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Summary of Chemistry Textbook Section 2.

2: Metallic Bonding

- Observation of the physical properties of metals have led chemists to develop theories to
explain these observations
- Electrical conductivity requires the presence of charged particles that are free to move
- Malleability (ability to bend without breaking) and ductility (ability to be drawn into a wire)
suggests regularity in the structure

The nature of the metallic bond
- Metal ions, formed when atoms lose their valence electrons arranged in 3D lattice
- Array of ions surrounded by freely moving electrons forming a sea of mobile electrons =
delocalised (not confined to a particular location, can move through structure)
- Electrons attracted to positively charged ions
- Electrostatic attraction = holds lattice together, preventing the ions pushing apart due to the
electrostatic repulsion of like charges
- This type of bonding metallic
- Metal atoms achieve greater stability by releasing their valence electrons because atoms
achieve a noble gas configuration an outer-shell octet of electrons
- When non-metals are present valence electrons transferred to non-metal atoms, giving
rise to ionic bonding
- When only metal atoms are present, the lost valence electrons simply become delocalised
within the metallic lattice

Important properties of metals
- Uses of metals by humans in the as well as the present centre on two important properties
of metals: ability to conduct electricity and malleability
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY:
Can be explained by the presence of the sea of delocalised electrons that surrounds
the lattice of positive metal ions
Solid state electrons move freely and will respond to the application of a potential
difference
When metal is connected to a power supply , electrons enter one end of the metal
(end connected to the negative terminal) and same number of electrons exit from
the other end of the metal (moving towards the positive terminal)
Delocalised electrons move freely through the structure but metal ions vibrate,
causing a barrier to the smooth flow of electrons
Some energy is therefore lost, causing the metal to heat as current passes through it
MALLEABILITY:
Is the ability to be beaten or bent into shape without breaking
Sea of delocalised electrons is responsible for this property of metals
When metal is bent, lattice of positive ions is displaced and there is a possibility of
positive ions coming into contact with other positive ions and repelling each other
Constant movement of the delocalised electrons prevents this from occurring, so the
metal bends without breaking

SECTION 2.2 EXERCISES
1. Describe what each of the following properties suggests about the nature of the boding in
metals.
a) Metals conduct electricity
The delocalised electrons bump into each other and the cations causing a transfer of
energy, therefore, if a source of electric current is attached, electrons flow from
negative to positive.
b) Most metals have high melting points
High amounts of energy are required to break the strong electrostatic forces between
cations and delocalised electrons.
c) Metals are malleable
Layers of cations can be forced across each other the delocalised electrons move to
compensate for this and re-establish the electrostatic forces of attraction
2. Describe how the structure of a metal changes when a force is applied to metal.
When force is applied the lattice of positive ions is displaced which could result in them
coming in to contact and repelling, however, the constant movement of electrons prevents
this from occurring causing the metal to bend without breaking.
3. a) When referring to the electron sea model for metallic bonding, describe what is meant
by the following terms:
i. delocalised electrons electrons which are not confined to a particular location and
can move throughout the structure, moving freely around the array of ions
ii. lattice of cations A three-dimension structure formed by metal ions which lose
their valence electrons making them positive
b) Explain why the positive ions in a metal do not repel each other. The delocalised
electrons are attracted to the positive ions and this electrostatic attraction holds the lattice
together and prevents ions pushing apart due to electrostatic repulsion of like charges.
4. In order for a substance to conduct electricity it must have charged particles that are free
to move. State the name of the particles that are responsible for the conduction of
electricity in metals. Delocalised electrons
5. Use the electron sea model for metallic bonding to explain each of the following
observations.
a) When you touch a piece of metal on a cold day it feels cold
Metal feels cold when you touch it as the heat from your body is transferred so rapidly
by the delocalised electrons within the lattice structure that the metal feels cold to
touch
b) An empty aluminium drink can be crushed without breaking the metal.
When pressure is placed on metal the cations are displaced and the constant movement
of delocalised electrons between cations in their new position causes the metal to crush
but not break
c) Tungsten used in light globe filaments has a melting point of over 30 degrees Celsius.
The electrostatic attraction between the cations and the delocalised electrons is so
strong that it takes a large amount of heat energy to break the bonds.
6. In terms of the electron sea diagram explain why the electrical conductivity of metals
decreases as the metal is warmed.
Because as the metal is heated the position ions vibrate more furiously making the passage
of the electrons more difficult.