess pla-ts should ha5e
writte- mutual aid a/reeme-ts with
similar -ei/hbouri-/ i-dustries .ully
detaili-/ the respo-sibilities o. the
members o. the s,heme, the pro,edures
to be adopted, the mi-imum -umber o.
e6uipme-t a-d ma-power a-d mi-imum
6ua-tity o. ,o-sumables to be
e4,ha-/ed8loa-ed3 ( model a/reeme-t
o. mutual aid is /i5e- i- (--e4ure - 73
( ,hart showi-/ the abo5e arra-/eme-t
shall be e4hibited promi-e-tly at least i-
.ire statio- and <isaster 'ontrol =oom.
)a,h i-stallatio- shall prepare a detailed
LFire emer/e-,y pro,eduresL ma-ual .or
use by the or/a-isatio-3
&he .ire emer/e-,y pro,edures i-,ludi-/
.ire .i/hti-/ pla- should be prepared .or
.i/hti-/ .ires i- the pro,ess u-its, i- a-d
arou-d ta-ks, i- the $P2 stora/e a-d
bottli-/ pla-ts, produ,t loadi-/ /a-tries,
separators, ele,tri,al .ire, warehouse a-d
buildi-/ .ires et,3
Fire "tatio- *o-trol Room is o. ,riti,al
importa-,e as it is mai- ,oordi-ati-/
,e-tre betwee- the emer/e-,y site a-d
respo-se ,rew3 !mporta-t a,ti5ities o.
,o-trol room are ,ommu-i,atio-,
mobilisatio-, up-keepi-/ a-d
mai-te-a-,e3 &he lo,atio- a-d
,o-stru,tio- o. ,o-trol room should
there.ore be suitable .or these a,ti5ities3
Fire statio- should be lo,ated at
mi-imum risk area3 !t should be spa,ed
at a sa.e dista-,e .rom a-y pro,ess pla-t
a-d other haEardous areas3 For details !"D-"&D-11;3
9he- pla--i-/ .or -ew .ire statio-,
ade6uate la-d should be pro5ided .or
parki-/ a-d ma-eu5eri-/ o. .ire
applia-,es3 (lso, a,,ess a-d e4its o. the
buildi-/ should -ot be obstru,ted by
other 5ehi,les3
Fire statio- ,o-trol room should be ,lose
to parki-/ bay .or .ire applia-,es a-d
should ha5e /ood 5iew o. 5ehi,les
(dditio-al Fire-post may be ,o-sidered
duri-/ the e4pa-sio- .or impro5i-/ the
respo-se time3
Reliable ,ommu-i,atio- system is must
.or supporti-/ e..e,ti5e .ire ser5i,e dept3
operatio-s3 Followi-/ e6uipme-t must be
a5ailable i- the *o-trol Room, #i+
&elepho-es #2+ 9ireless sets8 walkie-
talkie #with a dedi,ated .re6ue-,y+ #C+
Hotli-es to -ei/hbouri-/ i-dustries8,i5il
Fire Bri/ade #>+ Fire (larm system with
,e-tral ,o-trol i- .ire statio-3
2047 %ENERAL8
a+ Fire "tatio- should ha5e 2 o5erhead
stora/e ta-ks .or .oam ,ompou-d stora/e, so
that duri-/ emer/e-,y re.illi-/ is -ot delayed3
b+ *o-trol room should ha5e portable
emer/e-,y li/hts3
,+ Fire "tatio- should ha5e promi-e-tly
lo,ated pressure /au/e showi-/ .ire water
-etwork pressure3
d+ &mergency po!er supply shall be
ensured for 2ire *tation > 2ire !ater Pump
(lthou/h ade6uate .ire prote,tio- is
pro5ided i- a- i-stallatio-, Passi5e .ire
prote,tio- measures as i-di,ated below
should be adopted where5er re6uired3
a+ Fire Proo.i-/ o. stru,tural members
b+ "park (rresters a-d Flame (rresters
,+ Fire "eparatio- 9alls i- ,o-,ealed
spa,e8)le,tri,al "ubstatio-8 tra-s.ormer yard8
bays8 ,able /alleries3
d+ Fire "eals i- u-der/rou-d sewer
system 8 Flare B-o,k out Drums
e+ !mpou-di-/ Basi-s8Dyke 9alls
.+ $i/ht-i-/ (rresters
/+ Pressurisatio- o. )-,losure
h+ 7e-ti-/ Fa,ilities o. pro,ess
i+ )le,tri,al Relays a-d Fuses, earth
leaka/e ,ir,uit breakers, -eutral ,urre-t ,ir,uit
@+ Fire retarda-t ,oati-/s a-d tapes .or
k+ Fire resista-t low smoke i-sulatio-
l+ Flame proo. a-d .lame resista-t
ele,tri,al e-,losure3
m+ !-sulatio- o. hot sur.a,es3
!- 5iew o. ,o-ti-uous e4pa-sio- a-d
additio-s i- re.i-eries, the system should
be i-ter-ally audited o-,e i- C years .or
,omplia-,e o. !"D sta-dards a-d
statutory re6uireme-ts
1+ NFP(-11 "ta-dard For $ow )4pa-sio-
Foam "ystems
2+ NFP( 11-( "ta-dard For 0edium 1
Hi/h )4pa-sio- Foam "ystems
C+ NFP( 1C "ta-dard For &he !-stallatio-
. "pri-kler "ystems
>+ NFP( 1? "ta-dard For !-stallatio- .
9ater "pray "ystems
?+ NFP( 17 D*P "ystem
<+ NFP( 20 "ta-dard For !-stallatio- .
*e-tri.u/al Fire Pumps
7+ NFP(-2001#200> )ditio-+ *lea- Fire
)4ti-/uishi-/ "ystem
;+ (P! - 2001 Fire Prote,tio- !- Re.i-eries
:+ Petroleum Rules -2002
10+ Fire Prote,tio- 0a-ual #Part-!i+ . &(*
11+ &(* Buildi-/ Re/ulatio-s
12+ &(* Re/ulatio-s For )le,tri,al
)6uipme-t . Buildi-/s
1C+ 0odel *ode . "a.e Pra,ti,es - &he
!-stitute . Petroleum #%3 B3 +
1>+ !-ter-atio-al "a.e Pra,ti,es . il
1?+ !"AC;>>- *ode . Pra,ti,e For
!-stallatio- . !-ter-al Fire Hydra-ts !-
0ultistorey Buildi-/
1<+ !"D-"&D-1>2 !-spe,tio- . Fire
Fi/hti-/ )6uipme-t 1 "ystems
17+ !"D-"&D-1?> "a.ety (spe,ts !-
Fu-,tio-al &rai-i-/
1;+ Eo-e Depletio- "ubsta-,es
Re/ulatio- 1 *o-trol Rules 2000,
0i-istry o. )-5iro-me-t 1 Forests,
2o5er-me-t o. !-dia
1:+ Byoto Proto,ol
20+ !"-1?<;CA Portable Fire )4ti-/uishers
- Per.orma-,e a-d *o-stru,tio- -
21+ !"A,4)6- A Dry *hemi,al Powder .or
.i/hti-/ (,B,* *lass Fires - "pe,i.i,atio-
22+ %$1?>A *arbo--Dio4ide Fire
2C+ %$2::ADry *hemi,al Fire
2>+ %$711ARati-/ 1 Fire &esti-/ o. Fire
2?+ !"A 2171A Dry *hemi,al Fire
&he .ire water system i- a- i-stallatio- shall be desi/-ed to meet the .ire water .low
re6uireme-t to .i/ht two ma@or .ires simulta-eously3
7arious areas whi,h ,a- be u-der .ire shall be ,o-sidered a-d .ire water dema-d .or
ea,h area shall be ,al,ulated based o- desi/- basis, as i-di,ated belowA
a+ Data A
&otal stora/e ,apa,ity i- o-e dyke area R 120,000 mC
No3 o. ta-ks R 2
*apa,ity o. ea,h ta-k R <0,000 mC
Diameter o. ea,h ta-k R 7: 0
Hei/ht o. ea,h ta-k R 1>3> 0
b+ *ooli-/ water re6uireme-tA
*ooli-/ water rate S C lpm8m2 o. ta-k shell area .or ta-k o- .ire,
*ooli-/ water re6uired R !! 47:41>3> 4 C
R 10721 lpm
R <>C mC8hr
(ssumi-/ that se,o-d ta-k is lo,ated withi- the ta-k dyke at a dista-,e more tha- C0
meters .rom the ta-k shell3
&here.ore, i- su,h ,ase ,ooli-/ water re6uired at the rate o. 1 lpm8m2 o. ta-k shell area shall be
21? mC8hr3
&otal ,ooli-/ water R ;?; mC8hr
,+ Foam water re6uireme-t .or rim seal areaA
9ater .low re6uired .or applyi-/ .oam o- a lar/est ta-k bur-i-/ sur.a,e area3
For .loati-/ roo. ta-k o. 7: 0 diameter, the rim seal area R 88 47:403;
R 1:;3? m2
Foam solutio- rate S 12 lpm8m2 R 2C;2 lpm
R 1>C mC8hr
d+ Fire water .or suppleme-tary hose stream based o- > hydra-t streams J 1
water mo-itor3
>4C< mC8hr J 141>> mC8hr R 2;; mC8hr
e+ &otal water re6uiredA
&a-k ,ooli-/ ;?; mC8hr
Foam appli,atio- 1>C mC8hr
"uppleme-tary stream 2;; mC8hr
Tot*' 12E1 -7$0(
a+ DataA
&otal stora/e ,apa,ity R ?0,000 mC
No3 o. ta-ks R > with 12?00 mC
,apa,ity ea,h3
Diameter o. ea,h ta-k R C73? 0
Hei/ht o. ea,h ta-k R 12 0
b+ *ooli-/ water re6uireme-tA
*ooli-/ water rate R C lpm8m2 o. ta-k shell
area .or ta-k-o--.ire
*ooli-/ water re6uired R 88 4 C73? 4 12 4 C
R >2>1 lpm
R 2?> mC8hr
*ooli-/ water re6uired .or other ta-ks at the rate o. C lpm8m2 o. shell area .or
ta-ks .alli-/ withi- #RJC0+ metre .rom ,e-tre o. ta-k o- .ire,
R C 4 2?> mC8hr
R 7<2 mC8hr
&otal ,ooli-/ water rate R 2?> J 7<2
R 101< mC8hr
,+ Foam water re6uireme-t #.or 1 ta-k o-ly+ S ? lpm8m2,
Foam solutio- rate R 88 4 #C73?+
4 ?
R ??22 lpm
R CC1 mC8hr

d+ Fire water .or suppleme-tary hose stream R 2;; mC8hr
e+ &otal water re6uired A
&a-k ,ooli-/ 101< mC8hr
Foam appli,atio- CC1 mC8hr
"uppleme-tary stream 2;; mC8hr

Tot*' 167? -7$0(
a+ DataA
No3 o. sphere i- o-e area R C
Diameter o. ea,h sphere R 17 mtrs
b+ *ooli-/ water re6uireme-t A
water rate .or ,ooli-/ R 88 4172 4 10 lpm
R :07: lpm
R ?>? mC8hr
*o-sideri-/ other 2 spheres lo,ated withi- R C 4 ?>? mC8hr
#RJC0+ mts .rom ,e-tre o. sphere a-d .ire
,ooli-/ water rate .or C spheres
R 1<?? mC8hr
,+ Hose stream re6uireme-t R 2;; mC8hr
d+ &otal water re6uireme-t R 1:2C mC8hr
a+ DataA
&otal No3 o. loadi-/ poi-ts R >0
*o-sider 20 loadi-/ poi-ts o- ea,h side R 7 0
,e-tre to ,e-tre rail spa,i-/
$e-/th o. Rail /a-try R 1<0 0
9idth o. ,ooli-/ R 12 0
b+ *ooli-/ water re6uireme-tA
Di5ide the whole areas i-to > se/me-ts a-d ,o-sider 2 se/me-ts operati-/ at
a-y timeA
9ater rate R 24>0412410R:<00 lpm
T R ?7< mC8hr
,+ "uppleme-tary hose re6uireme-tA R 2;; mC8hr
d+ &otal water re6uireme-t R ;<> mC8hr
For pro,ess u-it prote,tio- i- ,ase o. .ire, water is to be applied usi-/ .i4ed water
mo-itors a-d hose li-es3 %-it blo,ks separatio- is by C0 metre3 &hree .ollowi-/
alter-ati5es are ,o-sidered .or .ire water rate3
&otal u-it area R 120 4 ;0 m2
*o-sider water rate S 1 lpm8m2 o- area basis,
9ater rate R :<00 4 1 lpm R ?7< mC8hr
water .or suppleme-tary hose stream R 2;; mC8hr
&otal water rate R ;<> mC8hr
A'te(n*ti,e - II
*o-sider a 10 0 4 10 0 portio- o. pro,ess u-it area o- .ire3 Pro5ide water ,o5er o5er a- area o.
C0mts4C0mts at the rate o. 10 lpm8m2,
9ater rate R :00410 lpm
R ?>0 mC8hr
water .or suppleme-tary hose steam R 2;; mC8hr
&otal water rate R ;2; mC8hr
A'te(n*te - III
9ater re6uired .or portio- o. u-it area pro5ided with .i4ed spray system #)4treme
HaEardous (rea+
(rea assumed R 1000 m2
9ater rate R 10 lpm8m2
*ooli-/ water re6uired R <00 mC8hr
water .or suppleme-tary hose stream R 2;; mC8hr
&otal ,ooli-/ water re6uired R ;;; mC8hr
*o-sideri-/ the ma4imum water u-der alter-ati5e !, !! 1 !!!
Desi/- .low rate R ;;; mC8hr
2ire !ater calculation for full surface fire on largest floating roof tan% "roof
sin%ing case# 4 8reated as a single contingency
a+ D*t* 8
8otal storage capacity in one dy%e area R 120,000 mC
5o. of tan%s R 2
'apacity of each tan% R )6$666 m(
<iameter of each tan% R A- M
/eight of each tan% R ,4.4 M
b+ ,ooling $ater re1uirement8
'ooling !ater rate B ( lpm/m2 of tan% shell area for tan%?on?fire
'ooling !ater re9uired R 3A-3,4.4 3 (
R ,6A2, lpm
R )4( m(/hr
0ssuming that second tan% is located !ithin the tan% dy%e at a distance more
than (6M from the tan% shell3
8hen$ cooling !ater re9uirement B , lpm/m2 of tan% shell area shall be 2,5
Total cooling $ater 2 343 m5/6r
,+ Water re1uirement in foam application
2oam 0pplication =ate A .., lpm "as per 52P0?,,#
2oam *olution =e9uirement R "// 3 A-3A-#/4 3 ..,
R (-A64 lpm
R 2(.2 m(/hr
say$ R 2466 m(/hr
Water re9uired for the foam solution R -AC 3 2466 m(/hr
, 2328 m3/hr
Say , 2330 m3/hr
d+ Fi(e C*te( +o( su::'e-ent*() 0ose st(e*- based on 4 hydrant streams @ ,
!ater monitor.
43() m(/hr @ ,3,44 m(/hr R 2;; mC8hr
e+ Total $ater re1uiredA
8an% cooling .5. m(/hr
2oam application 2((6 m(/hr
*upplementary stream 2.. m(/hr
Total 5787 m5/6r
*ay (566 m(/hr
59: For t$o ma;or fire foug6t simultaneously
Fire water rates .or ? ,ases are /i5e- belowA
i+ Floati-/ roo. ta-k prote,tio- R 12;: mC8hr
ii+ *o-e roo. ta-k prote,tio- R 1<C? mC8hr
iii+ $P2 sphere prote,tio- R 1:2C mC8hr
i5+ $P2 rail wa/o- loadi-/ /a-try R ;<> mC8hr
5+ Pro,ess u-it prote,tio- R ;;; mC8hr
Fo( +ig0ting t0e *9o,e tCo -*@o( +i(es si-u't*neous'), t0e design
+i(eC*te( (*te is t0e su- o+ t0e tCo 0ig0est C*te( (*tes i4e4
Desi/- .ire water rate R 1:2C mC8hr J 1<C?
R C??; mC8hr
"ay R 7700 -7$0(
742 Fo( +u'' su(+*ce +i(e o+ '*(gest +'o*ting (oo+ t*n> /Roo+ Sin>ing c*se28
8otal fire!ater flo! rate re9uired as per typical calculations sho!n at 2.) is
54<< m5/6r3
T6e design Fire$ater rate is 6ig6est of a#o=e 59: or 59>9
2ull surface fire of a floating roof tan% roof sin%ing case being a remote possibility$ it is
considered as a single largest contingency for the purpose of arriving at design fire !ater
i+ Data A
&otal "tora/e ,apa,ity i- o-e dyke area R ?0,000 mC
Number o. ta-ks R >
Diameter o. ea,h ta-k R C73? 0
Hei/ht o. ea,h ta-k R 12 0
ii+ &he 6ua-tity o. .oam ,ompou-d shall be ,al,ulated as .ollows A
*o-sider .oam solutio- appli,atio- S ? lpm8m2 .or the li6uid sur.a,e o. the
si-/le lar/est ,o-e roo. ta-k i- the dyke area3

Foam solutio- rate R 88 4 #C73?+ 2
R ??22 lpm
Foam ,ompou-d re6uired R ??22 4 C 8 100
R 1<< lpm
Foam ,ompou-d 6ua-tity .or <? mi-utes R 1<< 4 <?
R 107:0 litre
iii+ *o-sider o-e portable .oam mo-itor o. 2>00 lpm .oam solutio- ,apa,ity A
CK Foam ,ompou-d re6uired R 72 lpm
Foam ,ompou-d re6uired .or <? mi-utes R ><;0 litre
i5+ *o-sider 2 hose streams o. .oam with a ,apa,ity o. 11>0 lpm o. .oam solutio-
CK Foam ,ompou-d re6uired R <;3> lpm
Foam ,ompou-d re6uired .or <? mi-utes R >>>< litre
5+ &otal .oam ,ompou-d re6uired .or ,o-e roo. ta-k area Prote,tio-A
Foam ,ompou-d re6uired .or *o-e Roo. &a-k R 107:0 litre
Foam *ompou-d re6uired .or 1 Foam 0o-itor R ><;0 litre
Foam *ompou-d re6uired .or 2 hose streams R >>0< litre
Tot*' 8 11E76 'it(e
"ay A 20000 litre
23 F$(&!N2 RF &(NB PR&)*&!N
i+ DataA
&otal "tora/e *apa,ity i- o-e dyke R 120,000 mC
No3 o. &a-ks R 2
*apa,ity o. )a,h &a-k R <0,000 mC
Diameter o. ea,h ta-k R 7: 0
Hei/ht o. ea,h ta-k R 1>3> 0
ii+ *o-sider .oam solutio- appli,atio- rate o. 12 lpm8m2 o. seal area o. the
si-/le lar/est .loati-/ roo. ta-k i- the dyke area A

"eal area R 88 47:403;
R 1:;3? m2
Foam solutio- rate R 1:;3?412 lpm
R 2C;2 lpm
CK Foam *ompou-d re6uired R 713? lpm
Foam *ompou-d re6uired .or <? mi-s3 R ><>7 litre
iii+ Foam *ompou-d re6uired .or 1 .oam mo-itor a-d 2 hose streams as
,al,ulated .or ,o-e roo. prote,tio-
1 Foam mo-itor ><;0 litre
2 Hose streams >>>< litre
i5+ &otal .oam ,ompou-d re6uired .or .loati-/ roo. ta-k area Prote,tio-A
Foam *ompou-d re6uired .or Floati-/ Roo. &a-k ><>7 litre
Foam ,ompou-d re6uired .or 1 .oam mo-itor ><;0 litre
Foam ,ompou-d re6uired .or 2 hose streams >>>< litre
Tot*' (eGui(ed 17777 'it(e
"ay, 1>000 litre
C3 - the li-es o. the abo5e e4ample .oam ,ompou-d re6uireme-t should be ,al,ulated
.or 5arious dyke areas3 Re6uireme-ts to .i/ht ma@or .ires i- two dyke areas #with
ma4imum .oam ,ompou-d rates re6uireme-ts+ should be added, to arri5e at the total
re6uireme-t o. the i-stallatio-3
For e4ample, .or 2 ,o-e roo. ta-k dyke areas with lar/est ta-k diameter o. C73?
metres i- ea,h area, .oam ,ompou-d re6uired works out as 2420000 litres i3e >0000
"imilarly .or 2 .loati-/ roo. ta-k dyke areas with lar/est ta-k diameter o. 7: mtrs3 i-
ea,h area, .oam ,ompou-d re6uired works out as 2 U 1>000 litres i3e 2;000 litres3
>3 2oam =e9uirement for 2ull surface fire of the largest floating roof tan% "roof sin%ing
'ase#+ considered as a single largest contingency > detailed at 0nne3ure?D
3(o*d S:eci+ic*tion C*:*cit)
And SiDe
!3 Foam &e-der - Diesel)-/i-e *hassis with
,ompatible P& %-it - 10 to-
- Foam ,ompou-d &a-k - C000 lts3
- 9ater ta-k - 2<00 lts3
- Pump ,apa,ity - C200 lpmS
;3? k/8s63,m /
1 2?00 lts8mi-
S 10 k/8s63,m /
Foam8water mo-itor o. ,apa,ity
2?00 to 2;00 lts8mi- G 1 No3
- &o supply
"olutio- to
Fi4ed .oam
- &o supply
.orm to
spill .ires
!!3 Hydrauli, Plat.orm
with arti,ulated or
teles,opi, arm
- Diesel )-/i-e *hasis with
,ompatible P& %-it - 0!N3HP2;0
- Foam /e-erati-/ e6uipme-t
- *a/e area G 13> s63 mt3
- )4ti-/uishi-/ (rti,ulated boom
. C0 mts hei/ht
- &hrowi-/ dista-,e - HoriEo-tal A
-.. 100-1200
Hei/ht A <?-7?mt3
- Boom mo5eme-t G C<0 de/rees
- Foam8water mo-itor ,apa,ity
?000 to <000 lpm
- Pump ,apa,ity G ?000 to <000
$ts8mi-3 at 10 k/8s63 ,m3/
- Remote operatio- .rom rear o. truk
- peratio- to suit water
*o--e,tio- .rom hydra-ts

- For .oam
o- oil .ires
- For .ire .i/hti-/
. tall ,olum-s
(-d i-a,,essi-
ble area
- For res,ue
!!!3 D*P &e-der - Diesel e-/i-e ,hassis Gpayload A1C
- 2 spheres o. 2000 k/ D*P ea,h
- )4pelle-t /as system #Nitro/e- /as
,yli-ders 2;4?0 lts at 1>0 k/8,m2 /
- (utomati, re/ulator .or output a-d ra-/e
- D*P mo-itor with ra-/e 1?, 2? a-d
>0 k/8se,o-d at operati-/ pressure o. 1> k/8,m2
- 0o-itor throw - >0 to ?0 mtrs
- For /as
Fires a-d
"pill .ires
!73 )mer/e-,y
- Res,ue e6uipme-t
- Breathi-/ e6uipme-t
- Prote,ti5e ,lothi-/
- First (id )6uipme-t
- For res,ue
73 Foam &a-k
&railers with
Foam mo-itors
- Foam ,ompou-d stora/e ,pa,ity
1000 litres
- 9ater8.oam mo-itor o. ,apa,ity
2?00 to C200 lts8mi-
- For spill
7!3 &rolley mou-ted
- 9ater-,um-.oam mo-itor o. ,apa,ity
2?00 to C200 lts8mi-3
- For oil .ire
- For hot work
7!!3 Foam Nurser
mou-ted .oam
supply ta-k+
- Foam *ompou-d stora/e - >?00 lts3
- Pump ,apa,ity A 1<0 lts8mi-
- &o supply
Duri-/ .ire
7!!!3 &railer mou-ted
Hollow @et water
- 0o-itor ,apa,ity 2?00 to C200 lts8mi- - &o .i/ht-.ires
at i-a,,essible
!U3 0obile .ire
&railer pump
- Pump ,apa,ity 1;00 to 22?0
$ts8mi- at 7 k/8s63,m3 /
- (s a booster
- Fire water use
.rom additio-al
U3 Fire hoses
-2 VI
- Rei-.or,ed rubber li-ed hoses type
H(I or HBI as per !" <C<
- 2e-eral .ire
U!3 Fire @eep - "ta-dard desi/- with two-way radio
*ommu-i,atio- .a,ility
- &owi-/ trailer
- 2e-eral
U!!3 (mbula-,e - 0edi,al .irst aid e6uipme-t - 0edi,al aid
U!!!3 ther a,,essories
Foam maki-/
bra-,h pipes,
-oEEle et,3
- (s per sta-dard spe,i.i,atio-s
$ts8mi- at 7 k/8s63,m3 /
- For .ire
N&)A &he ,apa,ities o. e6uipme-t /i5e- abo5e are mi-imum re6uired3 Howe5er, hi/her
,apa,ities ,a- be pro5ided o- -eed basis3
( typi,al layout o. a .ire trai-i-/ /rou-d is show- i- .i/31
Fig4 1
Details o. di..ere-t .a,ilities i- the .ire trai-i-//rou-d are des,ribed below3
2414 F*ci'it) +o( sto(*ge t*n> +i(e
"tora/e ta-ks are pro5ided with .i4ed .oam li-e ,o--e,tio- a-d .i4ed ,ooli-/ water
system to .i/ht ta-k .ires3 &he .oam is to e4ti-/uish the .ire a-d ,ooli-/ water is to
pre5e-t spreadi-/ o. .ire i- the -ei/hbouri-/ ta-ks3 &rai-i-/ /rou-d may ha5e a ta-k
with .i4ed .oam i-stallatio- with isolatio- 5al5es o- produ,t li-es3
242F*ci'it) +o( :it +i(e8
Duri-/ operatio- o. the re.i-ery, sometimes hydro,arbo- li6uids /et released .rom the
pro,ess e6uipme-t a-d a,,umulate i- the ope- areas8 pit3 &o .i/ht su,h .ires, the
.a,ility may be pro5ided o- the /rou-d3
247 F*ci'it) +o( :i:e'ine +i(es8
!- the re.i-ery e6uipme-t are ,o--e,ted by pipeli-es a-d to ru-dow- the produ,ts
.rom the pro,ess u-its to stora/e ta-ks3 &hese pipes ,a- leak at .la-/e @oi-ts a-d
result i- a .ire3 Fa,ilities may be pro5ided to simulate su,h .ires3
24<4 F*ci'ities +o( C*gon g*nt() +i(e8
2a-try .ires are di..i,ult to ,o-trol due to rapid spreadi-/ o. .ires all arou-d the /a-try3
"u,h .ires ,a- be ,o-trolled with the .ollowi-/ arra-/eme-ts
a+ !solate the oil supply
b+ *ooli-/ the area as well as surrou-di-/s with water spray 1 .a,ilities should be
pro5ided .or su,h simulatio-s3
24? F*ci'ities +o( L!% +i(e
$P2 is produ,ed i- the re.i-ery a-d stored i- ,o-tai-ers .rom where it is despat,hed
to the market3 *ha-,es o. .ires due to leaka/e o. $P2 i- the pro,ess u-it is less as it
is pro,essed i- ,losed system3 Probability o. $P2 .ires duri-/ bottli-/,
loadi-/8u-loadi-/ o. ,yli-ders is more3
&he most da-/erous aspe,t i- $P2 .ires is e4plosio- o. bullet8,yli-ders3 &o ta,kle
su,h .ires, trai-i-/ .a,ility may be i-stalled3
246F*ci'it) +o( 0ig0 e'e,*tion co'u-n +i(e
!- the re.i-ery, there are tall stru,tures su,h as ,olum-s85essels3 &o ta,kle .ires o-
su,h e6uipme-t the most importa-t a,ti5ities are isolatio- a-d ,ooli-/ the e6uipme-t
as well as surrou-di-/ area3 2e-erally, isolatio- o. i-let side o. the e6uipme-t is -ot
mu,h di..i,ult, most di..i,ult isolatio- is o- the outlet side3 &o approa,h to the isolatio-
5al5e, perso-al prote,ti5e e6uipme-t with water s,ree- is -e,essary3 Fa,ilities may
be pro5ided to simulate all su,h a,tio-s3
A t):ic*' *((*nge-ent t0(oug0 -utu*' *id *g(ee-ent is gi,en 9e'oC8
*hembur &rombay !-dustrial belt spread o5er about 10 s63B0, is situated i- -orth-east 2reater Bombay3
!-dustries operati-/ i- the Eo-e i-,lude oil re.i-eries, ,hemi,al a-d petro,hemi,al ,omple4es, .ertiliEer,
power /e-eratio- a-d a -u,lear ,omple43 &he area at prese-t is i-habited by lar/e populatio- li5i-/ i-
reside-tial buildi-/s, ,hawls a-d hutme-ts3 &he )aster )4press Hi/hway a-d Bombay-Pu-e Road pass
o- o-e side o. the area, while o- other sideQ it is bou-ded by sea a-d ,reek3 &he roads i- the area are
loaded with passe-/er a-d /oods tra..i, i-,ludi-/ haEardous ,hemi,als3 ( railway li-e .or /oods tra..i,
also ru-s .rom Burla to the e-d o. *orridor road, to meet the rolli-/ sto,k re6uireme-t o. the i-dustries3
&he i-dustries i- the area ha5e .ire .i/hti-/ a-d emer/e-,y ha-dli-/ e6uipme-t a-d ser5i,es depe-di-/
upo- the -ature a-d siEe o. their operatio-s3 !-dustries ha5e also draw- up their --"ite )mer/e-,y
Pla-s whi,h are periodi,ally re5ised a-d updated3 Howe5er, the resour,es a5ailable with a si-/le .a,tory
bei-/ limited, those may -ot be su..i,ie-t to ,o-trol a ma@or emer/e-,y3 &o o5er,ome su,h ,o-strai-ts,
the .a,tories ha5e ,ome .orward to .orm the 0utual (id ",heme o. *hembur-&rombay Re/io-3
&he mai- ob@e,ti5e o. 0utual (id ",heme is to pro5ide -e,essary help i- ,ase o. emer/e-,ies whe-
re6uisitio-ed by a-y o. the members, i- the mi-imum possible time to sa5e li.e, property a-d mi-imise
&he members o. 0utual (id Respo-se 2roup are
(e/is *hemi,als (par !-dustries B(R* BP*$
Bombay Pai-t *&&$ HP*$ HP BD%
!B$ !*$ 0BP&
N2* R*F &(&( Power
&he members ha5e a/reed to e4te-d help by
a+ Rushi-/ .ire .i/hti-/ applia-,es a-d
b+ Deployme-t o. trai-ed 8 te,h-i,al
,+ Passe-/er tra-sport a-d ambula-,e
d+ 0obile e6uipme-t
e+ &ools, ta,kles a-d ser5i,e e6uipme-t
.+ Perso-al Prote,ti5e 8 "pe,ial e6uipme-t
/+ 0edi,al a-d Health "er5i,es
0utual (id members meet a-d dis,uss items o. ,ommo- i-terest like prepared-ess a-d ,omplia-,e
status o. )mer/e-,y Pla-s alo-/ .ollowi-/ li-es i- s,heduled meeti-/s3
a+ $o,atio- o. .a,tory, a,,essibility, es,ape
b+ !-.ormatio- about haEardous ,hemi,als
,+ $ikely o--site 8 o..-site emer/e-,ies
d+ 0ethod o. ,ommu-i,atio-
e+ "tre-/ths a-d weak-esses3
(ll members ,arryout o--site mo,k drills i- their respe,ti5e .a,tories as well as ,ombi-ed mo,k drill .or o-
site emer/e-,ies3 (ll the real emer/e-,ies i- this area ha5e bee- so .ar e..e,ti5ely ta,kled by 0utual (id
%uide'ines +o( See>ing
Assist*nce +(o- "utu*' Aid Res:onse %(ou: /"AR%2
13 (- e..ort has to be made to do5etail --site emer/e-,y pla- to ..-site pla-3
23 &rai-i-/ sessio-s a-d mo,k drills i- First (id, Fire Fi/hti-/, )5a,uatio-, First Respo-ders, should be
,o-du,ted to appraise a-d trai- di..ere-t le5els o. respo-ders i- emer/e-,y ,o-trol3
C3 Duri-/ a- emer/e-,y assista-,e should be sou/ht .rom the immediate -ei/hbori-/ 0(R2 members
e-listed ha5i-/ appropriate e4pertise as per the /uideli-es a-d e6uipme-ts, /ad/ets .or ,o-trolli-/
situatio- a-d statutory authorities simulta-eously3
>3 (ll the perso--el i- the .a,tory who are respo-ders .or emer/e-,ies must be made aware o. the
a5ailability o. su,h 0(R2 assista-,e a-d methods o. /etti-/ it3
?3 (ssisti-/ or/a-iEatio- must be properly brie.ed by the u-it seeki-/ the assista-,e about the -ature o.
emer/e-,y, materials i-5ol5ed a-d metrolo/i,al ,o-ditio-s # wi-d dire,tio-+, pre,ise -ature o. help
re6uired to e-sure proper respo-se3
<3 (ssisti-/ ,a- be re6uested i- the .orm o. either e6uipme-t or e4pertise or both with e4pert operati-/
73 !- ,ase o. e6uipme-t re,ei5ed .rom assisti-/ or/a-iEatio- A
a3 !t must be properly used3
b3 Retur-ed promptly3
,3 !- ,ase o. dama/e it should be repaired .rom appro5ed a/e-,y a-d retur-ed i- /ood worki-/
d3 *o-sumables should be repla,ed 8 reimbursed3
;3 !t is u-derstood that i- ,ase o. a-y a,,ide-t to a-y perso--el while assisti-/ or/a-iEatio- that is
re,ei5i-/ the help should e4te-d its ,o-operatio- i- beari-/ a reaso-able part o. e4pe-ses, beyo-d
that ,o5ered by a- i-sura-,e poli,y3
%ene(*' 8
0(R2 also has its limitatio-s
)a,h or/a-iEatio- is primarily respo-sible .or keepi-/ its pla-ts i- sa.e ,o-ditio-, ide-ti.yi-/, assessi-/,
mi-imiEi-/ a-d elimi-ati-/ haEards a-d risk, mai-tai-i-/ -e,essary e6uipme-t .or spe,ial ki-ds o. risks
that the or/a-iEatio- mi/ht be .a,i-/ a-d trai-i-/ its perso--el .or emer/e-,y ,o-trol3
!t may seek help .rom others i- the 0(R2 i- terms o. e6uipme-t, e4pertise a-d spe,ial materials3
Howe5er, it is o-ly ,omplime-tary to its ow- arra-/eme-ts a-d ,ommitme-t to sa.ety a-d emer/e-,y
0utual (id a-d Respo-se is sou/ht o-ly whe- i--house e..orts seem to be i-ade6uate to meet the
dema-d o. the situatio- a-d that o. the ,i5i, /roup is -ot ade6uately resour,ed to meet the sudde-
re6uireme-t without loss o. time3

T):ic*' E;*-:'e o+ Fi(e C*se in * '*(ge F'o*ting Roo+ T*n> *+te( sin>ing o+ +'o*ting (oo+8
E;*-:'e +o( c*'cu'*tion o+ Fo*- ReGui(e-ent +o( F'o*ting Roo+ t*n> Cit0 !o(t*9'e "onito(s8
13 Diameter o. &a-k A 7: m
23 &ype o. Roo. A Floati-/ Roo.
C3 Foam (ppli,atio- Rate A ;31 lpm #as per NFP(-11+
Foam "olutio- Re6uireme-t R 88 4 7:47:
---------- 4 ;31
R C:70> lpm
R 2C;2 mC8hr,
say, R 2>00 mC8hr
&his mu,h 6ua-tities has to be throw- o5er to su-ke- roo. area with the help o. e4ter-al lo-/
ra-/e hi/h 5olume mo-itors .rom the road side periphery o. the ta-k .arm3 &he same may be
a,hie5ed by ? -os3 o. 2000 /pm su,h mo-itors3 !- desi/- .irewater rate ,al,ulatio- i- (---!,
si-ki-/ o. .loati-/ roo. of the largest tan% has bee- ,o-sidered as a single largest contingency to
si;ing the .ire water -etwork arou-d ta-k .arms to take up su,h .irewater load so that lo-/ ra-/e
mo-itors ,a- be .ed .rom this -etwork by di5erti-/ water a5ailable i- other areas o. the i-stallatio-
to ta-k .arms i- su,h emer/e-,y3
Foam *ompou-d Re6uireme-t R C:70> 4 C8100
R 11:1312 lpm,
say, R 11:1 lpm
Foam *ompou-d Re6uireme-t R 11:1 4 <?
.or <? mi-utes with CK ,o-,e-tratio-
R 77<1? 'it(es
&he automati, a,tuated .loodi-/ system is a system desi/-ed to automati,ally dete,t
a-d e4ti-/uish the .loati-/ roo. t*n> (i- se*' +i(e *t its inci:ient st*ge3 &he system
is mou-ted o- the roo. o. the ta-k3
14 Fi(e E;tinguis0ing "edi*8
(utomati, (,tuated rim seal .ire e4ti-/uishi-/ system may be a-y o. the
.ollowi-/ typeA
Foam Floodi-/
*lea- (/e-t Floodi-/3
1414 Fo*- F'ooding s)ste-8
"ele,tio- a-d desi/- o. .oam based rim seal .ire prote,tio- system should be as de.i-ed i-
the latest NFP( - 11 1 11( "ta-dard .or $ow a-d 0edium )4pa-sio- Foam3 Film Formi-/
Fluroprotei- Foam #FFFP+ 8 (6ueous Film Formi-/ Foam #(FFF+ type ,o-,e-trate is
-ormally used i- the system3
131313 Foam (ppli,atio- system A
( lar/e stora/e ta-k would re6uire more tha- o-e modular u-its .or .oam appli,atio-
i- the e-tire rim seal3 )a,h su,h u-it may typi,ally ,o-sist o. a lo-/ .oam distributio-
pipe, laid alo-/ the ta-k perimeter o5er the rim seal area3 &he spray -oEEles .or .oam
appli,atio- are mou-ted o- the distributio- pipe at suitable i-ter5als3 Distributio- pipe
is perma-e-tly ,o--e,ted to a stora/e 5essel ,o-tai-i-/ pre-mi4 .oam a-d both are
pla,ed o- the roo.3 &he .oam is kept pressurised with -itro/e-3 &he premi4 .oam
solutio- is ,o-tai-ed i- a 5essel whi,h is kept ,har/ed with -itro/e-3 &he system is
desi/-ed .or mi-imum .oam appli,atio- rate o. S 1; lpm8m2 o. rim seal area3 For
e..e,ti5e ,o-trol, .oam is applied .or a period o. >0 se,o-ds3
131323 (larm 1 (uto-a,tuatio- systemA
!- ,ase o. .ire o- the rim seal, it is automati,ally dete,ted by a de5i,e ,apable to
se-se heat, .lame or a- ab-ormal ,o-ditio- i- the haEard area whi,h ,ould produ,e
.ire3 &he de5i,e the- a,tuates the spray system .or appli,atio- o. .oam i- the a..e,ted
Eo-e o. rim seal to 6ui,kly e4ti-/uish the .ire i- its i-,ipie-t sta/e3 (- audio-5isual
alarm is also ,oupled with the dete,tio- system .or -e,essary .ire alert3
&he system i-,ludes a .ire dete,tor -etwork whi,h se-ses .ire a-d a,tuates the
automati, release o. the e4ti-/uishi-/ medium o- the rim seal area3
&he 5alidity o. the approa,h must be demo-strated by the desi/-er .or a- e..e,ti5e
total .loodi-/ e4ti-/uishi-/ system whi,h 6ui,kly dete,ts a-d e4ti-/uishes .ire i- its
i-,ipie-t sta/e without re-.lash3 (lso, the desi/- ,o-sideratio-s should i-,lude the
impa,t o. the wei/ht o. the modules pla,ed o- the .loati-/ roo.3
1313C3 T):ic*' C*'cu'*tions +o( -odu'*( Fo*- *::'ic*tion s)ste- is *s
unde( 8
Rimseal area o. &a-k A 88 U 7: U 03C R 7>3? 02 #*o-sideri-/ a
.le4ible seal area o. typi,ally C00 mm+
Rate o. Foam appli,atio- S 1; $P080
R 1C>1 $P0
&otal Foam solutio- re6uired i- >0 se, R ;:> litre
&otal -os3 o. 0odular u-it re6uired .or the ta-k R 7 W
W #,o-sideri-/ a 5essel o. 1?0 litre ,apa,ity ,o-tai-i-/ 1C? litre o. Foam+
1424 C'e*n Agent F'ooding S)ste-8
"ele,tio- o. *lea- (/e-t a-d system desi/- .or .ire prote,tio- o. rim seal should be i-
li-e with the H"ta-dard o- *lea- (/e-t Fire )4ti-/uishi-/ "ystems G NFP(
2001#)ditio- 200>+ a-d the latestI3 &ypi,ally, a-y ,lea- a/e-t listed i- the latest NFP(
2001 ,a- be used i- -ormally u-o,,upied areas like .loati-/ roo. top3 *lea- (/e-ts
like &ri.luoroiodide ,a- be used as .ire suppressa-t .or .loati-/ roo. rim seal Fire
Prote,tio- "ystem3
132313 *lea- (/e-t (ppli,atio- systemA
( lar/e stora/e ta-k would re6uire more tha- o-e modular u-its .or ,lea- a/e-t
appli,atio- .or the e-tire rim seal3 &he pre-e-/i-eered system as outli-ed at 13>3231 o.
NFP( 2001 #200> )ditio-+ may typi,ally ,o-sist o. a lo-/ distributio- pipe, laid alo-/
the ta-k perimeter o5er the rim seal area3 &he spray -oEEles .or the ,lea- a/e-t are
mou-ted o- the distributio- pipe at suitable i-ter5als3 )a,h distributio- pipe is
perma-e-tly ,o--e,ted to a stora/e 5essel ,o-tai-i-/ ,lea- a/e-t a-d both are
pla,ed o- the roo.3 &he ,lea- a/e-t is kept pressurised with -itro/e-3 Desi/- ,apa,ity
o. ea,h modular u-it will be based o- the .lame e4ti-/uishi-/ ,o-,e-tratio- .or the
parti,ular .uel a-d ,lea- a/e-t used3
!- ,ase o. .ire o- the rim seal, it is automati,ally dete,ted by a de5i,e ,apable to
se-se heat, .lame or a- ab-ormal ,o-ditio- i- the haEard area whi,h ,ould produ,e
.ire >3C3231 o. NFP( 2001+3 &he de5i,e the- a,tuates the spray system .or
dis,har/e o. ,lea- a/e-t i- the a..e,ted Eo-e o. rim seal at appropriate rate a-d
dis,har/e time re6uired to attai- the .lame e4ti-/uishi-/ ,o-,e-tratio- .or the
parti,ular .uel based o- the desi/- ,o-sideratio-s .or 6ui,k ,o-trol o. .ire3 !t is -o--
ele,tri,ally operated system a-d suitable .or i-stallatio- i- li/ht-i-/ pro-e areas3
132323 (larm systemA
(- audio-5isual alarm is also ,oupled with the dete,tio- system .or -e,essary alert3
&he 5alidity o. the approa,h must be demo-strated by the desi/-er .or a ,lea- a/e-t
based e..e,ti5e automati, a,tuated e4ti-/uishi-/ system whi,h 6ui,kly dete,ts a-d
e4ti-/uishes .ire i- its i-,ipie-t sta/e without re-.lash3 (lso, the desi/- ,o-sideratio-s
should i-,lude the impa,t o. the wei/ht o. the modules pla,ed o- the .loati-/ roo.3
1323C3 T):ic*' +e*tu(es +o( * -odu'*( C'e*n Agent A::'ic*tion s)ste- *(e *s
(ssumi-/ Rim seal perimeter A 88 4 7: 0 R 2>;3C 0,
)a,h module to ,o5er A >0 0
Number o. modules re6uireA 2>;3C 8 >0 R <
Dis,har/e time .or ,lea- a/e-t is 10-20 se,
T):ic*' di*g(*- o+ *uto-*tic *ctu*ted e;tinguis0ing s)ste- is *tt*c0ed
Typical diagram of automatic actuated Foam #ased e*tinguis6ing system
Typical diagram of automatic actuated ,lean Agent #ased e*tinguis6ing system
Fire .i/hti-/ .oam is a homo/e-eous mass o. ti-y air or /as .illed bubble o. low
spe,i.i, /ra5ity, whi,h whe- applied i- ,orre,t ma--er a-d i- su..i,ie-t 6ua-tity, .orms
a ,ompa,t .luid a-d stable bla-ket whi,h is ,apable o. .loati-/ o- the sur.a,e o.
.lammable li6uids a-d pre5e-ti-/ atmospheri, air .rom rea,hi-/ the li6uid3
&wo &ypes o. .oams are used .or .i/hti-/ li6uid .iresA
231 *H)0!*($ F(0A 9he- two or more ,hemi,als are added the .oam /e-erates due
to ,hemi,al rea,tio-3 &he most ,ommo- i-/redie-ts used .or ,hemi,al .oam are
sodium bi,arbo-ate a-d alumi-imum sulphate with stabiliEer3 &he ,hemi,al .oam is
/e-erally used i- Fire e4ti-/uishers3
232 0)*H(N!*($ F(0A !t is produ,ed by me,ha-i,ally mi4i-/ a /as or air to a solutio-
o. .oam ,ompou-d #,o-,e-trate+ i- water3 7arious types o. .oam ,o-,e-trates are
used .or /e-erati-/ .oam, depe-di-/ o- the re6uireme-t a-d suitability3 )a,h
,o-,e-trate has its ow- ad5a-ta/e a-d limitatio-s3 &he brie. des,riptio- o. .oam
,o-,e-trates is /i5e- below3
0e,ha-i,al .oam ,ompou-d may be ,lassi.ied i- to C ,ate/ories based o- it=s
e4pa-sio- ratio3
$9 )UP(N"!N F(0A Foam e4pa-sio- ratio may be upto ?0 to 1, but usually
betwee- ?A1 to 1?A1 as typi,ally produ,ed by sel. aspirati-/ .oam bra-,h pipes3
&he low e4pa-sio- .oam ,o-tai-s more water a-d has better resista-t to .ire3 !t is
suitable .or hydro,arbo- li6uid .ires a-d is widely used i- oil re.i-ery, oil plat.orms,
petro,hemi,al a-d other ,hemi,al i-dustries3
0)D!%0 )UP(N"!N F(0A Foam e4pa-sio- ratio 5ary .rom ?1A1 to ?00A1 as
typi,ally produ,ed by sel. aspirati-/ .oam bra-,h pipes with -ets3 &his .oam has
limited use i- ,o-trolli-/ hydro,arbo- li6uid .ire be,ause o. it=s limitatio-s w3r3t3 poor
,ooli-/, poor resista-t to hot sur.a,e8radia-t heat et,3
C3C H!2H )UP(N"!N F(0A Foam e4pa-sio- ratio 5ary .rom ?01A1 to 1?00A1, usually
betwee- 7?0A1 to 1000A1 as typi,ally produ,ed by .oam /e-erators with air .a-s3 &his
.oam has also 5ery limited use i- ,o-trolli-/ hydro,arbo- li6uid .ire be,ause o. its
limitatio-s w3r3t3 poor ,ooli-/, poor resista-t to hot sur.a,e8radia-t heat et,3 !t is used
.or prote,tio- o. hydro,arbo- /ases stored u-der ,ryo/e-i, ,o-ditio-s a-d .or
warehouse prote,tio-3
>31 PR&)!N B(") F(0A
&he .oam ,o-,e-trate is prepared .rom hydrolyEed protei- either .rom a-imals or
5e/etable sour,e3 &he suitable stabiliEer a-d preser5ati5es are also added3
&he ,o-,e-trate .orms a thi,k .oam bla-ket a-d is suitable .or hydro,arbo- li6uid .ires,
but -ot o- water mis,ible li6uids3 &he e..e,ti5e-ess o. .oam is -ot 5ery /ood o- deep
pools or low .lash poi-t .uels whi,h ha5e had le-/thy prebur- time u-less applied 5ery
/e-tly to the sur.a,e3
&he ,o-,e-trate is a5ailable .or i-du,tio- rate o. C to <K3 &he shel. li.e o. ,o-,e-trate
is 2 years3
&his is similar to protei- base .oam with .luro-,hemi,al whi,h makes it more e..e,ti5e
tha- protei- base .oam3
&he ,o-,e-trate .orms a thi,k .oam bla-ket a-d is suitable .or hydro,arbo- li6uid .ires,
but -ot o- water mis,ible li6uids3 &he .oam is 5ery e..e,ti5e o- deep pools o. low
.lash poi-t .uels whi,h ha5e had le-/thy pre bur- time3
&he ,o-,e-trate is a5ailable .or i-du,tio- rate o. C to <K a-d the shel. li.e is similar to
that o. protei- base .oam3
&he .oam ,o-,e-trate mai-ly ,o-sists o. .luoro ,arbo- sur.a,ta-ts, .oami-/ a/e-t a-d
stabiliEer3 &his ,a- be used with .resh water as well as with sea water3
!t produ,es 5ery .luid .oam, whi,h .lows .reely o- li6uid sur.a,e3 &he a6ueous .ilm
produ,ed suppresses the li6uid 5apour 6ui,kly3 &he .oam has 6ui,k .ire k-o,k dow-
property a-d is suitable .or li6uid hydro,arbo- .ires3 (s the .oam has poor drai-a/e
rate, the e..e,ti5e-ess is limited o- deep pool .ires o. low .lash poi-t .uels whi,h ha5e
le-/thy pre bur- time3
&he ,o-,e-trate is a5ailable .or i-du,tio- rate o. C to <K a-d the shel. li.e is more
tha- 1? years3 &his ,a- also be used with -o- aspirati-/ type -oEEles3
0ultipurpose (FFF ,o-,e-trate is sy-theti,, .oami-/ li6uid desi/-ed spe,ially .or .ire
prote,tio- o. water soluble sol5e-ts a-d water i-soluble hydro,arbo- li6uids3 &his ,a-
be used either with .resh water o. sea water3
9he- applied it .orms .oam with a ,ohesi5e polymeri, layer o- li6uid sur.a,e, whi,h
suppresses the 5apour a-d e4ti-/uishes the .ire3 &he .oam is also suitable .or deep
pool .ires be,ause o. superior drai-a/e rate a-d more resisti5e to hot .uels8radia-t
&he CK i-du,tio- rate is suitable .or li6uid hydro,arbo- .ires a-d ?K .or water
mis,ible sol5e-ts3 &he shel. li.e o. ,o-,e-trate is -ot less tha- 10 years3 &his ,a-
also be used with -o- aspirati-/ type -oEEles3
FFFP ,ombi-es the rapid .ire k-o,k dow- 6uality o. ,o-5e-tio-al .ilm .ormi-/ (FFF
with the hi/h le5el o. post .ire se,urity a-d bur- ba,k resista-,e o. .louro protei- .oam3
&he ,o-,e-trate ,a- either be used with .resh water or sea water3
&he .oam is suitable .or hydro,arbo- li6uid .ires i-,ludi-/ deep pool .ires o. low .lash
poi-t .uels whi,h ha5e had le-/thy pre bur- time3
&he ,o-,e-trate is a5ailable .or i-du,tio- rate o. C to <K a-d the shel. li.e is -ot less
tha- ? years3 &his ,a- also be used with -o- aspirati-/ type -oEEles3
"y-theti, .oam ,o-,e-trate is used with suitable de5i,es to produ,e medium a-d hi/h
e4pa-sio- .oams3 &his ,a- be used o- hydro,arbo- .uels with low boili-/ poi-t3 &he
.oam is 5ery li/ht i- wei/ht a-d /i5es poor ,ooli-/ e..e,t i- ,ompariso- to low
e4pa-sio- .oams3 &he .oam is sus,eptible to easy break dow- by hot .uel layers a-d
radia-t heat3
&he i-du,tio- rate i- water may 5ary .rom 13? to CK3
0a-y o. the low e4pa-sio- .oam ,o-,e-trate ,a- also be used with suitable de5i,es
to produ,e medium 8 hi/h e4pa-sio- .oam3