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PROJECT REPORT

REDUCTION OF BOULDER SIZE IN BLASTING


Hindustan Copper Liited! "o#i$an %ines
Su&itted &'( )is$a# Pandita * Bi$ari La# Pande'
%entors( %r+ S+ D+ S$ara ,AG%-
%r+ Sa$u ,S%-
Contents(
1- Khetri And Kolihan Mines Introduction
2- Blasting Fundamentals (Fragmentation Improvement)
a- E.p#osi/es Ener0' Re#ease and Ro12 Brea2a0e
b- Ro12 Brea2a0e &' detonation and intera1tion o3 ener0'
c- B#ast Desi0n
45 Ca#1u#ations
65 Epiri1a# 3oru#a
d- De#a' Tiin0
e- Dire1tion o3 Hea/e and T$ro7
- Orientation and #o1ation o3 Prier
g- Fra0entation
h- Ro12 Fra1turin0
i- B#astin0 Dire1tion
!- "eduction o hole delection
a5 A&stra1t
&5 Introdu1tion
15 Sur/e'in0 a Bore$o#e
45 A1id Et1$ Ci#noeter
65 Tropari8Pa9ari
:5 So#id State de/i1es
d5 Geo0rap$i1 Nort$ /s Geoa0neti1 Nort$
e5 A;iut$ easureent usin0 G'ros1opi1 P#at3ors
35 Opti1a# instruents< Li0$t &ea et$ods
05 De5sur/e'in0
$5 Sour1es o3 possi&#e errors in &ore$o#e 0eoetr'
i5 Dis1ussions and 1on1#usions+
K#$%"I A&' K()I#A& MI&$*+ I&%"(',C%I(&
T7o under0round ines are in operation at "$etri Copper Cop#e.+ "$etri ine 7as
desi0ned to produ1e =>>> tonnes per da' 1onsiderin0 3our #e/e#s under produ1tion+
%a.iu produ1tion done 3ro t$e ine 7as o/er 4 i##ion tones in t$e 'ears 4??> to
4??: ,4+>> i##ion t in 4??>5?4! 4+>@ i##ion t in 4??45?6 and 4+>= i##ion t in 4??65?:-
7$en 3our #e/e#s 7ere a1ti/e+ Unti# 4+A+6>>@ 1uu#ati/e e.tra1tion 3ro "$etri ine is
o/er 6>+? i##ion tones o3 ore 1ontainin0 ore t$an 4!@?!>66 t 1opper+
"o#i$an ine 7as desi0ned to produ1e 6=>> tonnes per da' 1onsiderin0 t$ree #e/e#s
under produ1tion+ %a.iu produ1tion done 3ro t$e ine 7as >+@: i##ion tones in
t$e 'ears 4?BC5BB 7$en t$ree #e/e#s 7ere a1ti/e+ Unti# 4+A+6>>@! 1uu#ati/e e.tra1tion
3ro "o#i$an ine is o/er 4=+= i##ion tones o3 ore 1ontainin0 ore t$an 6!:6!=A: t
1opper+
%INE LADOUT+
K()I#A& MI&$
"o#i$an ine is a 1opa1t ine e.tendin0 o/er a stri2e #en0t$ o3 @>> eters on#'+ T$is
is t$e 3irst ine in India 7$i1$ 7as de/e#oped on tra12#ess and rap s'ste o3 inin0+
T$e ine is di/ided into ain #e/e#s at @> eter inter/a#+ T$e top #e/e# is A6A %L and
t$e #o7est #e/e# is > %L+ T$e ot$er #e/e#s are :@A ! :>@! 6A@! 4BA! 46A and @A %Ls+ Ore
3ro upper t$ree #e/e#s /i;+ A6A %L! :@A %L and :>@%L is 1op#ete#' ined out and
present produ1tion is 1ontri&uted &' 6A@ %L! and 4BA %L+
*$"-IC$ (.$&I&/*
T$e a11ess to t$e ore&od' is t$rou0$ an adit ,=+= . :+= - and an under0round s$a3t
o3 =+? diaeter+ T$e sin0#e s$a3t ser/es t$e purpose o3 ore produ1tion and an
7indin0+ =6> deep s$a3t #o1ated at A6A %L is 1onne1ted to :>@ %L! 6A@ %L! 4BA %L!
46A%L! @A %L and > %L+ A>> "E 7inder $as &een insta##ed 3or 1a0e and 1ounter
7ei0$t 3or an57indin0 and 7aste ro128ateria# $and#in0+ B>> HP "oepe 7inder $as
&een insta##ed 3or ore $oistin0+
T$e ine is de/e#oped on rap s'ste 7$ere a de1#ine is dri/en 3ro sur3a1e to 4>=
%L at 4 in ? 0radient+ T$e de1#ine ser/es as se1ond out#et and return air 7a'+ It 7as
used 3or produ1tion o3 ore 3ro :@A %L+ T$ere are t$ree ore adits at AB@ %L! AC= %L
and A@> %L+
M$%#(' (F 0("KI&/ A% %#$ MI&$*
T$e et$od o3 e.p#oration! de/e#opent and stopin0 are sii#ar in &ot$ t$e ines+ A
3oot7a## dri/e is de/e#oped &ased on sur3a1e dri## $o#e interse1tions and de3inition dri##in0
is 1arried out 3ro t$ese dri/es to de#ineate t$e 0eoetr' o3 ore&od'! 7it$ t$e $e#p o3
under0round diaond dri## a1$ine+ %ine de/e#opent is done 7it$ t$e $e#p o3
9a12$aers+ T$e reo/a# o3 &#asted ro12 in su& #e/e#s is done &' auto5#oaders+ At
ain #e/e#s! tra12#ess #oad5$au# dup ,LHD- and Lo7 Pro3i#e Dup Tru12s,LPDT- are
used+
Prin1ipa# stopin0 et$od is su& #e/e# open stopin0 3or narro7er ore &odies ,pre3era&#'
#ess t$an 4=- and #ar0e diaeter &#ast $o#e stopin0 3or 7ider ore &odies+ In su& #e/e#
stopin0! stope dri##in0 is done in rin0 3as$ion &' pneuati1 dri3ter eit$er BBC 46> or %5
44> C+ T$e $o#e diaeter is =C and a.iu $o#e #en0t$ is 6= eter+ In &#ast $o#e
stopin0 et$od! #ar0e diaeter $o#es are ost#' para##e# to t$e 0enera# dip o3 t$e
ore&od'+ T$e $o#e diaeter is 4@= and t$e #en0t$ is a&out => + T$e a1$ines in
use are Do7n T$e Ho#e ,DTH- dri##in0 a1$ine #i2e %ission %e0aeti1 +
T$e ine is $i0$#' e1$anised+ For transportation o3 inera# 3ro under0round to t$e
sur3a1e! Gran&' Cars o3 4> t 1apa1it' in 1o&ination 7it$ tro##e' 7ire #o1ooti/e! are
used+
("$ #(I*%I&/1
Ore $oistin0 at &ot$ ines is 1entra#i;ed+ Ore 3ro di33erent #e/e#s is trans3erred to a
1entra# ore pass+ It is t$an dire1ted to a 1rus$er #o1ated &e#o7 > %L o3 t$e ine+ Ore is
1rus$ed to inus 4=> and $oisted to sur3a1e in s2ips+ At "$etri ine! it is dire1t#'
3ed to p#ant sto12pi#e 7$ereas at "o#i$an ine it is dis1$ar0ed at sur3a1e sto12pi#e t$en
it is transported to t$e p#ant sto12pi#e &' C+= 2 #on0 &i1a&#e aeria# rope7a'+
B)A*%I&/ F,&'AM$&%A)*
$2plosives $nerg3 "elease and "oc4 Brea4age+ %e1$anis o3 ro12 &rea2a0e 7$i#e
re#ease o3 E.p#osi/es ener0' upon detonation and ot$er re#e/ant points are dis1ussed
&e#o7(
E$en an e.p#osi/e 1$ar0e is detonated! 1$ei1a# rea1tion o11ur 7$i1$! /er'
rapid#' 1$an0es t$e so#id or #iFuid e.p#osi/e ass into a $ot 0ases+
T$is rea1tion starts at t$e point o3 initiation 7$ere detonator is 1onne1ted 7it$
e.p#osi/es and 3ors a 1on/e. #i2e s$o12 7a/e ,Copressi/e 7a/e- on its
#eadin0 ed0e t$at a1ts on t$e &ore$o#e 7a## and propa0ates t$rou0$ t$e
e.p#osi/e 1o#un+
A$ead o3 t$e rea1tion ;one are undetonated e.p#osi/e produ1ts and &e$ind t$e
rea1tion ;one are e.pandin0 $ot 0asses+
,nderstanding theor3 o detonation o e2plosives5 T$e se#35sustained s$o12 7a/e
produ1ed &' a 1$ei1a# rea1tion 7as des1ri&ed &' C$apan and JouFuet as a spa1e+
T$is spa1e o3 ne0#i0i&#e t$i12ness is &ounded &' t7o in3inite p#anes G on one side o3 t$e
7a/e is t$e unrea1ted e.p#osi/e and on t$e ot$er! t$e e.p#oded 0ases as s$o7n in t$e
Fi0+ 4+T$ere are t$ree distin1t ;ones(a- T$e undistur&ed ediu a$ead o3 t$e s$o12
7a/e!&- A rapid pressure at D #eadin0 to a ;one in 7$i1$ 1$ei1a# rea1tion is 0enerated
&' t$e s$o12! and 1op#ete at H!1- A stead' state 7a/e 7$ere pressure and
teperature are aintained+T$is 1ondition o3 sta&i#it' 1ondition 3or sta&i#it' e.ists at
$'pot$eti1a# H! 7$i1$ is 1oon#' re3erred to t$e C$apan5 JouFuet ,C5J- p#ane+
Bet7een t$e t7o p#anes H and D t$ere is 1onser/ation o3 ass! oentu and ener0'+
)e#o1it' o3 detonation ,)OD- o3 e.p#osi/e is 3un1tion o3 Heat o3 rea1tion o3 an e.p#osi/e!
densit' and 1on3ineent+ T$e detonation pressure ,unit in N8
6
- t$at e.ists at t$e C5J
p#ane is 3un1tion o3 )OD o3 e.p#osi/es+ T$e detonation o3 e.p#osi/es in 1'#indri1a#
1o#uns and in un1on3ined 1onditions #eads to #atera# e.pansion &et7een t$e s$o12 and
C5J p#anes resu#tin0 in a s$orter rea1tion ;one and #oss o3 ener0'+ T$us! it is 1oon to
en1ounter a u1$ #o7er )OD in un1on3ined situations t$an in 1on3ined ones+
"oc4 brea4age b3 'etonation and Interaction o e2plosive energ3 5ith roc4 6
T$ere are t$ree sour1es o3 0eneration o3 3ra0ents in ines( ,a- Fra0ents 3ored &'
ne7 3ra1tures 1reated &' detonatin0 e.p#osi/e 1$ar0e! ,&- In5situ &#o12s t$at $a/e
sip#' &een #i&erated 3ro t$e ro12 ass 7it$out 3urt$er &rea2a0e and ,1- Fra0ents
3ored &' e.tendin0 t$e in5situ 3ra1tures in 1o&ination 7it$ ne7 3ra1tures+
Ro12 3ra0entation &' &#astin0 is a1$ie/ed &' d'nai1 #oadin0 introdu1ed into t$e ro12
ass+ T$e e.p#osi/e #oadin0 o3 ro12 1an &e separated into t7o p$ases! t$e s$o12 7a/e
and 0as pressure p$ase+
Rapid t$e detonation pro1ess! t$e Fui12er t$e ener0' re#ease 3ro e.p#osi/es
ass! in t$e 3or o3 a s$o127a/e 3o##o7ed &' 0as pressure! is app#ied to t$e
&ore$o#e 7a##+ In ot$er 7ords! 3aster t$e detonation /e#o1it' o3 t$e e.p#osi/e!
Fui12er is t$e ener0' app#ied to t$e &ore$o#e 7a##! and 3or a s$orter tie period+
Con/erse#'! 7it$ a s#o7er detonation /e#o1it'! t$e ener0' is app#ied ore s#o7#'!
and 3or a #on0er tie period+ T$e de0ree o3 1oup#in0 &et7een t$e e.p#osi/e and
t$e &ore$o#e 7a## 7i## $a/e an e33e1t on $o7 e33i1ient#' t$e s$o127a/e is
transitted into t$e ro12+
Puped or poured e.p#osi/es 7i## resu#t in &etter transission o3 ener0' t$an
1artrid0e produ1ts 7it$ an annu#ar spa1e &et7een t$e 1artrid0e and t$e &ore$o#e
7a##+
A0ain! t$e pressure t$at &ui#ds up in t$e &ore$o#e depends not on#' upon
e.p#osi/e 1oposition! &ut a#so t$e p$'si1a# 1$ara1teristi1s o3 t$e ro12+
Stron0 1opetent ro12 7i## resu#t in $i0$er pressures t$an 7ea2! 1opressi&#e
ro12+
E$en t$e s$o12 7a/e rea1$es t$e &ore$o#e 7a## t$e 3ra0entation pro1ess
&e0ins+
T$is s$o12 7a/e! 7$i1$ starts out at t$e /e#o1it' o3 t$e e.p#osi/e! de1reases
Fuite rapid#' on1e it enters t$e ro12 and in a s$ort distan1e is redu1ed to t$e
soni1 /e#o1it' o3 t$at parti1u#ar ro12+
%ost ro12 $as a 1opressi/e stren0t$ t$at is appro.iate#' C ties $i0$er t$an
its tensi#e stren0t$! i+e+ it ta2es C ties t$e aount o3 ener0' to 1rus$ it as it does
to pu## it apart+
E$en t$e s$o127a/e 3irst en1ounters t$e &ore$o#e 7a##! t$e 1opressi/e
stren0t$ o3 t$e ro12 is e.1eeded &' t$e s$o127a/e and t$e ;one iediate#'
surroundin0 t$e &ore$o#e is 1rus$ed+
As t$e s$o127a/e radiates out7ard at de1#inin0 /e#o1it'! its intensit' drops &e#o7
t$e 1opressi/e stren0t$ o3 t$e ro12 and 1opressi/e 1rus$in0 stops+
T$e radius o3 t$is 1rus$ed ;one /aries 7it$ t$e 1opressi/e stren0t$ o3 t$e ro12
and t$e intensit' o3 t$e s$o12 7a/e! &ut se#do e.1eeds t7i1e t$e diaeter o3
t$e &ore$o#e+
Ho7e/er! &e'ond t$is 1rus$ed ;one! t$e intensit' is sti## a&o/e t$e tensi#e
stren0t$ o3 t$e ro12 and it 1auses t$e surroundin0 ro12 ass to e.pand and 3ai#
in tension! resu#tin0 in radia# 1ra12in0+
T$e $ot 0as 3o##o7in0 t$e s$o127a/e e.pands into t$e radia# 1ra12s and e.tends
t$e 3urt$er+
T$is is t$e ;one 7$ere ost o3 t$e 3ra0entation pro1ess ta2es p#a1e+
Ho7e/er! i3 t$e 1opressi/e s$o127a/e pu#se radiatin0 out7ard 3ro t$e $o#e
en1ounters a 3ra1ture p#ane! dis1ontinuit' or a 3ree 3a1e! it is re3#e1ted and
&e1oes a tension 7a/e 7it$ appro.iate#' t$e sae ener0' as t$e
1opressi/e 7a/e+
T$is tension 7a/e 1an possi&#' Ispa##J o33 a s#a& o3 ro12 ,see 3i0ure :-+
T$is re3#e1tion ro12 &rea2a0e e1$anis depends $ea/i#' upon t$ree iportant
reFuireents(
,a- t$e 1opressi/e 7a/e ,and resu#tin0 re3#e1ted tensi#e 7a/e- ust sti## &e o3 su33i1ient
intensit' to e.1eed t$e tensi#e stren0t$ o3 t$e ro12!
,&- t$e ateria# on opposite sides o3 t$e 3ra1ture p#ane or dis1ontinuit' ust $a/e
di33erent ipedan1es!
,1- t$e 1opressi/e pu#se ust arri/e para##e# to! or near#' para##e# to! t$e 3ra1ture p#ane
or 3ree 3a1e+
I3 1arried to e.tree! 7$en t$is re3#e1ti/e &rea2a0e or Ispa##in0J pro1ess o11urs
at a 3ree 3a1e! it 1an resu#t in /io#ent t$ro7! a situation t$at is not desira&#e+
T$is 1an &e o/er1oe &' desi0nin0 &#asts 7it$ &urden and spa1in0 diensions
t$at are 7it$in reasona&#e #iits+
On1e t$e 1opressi/e and tensi#e stresses 1aused &' t$e s$o127a/e drop &e#o7
t$e tensi#e stren0t$ o3 t$e ro12! t$e s$o12 7a/e &e1oes a seisi1 7a/e t$at
radiates out7ard at t$e soni1 /e#o1it' o3 t$e ateria# t$rou0$ 7$i1$ it passes+
At t$is point! it is no #on0er 1ontri&utin0 to t$e 3ra0entation pro1ess+
Important points+
Eit$in t$e ran0e o3 1on/entiona# &#astin0! t$e p$'si1a# 1$ara1teristi1s o3 t$e ro12
are ore iportant t$an t$e 1$ara1teristi1s o3 t$e e.p#osi/es used and 1an $a/e
a 0reater ipa1t on t$e su11ess or 3ai#ure o3 a &#ast+
Fina#5si;e 3ra0entation is usua##' o&tained &e3ore an' appre1ia&#e ro12
o/eent or t$ro7 o11urs+
Ro12 1an a&sor& on#' so u1$ ener0' and on#' at a 1ertain a.iu rate
&e3ore it 7i## 3ai#+
T$e 3ina# disp#a1eent o3 t$e &u#2 o3 t$e ro12 is ore a 3un1tion o3 t$e duration o3
t$e 0as pressure t$an its intensit'+
Contemplation o Blast 'esign+ B#ast desi0nin0 is not a s1ien1e! &ut 2no7#ed0e!
e.perien1e! stud'in0 and ana#';in0 past pra1ti1es in re#ation to ro12 strata * 0eo#o0'
et1+! a2es &#aster to a1$ie/e per3e1tion+ T$us! 3or a &#aster! /a#ua&#e too# is t$e 3i#e o3
&#ast reports t$at $e &ui#ds as $e 0ains e.perien1e+ Not on#' do t$ese pro/ide e/iden1e
o3 t$e Fua#it' o3 $is 7or2! &ut t$e' a#so pro/ide a 7ea#t$ o3 in3oration upon 7$i1$ $e
1an dra7 as 3uture &#astin0 situations de/e#op+
Blast 'esign+ T$is is eant to &e a too#&o. 3or &#ast desi0n in 1on/entiona# ro12
Fuarr'in0 and open pit ines+ T$is 7rite5up is not eant to 0i/e strai0$t ans7ers to t$e
&#ast desi0n paraeters! as e/er' sin0#e Fuarr' is uniFue+ Ho7e/er! t$e 0enera#
re#ations &et7een t$e ain &#astin0 paraeters< 0eo#o0'! &#asta&i#it' and e.p#osi/es!
7i## &e app#i1a&#e! and t$e estiation ode# is a /er' 0ood too# 3or p#annin0 test &#asts
and e.perients! and a#so 3or ad9ustents o3 t$e &#ast desi0n 7$en t$is is ne1essar'
3or optiisin0 t$e Fuarr' produ1tion #ine as tie pro0resses+ Hi0$ a11ura1' t$rou0$out
t$e 7$o#e &#astin0 pro1ess is 3undaenta# 3or a1$ie/in0 a proper &#ast resu#t+ )arious
points as su11ess 1riteria are s$o7n &e#o7(
P#annin0
Sur/e'in0 and ar2in0 o3 $o#es
Ad9ustent o3 dri##in0 pattern
Ad9ustent o3 spe1i3i1 1$ar0e
De#a' ties and initiation pattern
A11urate dri##in0
Proper#' se#e1ted stein0 ateria#
Contro#! do1uentation and super/ision o3 t$e 7or2
E$en optiisin0 Fuarr' operations! it is o3ten di33i1u#t to a11op#is$ se/era# e#eents o3
ipro/eent siu#taneous#'+ It is /er' iportant to tr' one e33ort at a tie and &e sure
o3 t$e 1on1#usions 3ro ea1$ sin0#e spe1i3i1 ad9ustent &e3ore introdu1in0 ne7
ad9ustents+ E#eents o3 ipro/eent ust &e e33e1tuated a11ordin0 to a utua#
superior strate0'+
It is iportant to 1ontinuous#' 2eep up t$e pro1ess o3 ipro/eent and a#7a's &e
interested in in1reasin0 t$e 7or2ers 2no7#ed0e and s2i##s a&out t$e pro1ess+ T$is ust
&e done to 0ain 1opeten1e and e33e1tuate t$e potentia# #on0 ter out#oo2+ It is
iportant to do1uent t$e resu#ts to a/oid #oss o3 in3oration i3 2e' personne# Fuit+ T$e
su o3 ipro/eents 7i## ost o3ten &e /isua#ised in t$e 3or o3 $i0$er e33i1ien1' and
#o7er repair and aintenan1e 1osts+ Understandin0 t$e eanin0 o3 t$e &#astin0 pro1ess
as a 1ontinuous 1'1#e! $o7 t$e /arious paraeters 1an &e 1$an0ed to optii;e 7anted
&#astin0 resu#t and $o7 to e/a#uate t$e resu#t! is essentia# 7$en optii;in0 t$e Fuarr'
pro1esses+
Be3ore a &#aster 1an desi0n a &#ast! t$ere are a nu&er o3 site spe1i3i1 t$in0s t$at $e
ust ta2e into 1onsideration t$at 7i## $a/e an ipa1t on $is desi0n+ B#aster s$ou#d
de3ine at #east t$e 3o##o7in0 ites &e3ore $e underta2es to desi0n a &#ast(
A+ Fra0entation desired(
Si;e o3 di00in08$and#in0 eFuipent+
Si;e o3 1rus$in0 eFuipent ,i3 reFuired-+
Rip5rap or diensiona# stone desiredK
Si;e #iitations in pro9e1t spe1i3i1ationsK
B+ Ro12 Fua#it'81$ara1ter(
HardK So3tK PorousK
Ho#es 7etK Dr'K )aria&#eK
Joints and s#ip p#anesK Beddin0 p#anesK
)oids or ot$er in1opetent ;onesK
C+ Site #iitations(
Stru1tures or ot$er propert' to prote1tK At 7$at distan1eK
Uti#ities near&' ,under0round or a&o/e 0round-K
)i&ration and air&#ast 1onsiderationsK
Inte0rit' o3 ro12 to &e #e3t in p#a1e+
On5site or o335site /e$i1#e tra33i1K
An' ot$er pro9e1t spe1i3i1ation #iitationsK
D+ Sa3et' #iitations(
AdeFuate prote1tion 3ro 3#'ro12K
Eeat$er G is #i0$tnin0 a possi&i#it'K
An' near&' e#e1tri1a# $a;ardsK
An' near&' RF ,radio- $a;ardsK
Ipa1t $a;ards 3ro ro12 3a##K
)enti#ation neededK
Tra33i1 1ontro# reFuiredK
T$e ipa1t o3 potentia# is3ires+ ,Ho7 iso#ated is t$e siteK
Is dou&#e5priin0 ad/isa&#e to inii;e is3iresK-
E+ EFuipent 8 ateria#s #iitations(
Dri##in0 eFuipent G si;e! 1ondition+
Stee# #en0t$s a/ai#a&#e G dept$ o3 &#ast+
E.p#osi/es ,in1#udin0 detonators- G T'pe! si;e! Fuantit' a/ai#a&#e+
AdeFuate a0a;ine site near&'K
B#astin0 ats a/ai#a&#e i3 neededK
Ot$er &#astin0 a11essoriesK
Apart! in/esti0ate t$e area t$orou0$#' and identi3' t$ose ites t$at 7i## a33e1t 'our &#ast
or &e a33e1ted &' 'our &#ast and desi0n a11ordin0#'+
Blast design Calculations and empirical ormulas+ In desi0nin0 a &#ast! 3o##o7in0
prin1ip#es s$ou#d &e 2ept in ind(
E.p#osi/e 3or1e 3un1tions &est 7$en t$e ro12 &ein0 &#asted $as a 3ree 3a1e
to7ard 7$i1$ it 1an &rea2+
T$ere ust &e an adeFuate /oid or open spa1e into 7$i1$ t$e &ro2en ro12 1an
o/e and e.pand ,or s7e##-+
To proper#' uti#i;e t$e ener0' a/ai#a&#e! t$e e.p#osi/e produ1t s$ou#d &e 7e##5
1on3ined 7it$in t$e ro12+
I3 a &#ast is #a12in0 in one or ore o3 t$ese a&o/e prin1ip#es! t$e resu#ts 7i## 0enera##' &e
#ess t$an desired+
Epiri1a# 3oru#as de/e#oped &' As$ 7it$ 3e7 odi3i1ations are dis1ussed $ere+
Fo##o7in0 s'&o#s and de3initions are 0i/en in re#ation to t$e eFuations dis1ussed(
D L Diaeter ,in in1$es- o3 t$e e.p#osi/e in t$e &ore$o#e+
B L Burden! t$e distan1e ,in 3eet- 3ro a 1$ar0e to t$e nearest 3ree 3a1e in t$e
dire1tion t$at disp#a1eent 7i## ost #i2e#' o11ur+
S L Spa1in0! t$e distan1e ,in 3eet- &et7een t7o $o#es! easured perpendi1u#ar
to t$e 1orrespondin0 &urden+
L L Ho#e #en0t$ or dept$ ,in 3eet-+
J L Su&5dri##in0 #en0t$ ,in 3eet-! t$e dept$ t$at t$e $o#e e.tends &e#o7 t$e
anti1ipated 0rade or 3#oor+
T L Stein0 $ei0$t or 1o##ar distan1e ,in 3eet-+ T$e top portion o3 t$e $o#e
1ontainin0 inert ateria#s intended to pre/ent preature e9e1tion o3 0asses+
H L Ben1$ or 3a1e $ei0$t ,in 3eet-+
Note( In t$ese re#ations$ips! t$e Burden and Spa1in0 diensions are t$e Is$otJ &urden
and spa1in0! 7$i1$ a' or a' not &e t$e Idri##edJ &urden and spa1in0+ C$an0es in t$e
initiation tiin0 s1$ee 7i## deterine t$e di33eren1e ,see Fi0+ A-+ %oreo/er! it is
iportant to understand t$at t$e &#ast paraeters #isted are inter5re#ated and t$at
1$an0in0 one paraeter 7i## $a/e an ipa1t on ot$ers+
Dis1ussion(
T$e &urden t$at 1an &e su11ess3u##' &#asted depends #ar0e#' upon t$e stren0t$
o3 t$e ro12 and t$e aount o3 ener0' t$at is p#a1ed &e$ind it+
T$e aount o3 ener0' t$at 1an &e #oaded is dependent upon t$e $o#e /o#ue! or
diaeter< $en1e! t$e $o#e diaeter and ro12 stren0t$ #ar0e#' deterine t$e
&urden distan1e+
O3ten! t$e $o#e diaeter $as a#read' &een esta&#is$ed &' t$e dri##in0 eFuipent
on $and+
I3 it $asnMt! t$e optiu $o#e diaeter s$ou#d &e se#e1ted &ased upon
1onsiderations su1$ as 3ra0entation desired! &en1$ $ei0$t! ro12 Fua#it'! et1+
In se#e1tin0 $o#e si;e! sa##er $o#e diaeters and ti0$ter patterns 7i## resu#t in
&etter 3ra0entation! &ut 7i## in1rease dri##in0! #oadin0 and produ1t 1osts+
Ta##er &en1$ $ei0$ts 7i## a##o7 #ar0er $o#e diaeters and #ar0er &urdens and #ess
dri##in0 and &#astin0 1ost+
A#so! i3 t$e ateria# to &e &#asted is &#o12'! it is Fuite #i2e#' t$at soe &#o12s a'
eer0e inta1t un#ess sa##er $o#e diaeters and ti0$ter patterns p#a1e
e.p#osi/es 7it$in t$e+
On1e t$e $o#e diaeter $as &een esta&#is$ed! &urden distan1e 1an &e se#e1ted+
T$e 3o##o7in0 ratios 1an &e used as 3irst appro.iations in desi0nin0 &#asts+ Bear in
ind t$at t$e ratios 7i## usua##' $a/e to &e ad9usted as one #earns ore a&out $o7 t$e
parti1u#ar ro12 rea1ts 7$en &#asted(
Burden L rou0$#' 6A to :@ ties t$e e.p#osi/e diaeter+
Using ANFO at a specific gravity of 0.82 g/cc:
i- #i0$t ro12 ,6+6 0811 densit'- L 6B . diaeter
ii- ediu ro12 ,6+C 0811 densit'- L 6= . diaeter
iii- dense ro12 ,:+6 0811 densit'- L 6: . diaeter
Using Slurries, Eulsions, etc at a specific gravity of !.20 g/cc:
i- #i0$t ro12 ,6+6 0811 densit'- L :: . diaeter
ii- ediu ro12 ,6+C 0811 densit'- L :> . diaeter
iii- dense ro12 ,:+6 0811 densit'- L 6C . diaeter
Spa1in0 L 4+> to 6+> ties t$e &urden
i- $o#es s$ot instant#' &' ro7 L 4+B G 6+> . &urden
ii- #ar0e diaeter $o#es s$ot seFuentia##' L 4+6 G 4+= . &urden
iii- sa## diaeter $o#es s$ot seFuentia##' L 4+= G 4+B . &urden
Ben1$ $ei0$t L 4+= to A ties t$e &urden! or possi&#' $i0$er
Ben1$ $ei0$t is usua##' #iited on t$e #o7 end &' t$e $ei0$t o3 t$e stein0 1o#un
reFuired and its #iitin0 e33e1t on t$e aount o3 e.p#osi/e t$at 1an &e #oaded! and
#iited on t$e $i0$ end &' t$e $ei0$t o3 t$e di00in0 eFuipent ,3or sa3et' reasons-+
Su&5dri##in0 L >+4 to >+= ties t$e &urden
i- 3#at &eddin0 p#ane at toe L >+> G >+4 . &urden
ii- re#ati/e#' eas' toe L >+4 G >+6 . &urden
III- ediu toe L >+6 G >+A . &urden
I)- di33i1u#t toe ,/erti1a# &eddin0- L >+= . &urden
Stein0 1o#un #en0t$ L >+= to 4+: ties t$e &urden
I- In1reased u#tip#ier i3 dri## 1uttin0s are used 3or stein0 and8or $o#es are 7et+
II- De1reased u#tip#ier i3 stone 1$ips are used 3or stein0 and8or $o#es are dr'+
III- For /er' 1autious &#astin0 ,no t$ro7 or 3#'ro12 a##o7ed-(
I)- Stein0 L up to :@ ties t$e $o#e diaeter! possi&#' ore
)- Stein0 #en0t$ &et7een de12s to &e 3ired on separate de#a's(
)I- De12 #en0t$( dr' $o#e L @ ties t$e $o#e diaeter
)II- De12 #en0t$( 7et $o#e L 46 ties t$e $o#e diaeter
A 1ertain aount o3 1aution ust &e e.er1ised 7$en se#e1tin0 /a#ues+ For e.ap#e! too
sa## a &urden 7ou#d resu#t in e.1essi/e 3or7ard t$ro7! 7$i#e too #ar0e a &urden 7ou#d
pro&a&#' 'ie#d inadeFuate 3ra0entation 7it$ possi&#e e.1essi/e up7ard t$ro7+ In a
sii#ar anner! too 7ide a spa1in0 7ou#d resu#t in #oss o3 intera1tion &et7een
detonatin0 1$ar0es! 7$i#e too #itt#e spa1in0 1ou#d 1ause partia# 1an1e##ation o3 e.p#osi/e
3or1es and 1ou#d 1ontri&ute to e.1essi/e /i&ration+
T$e t'pe o3 stein0 ateria# p#a's an iportant part in 1on3inin0 t$e 0as 0enerated
3ro e.p#osi/es detonatin0 in t$e $o#e+ An0u#ar 1rus$ed stone 1$ips are pre3erred+
Round pe&&#es! dirt and 7ater are not and s$ou#d &e a/oided+ %ost o3 t$e tie! dri##
1uttin0s are used! &ut t$e' 1an &e ar0ina#+
I3 su&5dri##in0 is not su33i1ient#' deep! t$e resu#t 7i## &e $i0$ &otto+ E.1essi/e su&5
dri##in0! $o7e/er! is 7aste3u# o3 dri##in0 #a&or and e.p#osi/e ener0'+
Ot$er 3a1tors su1$ as initiation tiin0 and dire1tion $a/e an ipa1t and 7i## $a/e to &e
1onsidered+
POEDER FACTOR+ In 1onstru1tion &#astin0! po7der 3a1tor ,PF- is e.pressed as
Fuantit' ,unit ass- o3 e.p#osi/e per unit /o#ue o3 ateria# &#asted+ For inin0! it is
usua##' e.pressed as Fuantit' o3 e.p#osi/e per ton o3 ateria# ,or soeties tons o3
ateria# per unit ass o3 e.p#osi/e-+
'$)A7 %IMI&/+ )er' se#do is a 1on/entiona# &#ast set o33 7$ere a## 1$ar0es are
detonated in t$e sae instant+ Usua##' t$ere is a spe1i3i1 tie inter/a# and dire1tion or
dire1tions 3or de#a'in0 t$e 1$ar0es+
For tunne#s! dri3ts and s$a3ts 7$ere t$ere is no 3ree 3a1e para##e# to t$e a.is o3 t$e $o#es!
#on0er de#a' periods are uti#i;ed+ T$ese are intended to pro/ide su33i1ient tie de#a' 3or
t$e 3ra1tured ro12 3ro t$e initia# $o#es to &e e.pe##ed so t$at t$ere is roo 3or t$e ro12
&#asted &' t$e 3o##o7in0 $o#es to e.pand+
In 1onstru1tion and in sur3a1e inin0! i##ise1ond de#a's are used &et7een 1$ar0es in a
&#ast+ T$ere are se/era# &asi1 reasons 3or doin0 so(
To assure t$at one or ore 3ree 3a1es pro0ress t$rou0$ t$e s$ot! pro/idin0 a
1onsistent &urden+
To en$an1e 3ra0entation &et7een ad9a1ent $o#es+
To redu1e 0round /i&ration and air&#ast+
To pro/ide a eans o3 dire1tin0 t$e $ea/e or disp#a1eent o3 t$e &#asted
ateria#
-(&ormal 8 *taggered) .atterns
+
%hese .attern are ar superior9 to ro5 dela3s1
%hese result in superior ragmentation due to reduce hole burdens and increased
spacing at the time o hole initiation and also due to inlight collision o bro4en
roc4 during its movement1 %he dela3ed action o holes in the bac4 ro5 reduces
over brea4 ensuring increased 5all stabilit31
%he best available pattern is one 5here the holes are drilled (staggered) on a
e:uilateral triangle pattern1 %his in a drilled spacing to burden ratio o
appro2imatel3 111;1 It has been observed that an eective spacing (*e) to Burden
(Be)9 ratio o about !1< is achieved 5ith holes drilled on an e:uilateral triangle grid
and ired using a -
1
initiation se:uence1
Dri##in0 ,sta00ered- eFui#atera# trian0u#ar pattern reFuire ore operator s2i## and
super/ision as 1opared to in5#ine patterns+ C#ear ar2in0 o3 t$e $o#e positions in
ad/an1e &' a responsi&#e person 7ou#d $e#p t$e dri##ers iense#'+ Fi0+ 0i/es /arious
de#a' patterns dis1ussed a&o/e
T$eoreti1a##'! it is possi&#e to I3ine tuneJ t$e tiin0 o3 a &#ast to a1$ie/e idea# resu#ts+
A#t$ou0$ rat$er sop$isti1ated e#e1troni1 detonators are a/ai#a&#e! standard i##ise1ond
,s- de#a' s'stes 1an &e o&tained t$at 7i## 0enera##' pro/ide enou0$ 3#e.i&i#it' and a
su33i1ient ran0e o3 tiin0 3or ost app#i1ations+ T$ere a' &e spe1i3i1 app#i1ations
7$ere e.tree#' a11urate de#a' detonators are ne1essar'! &ut 3or ost 1on/entiona#
&#astin0 situations! t$e standard units are satis3a1tor'+ In an' 1ases! a sa## aount o3
s1atter in t$e ties 1an a1tua##' &e &ene3i1ia# in redu1in0 /i&ration! as #on0 as t$e
a11ura1' is adeFuate to pre/ent o/er#ap! or near o/er#ap! o3 detonation ties+
%he dela3 time bet5een individual holes in a ro5+
i- T$e de#a' tie &et7een $o#es in a ro7 s$ou#d &e &et7een 4 s and = s per 3oot o3
&urden! 7it$ : s 'ie#din0 0ood resu#ts in ost instan1es+
ii- E$ere air&#ast is a pro&#e or potentia# pro&#e! t$e de#a' tie &et7een $o#es in a
ro7 s$ou#d &e at #east 6 s per 3oot o3 spa1in0+
iii- T$is 7i## resu#t in a &#ast pro0ression a#on0 t$e 3a1e or a#on0 a ro7 o3 $o#es t$at is
appro.iate#' $a#3 t$e speed o3 sound ,or #ess- and redu1es t$e #o7 3reFuen1' air&#ast
0enerated &' 3a1e area o/eent or &' sur3a1e area oundin0+
i/- E$ere possi&#e! 1orner $o#es at t$e end o3 ro7s s$ou#d &e 0i/en e.tra de#a' tie
&e1ause o3 t$e 0reater de0ree o3 3i.ation o3 t$e ro12 in t$ose #o1ations reFuires ore
tie 3or t$e ro12 &#asted &' pre/ious#' 3ired ad9a1ent $o#es to o/e a7a'+
'ela3 interval bet5een ro5s+
i- T$e de#a' inter/a# &et7een ro7s s$ou#d &e 3ro t7o to t$ree ties #on0er t$an t$e
de#a' inter/a# &et7een $o#es in a ro7+
ii- T$e #ast ro7 in t$e s$ot s$ou#d o3ten &e de#a'ed s#i0$t#' ore t$an pre1edin0 ro7s+
iii- T$is ser/es to a##o7 ro12 in pre/ious#' 3ired ro7s tie to o/e out and tends to
redu1e &a125&rea2 in t$e ro12 &e$ind t$e &#ast+
Note( Re0ard#ess o3 t$e de#a' ties se#e1ted 3or $o#es in t$e sae ro7 or 3or t$e de#a'
tie &et7een ro7s! it is a&so#ute#' essentia# t$at t$e de#a' inter/a#s &e su33i1ient#' s$ort
t$at t$ere is a &u33er ;one &et7een a detonatin0 $o#e and detonators t$at $a/e 'et to
see t$eir initiatin0 si0na#+ T$is is usua##' a11op#is$ed &' usin0 #on0er do7n5$o#e
de#a's+
An additiona# $a;ard 1an e.ist 7$ere de#a' ties ,1opared to &urden and spa1in0- are
e.1essi/e#' #on0! 1ausin0 1uto33s o3 t$e initiation s'ste or po7der 1o#uns due to
0round s$i3t+ A0ain! t$is needs to &e ana#';ed on a 1ase &' 1ase &asis and a11ounted
3or durin0 &#ast desi0n+
'irection o heave or thro5+ It is 0enera##' possi&#e to 1ontro# t$e dire1tion o3 $ea/e o3
t$e ateria# 3ro a &#ast t$rou0$ app#i1ation o3 t$e initiation s'ste tiin0 seFuen1e+ In
3i0 5=! an arro7 s$o7s t$e dire1tions o3 ost #o0i1a# $ea/e 7$en t$e /arious de#a'
seFuen1es s$o7n are used+ T$e nu&ers in t$e /arious 3i0ures represent t$e initiation
seFuen1e+ S$ootin0 ro7 &' ro7 7i## 0enera##' #a' t$e u12 out in 3ront o3 t$e s$ot+
S$ootin0 7it$ a )51ut tiin0 pattern 7i## usua##' resu#t in a u12 pi#e t$at tends to
ound up in t$e 1enter in 3ront o3 t$e s$ot+
T$e et$od o3 di00in0 out t$e s$ot 7i## usua##' deterine 7$i1$ is pre3era&#e+
T$e dire1tion o3 a.iu /i&ration ,a## ot$er t$in0s &ein0 eFua#- 7i## t$eoreti1a##' &e in
t$e dire1tion opposite 3ro t$e dire1tion o3 $ea/e+
)ocation and (rientation o .rimer+ In ost instan1es t$e priin0 1$ar0e 7i## &e
#o1ated at t$e &otto o3 t$e $o#e+ I3 t$e priin0 1$ar0e 7as #o1ated at t$e top o3 t$e
po7der 1o#un! t$e ener0' 7ou#d &rea2 t$rou0$ t$e sur3a1e ear#ier in t$e e.p#osion
pro1ess! 0asses 7ou#d /ent sooner and u1$ o3 t$eir 1ontri&ution to t$e 3ra0entation
pro1ess 7ou#d &e #ost+
T$e orientation o3 t$e detonator in t$e priin0 1$ar0e s$ou#d &e su1$ t$at t$e detonator
is pointin0 in t$e dire1tion o3 t$e e.p#osi/es 1o#un+ I+e+ t$e detonator 7ou#d &e pointin0
up7ard in a &otto5priin0 1$ar0e and do7n7ard in a top5priin0 1$ar0e+
F"A/M$&%A%I(&+
Priar' 3ra0entation o11urs durin0 t$e detonation p$ase+ T$e s$o12 7a/es e.1eed
t$e 1opressi/e and t$e tensi#e stren0t$ 1apa1it' o3 t$e ro12! and t$e ro12 is 1rus$ed
and pu#/eri;ed 1#ose to t$e dri## $o#e! and radia# 1ra12s 7i## &e 1reated out 3ro t$e $o#e
to a 1ertain e.tent ,eFua# to A G = ties t$e $o#e radius-+ T$e 0as pressure 7i## penetrate
ne7 1ra12s and e.istin0 3issures and 9oints! #oosenin0 t$e ro12 ass and t$ro7in0 it out
and o/er t$e &en1$ 3#oor+
Se1ondar' 3ra0entation &rea2a0e starts 7it$ t$e t$ro7 7$en 3ra0ented ateria#
a11e#erates out 3ro t$e &en1$+ T$e se1ondar' &rea2a0e is attri&uted to(
Co##isions &et7een 3ra0ents in t$e air and &et7een 3ra0ents and t$e &en1$
3#oor+
Hi0$ 1opressi/e stress #e/e#s and 1onser/ed e#asti1 ener0' in t$e ro12 are
re#eased 7$en t$e 3ra0ents are #oosened 3ro t$e &en1$+
T$e 3ra0entation /aries t$rou0$ t$e ro12 pi#e+ T$e 1oarser 3ra0ents ori0inate 3ro
t$e 3irst ro7 and 3ro t$e un1$ar0ed ;one in t$e upper part o3 t$e &#ast+
Contro##a&#e 3a1tors 7$i1$ in3#uen1e priar' 3ra0entation(
Dri## $o#e diaeter
%ass o3 e.p#osi/e 1$ar0e
Stress 7a/esM pea2 /a#ues
C$ar0e distri&ution in t$e &en1$
Se1ondar' 3ra0entation a' &e in1reased &' a p#ou0$ s$aped 3irin0 pattern+
Fra0entation is a#so in3#uen1ed &' t$e ori0ina# 3ra1turin0 o3 t$e ro12+ T$is app#ies &ot$
durin0 t$e detonation and in t$e 3o##o7in0 operations! su1$ as #oadin0! transportation!
1rus$in0 and p#a1in0 o3 t$e ro12+
Studies o3 t$e ro12 pi#e s$o7 t$at(
T$e 1oarsest 3ra1tions in t$e ro12 pi#e ori0inates 3ro t$e s$ou#der8ed0e se1tion
o3 t$e &#ast! and 3ro t$e un1$ar0ed /o#ue+
T$e 1oarser 3ra1tions 3or a s2irt 7$i1$ 1o/ers t$e top o3 t$e pi#e+ In1reased
un1$ar0ed #en0t$ rapid#' in1reases t$e dept$ o3 t$is top #a'er+
Fra0entation o3 t$e s$ou#der se1tion is $i0$#' dependent upon t$e &en1$ top
1onditions+ Terrain &#asts nora##' produ1e ore &#o12s t$an pre/ious#'
su&dri##ed &en1$ 3#oor 1onditions 7$i1$ ori0inate 3ro an o/er#'in0 &#ast+
De1reasin0 t$e stein0 #en0t$ to redu1e t$e aount o3 o/ersi;ed &#o12 7i## not
ne1essari#' &e a su11ess+ %ost #i2e#'! 0as /entin0 7i## appear resu#tin0 in
e.1essi/e 3#'ro12s+
T$e part o3 t$e ro12 pi#e 7$i1$ ori0inates 3ro t$e 1$ar0ed part o3 t$e &#ast 0i/es
t$e ost 3ra0ented ro12+
"(CK MA** F"AC%,"I&/+ T$e dis1ontinuities or 7ea2ness p#anes o3 t$e ro12 ass
in3#uen1e t$e &#asta&i#it'+ T$e 7ea2ness p#anes are re1o0nised &' #itt#e or no s$ear
stren0t$ a#on0 t$e p#anes+ T'pi1a# dis1ontinuit' 3eatures are(
S'steati1a##' 3ra1tured ro12 ass
i- para##e# oriented 9oints and 3issures
ii- 3o#iation p#anes or &eddin0 p#anes
%ar2ed sin0#e 9oints
Fi##ed 9oints
Crus$ed ;ones and ;ones 7it$ inera# or 1#a' 3i##
Fra1turin0 is 1$ara1terised &' rate o3 3ra1turin0 ,t'pe and 3reFuen1'- as 7e## as
orientation ,an0#e &et7een &#ast dire1tion and 7ea2ness p#anes-+ )arious ro12
1#assi3i1ation s'stes 1an &e used to 1$ara1teri;e t$e 3ra1turin0 o3 t$e ro12 ass+ Here
7e ention RND! R%R and R%i+ T$e' ore or #ess easure t$e sae ro12
paraeters+
T$e di33erent 3ra1turin0 paraeters 1an &e des1ri&ed as 3o##o7s(
IJointsJ ean 1ontinuous p#anes o3 7ea2ness+ T$ese 9oints 1an &e open! e+0+
&eddin0 9oints in 0ranite! or 3i##ed 7it$ 1#a' or 7ea2 inera#s! e+0+ 1a#1ite! 1$#orite
or sii#ar inera#s+
IFissuresJ are p#anes o3 7ea2ness 7$i1$ 1an on#' &e 3o##o7ed o/er parts o3 t$e
3a1e+ It 1an &e 3i##ed 9oints 7it$ #o7 s$ear stren0t$ and &eddin0 p#ane 3issures
,partin0s- e+0+ as in i1a s1$ist and i1a 0neiss+
IHoo0eneous ro12 assJ eans assi/e ro12 7it$out 9oints or 3issures and
a' o11ur in intrusi/e di2es! si##s! &at$o#it$s et1+
In1reased 3issure 9oint de0ree 0i/es &etter &#asta&i#it'+ T$is is t'pi1a# in re0iona#
etaorp$i1 ro12 t'pes+
S'steati1a##' oriented 9oint sets a2e t$e ro12 ore di33i1u#t to &#ast+ Lar0e &#o12s are
iso#ated in t$e t$ro7 7it$out &ein0 1rus$ed+ Fra1tured 1onditions are 1$ara1teristi1 3or
ro12s in sur3a1e &#astin0+
B)A*%I&/ 'I"$C%I(&+ Nora##' t$e &#astin0 dire1tion is perpendi1u#ar to t$e 3a1e o3
&en1$ 3a1e! and it s$ou#d &e ad9usted a11ordin0 to t$e dire1tion o3 t$e 3ra1turin0+ In
spe1ia# 1ases! t$e &en1$ 3a1e dire1tion a' &e 3i.ed in a non 3a/oura&#e dire1tion due
to topo0rap$'! Fuarr' &orders or stri1t 0eoetri1a# deands! as in road 1uttin0s or
&ui#din0 sites+ In t$ese 1ases! t$e 3irin0 pattern 1an &e used to 1ontro# t$e &#ast dire1tion
in a ore 3a/oura&#e dire1tion and ipro/e t$e &#astin0 resu#t+
Be3ore dri##in0! t$e &#ast dire1tion s$ou#d &e set a11ordin0 to t$e orientation o3 t$e ain
9ointin0 s'stes+ Fra0entation! &a12&rea2 and toe pro&#es are a## dependent upon
t$e &#astin0 dire1tion+
E/en t$ou0$ optia# 3ra0entation usua##' is t$e ost iportant 1riterion! 1onsideration
o3 &a12 7a##! toe and &en1$ 3#oor ust &e 1onsidered to 0et an optia# tota# resu#t+
Orientation o3 t$e &a12 7a## a' &e a#on0 a 7ea2ness p#ane and t$e &#ast dire1tion
turned 1#ose up to t$e optia# an0#e+
Nuarr' ana0eent s$ou#d pro/ide do1uentation o3 t$e ain dis1ontinuit' s'stes in
operationa# aps+ T$e &#astin0 resu#ts s$ou#d &e 3o##o7ed up a11ordin0 to &#astin0
dire1tions and ain 3ra1ture s'stes+ T$e resu#ts 3ro t$ese studies 7i## &e t$e
3oundation 3or 3urt$er &#ast p#annin0 and optia# Fuarr' ana0eent+
Soe o3 t$e ost 1oon 1o&inations o3 ro12 t'pe! 3ra1turin0 and 1on/entiona#
Fuarr'in0 &#astin0 resu#ts are dis1ussed+ T$ese are(
Anisotropi1 ro12 ass 7it$ in1#ined 3ra1turin0+
Ro12 ass 7it$ /erti1a# 3ra1turin0 and #itt#e anisotrop'+
Ro12 ass 7it$ in1#ined 3ra1turin0 and #itt#e anisotrop'+
Anisotrop' o3 t$e ro12 0i/es dire1tiona# dependent ro12 stren0t$ and dire1tiona#
dependent &#astin0 e33e1ts+ T$e an0#e &et7een 7ea2ness p#anes and &#ast dire1tion is
0i/en &' t$e an0#e + B#ast dire1tion is de3ined to &e perpendi1u#ar to t$e &en1$ 7a##
3a1e+ Ben1$ 7a## dire1tion is des1ri&ed &' A! B! C or D+
Anisotropic roc4 mass 5ith inclined racturing1
FACE
DIRECTION
FRAG%ENTAT
ION
BAC"BREA" ANDTOE
PROBLE%S
BENCH
FLOORUNDERBREA"
A Poor ,4- Lar0e ,6- Lar0e
B 0ood Soe %ediu
C 0ood Soe %ediu ,:-
D Good ,4- Soe ediu to #ar0e
4+ T$e ain pro&#e 7it$ in1#ined s1$istosit' is t$e 3a1t t$at t$e ost 3a/oura&#e &#ast
dire1tion ,B- is para##e# to t$e stri2e dire1tion+ E$en 3irin0 ro7 &' ro7! t$e 3a1e does not
&e1oe sti33 enou0$ and it 7i## $a/e e.1essi/e &u12#in0+
T$is pro&#e 1an &e so#/ed &' usin0 redu1ed &en1$ $ei0$t or sa## diaeter dri## $o#es+
6+ Soe &a12&rea2 and &a12s#ides on 3issures a#on0 t$e s1$istosit'+
:+ In 3issure 3ra1tured ro12! C is t$e ost 3a/oura&#e orientation 7$en it 1oes to &#ast
dire1tion and t$e &a12 7a##+
Independent upon &#astin0 dire1tion! $o#e de3#e1tion a' &e a 1onsidera&#e pro&#e in
in1#ined s1$istose ro12! resu#tin0 in ;ones 7it$ poor 3ra0entation and &en1$ 3#oor
pro&#es+
Appro2imatel3 vertical racturing and little anisotrop3 (%3pical roc4 t3pes are
:uart=ite and granite gneiss)+
FACE
DIRECTION
FRAG%ENTAT
ION
BAC"BREA" ANDTOE
PROBLE%S
BENCH
FLOORUNDERBREA"
A 0ood Litt#e ediu
B s#i0$t#' poor Soe ,6- )ar'in0 ,A-
C 0ood %u1$ ,:- Litt#e ,=-
D 0ood Litt#e ,4- ediu
4+ Litt#e &a12&rea2! e/en t$ou0$ in1orre1t a#i0nent o3 dri## $o#es a11ordin0 to t$e
3ra1turin0 dire1tion 7i## 0i/e #ar0e 3a##5outs a#on0 t$e 7ea2ness p#anes! e/en 3or O P 4>Q+
6+ Rou0$ and une/en &a12 7a##+ T$e 3a1e 0ets ore une/en 7it$ $i0$er 3ra1turin0
de0ree! in1reased dri## $o#e diaeter and dri## $o#e pressure+ T$is resu#ts in ore &#o12s
in 3ront o3 t$e ro12 pi#e+
:+ %a.iu &a12&rea2 3or O L A=Q! soe #ar0er &#o12s 7i## o11ur at t$e &a12 o3 t$e ro12
pi#e due to 3a##outs+ Ba12&rea2 1an &e redu1ed &' in1reasin0 t$e un1$ar0ed #en0t$ in
t$e &a12 ro7+
A+ Gas pressure #ea2a0es in t$e 3a1e resu#tin0 in 3#'ro12! poor 3ra0entation ,espe1ia##'
a#on0 t$e &en1$ 3#oor- and 0enera# &en1$ 3#oor pro&#es+ Espe1ia##' in 9oint 3ra1tured
ro12+
=+ Ben1$ 3#oor pro&#es a' o11ur i3 t$e 3irst ro7 &rea2s poor#'+ A possi&#e 7a' to a2e
t$is &etter is to dri## a#on0 D and 3ire a#on0 C+
"oc4 5ith inclined racturing and little anisotrop3+
FACE
DIRECTION
FRAG%ENTAT
ION
BAC"BREA" ANDTOE
PROBLE%S
BENCH
FLOORUNDERBREA"
A Poor ,4- /er' #ar0e ,6- #ar0e
B 0ood Soe ediu
C /er' 0ood Litt#e %ediu ,:-
D 0ood Litt#e ediu to #ar0e ,A-
4+ A #ar0e aount o3 &#o12 3ro t$e un1$ar0ed #en0t$ in e.3o#iated! 9oint s$eeted ro12+ I3
&#astin0 on terrain &en1$! t$e top s$ou#d dip &a127ards! ot$er7ise an' &#o12s 7i## i.
into t$e 1$ar0ed part o3 t$e ro12 pi#e+ T$is is de3initi/e#' t$e #east 3a/oura&#e &#ast
dire1tion in 9oint 3ra1tured ro12+
6+ E.tra su&dri##in0 is ne1essar' to a/oid &en1$ 3#oor pro&#es+
:+ C is t$e ost 3a/oura&#e orientation i3 t$e &a12 7a## and t$e 3irst ro7 &rea2s proper#'+
I3 not! #ess spe1i3i1 1$ar0e in t$e &a12 ro7 and sa##er $o#e spa1in0 in t$e 3irst ro7 7i##
ipro/e t$e resu#t+
A+ Ben1$ 3#oor pro&#es are redu1ed 7it$ in1reased su&dri##in0+ Ne1essar' su&dri##in0
depends on dip an0#e+
To soe e.tent! $o#e de3#e1tion a' redu1e t$e 3ra0entation de0ree and in1rease t$e
&en1$ 3#oor pro&#es
"$',C%I(& (F #()$ '$F)$C%I(&
AB*%"AC%
Bore$o#es are desi0ned to o&tain in3oration in t$e t$ird diension! ie+ at dept$! &e#o7
t$e t7o5diensions o3 t$e eart$Rs sur3a1e+ Toda' it is re#ati/e#' eas' to deterine
position on t$e sur3a1e! &ut not so at dept$+ Un3ortunate#'! a## too o3ten! t$e pat$ o3 t$e
$o#e is erroneous#' assued to 3o##o7 t$e ori0ina# dip ,or in1#ination- and a;iut$ ,or
dire1tion- esta&#is$ed at t$e 1o##ar! at t$e top o3 t$e $o#e+ Nuerous &ore$o#e sur/e'in0
de/i1es $a/e &een de/e#oped! none o3 7$i1$ are per3e1t! $o7e/er Fuite a11urate
resu#ts are possi&#e &' usin0 t$e ri0$t too# in t$e ri0$t $o#e+
Sur/e'in0 a &ore$o#e is usua##' a11op#is$ed &' o/in0 a pro&e a#on0 t$e $o#e and
sensin0 t$e o/eent o3 t$e pro&e re#ati/e to one or ore 3raes o3 re3eren1e 7$i1$
a' in1#ude t$e eart$Rs 0ra/itationa# 3ie#d! a0neti1 3ie#d or ot$er inertia# re3eren1e!
and8or &' sensin0 t$e distortion or &endin0 o3 t$e $ousin0 o3 t$e pro&e itse#3+ T$e
di33erent et$ods ea1$ $a/e t$eir o7n ad/anta0es and #iitations su1$ as
a&i#it'8ina&i#it' to operate inside stee# 1asin0! speed and 1op#e.it' o3 operation!
a11ura1'! 1ost! distan1e &et7een easureents! ru00edness and re#ia&i#it'+
I&%"(',C%I(&
On#' under idea# 1onditions 7i## t$e pat$ o3 a dri##ed $o#e 3o##o7 t$e ori0ina# dip ,or
in1#ination- and a;iut$ ,or dire1tion- esta&#is$ed at t$e top o3 t$e $o#e+ It is ore usua#
t$at t$e &ore$o#e 7i## de3#e1t a7a' 3ro t$e ori0ina# dire1tion as a resu#t o3 #a'erin0 in
t$e ro12! t$e /ariation in t$e $ardness o3 t$e #a'ers! and t$e an0#e o3 t$e dri## &it re#ati/e
to t$ese #a'ers+ T$e dri## &it 7i## &e a&#e to penetrate t$e so3ter #a'ers easier t$an t$e
$arder #a'ers! resu#tin0 in a pre3erentia# dire1tion o3 dri## &it de/iation+ In soe areas
e.perien1ed dri##ers $a/e &een a&#e to predi1t t$e de/iation soe7$at! and ad9ust t$e
dip and a;iut$ o3 t$e 1o##ar o3 t$e $o#e su1$ t$at 7$en t$e dri## rea1$es t$e desired
dept$! it 7i## &e tra/e##in0 in t$e desired a;iut$ and dip+ De/iation o3 t$e &ore$o#e is
en1ountered in &ot$ Rso3t5ro12R and R$ard5ro12R dri##in0+ In &ase eta# e.p#oration 3or
e.ap#e! t$e strata &ein0 dri##ed are usua##' 0eo#o0i1 units in a /o#1ani1 pi#e! o3ten
dippin0 /er' steep#'+ Dri##in0 perpendi1u#ar to a steep dip is a#ost ipossi&#e and t$e
dri## &it 7i## de3inite#' penetrate t$e #a'ers at a ore s$a##o7 an0#e t$an ?> de0rees+
Be1ause t$e purpose o3 a &ore$o#e is to o&tain in3oration in t$e t$ird diension! i+e+ at
dept$! t$e #o1ation is 9ust as iportant as t$e in3oration itse#3+ %ost o3ten t$e
in3oration 1onsists o3 t$e 0eo#o0' o3 t$e dri## 1ore! or assa's o3 t$e 1ore at se#e1ted
dept$s+ I3 t$e $o#e $as de/iated si0ni3i1ant#'! t$en t$at in3oration 1an not &e proper#'
assi0ned to a #o1ation in :5diensiona# spa1e &eneat$ t$e eart$Rs sur3a1e+ Con1#usions
a&out 0eo#o0i1a# stru1ture or ode#s o3 t$e si;e! s$ape! tonna0e and a/era0e 0rade o3
ore5&odies &ased on t$e Ris5p#a1edR in3oration a' &e erroneous+
Nuerous &ore$o#e sur/e'in0 de/i1es $a/e &een de/e#oped! none o3 7$i1$ are per3e1t+
Ho7e/er! Fuite a11urate resu#ts are possi&#e &' proper#' usin0 t$e ri0$t too# in t$e ri0$t
$o#e+ Sur/e'in0 t$e pat$ o3 a &ore$o#e is re3erred to as a &ore$o#e RorientationR sur/e' or
a Rde/iationR sur/e'! and RdipR at an' point re3ers to t$e an0#e &et7een t$e $ori;onta# and
t$e pat$ o3 t$e $o#e+ RIn1#inationR is used &' soe 7or2ers to re3er to t$e an0#e &et7een
t$e /erti1a# and t$e $o#e! a#t$ou0$ in soe #iterature in1#ination is used ,in1orre1t#'- as a
s'non' 3or dip+ Anot$er 1on3usion is 1reated &' t$e #o00in0 too# 1a##ed t$e RdipeterR
7$i1$ does not sur/e' t$e pat$ o3 a $o#e &ut easures t$e dip o3 strata re#ati/e to t$e
$o#e+ T$is is usua##' a11op#is$ed 7it$ an arra' o3 u#tip#e e#e1trodes 7$i1$ tou1$ t$e
7a## o3 t$e $o#e and sense t$e dip o3 t$e &eds interse1ted &' t$e $o#e+
Sur/e'in0 a &ore$o#e is usua##' a11op#is$ed &' o/in0 a pro&e a#on0 t$e $o#e and
sensin0 t$e o/eent o3 t$e pro&e re#ati/e to one or ore 3raes o3 re3eren1e 7$i1$
a' in1#ude t$e eart$Rs 0ra/itationa# 3ie#d! a0neti1 3ie#d or ot$er inertia# re3eren1e!
and8or &' sensin0 t$e distortion or &endin0 o3 t$e $ousin0 o3 t$e pro&e itse#3+ Di33erent
et$ods $a/e t$eir o7n ad/anta0es and #iitations+ Soe $a/e t$e a&i#it' to operate
inside stee# 1asin0! and ot$ers 1annot+ Soe et$ods are tie 1onsuin0 and ot$ers
are 3ast+ Soe are re#ati/e#' sip#e to use and ot$ers are 1op#e. to operate+ Ot$er
1onsiderations are a11ura1'! 1ost! distan1e &et7een easureents! ru00edness and
re#ia&i#it'+
*,"-$7I&/ A B("$#()$
A sur/e' o3 a &ore$o#e s$ou#d pro/ide an a11urate p#ot o3 t$e pat$ o3 t$e $o#e in :5
diensiona# spa1e! i+e+ t$e ,.!'!;- 1oordinates ,nort$in0! eastin0! true dept$- o3 e/er'
point a#on0 t$e pat$ is 2no7n+ In pra1ti1e! t$e 1oordinates o3 a 3inite nu&er o3 points
are deterined! and t$e pat$ &et7een t$ese points is 1a#1u#ated &' e.trapo#ation+ Fro
t$is! it s$ou#d &e o&/ious t$at( t$e 0reater t$e nu&er o3 2no7n data points! t$e #ess
e.trapo#ation reFuired! and t$e ore a11urate t$e sur/e'+ T$e 1oordinates o3 points are
not easured dire1t#'! &ut are 1oputed 3ro easureents o3 t$e dip! a;iut$ and
#en0t$5a#on05t$e5$o#e ,usua##' 1a##ed Rdept$R-+ T$ese are t$e t$ree 1oponents o3 t$e
R$o#e /e1torR! T$e 3irst data set are t$e dip! a;iut$! and dept$ ,7$i1$ is ;ero- at t$e
1o##ar o3 t$e $o#e+ T$e ,.!'!;- 1oordinates o3 t$e top o3 t$e $o#e are &ased on t$e sur3a1e
sur/e' 0rid &ein0 used in t$e area! and o3 1ourse do not $a/e to &e 1oputed 3ro t$e
dip and a;iut$ data+ Ho7e/er! a#on0 t$e #en0t$ o3 t$e $o#e t$e dip and a;iut$ 7i##
1$an0e 3ro t$at at t$e 1o##ar+
%easurin0 #en0t$ a#on0 t$e $o#e is re#ati/e#' eas'! a#t$ou0$ not a tri/ia# pro&#e+ T$e
1a#i&ration o3 t$e pu##e' or s$ea/e 7$ee# and t$e dept$ en1oder atta1$ed to it is su&9e1t
to error! sin1e it re#ies on an a11urate deterination o3 t$e nu&er o3 pu#ses 3ro t$e
en1oder 3or ea1$ etre o3 1a&#e t$at passes o/er t$e pu##e'+ In addition! t$e 1a&#e used
3or t$e dept$ easureent a' stret1$! or it a' e33e1ti/e#' in1rease in diaeter due to
i1in0 1onditions in 7inter! or t$e pu##e' a' e33e1ti/e#' in1rease in diaeter 3or t$e sae
reason! or de1rease diaeter due to 7ear+ A one per1ent error in dept$ easureent!
3or e.ap#e! a' ean a = etre dept$ error at a dept$ o3 =>> etres! and t$is 1ou#d
&e #ar0er t$an t$e error 1aused &' pre1ision dip and a;iut$ easureents+ T$is
re/ie7! $o7e/er! is priari#' 1on1erned 7it$ dip and a;iut$ easureents+
%he Acid $tch Clinometer+
One o3 t$e ear#iest and sip#est sur/e'in0 de/i1es is &ased on a easureent inside
t$e dri## rod 7it$ an a1id &ott#e A AS $'dro3#uori1 a1id so#ution et1$es t$e 7a## o3 t$e
0#ass et1$ tu&e #ea/in0 a peranent re1ord o3 t$e dip o3 t$e $o#e! 7$i1$ 1an &e read
upon retrie/a# o3 t$e pro&e ,Ur&an and Dient! 4?B?-+ Et1$in0 tie is a iniu o3 6>
inutes! &ut as soon as t$e et1$in0 tie $as e#apsed! t$e dri##in0 1an &e0in a0ain+
Furt$er et1$in0 is s#i0$t and does not erase t$e et1$ #ine ade 7$i#e stationar'+ In a
deep $o#e! et1$in0 tie ,stationar'- ust &e in1reased to eFua# t$e tie reFuired to
#o7er t$e de/i1e to t$e easureent dept$! 7$i1$ a' &e up to 6 $ours+ In a&out A
$ours t$e a1id 7i## $a/e neutra#i;ed+ T$e a1id et1$ de/i1e 7i## 3it inside t$e sa##est
diaeter dri## rods ,si;e E-+ T$e et$od is sti## in use toda' usua##' 3or a sin0#e
easureent at t$e &otto o3 a $o#e 7$en dri##in0 $as stopped+ T$is 0i/es a RFui12 and
dirt'R indi1ation o3 $o#e de/iation! &ut it pro/ides dip in3oration on#'+
T$e pat$ o3 t$e $o#e 1ou#d &e in an' dire1tion on a 1one o3 eFua# dip! unti# t$e a;iut$
7it$ respe1t to Nort$ is a#so easured+ E/en i3 t$e dip o3 t$e $o#e 7ere 2no7n at
nuerous points a#on0 t$e $o#e! t$e true pat$ 1ou#d &e /irtua##' an'7$ere+ Here! t$ree
dip easureents are ade a#on0 t$e pat$ o3 a &ore$o#e! and t$e t$ree 1ones o3 eFua#
dip an0#e are s$o7n+ T$e a;iut$ o3 t$e $o#e is a#so in1#uded on ea1$ 1one to i##ustrate
t$ree strai0$t5#ine se0ents o3 t$e $o#e+ It is eas' to see t$at 7it$out t$e a;iut$
in3oration! t$ere is an in3inite nu&er o3 possi&i#ities 3or t$e true pat$ o3 t$e $o#e &ased
on dip easureents a#one+
%he %ropari (and its successor the .a>ari)+ In t$is instruent! a 1opass and
1#o127or2 e1$anis are ounted on 0i&a#s 7it$ t$e &otto side 7ei0$ted to
aintain t$e 0ra/itationa# /erti1a# re3eren1e ,i+e+ as an in1#inoeter- as it o/es 3ree#' in
its $ousin0 + It is #o7ered in t$e $o#e to t$e easureent dept$! and at a preset tie t$e
1#o12 #o12s a## t$e o/in0 parts and t$e tropari is retrie/ed 3ro t$e $o#e to read t$e dip
and a0neti1 a;iut$ /a#ue at t$at easureent dept$+ T$e dip is easured to 7it$in
4 de0ree and t$e a;iut$ is read to t$e nearest $a#3 de0ree+ T7o /ersions are a/ai#a&#e
7it$ a a.iu tie period o3 ?> or 4=> inutes+ T$e 1#o127or2 #o12in0 ta2es p#a1e in
t$e #ast 4> inutes o3 t$e set tie period! durin0 7$i1$ tie t$e instruent s$ou#d &e
stationar' in t$e $o#e+ %easureents are usua##' ade at => or 4>> inter/a#s in t$e
$o#e! dependin0 on t$e dept$ o3 t$e $o#e and t$e desired a11ura1'+ T$e de/i1e 7i## 3it
inside an EH ,A@ - $o#e+ It is a/ai#a&#e 7it$ pressure ratin0 to 4@C= etres dept$ and
7it$ t$era# $ousin0 3or teperatures o/er 4>> de0rees 1e#sius+ It 1an &e run in an
open $o#e on a 7ire#ine! or at t$e end o3 a dri## strin0 &' raisin0 t$e dri##5rod strin0 @ or C
etres and a##o7in0 t$e tropari to pass t$rou0$ t$e dri## &it to a position a&out = a7a'
3ro it+ T$e tropari! a Canadian in/ention! is sti## 7ide#' used in inera# e.p#oration in
Canada and t$rou0$out t$e 7or#d+
*olid *tate 'evices+ A#t$ou0$ it $as &een possi&#e to easure a0neti1 3ie#d
dire1tions e#e1troni1a##' 3or a&out => 'ears! t$e p$'si1a# si;e o3 t$e 1oponents 7as
ore suita&#e to insta##ation inside an air1ra3t t$an a &ore$o#e pro&e+ Ho7e/er as
inituri;ation o3 e#e1troni1 de/i1es e/o#/ed! t$is 1$an0ed+ Ho# ,4?@A- uti#i;ed a
1opass and pendu#u e1$anis 7$i1$ 1ou#d &e re1orded e#e1tri1a##' and reote#'
at t$e sur3a1e+ In re1ent 'ears! ne7 $ard7are 7as adapted 3ro sate##ite and 0uided
issi#e te1$no#o0' 3or use in #o00in0 too#s+ T$e a0neti1 1opass 7as rep#a1ed &' a
rin051ore 3#u.0ate a0netoeter and t$e dip easureent 7as ade &' so#id state ti#t5
eters or a11e#eroeters 7it$ no o/in0 parts+
T$e so#id state ti#teters are oriented ort$o0ona# to ea1$ ot$er in t$e pro&e to easure
dip! and at t$e sae tie 1opensate 3or ro## o3 t$e pro&e as it o/es in t$e $o#e+ T$e
ti#teters 1onsist o3 an e#e1tro#'te 7$i1$ $a#3 3i##s t$e spa1e &et7een t7o 1ondu1tors on
opposite sides o3 a dis15s$aped 0#ass 1ontainer+ As t$e 1ontainer rotates ,ti#ts-! t$e
e#e1tro#'te o/es! 1$an0in0 t$e resistan1e &et7een t$e 1ondu1tors on opposite sides!
7$i1$ is 1a#i&rated in ters o3 t$e de0ree o3 ti#t ,Ba#1$ and B#o$! 4??4-+ T$e
a11e#eroeters use t$e prin1ip#e o3 sensin0 t$e position and o/eent o3 a Rpendu#ous
assR! as it tries to o/e 7$en t$e pro&e ti#ts! and dri/in0 it &a12 to a R;eroR position 7it$
a ser/o5otor+ T$e 1urrent reFuired to dri/e t$e otor is proportiona# to t$e de0ree o3
ti#t+
Dip and a;iut$ data are transitted to t$e sur3a1e in rea# tie 3or re1ordin0 and
disp#a' as e.ep#i3ied &' pro&es de/e#oped &' OEL Te1$ni1a# Asso1iates In1+! USA
and IFG Corp+! Canada or stored in so#id state eories in t$e pro&e ,e+0+ Boretra2!
U"-+ T$ese t$ree t'pi1a# e.ap#es o3 t$e te1$no#o0' use :B ,4+=T- diaeter pro&es+
/eographic &orth vs /eomagnetic &orth+ A#t$ou0$ t$e pro0ression o3 t$e
te1$no#o0' as des1ri&ed a&o/e 7as ipressi/e! t$e a0neti1 a;iut$ ust sti## &e
1on/erted to 0eo0rap$i1 a;iut$+ T$e desired 3ina# 1oputed 1oordinate positions o3
t$e &ore$o#e are 7it$ respe1t to t$e 0eo0rap$i1a# 1oordinate s'ste in 7$i1$ e/er'
point a#on0 t$e pat$ o3 t$e $o#e $as a nort$in0! eastin0 and /erti1a# dept$+ Ho7e/er! t$e
easureents des1ri&ed t$us 3ar! are ade 7it$ respe1t to t$e 0eoa0neti1 3ie#d+ T$e
1oputed a;iut$ is a a0neti1 a;iut$ unti# it $as &een 1on/erted into a 0eo0rap$i1
a;iut$+ Usin0 t$e de1#ination o3 t$e #o1a# 3ie#d! t$e a0neti1 1oordinates o3 t$e
&ore$o#e 1an &e rotated into t$e 0eo0rap$i1a# 1oordinate s'ste+ It is usua# to o&tain
t$e /a#ue 3or t$e 0eoa0neti1 de1#ination 3ro re0iona# 0eoa0neti1 de1#ination and
in1#ination aps+
A#t$ou0$ t$ese a0neti15&ased et$ods are adeFuate 3or ost $o#es! sur/e's &ased
on a0neti1 a;iut$ 1annot &e done inside stee# 1asin0! or 7$ere t$ere are anoa#ous
a0neti1 3ie#ds ,dis1ussed #ater-+ A## o3 t$ese 1onsiderations #ed to t$e de/e#opent o3
non5a0neti1 s'stes+
A=imuth measurement based on g3roscopic platorms+ T$e inertia o3 a
spinnin0 ass 1an &e used as a sta&#e re3eren1e 3or a series o3 dire1tiona#
easureents in a &ore$o#e+ T$e 0'ros1ope e1$anis rep#a1es t$e a0neti1
1opass! and its orientation 7it$ respe1t to 0eo0rap$i1 nort$ ust &e deterined at t$e
1o##ar o3 t$e $o#e+ T$e inertia o3 t$e 0'ro and its sta&i#it' ,3reedo 3ro dri3t- are re#ated
to &ot$ t$e ass and its rate o3 spin+ A spin o3 A>!>>> rp is 1oon! and t$e 9e7e##ed
&earin0s 1an 7ear out Fui12#'! addin0 to t$e 1ost+ Ho7e/er! sur/e's 1an &e 1arried out
inside eta# pipe and in t$e presen1e o3 a0neti1 anoa#ies+ Ear#' /ersions 7ere
1o&ined 7it$ a 1aera as in t$e RSin0#e5s$otR de/i1e+ Re1ent /ersions 1a##ed Rsur3a1e
re1ordin0 0'rosR transit t$e data to t$e sur3a1e di0ita##' in rea# tie+ Ne7 opti1a# 0'ros
7it$ /irtua##' no o/in0 parts! su1$ as t$e rin05#aser 0'ros des1ri&ed &' Anderson
,4?B@-! a' e/entua##' rep#a1e t$e e1$ani1a# 0'ros1opes+
(ptical instruments? )ight Beam Methods+ A 1op#ete#' di33erent &ore$o#e
sur/e'in0 te1$niFue is &ased on a #i0$t sour1e in one end o3 a #on0 ri0id tu&e! 7it$ t$e
#i0$t&ea 3o1used on a tar0et in t$e ot$er end o3 t$e tu&e+ Bendin0 o3 t$e tu&e as it
o/es in t$e &ore$o#e 1auses de3#e1tions o3 t$e #i0$t on t$e tar0et! and t$is in3oration
is 1on/erted into &ore$o#e orientation sur/e' data+ T$e te1$niFue is not a33e1ted &'
a0neti1 3ie#ds and 1an &e used inside eta# pipe or dri## rod+ For &est resu#ts! t$e
pro&e s$ou#d $a/e on#' a&out 4 1#earan1e &et7een it and t$e 7a## o3 t$e $o#e 3or
a.iu sensiti/it' to t$e &endin0 e33e1t+ T$is eans t$at sur/e'in0 inside t$e dri## rod
is a1tua##' pre3era&#e sin1e it is sa3er t$an #o00in0 in an open $o#e 7$ere t$e 1$an1e o3
0ettin0 t$e pro&e stu12 is 0reater+
'$*,"-$7I&/
T$e ra7 dip and a;iut$ data ust &e 1on/erted into a p#ot o3 t$e pat$ o3 t$e $o#e in :
diensiona# spa1e &' interpo#atin0 &et7een easureent points+ Ca##ed Rdesur/e'in0R
,Ho7son and Sides! 4?B@-! a nu&er o3 di33erent a#0orit$s 1an &e used 3or t$e
interpo#ation+ A3ter desur/e'in0! t$e /isua# output is a disp#a' o3 t$e pat$ o3 t$e $o#e
pro9e1ted on p#anes in an east57est or nort$5sout$ dire1tion! or in p#an /ie7+
T$e se#e1tion o3 t$e desur/e'in0 a#0orit$ is espe1ia##' iportant i3 t$e data points are
sparse and 1an &e a #ar0e sour1e o3 error i3 t$e 7ron0 et$od is used+ T$is is t$e 1ase
7$en on#' a 3e7 points in t$e $o#e $a/e &een easured 7it$ soe o3 t$e s#o7 &ore$o#e
sur/e'in0 de/i1es+ For e.ap#e! a strai0$t5#ine interpo#ation &et7een easured points
7ou#d &e one desur/e'in0 et$od 7$i1$ 1ou#d &e used+ Ho7e/er t$e true pat$ o3 t$e
$o#e doesnRt usua##' 3o##o7 strai0$t #ine se0ents+ )arious 1oputation et$ods
in/o#/in0 1ur/e53ittin0 &et7een points $a/e a#so &een proposed+ Re/ie7s o3 t$e /arious
et$ods o3 1oputin0 &ore$o#e position! and t$eir possi&#e errors $a/e &een presented
&' se/era# aut$ors in1#udin0 Ea#stro et a#+! ,4?@?-! Ea#stro et a#+! ,4?C6-! Har/e' et
a#+! ,4?C4-! True. ,4?C4- and Eo#33 and deEardt ,4?B4-+ T$ese et$ods in1#ude t$e
An0#e A/era0in0 %et$od! Ba#an1ed Tan0entia# %et$od! Radius o3 Cur/ature %et$od!
and %iniu Cur/ature %et$od! detai#s o3 7$i1$ are &e'ond t$e s1ope o3 t$is paper+
%ost odern orientation pro&es a2e easureents 1ontinuous#'! and t$ese are
sap#ed as o3ten as e/er' $a#35se1ond+ %easureents o3 dip and a;iut$ 1an &e ade
e/er' = 1 a#on0 t$e pat$ o3 t$e $o#e at a #o00in0 speed o3 @ etres per inute 3or
e.ap#e+ T$is data inter/a# is u1$ sa##er t$an t$e #en0t$ o3 t$e orientation pro&e
itse#3+ Be1ause t$e inter/a# &et7een readin0s is so sa##! t$e &ore$o#e desur/e'in0
et$od used to 1opute t$e position 1oordinates o3 t$e $o#e 7i## $a/e /er' #itt#e e33e1t
on t$e resu#ts+ T$ere3ore! in t$at 1ase! t$e sip#est et$od 7$i1$ assues a strai0$t
pat$ &et7een easureents a' &e 1$osen+
*(M$ *(,"C$* (F .(**IB)$ $""(" I& /$(M$%"7 (F %#$
B("$#()$
T$e e33e1t o3 in1reasin0 t$e inter/a# &et7een easureents 7as in/esti0ated &' Ba#1$
and B#o$ ,4??4-+ T$e' presented an e.ap#e o3 a sur/e' o3 a @>> deep &ore$o#e
usin0 t$e IFG orientation pro&e+ B' usin0 on#' part o3 t$e easured data! t$us
siu#atin0 easureents at #ar0er inter/a#s! t$e' re1oputed t$e position o3 t$e &otto
o3 t$e $o#e+ In t$eir 7orst 1ase e.ap#e 7it$ an a/era0e sap#e inter/a# o3 up to 4>
etres! t$e position o3 t$e &otto o3 t$e $o#e /aried &' a&out U85 A etres+ T$e' a#so
1opared #o00in0 1ontinuous#' at ?8inute 7it$ #o00in0 in an in1reenta# ode!
stoppin0 e/er' = etres in t$e $o#e+ T$e' 3ound t$e error in 1oputin0 t$e position o3
t$e &otto o3 t$e $o#e 7as 7it$in U85 6 etres! &et7een t$e 1ontinuous and in1reenta#
ode+
Ba#1$ and B#o$ ,4??4- a#so 1onsidered possi&#e errors in 1on/ertin0 easured
a0neti1 a;iut$s into 0eo0rap$i1 a;iut$s+ T$e' repeated t$e 1oputations usin0 t$e
7ron0 0eoa0neti1 de1#ination! 3or t$e @>> dept$ &ore$o#e used in t$eir ot$er 3ie#d
tests+ B' /ar'in0 t$e de1#ination up to one de0ree 7est t$e position o3 t$e &otto o3 t$e
$o#e /aried up to U85 = etres+ T$e' 1on1#uded t$at t$e error in t$e position o3 t$e
&otto o3 t$e $o#e is ore sensiti/e to errors in t$e /a#ue o3 t$e 0eoa0neti1 de1#ination
used in t$e 1oputations! t$an t$e errors t$at i0$t arise 3ro t$e orientation pro&e
easureents in t$e &ore$o#e+ "i##een et a#! ,4??@- suari;ed t$e ot$er sour1es o3
possi&#e error in a a0neti15&ased orientation pro&e! in1#udin0 errors due to(
4- Zero o33set! 6- Gain ad9ustent! :- Ort$o0ona#it'! A- Linearit'! and =- Teperature
dri3t! a## o3 7$i1$ 1an &e 1orre1ted &' post5pro1essin0+
Anot$er possi&#e e.terna# sour1e o3 error is t$e presen1e o3 anoa#ous a0neti1 3ie#ds
1aused &' a0netite or ot$er a0neti1 inera#s near&' or interse1ted &' t$e $o#e+
Good resu#ts a' &e o&tained 7$en usin0 t$e ne7 a0neti1 orientation pro&es in
&ore$o#es 7$ere stron0#' a0neti1 ,&ut re#ati/e#' t$in- units are present+ T$is su11ess
is priari#' a resu#t o3 t$e $i0$ sap#e rate 7$i1$ pro/ides 1#ose#' spa1ed
easureents a2in0 it possi&#e to e#iinate t$e erroneous easureents+ In t$e
1ase 7$ere t$e a0neti1 anoa#ies are #ar0e and &road in e.tent! t$e' 7i## e33e1ti/e#'
s7in0 t$e apparent a;iut$ o3 t$e $o#e around in t$e dire1tion o3 t$e sour1e o3 t$e
anoa#'+ T$e possi&i#ities 3or usin0 t$is to dete1t t$e #o1ation o3 o335$o#e a0neti1
&odies 7as a#so &rie3#' dis1ussed &' "i##een et a# ,4??@-+
'I*C,**I(& A&' C(&C),*I(&*
It ust &e ree&ered t$at t$ere is no Rri0$t ans7erR in t$is 1ase+ For e.ap#e! t$ere
a' &e a a0neti1 anoa#' a33e1tin0 t$e resu#ts o3 3our o3 t$e sur/e'in0 pro&es! &ut not
t$e %a.i&or+ E/en aon0 t$e a0neti15&ased et$ods! t$ere are si0ni3i1ant di33eren1es
in t$e 1oputed pat$ o3 t$e $o#e+ T$ese data s$ou#d 0i/e t$e reader soe Fua#itati/e
appre1iation at #east! o3 t$e possi&#e errors in sur/e'in0 &ore$o#es 7it$ toda'Rs
te1$no#o0'+ It is un3ortunate t$at a 0'ro5&ased et$od 7as not in1#uded $ere! &ut t$e
$o#e $ad to &e 1eented due to inin0 1onstraints &e3ore a 0'ro too# &e1ae a/ai#a&#e+
It is $oped to &e a&#e to 3ind a $o#e 7$i1$ &rea2s t$rou0$ into a ine dri3t! at a 3uture
date+ In t$at 1ase! t$e e.a1t position o3 t$e &otto o3 t$e $o#e 1ou#d &e deterined 7it$
traditiona# en0ineerin0 sur/e' et$ods and t$is 1ou#d &e used as a &asis 3or a ore
de3initi/e 1oparison o3 t$e resu#ts+