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DYNAMICS

Seventh Edition

Ferdinand P. Beer

E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

Lecture Notes:

J. Walt Oler

Texas Tech University

CHAPTER

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12

Kinetics of Particles:

Newtons Second Law

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12 - 2

Introduction

Newtons first and third laws are sufficient for the study of bodies at

rest (statics) or bodies in motion with no acceleration.

When a body accelerates (changes in velocity magnitude or direction),

Newtons second law is required to relate the motion of the bodyto the

forces acting on it.

Newtons second law:

- A particle will have an accelerationproportional to the magnitude of

the resultant force acting on it and in the direction of the resultant

force.

- The resultant of the forces acting on a particle is equal to therate of

change of linear momentumof the particle.

- The sum of the moments about O of the forces acting on a particle is

equal to the rate of change of angular momentumof the particle

about O.

2

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12 - 3

Newtons Second Law of Motion

If the resultant force acting on a particle is not zero, the

particle will have an acceleration proportional to the

magnitude of resultant and in the direction of the resultant.

When a particle of mass m is acted upon by a force

the acceleration of the particle must satisfy

, F

r

a m F

r

r

=

Acceleration must be evaluated with respect to a

Newtonian frame of reference, i.e., one that is not

accelerating or rotating.

If force acting on particle is zero, particle will not

accelerate, i.e., it will remain stationary or continue on a

straight line at constant velocity.

Newtons second law(acceleration):

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12 - 4

Dynamic Equilibrium

Alternate expression of Newtons second law,

ector inertial v a m

a m F 0

=

r

r

r

With the inclusion of the inertial vector, the system

of forces acting on the particle is equivalent to

zero. The particle is in dynamic equilibrium.

Methods developed for particles in static

equilibrium may be applied, e.g., coplanar forces

may be represented with a closed vector polygon.

Inertia vectors are often called inertial forces as

they measure the resistance that particles offer to

changes in motion, i.e., changes in speed or

direction.

Inertial forces may be conceptually useful but are

not like the contact and gravitational forces found

in statics.

3

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12 - 5

Linear Momentum of a Particle

Replacing the acceleration by the derivative of the

velocity yields

( )

particle the of momentum linear =

= =

=

L

dt

L d

v m

dt

d

dt

v d

m F

r

r

r

r

r

Linear Momentum Conservation Principle:

If the resultant force on a particle is zero, the linear

momentum of the particle remains constant in both

magnitude and direction.

Newtons second law(linear momentum):

- The resultant of the forces acting on a particle is equal to therate of

change of linear momentum of the particle.

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12 - 6

Equations of Motion

Newtons second law provides

a m F

r

r

=

vector equation into scalar component equations, e.g.,

for rectangular components,

( ) ( )

z m F y m F x m F

ma F ma F ma F

k a j a i a m k F j F i F

z y x

z z y y x x

z y x z y x

& & & & & &

r r r r r r

= = =

= = =

+ + = + +

2

v

m F

dt

dv

m F

ma F ma F

n t

n n t t

= =

= =

4

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12 - 7

Equations of Motion

( )

( )

&

&

& &

&

& &

r r m ma F

r r m ma F

r r

2

2

+ = =

= =

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12 - 8

Sample Problem 12.1

A 200-lb block rests on a horizontal

plane. Find the magnitude of the force

P required to give the block an accelera-

tionor 10 ft/s

2

to the right. The coef-

ficient of kinetic friction between the

block and plane is

k

= 0.25.

SOLUTION:

Resolve the equation of motion for the

block into two rectangular component

equations.

Unknowns consist of the applied force

P and the normal reaction N from the

plane. The two equations may be

solved for these unknowns.

5

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12 - 9

Sample Problem 12.1

N

N F

g

W

m

k

25 . 0

ft

s lb

21 . 6

s ft 2 . 32

lb 200

2

2

=

=

=

= =

x

y

O

SOLUTION:

Resolve the equation of motion for the block

into two rectangular component equations.

: ma F

x

=

( )( )

lb 1 . 62

s ft 10 ft s lb 21 . 6 25 . 0 30 cos

2 2

=

= N P

: 0 =

y

F

0 lb 200 30 sin = P N

Unknowns consist of the applied force P and

the normal reaction N from the plane. The two

equations may be solved for these unknowns.

( ) lb 1 . 62 lb 200 30 sin 25 . 0 30 cos

lb 200 30 sin

= +

+ =

P P

P N

lb 151 = P

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12 - 10

Sample Problem 12.3

The two blocks shown start from rest.

The horizontal plane and the pulley are

frictionless, and the pulley is assumed

to be of negligible mass. Determine

the acceleration of each block and the

tension in the cord.

SOLUTION:

Write the kinematic relationships for the

dependent motions and accelerations of

the blocks.

Write the equations of motion for the

blocks and pulley.

Combine the kinematic relationships

with the equations of motion to solve for

the accelerations and cord tension.

6

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12 - 11

Sample Problem 12.3

Write equations of motion for blocks and pulley.

:

A A x

a m F =

( )

A

a T kg 100

1

=

:

B B y

a m F =

( )( ) ( )

( )

B

B

B B B

a T

a T

a m T g m

kg 300 - N 2940

kg 300 s m 81 . 9 kg 300

2

2

2

2

=

=

=

: 0 = =

C C y

a m F

0 2

1 2

= T T

SOLUTION:

Write the kinematic relationships for the dependent

motions and accelerations of the blocks.

A B A B

a a x y

2

1

2

1

= =

x

y

O

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12 - 12

Sample Problem 12.3

( )

N 1680 2

N 840 kg 100

s m 20 . 4

s m 40 . 8

1 2

1

2

2

1

2

= =

= =

= =

=

T T

a T

a a

a

A

A B

A

Combine kinematic relationships with equations of

motion to solve for accelerations and cord tension.

A B A B

a a x y

2

1

2

1

= =

( )

A

a T kg 100

1

=

( )

( )( )

A

B

a

a T

2

1

2

kg 300 - N 2940

kg 300 - N 2940

=

=

( ) ( ) 0 kg 100 2 kg 150 N 2940

0 2

1 2

=

=

A A

a a

T T

x

y

O

7

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12 - 13

Sample Problem 12.4

The 12-lb block B starts from rest and

slides on the 30-lb wedge A, which is

supported by a horizontal surface.

Neglecting friction, determine (a) the

acceleration of the wedge, and (b) the

acceleration of the block relative to the

wedge.

SOLUTION:

The block is constrained to slide down

the wedge. Therefore, their motions are

dependent. Express the acceleration of

block as the acceleration of wedge plus

the acceleration of the block relative to

the wedge.

Write the equations of motion for the

wedge and block.

Solve for the accelerations.

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12 - 14

Sample Problem 12.4

SOLUTION:

The block is constrained to slide down the

wedge. Therefore, their motions are dependent.

A B A B

a a a

r r r

+ =

Write equations of motion for wedge and block.

x

y

:

A A x

a m F =

( )

A A

A A

a g W N

a m N

=

=

1

1

5 . 0

30 sin

( ): 30 cos

A B A B x B x

a a m a m F = =

( )( )

+ =

=

30 sin 30 cos

30 cos 30 sin

g a a

a a g W W

A A B

A B A B B

( ) : 30 sin = =

A B y B y

a m a m F

( ) = 30 sin 30 cos

1 A B B

a g W W N

8

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12 - 15

Sample Problem 12.4

( )

A A

a g W N =

1

5 . 0

Solve for the accelerations.

( )

( ) ( )

( )( )

( ) ( ) +

=

+

=

=

=

30 sin lb 12 lb 30 2

30 cos lb 12 s ft 2 . 32

30 sin 2

30 cos

30 sin 30 cos 2

30 sin 30 cos

2

1

A

B A

B

A

A B B A A

A B B

a

W W

gW

a

a g W W a g W

a g W W N

2

s ft 07 . 5 =

A

a

( ) ( ) + =

+ =

30 sin s ft 2 . 32 30 cos s ft 07 . 5

30 sin 30 cos

2 2

A B

A A B

a

g a a

2

s ft 5 . 20 =

A B

a

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12 - 16

Sample Problem 12.5

The bob of a 2-m pendulum describes

an arc of a circle in a vertical plane. If

the tension in the cord is 2.5 times the

weight of the bob for the position

shown, find the velocity and accel-

erationof the bob in that position.

SOLUTION:

Resolve the equation of motion for the

bob into tangential and normal

components.

Solve the component equations for the

normal and tangential accelerations.

Solve for the velocity in terms of the

normal acceleration.

9

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12 - 17

Sample Problem 12.5

SOLUTION:

Resolve the equation of motion for the bob into

tangential and normal components.

Solve the component equations for the normal and

tangential accelerations.

:

t t

ma F =

=

=

30 sin

30 sin

g a

ma mg

t

t

2

s m 9 . 4 =

t

a

:

n n

ma F =

( ) =

=

30 cos 5 . 2

30 cos 5 . 2

g a

ma mg mg

n

n

2

s m 03 . 16 =

n

a

Solve for velocity in terms of normal acceleration.

( )( )

2

2

s m 03 . 16 m 2 = = =

n n

a v

v

a

s m 66 . 5 = v

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12 - 18

Sample Problem 12.6

Determine the rated speed of a

highway curve of radius =400 ft

banked through an angle =18

o

. The

rated speed of a banked highway curve

is the speed at which a car should

travel if no lateral friction force is to

be exerted at its wheels.

SOLUTION:

The car travels in a horizontal circular

path with a normal component of

acceleration directed toward the center

of the path.The forces acting on the car

are its weight and a normal reaction

from the road surface.

Resolve the equation of motion for

the car into vertical and normal

components.

Solve for the vehicle speed.

10

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12 - 19

Sample Problem 12.6

SOLUTION:

The car travels in a horizontal circular

path with a normal component of

acceleration directed toward the center

of the path.The forces acting on the

car are its weight and a normal

reaction from the road surface.

Resolve the equation of motion for

the car into vertical and normal

components.

: 0 =

y

F

cos

0 cos

W

R

W R

=

=

:

n n

ma F =

2

sin

cos

sin

v

g

W W

a

g

W

R

n

=

=

Solve for the vehicle speed.

( )( ) =

=

18 tan ft 400 s ft 2 . 32

tan

2

2

g v

h mi 1 . 44 s ft 7 . 64 = = v

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12 - 20

Angular Momentum of a Particle

moment of momentum or the angular

momentum of the particle about O.

= = V m r H

O

r

r

r

Derivative of angular momentum with respect to time,

=

=

+ = + =

O

O

M

F r

a m r V m V V m r V m r H

r

r

r r

r r

&

r

r

r

&

r

&

r

z y x

O

mv mv mv

z y x

k j i

H

r r r

r

=

is perpendicular to plane containing

O

H

r

V m r

r

r

and

&

2

sin

mr

v rm

rmV H

O

=

=

=

11

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12 - 21

Angular Momentum of a Particle

= =

O O

M F r H

r r

&

r

It follows from Newtons second law that the sum of

the moments about O of the forces acting on the

particle is equal to the rate of change of the angular

momentum of the particle about O.

Newtons second law(angular momentum):

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12 - 22

Conservation of Angular Momentum

When only force acting on particle is directed

toward or away from a fixed point O, the particle

is said to be moving under a central force.

Since the line of action of the central force passes

through O, and 0

= =

O O

H M

&

r r

constant = =

O

H V m r

r r

r

Position vector and motion of particle are in a

plane perpendicular to .

O

H

r

Magnitude of angular momentum,

0 0 0

sin

constant sin

V m r

V rm H

O

=

= =

mass unit

momentum angular

constant

2

2

= = =

= =

h r

m

H

mr H

O

O

&

&

or

12

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12 - 23

Conservation of Angular Momentum

Radius vector OP sweeps infinitesimal area

d r dA

2

2

1

=

Define = = =

&

2

2

1

2

2

1

r

dt

d

r

dt

dA

areal velocity

Recall, for a body moving under a central force,

constant

2

= =

&

r h

When a particle moves under a central force, its

areal velocity is constant.

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12 - 24

Eqs of Motion in Radial & Transverse Components

( )

( )

&

&

& &

&

& &

r r m ma F

r r m ma F

r r

2

2

+ = =

= =

( )

( )

( )

&

&

& &

&

&

& &

&

&

r r m F

r r r m

mr

dt

d

F r

mr H

O

2

2

2

2

2

+ =

+ =

=

=

of angular momentum,

13

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12 - 25

Sample Problem 12.7

A block B of mass m can slide freely on

a frictionless arm OA which rotates in a

horizontal plane at a constant rate .

0

&

a) the component v

r

of the velocity of B

along OA, and

b) the magnitude of the horizontal force

exerted on B by the arm OA.

Knowing that B is released at a distance

r

0

from O, express as a function of r

SOLUTION:

Write the radial and transverse

equations of motion for the block.

Integrate the radial equation to find an

expression for the radial velocity.

Substitute known information into the

transverse equation to find an

expression for the force on the block.

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12 - 26

Sample Problem 12.7

SOLUTION:

Write the radial and transverse

equations of motion for the block.

:

:

a m F

a m F

r r

=

=

( )

( )

&

&

& &

&

& &

r r m F

r r m

2

0

2

+ =

=

Integrate the radial equation to find an

expression for the radial velocity.

=

= =

= = = =

r

r

v

r r

r r

r

r

r r

r

dr r dv v

dr r dr r dv v

dr

dv

v

dt

dr

dr

dv

dt

dv

v r

r

0

2

0

0

2

0

2

&

& &

& & &

dr

dv

v

dt

dr

dr

dv

dt

dv

v r

r

r

r r

r

= = = = & & &

( )

2

0

2 2

0

2

r r v

r

=

Substitute known information into the

transverse equation to find an expression

for the force on the block.

( )

2 1

2

0

2 2

0

2 r r m F =

14

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12 - 27

Sample Problem 12.8

A satellite is launched in a direction

parallel to the surface of the earth

with a velocity of 18820 mi/h from

an altitude of 240 mi. Determine the

velocity of the satellite as it reaches it

maximum altitude of 2340 mi. The

radius of the earth is 3960 mi.

SOLUTION:

Since the satellite is moving under a

central force, its angular momentum is

constant. Equate the angular momentum

at A and B and solve for the velocity at B.

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12 - 28

Sample Problem 12.8

SOLUTION:

Since the satellite is moving under a

central force, its angular momentum is

constant. Equate the angular momentum

at A and B and solve for the velocity at B.

( )

( )

( )mi 2340 3960

mi 240 3960

h mi 18820

constant sin

+

+

=

=

=

= =

B

A

A B

B B A A

O

r

r

v v

v m r v m r

H v rm

h mi 12550 =

B

v

15

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12 - 29

%Quiz 1

clear all % clear all variables and breakpoints

t = [0:0.01:1.2];

theta = t.^3+4*t;

r = t.^3+2*t.^2;

x = r.*cos(theta);

y = r.*sin(theta);

v_r = 3*t.^2+4*t;

v_theta = (t.^3+2.*t.^2).*(3.*t.^2+4);

v = sqrt(v_r.^2+v_theta.^2);

a_r = 6*t+4-(t.^3+2.*t.^2).*(3.*t.^2+4).^2;

a_theta = (t.^3+2.*t.^2).*(6*t)+2.*(3.*t.^2+4).*(3*t.^2+4*t) ;

a = sqrt(a_r.^2+a_theta.^2);

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12 - 30

figure(1)

plot(x,y);

xlabel('x (in.)')

ylabel('y (in.)')

legend('Trajectory',2)

grid on

figure(2)

plot(t,v_r,t,v_theta,t,v)

xlabel('t (sec)')

ylabel('v_x, v_t, v (in./sec)')

legend('v_r','v_t','v',2)

grid on

figure(3)

plot(t,a_r,t,a_theta,t,a)

xlabel('t (sec)')

ylabel('a_r, a_t, a (in./sec^2)')

legend('a_r','a_t','a',2)

grid on

16

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

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2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

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% Problem 11.C5

%

syms t

theta = pi*t;

r = 1.75/(1-0.75*cos(pi*t));

x = r.*cos(theta);

y = r.*sin(theta);

r_dot = diff(r,t);

r_ddot = diff(r_dot,t);

t_dot = diff(theta,t);

t_ddot = diff(t_dot,t);

v_r = r_dot;

v_theta = r*t_dot;

v = sqrt(v_r.^2+v_theta.^2);

a_r = r_ddot-r*(t_dot)^2;

a_theta = r*t_ddot+2*r_dot*t_dot;

a = sqrt(a_r.^2+a_theta.^2);

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

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t = [0:.01:2];

v_r = subs(v_r,t);

v_theta = subs(v_theta,t);

v = subs(v,t);

a_r = subs(a_r,t);

a_theta = subs(a_theta,t);

a = subs(a,t);

x = subs(x,t);

y = subs(y,t);

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2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

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figure(1)

plot(x,y);

xlabel('x (in.)')

ylabel('y (in.)')

legend('Trajectory',2)

grid on

%axis([0 10000 -3e5 0])

figure(2)

plot(t,v_r,t,v_theta,t,v)

xlabel('t (sec)')

ylabel('v_x, v_t, v (in./sec)')

legend('v_r','v_t','v',4)

grid on

figure(3)

plot(t,a_r,t,a_theta,t,a)

xlabel('t (sec)')

ylabel('a_r, a_t, a (in./sec^2)')

legend('a_r','a_t','a',4)

grid on

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

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%

function problemc2

%

fprintf('Mu Theta\n')

for mk = 0:0.05:0.4

y0 = [3;0];

g = 9.81;

ro = 1.5;

tspan = [0 0.275];

%

[t,y] = ode45(@f,tspan,y0,[],mk,ro,g);

%

eq1 = g*cos(y(:,2)) - y(:,1).^2/ro;

[x,k] = min(abs(eq1));

theta = y(k,2)*180/pi;

fprintf('%-4.2f %4.2f\n',mk,theta);

end

% --------------------------------------------------------------------------

function dydt = f(t,y,mk,ro,g)

dydt = [ g*(sin(y(2))-mk*cos(y(2)))+mk*y(1)^2/ro

y(1)/ro ];

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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