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Planning 1.short-term
orientation
2.Decisions are
taken by high end
officers individually.
Decision flow from
top-to-bottom
3.Fast decision-
making but
implementation is
slow
1.Long-term
orientation
2.Collective
decision-
making (ring)
Decision flow
from bottom-to-
top and back
3. Slow
decision-
making but
implementation
is fast
1.Long-term
and short-term
orientation (5-
year plan and
annual plan)
2.Decision-
making by
committees. At
the
top often
individual
3. Slow
decision-
making / slow
implementation.
(Now changing)
1.Long term and
short term
depending on the
size of the company.
2.Decision-making
by committees.
3.Fast decision-
making but
implementation is
slow
1.Long-term
orientation
and short
orientation
2.Decision-
making by
committees.
3. Slow
decision-
making / slow
implementati
on. (Now
changing)
1.Short-term
orientation
2.Decisions are
taken by high
end officers
individually.
Decision flow
from top-to-
bottom
3.Fast decision-
making but
implementation
is slow
1.Short term
yearly plans
are followed
2.decisions
are taken
together by
taking the
ideas of lower
staff
3. Fast
decision-
making but
implementati
on is slow
Organising Individual
responsibility
Lack of common
organization culture;

Collective
responsibility
Well-known
common
organization
culture and
philosophy
Collective and
individual
responsibility

Collective and
individual
responsibility

Collective
and
individual
responsibility

Individual
responsibility

Shared
responsibilitie
s
Staffing 1.Frequent
performance
evaluation for new
employees
2.Appraisal of short-
term results
3.Training and
development
undertaken with
hesitation as the
employee may leave
the
firm
Job insecurity
prevails
1.Infrequent
performance
evaluations for
new employees
2.Appraisal of
long-term
performance
3.Training and
development
considered a
long-term
investment

1.Infrequent
performance
review -
once a year
2.Promotions
are based on
performance,
potential ability,
3. Training
programs
available.

1.Frequent
performance
evaluation for new
employees
2.Appraisal of short-
term results
3.Training and
development
considered a long-
term
investment

1.Infrequent
performance
evaluations
for new
employees
2.Appraisal of
long-term
performance
3.Training
and
development
considered a
long-term
investment

1.Infrequent
performance
Evaluations
2.Appraisal of
short-term
results
3. Training and
development
are good. So the
employees set
standards for
themselves.
1.Frequent
performance
evaluation for
new
employees
2.Appraisal of
short-term
results
3.Training
and
development
considered a
long-term
investment

Leading 1.Leader acts as the
decision maker and
head of the
group
2.Directive style
(strong, firm and
deterministic)
3.Face-to-face
confrontation
4.Communication is
primarily top-down
1.Leader acts as
a social
facilitator and a
group
member
2.Paternalistic
style
3.Avoidance of
confrontation
emphasis is on
harmony
4.Bottom-up
communication
1.Leader as the
head of the
group
2. Directive.
Shares better
relationship.
3.Avoidance of
confrontation
4.Communicati
on top-down
1.Leader as the head
of the group
2. Directive. Shares
better relationship.
3.Avoidance of
confrontation
4.Communication
top-down
1.Leader acts
as a social
facilitator and
a group
member
2.Paternalistic
style
3.Avoidance
of
confrontation
emphasis is
on harmony
4.Bottom-up
communicatio
n
1. Leader is the
head of the
group and
motivates the
employees
2.directive
3.Avoidance of
confrontation
4.top-down
communication

1.Leader acts
as the
decision
maker and
head of the
group
2. Directive.
Shares better
relationship.
3.Avoidance
of
confrontation
4..Communic
ation is far
better
Controlling 1.Control by
superiors on
individual
performance
2.Fix blame
3.Limited use of
quality control
circles available
1.Control by
peer on group
performance
2.Saving face
3.Extensive use
of quality
control circles
1.Control by
group leaders
2.Try to save
face
3.Limited use of
quality control
1.Strict supervision
by managers on
performance on a
whole
2.responsibilty is
shared
3.extensive use of
quality control.
1.Control by
group leaders
on group
performance
2.Try to save
face
3.Limited use
of quality
control circles
1.Control by
superiors on
individual
performance
2.Fix blame
3.Limited use of
quality control
circles available
1.Control by
superiors on
individual
performance
2.Fix blame
3.Limited use
of quality
control circles
available