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Power System Stability

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Power System Stability GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Outline

• Basis for Steady-State Stability

• Transient Stability

• Effect of Excitation System on Stability

• Small Signal Stability

• Power System Stabilizers

– Speed Based

– Integral of Accelerating Power

• Case Studies

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Stabilizers – Speed Based – Integral of Accelerating Power • Case Studies GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Mechanical and Electrical Torque Applied to the Shaft

T e T G T ω M
T
e
T
G
T
ω
M

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Mechanical and Electrical Torque Applied to the Shaft T e T G T ω M GENERATOR

Stator, Rotor, and Resultant MMFs and Torque Angle

R F 2 A ω B' C' F 1 C B A'
R
F
2
A
ω
B'
C'
F
1
C
B
A'

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

and Resultant MMFs and Torque Angle R F 2 A ω B' C' F 1 C

Synchronous Machine Tied to Infinite Bus

E g

E

T

E

HV

E O

X g
X g
Synchronous Machine Tied to Infinite Bus E g E T E HV E O X g

X

Synchronous Machine Tied to Infinite Bus E g E T E HV E O X g

T

Synchronous Machine Tied to Infinite Bus E g E T E HV E O X g
Synchronous Machine Tied to Infinite Bus E g E T E HV E O X g
Synchronous Machine Tied to Infinite Bus E g E T E HV E O X g
Synchronous Machine Tied to Infinite Bus E g E T E HV E O X g

Infinite Bus

X L

Synchronous Machine Tied to Infinite Bus E g E T E HV E O X g

X

E =X T +X

L

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

E g E T E HV E O X g X T Infinite Bus X L

Steady State Electrical Power Output

X

g

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Steady State Electrical Power Output X g GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

g

E E

T

P

e

=

sinδ

Phasor Diagram - Generator Tied to Infinite Bus

E g IX j g δδδδ E T E 0 IX E I j
E
g
IX
j
g
δδδδ
E
T
E
0
IX
E
I
j

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

- Generator Tied to Infinite Bus E g IX j g δδδδ E T E 0

Transient Stability

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Transient Stability GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Rubber Band Analogy

Rubber Bands

Rubber Band Analogy Rubber Bands Weights
Rubber Band Analogy Rubber Bands Weights

Weights

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Rubber Band Analogy Rubber Bands Weights GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Change in Electrical Torque

T

e

=

T

s

δ +

T

D

ω

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Change in Electrical Torque ∆ T e = T ∆ s δ + T ∆ D

Transient Stability Illustration

P 3 MAX 4 Insufficient Retarding P DECEL Torque Stable 1 P Turbine M Retarding
P
3
MAX
4
Insufficient
Retarding
P
DECEL
Torque
Stable
1
P
Turbine
M
Retarding
Power
Torque
P
ACCEL
2
Unstable,
machine loses
Synchronism
0
0 °
δδδδ
°
90 °
Power Angle-
180 °
δδδδ
Power

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

loses Synchronism 0 0 ° δδδδ ° 90 ° Power Angle- 180 ° δδδδ Power GENERATOR

Effect of Fault Clearing Time - Equal Area Not Possible

P E Breaker clears
P E
Breaker
clears

P

M

Fault Clearing Time - Equal Area Not Possible P E Breaker clears P M Power Unit

Power

Unit pulls out of sync

Fault

Fault Clearing Time - Equal Area Not Possible P E Breaker clears P M Power Unit

δδδδ

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

P E Breaker clears P M Power Unit pulls out of sync Fault δδδδ GENERATOR CONTROL

Effect of Fault Clearing Time - Equal Area Substantial Margin

Rotor decelerates due to P max exceeding mechanical power

E

P E P M Breaker clears faults
P E
P
M
Breaker
clears faults
mechanical power E P E P M Breaker clears faults System returns to steady state, system

System returns to steady state, system stable

Power

Equal Area substantial margin

Fault

δδδδ

M Breaker clears faults System returns to steady state, system stable Power Equal Area substantial margin

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

to steady state, system stable Power Equal Area substantial margin Fault δδδδ GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Effect of the Excitation System on Stability

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Effect of the Excitation System on Stability GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Steady State Electrical Power Output

X

g

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Steady State Electrical Power Output X g GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

g

E E

T

P

e

=

sin δ

Effect of High Initial Response Excitation System

Power

P

E

P E-B B P E-A A
P E-B
B
P E-A
A

P

M

0

Excitation System Power P E P E-B B P E-A A P M 0 δδδδ Fast

δδδδ

Fast excitation system Maximum field forcing First swing, system recovers

Machine will lose synchronism

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

system Maximum field forcing First swing, system recovers Machine will lose synchronism GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Small Signal Stability

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Small Signal Stability GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Change in Electrical Torque

T

e

=

T

s

δ +

T

D

ω

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Change in Electrical Torque ∆ T e = T ∆ s δ + T ∆ D

Inter-Unit Oscillations

E

E

g1

g2

X g1 X g2
X g1
X g2
E o
E
o

1.5 - 3 Hertz

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Inter-Unit Oscillations E E g1 g2 X g1 X g2 E o 1.5 - 3 Hertz

Local Mode Oscillations

E E

g g

X g
X g
E o X L
E o
X
L

.7 - 2 Hertz

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Local Mode Oscillations E E g g X g E o X L .7 - 2

Inter-Area Oscillations

E g1

X g1
X
g1
X L
X
L
<0.5 Hertz X g2 Eg2
<0.5 Hertz
X g2
Eg2

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Inter-Area Oscillations E g1 X g1 X L <0.5 Hertz X g2 Eg2 GENERATOR CONTROL AND
Block Diagram of Generator Under Voltage Regulator Control K4 V REF ∆T M Exciter -
Block Diagram of Generator Under
Voltage Regulator Control
K4
V REF
∆T
M
Exciter
-
+
∆E fd
+
-
∆ω
∆Ψ fd
Σ G ex (s)
Σ
+ ∆T e
Σ
r
∆δ
K 3
Σ
1
ω 0
K 2
+ 1+sT 3
2Hs +K D
s
-
+
Field circuit
∆v
1
K 1
K6
+
∆ E
+
1
t
Σ
K 5
1+sT R
Voltage transducer

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Field circuit ∆v 1 K 1 K6 + ∆ E + 1 t Σ K 5

Power System Stabilizers

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Power System Stabilizers GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

The "Swing Equation"

2 H d

2

ω

0

dt

2

m

T

e

D

r

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

The "Swing Equation" 2 H d 2 ω 0 dt 2 m − T e D

δ =

T

K

ω

Small Signal Version of "Swing Equation"

T

e

=

T

s

δ +

T

D

ω

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Equation" ∆ T e = T s ∆ δ + T D ∆ ω GENERATOR CONTROL

Response of Speed and Angle to Small Disturbances

∆δ

0

∆δ

0

of Speed and Angle to Small Disturbances ∆δ 0 ∆δ 0 Stable • Positive T s
of Speed and Angle to Small Disturbances ∆δ 0 ∆δ 0 Stable • Positive T s
of Speed and Angle to Small Disturbances ∆δ 0 ∆δ 0 Stable • Positive T s

Stable

PositiveT

s

PositiveT

D

Oscillatory

Instability

PositiveT

s

NegativeT

D

T ∆ T e D ∆ T s
T
T
e
D
∆ T
s

∆ω

∆δ

∆ T s T D ∆ T e
∆ T
s
T
D
T
e

∆ω

∆δ

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

D ∆ T s ∆ω ∆ ∆δ ∆ T s T D ∆ T e ∆ω

PSS with AVR, Exciter and Generator

V REF

∆ω r G P S (s) ∆δ K4 ∆v ∆T s M - + +
∆ω
r
G
P S (s)
∆δ
K4
∆v
∆T
s
M
-
+
+
-
+
∆E fd
∆Ψ fd
∆δ
Σ
G
ex (s)
Σ
K 3
Σ
1 ω 0
K 2
+ ∆T e
Σ
+ 1+sT 3
2Hs +K D
∆ω
r s
-
+
Exciter
Field circuit
∆v
1
K 1
K6
+
∆ E
+
1
t
Σ
K 5
1+sT R
Voltage transducer

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Field circuit ∆v 1 K 1 K6 + ∆ E + 1 t Σ K 5
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

PSS Theory of Operation Speed Based Stabilizers

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

PSS Theory of Operation Speed Based Stabilizers GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Speed-Based Stabilizer

Speed

High-Pass Filter

Torsional Filter

1 1 + s T6 s T5 1 + s T5
1
1 + s T6
s T5
1 + s T5
1 2 1 + A1 s + A2 s
1
2
1 + A1 s + A2 s

Stabilizer Gain & Phase Lead

Limits

Vstmax

+ A1 s + A2 s Stabilizer Gain & Phase Lead Limits Vstmax K s 1

Ks1

1 + s T1 1 + s T2

1 + s T3 1 + s T4
1 + s T3
1 + s T4
+ A1 s + A2 s Stabilizer Gain & Phase Lead Limits Vstmax K s 1
+ A1 s + A2 s Stabilizer Gain & Phase Lead Limits Vstmax K s 1

Vstmin

Output

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Limits Vstmax K s 1 1 + s T1 1 + s T2 1 + s

PSS Theory of Operation Dual Input Stabilizers

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

PSS Theory of Operation Dual Input Stabilizers GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Small Signal Version of "Swing Equation"

T

e

=

T

s

δ +

T

D

ω

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Equation" ∆ T e = T s ∆ δ + T D ∆ ω GENERATOR CONTROL
Speed Deviation from Net Accelerating Power d 1 ∆ω = ( T − T −
Speed Deviation from Net
Accelerating Power
d
1
∆ω
=
(
T
T
K
∆ω
)
r
m
e
D
r
dt
2
H

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Power d 1 ∆ω = ( T − T − K ∆ω ) r m e

Accelerating Power Based on Integral of Mechanical and Electrical Power

ω =

1

2H

T ]

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Power Based on Integral of Mechanical and Electrical Power ∆ ω = 1 2 H T

[

T m

e

Block Diagram of Dual-Input Power System Stabilizer

Freq

Power

Ramp-Tracking

Filter

Stabilizer Gain & Phase Lead Limits

High-Pass Filters

Vstmax 1+ sT 3 1+ sT 4 Output
Vstmax
1+ sT 3
1+ sT 4
Output

Vstmin

N + 1+sT 1 sT w1 sT w2 1+sT 8 + ΣΣΣΣ ΣΣΣΣ 1 +
N +
1+sT 1
sT w1
sT w2
1+sT 8
+ ΣΣΣΣ
ΣΣΣΣ
1 + sT w1
1 + sT w2
M
K s1
1+sT 2
(1+sT 9 )
-
+
High-Pass Filters & Integrator
sT w3
K s2
1+sT w3
1+sT 7

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

1+sT 2 (1+sT 9 ) - + High-Pass Filters & Integrator sT w3 K s2 1+sT

Speed Derived from VT and CT Signals

E Generator I q-axis jX q I t I t E t d-axis
E
Generator
I
q-axis
jX
q I
t
I t
E
t
d-axis

ω

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

from VT and CT Signals E Generator I q-axis jX q I t I t E

Accelerating-Power Design (Speed Input)

High-Pass Filters

s Tw1 1 + s Tw1

s Tw

2

1 + s Tw2

Compensated Frequency Equivalent to Rotor Speed

1 + s Tw2 Compensated Frequency Equivalent to Rotor Speed Generator Speed Deviation Signal (i.e. no

Generator Speed Deviation Signal (i.e. no steady state component)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

to Rotor Speed Generator Speed Deviation Signal (i.e. no steady state component) GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Integral of Electrical Power Block Diagram

High-Pass Filters & Integrator

Active Power

s Tw3 1 + s Tw3

K 1 + s T7

2

Block Diagram High-Pass Filters & Integrator Active Power s Tw3 1 + s Tw3 K 1
Block Diagram High-Pass Filters & Integrator Active Power s Tw3 1 + s Tw3 K 1
Block Diagram High-Pass Filters & Integrator Active Power s Tw3 1 + s Tw3 K 1

Integral-of-Power

Deviation

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Active Power s Tw3 1 + s Tw3 K 1 + s T7 2 Integral-of-Power Deviation

Output Stage of PSS to AVR

Filtered

Speed

Limits

S tabilizer Gain & Phase Lead

Vstmax

Ks1 1 + s T1 1 + s T2 1 + s T3 1 +
Ks1 1 + s T1
1 + s T2
1
+ s T3
1
+ s T4

Output to AVR

Vstmin

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Lead Vstmax Ks1 1 + s T1 1 + s T2 1 + s T3 1

Case Studies

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Case Studies GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Case 1 - Hydro Generator without PSS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

• Time (seconds)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

without PSS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Case 1 - Hydro Generator with PSS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

• Time (seconds)

• Dual Input Stabilizer, Phase Lead=(1+0.05s)/(1+0.01s), Gain=40

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

• Time (seconds) • Dual Input Stabilizer, Phase Lead=(1+0.05s)/(1+0.01s), Gain=40 GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Case 2 - On-line Step Response Frequency Type PSS

Ks=6, 92MW Hydro Turbine Generator

Response Frequency Type PSS Ks=6, 92MW Hydro Turbine Generator A single input PSS measures only frequency,

A single input PSS measures only frequency, power or speed

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

92MW Hydro Turbine Generator A single input PSS measures only frequency, power or speed GENERATOR CONTROL

Case 2 - On-line Step Response Dual input PSS

Ks=7.5, 92MW Hydro Turbine Generator

Response Dual input PSS Ks=7.5, 92MW Hydro Turbine Generator The PSS monitors frequency and power for

The PSS monitors frequency and power for superior performance

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Hydro Turbine Generator The PSS monitors frequency and power for superior performance GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Case 3 – Step Response All generators in service, Stabilizer OFF

Case 3 – Step Response All generators in service, Stabilizer OFF

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Case 3 – Step Response All generators in service, Stabilizer OFF GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Case 3 – Step Response All generators in service, Stabilizer Gain = 1

Case 3 – Step Response All generators in service, Stabilizer Gain = 1

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Case 3 – Step Response All generators in service, Stabilizer Gain = 1 GENERATOR CONTROL AND
Case 4 - 1165MW Nuclear Unit - Baseline WATTS POSTLIM OUT 0.875 1 0.87 0.5
Case 4 - 1165MW Nuclear Unit - Baseline
WATTS
POSTLIM OUT
0.875
1
0.87
0.5
0.865
0
0.86
-0.5
0.855
0.85
-1
0
2
4 6
8 10
12
14
16 18
20
0
2
4 6
8 10
12
14 16
18 20
GEN TERM V
PSS OUT
0.975
0.01
0.008
0.97
0.006
0.004
0.965
0.002
0.96
0
0
2
4 6
8 10
12
14
16 18
20
0
2
4 6
8 10
12
14 16
18 20
x10 -4
GEN TERM F
TEST OUT
-1.5
0.01
-2
0.008
-2.5
0.006
-3
0.004
-3.5
0.002
-4
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
0
2
4 6
8 10
12
14 16
18 20
Time (Sec)
Time (Sec)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Case 4 - 1165MW Nuclear Unit - Final Setting WATTS 2 x10 -3 POSTLIM OUT
Case 4 - 1165MW Nuclear Unit - Final Setting
WATTS
2 x10 -3
POSTLIM OUT
0.87
0.865
1
0.86
0
0.855
-1
0.85
0.845
-2
0
2
4 6
8
10
12
14 16
18 20
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14 16
18 20
GEN TERM V
x10 -3
PSS OUT
0.98
15
0.975
10
0.97
5
0.965
0
0.96
-5
0
2
4 6
8
10
12
14 16
18 20
0
2
4 6
8
10
12
14 16
18 20
x10 -4
GEN TERM F
TEST OUT
6
0.01
4
0.008
2
0.006
0
0.004
- 2
0.002
- 4
0
0
2
4 6
8 10
12
14 16
18
20
0
2
4 6
8 10
12
14
16 18
20
Time (Sec)
Time (Sec)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Case 5 – SCT/PPT

Phase

Compensation

Requirements

300 53 MW 280 41 MW 28 MW 14 MW 260 7 MW stabil izer
300
53
MW
280
41
MW
28
MW
14
MW
260
7
MW
stabil
izer
phase
compe
nsation
240
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0.1
1
10
Phase (degrees)

Frequency (Hz)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0.1 1 10 Phase (degrees) Frequency (Hz)

Case 5:

On-Line Step Test with PSS Off

14.2 14.1 14.0 13.9 13.8 Terminal V (kV)
14.2
14.1
14.0
13.9
13.8
Terminal V
(kV)
57 55 53 51 Active Power (MW)
57
55
53
51
Active Power
(MW)
0 -4 -8 -12 Reactive Power (MVAr)
0
-4
-8
-12
Reactive Power
(MVAr)
60.02 60.01 60.00 59.99 Gen Freq (Hz)
60.02
60.01
60.00
59.99
Gen Freq
(Hz)
240 160 80 0 Field (Vdc)
240
160
80
0
Field
(Vdc)
330 310 290 270 250 0 5 10 15 Field (Adc)
330
310
290
270
250
0
5
10
15
Field
(Adc)

Time (seconds)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Field (Vdc) 330 310 290 270 250 0 5 10 15 Field (Adc) Time (seconds) GENERATOR

Case 5:

On-Line Step Test with PSS On

14.4 14.3 14.2 14.1 14.0 Terminal V (kV)
14.4
14.3
14.2
14.1
14.0
Terminal V
(kV)
60 59 58 57 56 55 Active Power (MW)
60
59
58
57
56
55
Active Power
(MW)
8 4 0 -4 -8 Reactive Power (MVAr)
8
4
0
-4
-8
Reactive Power
(MVAr)
60.03 60.02 60.01 60.00 Gen Freq (Hz)
60.03
60.02
60.01
60.00
Gen Freq
(Hz)
250 200 150 100 50 0 Field (Vdc)
250
200
150
100
50
0
Field
(Vdc)
1 0 -1 -2 -3 0 5 10 15 PSS+Test (%)
1
0
-1
-2
-3
0
5
10
15
PSS+Test
(%)

Time (seconds)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

50 0 Field (Vdc) 1 0 -1 -2 -3 0 5 10 15 PSS+Test (%) Time

Case 6: Off-Line Step of Reference Test

Case 6: Off-Line Step of Reference Test

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Case 6: Off-Line Step of Reference Test GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Case 6: On-Line Step of Reference Test - PSS Off

Case 6: On-Line Step of Reference Test - PSS Off

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Case 6: On-Line Step of Reference Test - PSS Off GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Case 6: Off-Line Step of Reference Test – PSS On

Case 6: Off-Line Step of Reference Test – PSS On

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Case 6: Off-Line Step of Reference Test – PSS On GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Power System Stability

– A function of fast protective relaying

– PSS is used to provide damping to prevent power system oscillations

– Provide damping via excitation control

– PSS has little effect on first swing stability, but restores damping lost by adding high initial response excitation systems

– Many different stabilizing schemes exist - focus on integral of accelerating power

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

– Many different stabilizing schemes exist - focus on integral of accelerating power GENERATOR CONTROL AND
QUESTIONS? GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
QUESTIONS?
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION