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VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:


DYNAMICS
Seventh Edition
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
Lecture Notes:
J. Walt Oler
Texas Tech University
CHAPTER
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12
Kinetics of Particles:
Newtons Second Law
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12 - 2
Introduction
Newtons first and third laws are sufficient for the study of bodies at
rest (statics) or bodies in motion with no acceleration.
When a body accelerates (changes in velocity magnitude or direction),
Newtons second law is required to relate the motion of the bodyto the
forces acting on it.
Newtons second law:
- A particle will have an accelerationproportional to the magnitude of
the resultant force acting on it and in the direction of the resultant
force.
- The resultant of the forces acting on a particle is equal to therate of
change of linear momentumof the particle.
- The sum of the moments about O of the forces acting on a particle is
equal to the rate of change of angular momentumof the particle
about O.
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12 - 3
Newtons Second Law of Motion
If the resultant force acting on a particle is not zero, the
particle will have an acceleration proportional to the
magnitude of resultant and in the direction of the resultant.
When a particle of mass m is acted upon by a force
the acceleration of the particle must satisfy
, F
r
a m F
r
r
=
Acceleration must be evaluated with respect to a
Newtonian frame of reference, i.e., one that is not
accelerating or rotating.
If force acting on particle is zero, particle will not
accelerate, i.e., it will remain stationary or continue on a
straight line at constant velocity.
Newtons second law(acceleration):
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12 - 4
Dynamic Equilibrium
Alternate expression of Newtons second law,
ector inertial v a m
a m F 0

=

r
r
r
With the inclusion of the inertial vector, the system
of forces acting on the particle is equivalent to
zero. The particle is in dynamic equilibrium.
Methods developed for particles in static
equilibrium may be applied, e.g., coplanar forces
may be represented with a closed vector polygon.
Inertia vectors are often called inertial forces as
they measure the resistance that particles offer to
changes in motion, i.e., changes in speed or
direction.
Inertial forces may be conceptually useful but are
not like the contact and gravitational forces found
in statics.
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12 - 5
Linear Momentum of a Particle
Replacing the acceleration by the derivative of the
velocity yields
( )
particle the of momentum linear =
= =
=

L
dt
L d
v m
dt
d
dt
v d
m F
r
r
r
r
r
Linear Momentum Conservation Principle:
If the resultant force on a particle is zero, the linear
momentum of the particle remains constant in both
magnitude and direction.
Newtons second law(linear momentum):
- The resultant of the forces acting on a particle is equal to therate of
change of linear momentum of the particle.
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12 - 6
Equations of Motion
Newtons second law provides
a m F
r
r
=

Solution for particle motion is facilitated by resolving


vector equation into scalar component equations, e.g.,
for rectangular components,
( ) ( )
z m F y m F x m F
ma F ma F ma F
k a j a i a m k F j F i F
z y x
z z y y x x
z y x z y x
& & & & & &
r r r r r r
= = =
= = =
+ + = + +

For tangential and normal components,

2
v
m F
dt
dv
m F
ma F ma F
n t
n n t t
= =
= =


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12 - 7
Equations of Motion
( )
( )


&
&
& &
&
& &
r r m ma F
r r m ma F
r r
2
2
+ = =
= =

For radial and transversecomponents,


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12 - 8
Sample Problem 12.1
A 200-lb block rests on a horizontal
plane. Find the magnitude of the force
P required to give the block an accelera-
tionor 10 ft/s
2
to the right. The coef-
ficient of kinetic friction between the
block and plane is
k
= 0.25.
SOLUTION:
Resolve the equation of motion for the
block into two rectangular component
equations.
Unknowns consist of the applied force
P and the normal reaction N from the
plane. The two equations may be
solved for these unknowns.
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12 - 9
Sample Problem 12.1
N
N F
g
W
m
k
25 . 0
ft
s lb
21 . 6
s ft 2 . 32
lb 200
2
2
=
=

=
= =

x
y
O
SOLUTION:
Resolve the equation of motion for the block
into two rectangular component equations.
: ma F
x
=

( )( )
lb 1 . 62
s ft 10 ft s lb 21 . 6 25 . 0 30 cos
2 2
=
= N P
: 0 =

y
F
0 lb 200 30 sin = P N
Unknowns consist of the applied force P and
the normal reaction N from the plane. The two
equations may be solved for these unknowns.
( ) lb 1 . 62 lb 200 30 sin 25 . 0 30 cos
lb 200 30 sin
= +
+ =
P P
P N
lb 151 = P
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12 - 10
Sample Problem 12.3
The two blocks shown start from rest.
The horizontal plane and the pulley are
frictionless, and the pulley is assumed
to be of negligible mass. Determine
the acceleration of each block and the
tension in the cord.
SOLUTION:
Write the kinematic relationships for the
dependent motions and accelerations of
the blocks.
Write the equations of motion for the
blocks and pulley.
Combine the kinematic relationships
with the equations of motion to solve for
the accelerations and cord tension.
6
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12 - 11
Sample Problem 12.3
Write equations of motion for blocks and pulley.
:
A A x
a m F =

( )
A
a T kg 100
1
=
:
B B y
a m F =

( )( ) ( )
( )
B
B
B B B
a T
a T
a m T g m
kg 300 - N 2940
kg 300 s m 81 . 9 kg 300
2
2
2
2
=
=
=
: 0 = =

C C y
a m F
0 2
1 2
= T T
SOLUTION:
Write the kinematic relationships for the dependent
motions and accelerations of the blocks.
A B A B
a a x y
2
1
2
1
= =
x
y
O
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12 - 12
Sample Problem 12.3
( )
N 1680 2
N 840 kg 100
s m 20 . 4
s m 40 . 8
1 2
1
2
2
1
2
= =
= =
= =
=
T T
a T
a a
a
A
A B
A
Combine kinematic relationships with equations of
motion to solve for accelerations and cord tension.
A B A B
a a x y
2
1
2
1
= =
( )
A
a T kg 100
1
=
( )
( )( )
A
B
a
a T
2
1
2
kg 300 - N 2940
kg 300 - N 2940
=
=
( ) ( ) 0 kg 100 2 kg 150 N 2940
0 2
1 2
=
=
A A
a a
T T
x
y
O
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12 - 13
Sample Problem 12.4
The 12-lb block B starts from rest and
slides on the 30-lb wedge A, which is
supported by a horizontal surface.
Neglecting friction, determine (a) the
acceleration of the wedge, and (b) the
acceleration of the block relative to the
wedge.
SOLUTION:
The block is constrained to slide down
the wedge. Therefore, their motions are
dependent. Express the acceleration of
block as the acceleration of wedge plus
the acceleration of the block relative to
the wedge.
Write the equations of motion for the
wedge and block.
Solve for the accelerations.
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12 - 14
Sample Problem 12.4
SOLUTION:
The block is constrained to slide down the
wedge. Therefore, their motions are dependent.
A B A B
a a a
r r r
+ =
Write equations of motion for wedge and block.
x
y
:
A A x
a m F =

( )
A A
A A
a g W N
a m N
=
=
1
1
5 . 0
30 sin
( ): 30 cos
A B A B x B x
a a m a m F = =

( )( )
+ =
=
30 sin 30 cos
30 cos 30 sin
g a a
a a g W W
A A B
A B A B B
( ) : 30 sin = =

A B y B y
a m a m F
( ) = 30 sin 30 cos
1 A B B
a g W W N
8
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12 - 15
Sample Problem 12.4
( )
A A
a g W N =
1
5 . 0
Solve for the accelerations.
( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) ( ) +

=
+

=
=
=
30 sin lb 12 lb 30 2
30 cos lb 12 s ft 2 . 32
30 sin 2
30 cos
30 sin 30 cos 2
30 sin 30 cos
2
1
A
B A
B
A
A B B A A
A B B
a
W W
gW
a
a g W W a g W
a g W W N
2
s ft 07 . 5 =
A
a
( ) ( ) + =
+ =
30 sin s ft 2 . 32 30 cos s ft 07 . 5
30 sin 30 cos
2 2
A B
A A B
a
g a a
2
s ft 5 . 20 =
A B
a
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12 - 16
Sample Problem 12.5
The bob of a 2-m pendulum describes
an arc of a circle in a vertical plane. If
the tension in the cord is 2.5 times the
weight of the bob for the position
shown, find the velocity and accel-
erationof the bob in that position.
SOLUTION:
Resolve the equation of motion for the
bob into tangential and normal
components.
Solve the component equations for the
normal and tangential accelerations.
Solve for the velocity in terms of the
normal acceleration.
9
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12 - 17
Sample Problem 12.5
SOLUTION:
Resolve the equation of motion for the bob into
tangential and normal components.
Solve the component equations for the normal and
tangential accelerations.
:
t t
ma F =

=
=
30 sin
30 sin
g a
ma mg
t
t
2
s m 9 . 4 =
t
a
:
n n
ma F =

( ) =
=
30 cos 5 . 2
30 cos 5 . 2
g a
ma mg mg
n
n
2
s m 03 . 16 =
n
a
Solve for velocity in terms of normal acceleration.
( )( )
2
2
s m 03 . 16 m 2 = = =
n n
a v
v
a

s m 66 . 5 = v
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12 - 18
Sample Problem 12.6
Determine the rated speed of a
highway curve of radius =400 ft
banked through an angle =18
o
. The
rated speed of a banked highway curve
is the speed at which a car should
travel if no lateral friction force is to
be exerted at its wheels.
SOLUTION:
The car travels in a horizontal circular
path with a normal component of
acceleration directed toward the center
of the path.The forces acting on the car
are its weight and a normal reaction
from the road surface.
Resolve the equation of motion for
the car into vertical and normal
components.
Solve for the vehicle speed.
10
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12 - 19
Sample Problem 12.6
SOLUTION:
The car travels in a horizontal circular
path with a normal component of
acceleration directed toward the center
of the path.The forces acting on the
car are its weight and a normal
reaction from the road surface.
Resolve the equation of motion for
the car into vertical and normal
components.
: 0 =

y
F

cos
0 cos
W
R
W R
=
=
:
n n
ma F =

2
sin
cos
sin
v
g
W W
a
g
W
R
n
=
=
Solve for the vehicle speed.
( )( ) =
=
18 tan ft 400 s ft 2 . 32
tan
2
2
g v
h mi 1 . 44 s ft 7 . 64 = = v
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12 - 20
Angular Momentum of a Particle
moment of momentum or the angular
momentum of the particle about O.
= = V m r H
O
r
r
r
Derivative of angular momentum with respect to time,


=
=
+ = + =
O
O
M
F r
a m r V m V V m r V m r H
r
r
r r
r r
&
r
r
r
&
r
&
r
z y x
O
mv mv mv
z y x
k j i
H
r r r
r
=
is perpendicular to plane containing
O
H
r
V m r
r
r
and

&
2
sin
mr
v rm
rmV H
O
=
=
=
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12 - 21
Angular Momentum of a Particle

= =
O O
M F r H
r r
&
r
It follows from Newtons second law that the sum of
the moments about O of the forces acting on the
particle is equal to the rate of change of the angular
momentum of the particle about O.
Newtons second law(angular momentum):
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Conservation of Angular Momentum
When only force acting on particle is directed
toward or away from a fixed point O, the particle
is said to be moving under a central force.
Since the line of action of the central force passes
through O, and 0

= =
O O
H M
&
r r
constant = =
O
H V m r
r r
r
Position vector and motion of particle are in a
plane perpendicular to .
O
H
r
Magnitude of angular momentum,
0 0 0
sin
constant sin

V m r
V rm H
O
=
= =
mass unit
momentum angular
constant
2
2
= = =
= =
h r
m
H
mr H
O
O

&
&
or
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12 - 23
Conservation of Angular Momentum
Radius vector OP sweeps infinitesimal area
d r dA
2
2
1
=
Define = = =

&
2
2
1
2
2
1
r
dt
d
r
dt
dA
areal velocity
Recall, for a body moving under a central force,
constant
2
= =
&
r h
When a particle moves under a central force, its
areal velocity is constant.
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12 - 24
Eqs of Motion in Radial & Transverse Components
( )
( )


&
&
& &
&
& &
r r m ma F
r r m ma F
r r
2
2
+ = =
= =

Consider particle at r and , in polar coordinates,


( )
( )
( )

&
&
& &
&
&
& &
&
&
r r m F
r r r m
mr
dt
d
F r
mr H
O
2
2
2
2
2
+ =
+ =
=
=

This result may also be derived from conservation


of angular momentum,
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12 - 25
Sample Problem 12.7
A block B of mass m can slide freely on
a frictionless arm OA which rotates in a
horizontal plane at a constant rate .
0

&
a) the component v
r
of the velocity of B
along OA, and
b) the magnitude of the horizontal force
exerted on B by the arm OA.
Knowing that B is released at a distance
r
0
from O, express as a function of r
SOLUTION:
Write the radial and transverse
equations of motion for the block.
Integrate the radial equation to find an
expression for the radial velocity.
Substitute known information into the
transverse equation to find an
expression for the force on the block.
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12 - 26
Sample Problem 12.7
SOLUTION:
Write the radial and transverse
equations of motion for the block.
:
:

a m F
a m F
r r
=
=

( )
( )

&
&
& &
&
& &
r r m F
r r m
2
0
2
+ =
=
Integrate the radial equation to find an
expression for the radial velocity.

=
= =
= = = =
r
r
v
r r
r r
r
r
r r
r
dr r dv v
dr r dr r dv v
dr
dv
v
dt
dr
dr
dv
dt
dv
v r
r
0
2
0
0
2
0
2


&
& &
& & &
dr
dv
v
dt
dr
dr
dv
dt
dv
v r
r
r
r r
r
= = = = & & &
( )
2
0
2 2
0
2
r r v
r
=
Substitute known information into the
transverse equation to find an expression
for the force on the block.
( )
2 1
2
0
2 2
0
2 r r m F =
14
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12 - 27
Sample Problem 12.8
A satellite is launched in a direction
parallel to the surface of the earth
with a velocity of 18820 mi/h from
an altitude of 240 mi. Determine the
velocity of the satellite as it reaches it
maximum altitude of 2340 mi. The
radius of the earth is 3960 mi.
SOLUTION:
Since the satellite is moving under a
central force, its angular momentum is
constant. Equate the angular momentum
at A and B and solve for the velocity at B.
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12 - 28
Sample Problem 12.8
SOLUTION:
Since the satellite is moving under a
central force, its angular momentum is
constant. Equate the angular momentum
at A and B and solve for the velocity at B.
( )
( )
( )mi 2340 3960
mi 240 3960
h mi 18820
constant sin
+
+
=
=
=
= =
B
A
A B
B B A A
O
r
r
v v
v m r v m r
H v rm
h mi 12550 =
B
v
15
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%Quiz 1
clear all % clear all variables and breakpoints
t = [0:0.01:1.2];
theta = t.^3+4*t;
r = t.^3+2*t.^2;
x = r.*cos(theta);
y = r.*sin(theta);
v_r = 3*t.^2+4*t;
v_theta = (t.^3+2.*t.^2).*(3.*t.^2+4);
v = sqrt(v_r.^2+v_theta.^2);
a_r = 6*t+4-(t.^3+2.*t.^2).*(3.*t.^2+4).^2;
a_theta = (t.^3+2.*t.^2).*(6*t)+2.*(3.*t.^2+4).*(3*t.^2+4*t) ;
a = sqrt(a_r.^2+a_theta.^2);
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12 - 30
figure(1)
plot(x,y);
xlabel('x (in.)')
ylabel('y (in.)')
legend('Trajectory',2)
grid on
figure(2)
plot(t,v_r,t,v_theta,t,v)
xlabel('t (sec)')
ylabel('v_x, v_t, v (in./sec)')
legend('v_r','v_t','v',2)
grid on
figure(3)
plot(t,a_r,t,a_theta,t,a)
xlabel('t (sec)')
ylabel('a_r, a_t, a (in./sec^2)')
legend('a_r','a_t','a',2)
grid on
16
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2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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% Problem 11.C5
%
syms t
theta = pi*t;
r = 1.75/(1-0.75*cos(pi*t));
x = r.*cos(theta);
y = r.*sin(theta);
r_dot = diff(r,t);
r_ddot = diff(r_dot,t);
t_dot = diff(theta,t);
t_ddot = diff(t_dot,t);
v_r = r_dot;
v_theta = r*t_dot;
v = sqrt(v_r.^2+v_theta.^2);
a_r = r_ddot-r*(t_dot)^2;
a_theta = r*t_ddot+2*r_dot*t_dot;
a = sqrt(a_r.^2+a_theta.^2);
2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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t = [0:.01:2];
v_r = subs(v_r,t);
v_theta = subs(v_theta,t);
v = subs(v,t);
a_r = subs(a_r,t);
a_theta = subs(a_theta,t);
a = subs(a,t);
x = subs(x,t);
y = subs(y,t);
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2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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figure(1)
plot(x,y);
xlabel('x (in.)')
ylabel('y (in.)')
legend('Trajectory',2)
grid on
%axis([0 10000 -3e5 0])
figure(2)
plot(t,v_r,t,v_theta,t,v)
xlabel('t (sec)')
ylabel('v_x, v_t, v (in./sec)')
legend('v_r','v_t','v',4)
grid on
figure(3)
plot(t,a_r,t,a_theta,t,a)
xlabel('t (sec)')
ylabel('a_r, a_t, a (in./sec^2)')
legend('a_r','a_t','a',4)
grid on
2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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%
function problemc2
%
fprintf('Mu Theta\n')
for mk = 0:0.05:0.4
y0 = [3;0];
g = 9.81;
ro = 1.5;
tspan = [0 0.275];
%
[t,y] = ode45(@f,tspan,y0,[],mk,ro,g);
%
eq1 = g*cos(y(:,2)) - y(:,1).^2/ro;
[x,k] = min(abs(eq1));
theta = y(k,2)*180/pi;
fprintf('%-4.2f %4.2f\n',mk,theta);
end
% --------------------------------------------------------------------------
function dydt = f(t,y,mk,ro,g)
dydt = [ g*(sin(y(2))-mk*cos(y(2)))+mk*y(1)^2/ro
y(1)/ro ];
2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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