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Assignment On
Emotional Intelligence

Submitted to
Dr. Sasmit Patra
Xavier Institute of Management

Anirudh Kandrika

Emotional Intelligence

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I would like to convey my gratitude to Dr. Sasmit Patra, for giving me the opportunity to
apply and understand my Organizational Behaviour concepts. This article would not have
been successful without the help of the people, individuals and organizations who have
helped me by providing necessary information and guidance. I would like to extend my
thanks to all of them.

I would also like to thank my colleagues for their kind co-operation and encouragement
which helped me in the completion of this Report.

Anirudh Kandrika(U113147)

Emotional Intelligence

Anirudh Kandrika
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Professors John D. Mayer and Peter Salovey defined emotional intelligence as the ability to
monitor ones own and others emotions and feelings, to be able to discriminate among them and to
use this information to guide ones thinking and actions.
It is the art of assessing, controlling and identifying ones emotions as well of others. Emotional
intelligence (EQ) is as important as Intellectual ability (IQ). Emotional intelligence helps in building
stronger relations, success at work and achieving your career and personal goals.

History of Emotional Intelligence:

The idea of emotional intelligence can be traced back to Charles Darwin's work on
Importance of emotional expression for survival and adaptation. During the 1900s, several
researchers who were influential in the field of intelligence like E.L.Thorndike had started
recognizing the importance of the non-cognitive aspects although traditionally, intelligence
stood for cognitive aspects like memory and problem solving.

The term "emotional intelligence" was first used in Wayne Payne's doctoral thesis; A Study
of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence dating back to 1985. However, it is believed
that, before this; "emotional intelligence" was coined in Leuner (1966). In addition, Stanley
Greenspan (1989) also proposed an emotional intelligence model, followed by Salovey and
Mayer and then by Daniel Goleman.

Models of Emotional Intelligence:
Over the years, many researchers had developed many models to explain emotional
intelligence. Few popular models that gained recognition are as explained below:
1. Ability model:
According to this model, emotions are seen as sources of useful information that can help
an individual navigate and make sense of the social environment. It proposes that emotional
information is processed by individuals in different levels and hence their ability to relate
this processing to a wider cognition also differs. The model claims four types of abilities are
included under EI:
a) Perceiving emotions
It is the skill to interpret emotions in pictures, faces, voices apart from being able to
identify one's own emotions. It is the most basic aspect of emotional intelligence,
and it makes all other processing of emotional information possible.
b) Using emotions:
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It is the skill to control emotions to carry out various cognitive activities, like
problem solving and thinking. A person with good emotional intelligence will be able
to manipulate one's moods to best suit ones task.
c) Understanding emotions:
It is the skill of understanding the language of emotion and thereby appreciates
complicated relationships.
d) Managing emotions:
It is the skill to control emotions in both in others and ourselves. Hence, an
emotionally intelligent person will be able to use even negative emotions to his / her
advantage and achieve the desired targets
Although widely acclaimed, few critics have criticized the model as it lacks predictive and
face validity at the workplace
2. Mixed model
This model was formulated by Daniel Goleman. It focuses on emotional intelligence as an
expansive array of skills and competencies that pilot leadership performance. The model
lists five main emotional intelligence constructs:
a) Self-awareness
Knowing one's strengths, emotions, weaknesses, values, drives and goals and
understand their affect on others while using intuition to help making decisions.
b) Self-regulation
Involves controlling one's disruptive and negative emotions and adapting to
evolving circumstances.
c) Social skill
Involves managing relationships to guide people in the required direction.
d) Empathy
Considering others feelings especially while making decisions and
e) Motivation
Being driven to accomplish for the sake of achievement.

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3. Trait model
British psychologist Konstantin Vasily Petrides suggested an ideological difference between
the ability based model and a trait based model of emotional intelligence. He has been
developing the ability based model over years in many scientific publications. Trait
emotional intelligence is a group of self perceptions at the lower pyramid of personality. In
layman terms, trait emotional intelligence refers to a persons self perception of his / her
emotional abilities. This covers behavioral dispositions and self perceived capabilities. It is
measured by self report, as against the ability based model that refers to real abilities, which
has proven very resistant to scientific measurement. Trait emotional intelligence should be
tested within a personality framework.
The trait emotional intelligence model is general and incorporates the models discussed
above. The conceptualization of emotional intelligence as a personality trait takes us to a
construct that is outside the scope of human cognitive ability. This is an important
characteristic as it bears fully on the operations of the construct and the hypothesis,
theories formulated about it.
Implications of emotional intelligence:
Now that we have understood what emotional intelligence is and the basic models that
explain it, let us now look at few research articles and essays to see how emotional
intelligence affects few important traits that a manager needs. We shall try to understand
these implications through various studies undertaken considering certain parameters.
1. Conflict Resolution
In todays increasingly globalized world, there is more and more focus being laid on the
ability to work in teams. When working as part of a team, conflicts are a very frequent
phenomenon and hence it becomes paramount that conflict management is developed
as an innate skill for managers. Here we shall try to address the importance / relation of
emotional intelligence in conflict resolution by studying the results obtained through a
test conducted Information Technology Professionals.
The test group comprised 81 information technology professionals working as software
professionals, engineers, consultants or for maintenance and support, aged between 21
and 33 year.
The tools / Instruments used was the Palmer and Stough's (2000) workplace version of
Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test, Rahim's Conflict Resolution Styles
(1983) and Costa and McCrae's (1992) NEO-Five Factor Inventory that all participants
The results indicated that overall emotional intelligence, external and emotional
management, understanding emotions, were significantly inter related to integrating
style of conflict resolution. Also, overall emotional intelligence and emotional control
were found to be significantly and negatively inter related with avoiding style of conflict
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resolution. Finally, the relationship between conflict resolution styles and emotional
intelligence and was found to be very significant.
2. Social Intelligence

Social Intelligence is defined as the ability to negotiate and navigate complex social
environments and relationships effectively. This is proving to be a very important skill
again required to be possessed by the present day managers in order to effectively and
successfully navigate the complex situations arising due to cultural / other differences
between employees. From the paper under study, we shall observe the integrated
diverse research done to provide a theoretical model of the process whereby emotional
and social intelligence (ESI) is fostered in organizations. The following are the
observations and conclusions obtained from the paper.
Firstly, old concepts like Thorndikes social intelligences are still as applicable today as
they were back then. Secondly, emotional social intelligence brings with it a host of inter
related skills under the domains of management of relations, self and awareness of
society and self. Virtually all these skills encompassed have been previously researched
and adopted as important qualities for a leader; however, they had never been
organized meaningfully. Thirdly, the emotional social intelligence literature draws
greatly from research in neurology, biology and psychology. This adds interdisciplinary
credibility to predictions and explanations derived. Lastly, all evidence heavily supports
the conclusion that emotional social intelligence competences can be sustainable and
developed. Overall, the Emotional Social Intelligence design is vibrant with rich practices
in behavioral sciences with great practical potential. The recent popularity with
practitioner audiences is because of the fact that it not only resonates intuitively, but
has apparent and immediate applicability to a lot of internal leadership challenges. The
Intentional Change Theory discussed was a rigorous and specific and path to develop
competency that, if deployed responsibly and is seriously sponsored by organizations,
holds huge promise for renewing leadership at both an organizational and individual
3. Decision Making
Decision making essentially means the ability to make choices using the resources
available and in some cases through employing few statistical tools or using ones
intuition in the absence of any clear inputs / data. In order to make good decisions, it is
extremely important that a manager has a good level of emotional intelligence as being
in a bad state of mind or not having a clear conscience could drastically affect ones
decision making capabilities. The following are few observations from two research
papers on how emotional intelligence plays an impact on decision making abilities of an
The first article on decision making gave an overview of decision making. It also included
a holistic discussion of various factors that help in making good business decisions. The
paper articulated that while leaders and managers have the end responsibility for
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making business decisions, the part involving problem solving is a responsibility that
needs to be shared within all top level managers who take decisions on the strategy of
an organization, middle level managers who take tactical decisions and also lower level
managers who take operational decisions. Only by obtaining accurate information, are
decisions more probable to be based on sound reasoning, facts and intelligence.
The purpose of the second article was that very less research has contributed on how
behavior linked with emotional intelligence may practically be applied to better both the
groups and individuals decision-making. Hence, the paper identified practical
approaches to applications of emotional intelligence to the process of decision making.
These approaches were designed to aid and instruct decision makers in the use of
emotional intelligence skills to improvise on decision making.

The approach used for this was the four essential elements of emotional intelligence as
given by Golemans and Boyatzis along with their associated twenty behavioral
competencies. They thereby developed an approach to practically apply emotional
intelligence skills to decision making. A set of questions, observations were given to help
decision makers in improving emotional intelligence awareness and in the use of
emotional intelligence to improve the process of decision making.

The findings that were observed were that individuals and organizations benefit from
the use and development of various behavioral traits attributed to emotional
4. Leadership effectiveness

In todays competitive world it is not sufficient to be a good leader. It is becoming
increasingly important to be an effective leader. An effective leader is one who can
effectively manage the resources at his disposal, vis--vis, time, money, man power and
equipment and make optimum use of them to deliver the best possible results. In order
to see how important emotional intelligence is in making effective leaders, I choose to
present the findings of a paper written on Emotional intelligence and leadership
effectiveness by Robert Kerr, John Garvin, Norma Heaton, and Emily Boyle

The purpose of the paper is to study and understand the relation between a rating of
leadership effectiveness (subordinate ratings) and managerial emotional intelligence (EI)

The approach to this paper was based on a study involving administering the Mayer
Salovey Caruso emotional intelligence test (MSCEIT) to thirty eight supervisors in an
manufacturing organization. All ratings of the supervisory leadership effectiveness were
assessed through subordinate ratings based on an attitude survey comprising questions
in relation to supervisor performance. All the data were condensed from the total of
1,258 survey responses.

Overall results after analyzing the data suggested that 50% of all MSCEIT scores may act
as a good predictor of measuring leadership effectiveness, especially the divisions in the
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experiential emotional intelligence area. Surprisingly, the relation between the
reasoning emotional intelligence domain and the supervisor ratings was not as

The practical implications for this are that the findings warrant the soundness of
applying emotional intelligence interventions along with training and development
process and recruiting and selection process of managerial personnel.
5. Negotiation

Negotiation is a conversation or dialogue between a set of people / parties, and is
intended at reaching an understanding, resolving points of difference, or to gain an
advantage in the outcome of the dialogue, it occurs among nations, personal situations,
in business, legal proceedings and in non-profit organizations. Let us now study the
importance of emotional intelligence in improving negotiation skills through undertaking
the study of a research paper.

The purpose of the paper is to identify if emotional intelligence is related to improving
satisfaction in the context of negotiation.

A negotiation simulation and pre established amount of emotional intelligence was
employed as an approach towards this purpose.

Few findings that were observed in the study were that multi level models concluded
that the ability of a subject to understand emotions positively estimated his / her
counterparts satisfaction outcome. The second study replicated and extended this
observation by displaying the counterparts assessment of liking, outcome satisfaction,
and desire to negotiate with the participant again.

Few practical implications that this study had were that the techniques that identified
how participants having a high level of understanding emotions induced their
counterparts with positive affect were not examined.
After understanding emotional intelligence, its evolution, the various models as developed
by different research scholars, we have tried to understand the inter dependence and
importance that emotional intelligence had in each of the following traits: conflict
resolution, social intelligence, decision making, leadership effectiveness and negotiation. In
order to do this we have studied few research papers and we have tried to understand the
practical implications that the findings of these papers had on each of the above indicated
traits. Based on all the above studies, we can safely conclude that emotional intelligence is
becoming increasingly important in todays globalized, highly diverse and fast evolving world
as it is intertwined with many other important traits that a good leader and manager should
possess in order to be successful.

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4. Emotional Intelligence Essential Component Of Leadership - Silvia Iuscu, Academy of
Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania
5. Perceived Emotional Intelligence and Conflict Resolution Styles among Information
Technology Professionals: Testing the Mediating Role of Personality. - Godse, Anand
S., Thingujam, Nutankumar S.
6. Fostering Emotional and Social Intelligence in Organizations - Seal, Craig R., Boyatzis,
Richard E., Bailey, James R.
7. Decision Making. EBSCO essay
8. Emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness - Robert Kerr, John Garvin,
Norma Heaton, Emily Boyle
9. Enhancing decisions and decision-making processes through the application of
emotional intelligence skills - James D. Hess, Arnold C. Bacigalupo
10. Emotional intelligence and counterpart mood induction in a negotiation - Jennifer S.
Mueller, Jared R. Curhan