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1.2.

Drug resistances by pathogens


1.2.1.Introduction
In 2011, the World Health Organisation (WHO) made antimicrobial resistance the theme
of its annual World Health Day.1 The WHO rang the alarm because the growing
problem of antimicrobial resistance results in ever-shrinking availability of effective
antibiotics. Using the slogan no action today, no cure tomorrow, the WHO called on
various groups within society to take responsibility and ensure the medication
required to treat people with bacterial infections remains available in the future.

WHO. World Health Day. internet. http://www.who.int/world-health-day/2011/en/. Laatst bezocht op 15-08-2011.
The development of resistance is a natural biological process that will occur, sooner or
later, with every drug. The use of any antimicrobial for any infection, in any dose,
and over any time period, forces microbes to either adapt or die in a phenomenon
known as selective pressure. The microbes which adapt and survive carry genes for
resistance, which can be passed on from one person to another and rapidly spread
around the world.
WHO. World Health Day. internet. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2011/whd_20110407/en/. Dr Margaret Chan6 April 2011.

What is Antimicrobial resistances=drug resistance ?
Antimicrobial resistance-also known as drug resistances-occurs when micro-organisms
such as bacteria , viruses, fungi and parasites change in ways that render the
medications used to cure the infections they cause ineffective. When the
microorganisms become resistant to most antimicrobials they are often referred to as
"superbugs". This is a major concern because a resistant infection may kill,can spread
to others , and imposes huge costs to individuals and society .
WHO. World Health Day. internet. http://www.who.int/world-health-day/2011/world-health-day2011-brochure.pdf?ua=1.

Antimicrobial resistance is the ability of microbes , such as bacteria , viruses , parasites ,
or fungi , to grow in the presence of a chemical (drug) that would normally kill I or limit
it's growth.







Diagram showing the difference between non-resistant bacteria and drug resistant bacteria . Non-
resistant multiply , and upon drug treatment , the bacteria die. Drug resistant bacteria multiply as well,
but upon drug treatment, the bacteria continue to spread.
-National institute of allergy and infectious diseases; What is drug resistance?.
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/antimicrobialResistance/Understanding/Pages/drugResistanceDefinition.aspx .
What is antimicrobial resistance?
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial
drug that was originally effective for treatment of infections caused by it.
Resistant microorganisms (including bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites) are abl e to
withstand attack by antimicrobial drugs, such as antibacterial drugs (e.g., antibiotics),
antifungals, antivirals, and antimalarials, so that standard treatments become
ineffective and infections persist, increasing the risk of spread to others.
The evolution of resistant strains is a natural phenomenon that occurs when
microorganisms replicate themselves erroneously or when resistant traits are
exchanged between them. The use and misuse of antimicrobial drugs accelerates the
emergence of drug-resistant strains. Poor infection control practices, inadequate
sanitary conditions and inappropriate food-handling encourages the further spread of
AMR.
WHO.Antimicrobial resistance. Updated April 2014,
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs194/en/.
What is the difference between antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance?
Antibiotic resistance refers specifically to the resistance to antibiotics that occurs in
common bacteria that cause infections. Antimicrobial resistance is a broader term,
encompassing resistance to drugs to treat infections caused by other microbes as well,
such as parasites (e.g. malaria), viruses (e.g. HIV) and fungi (e.g. Candida).
WHO,Antimicrobial resistance. Updated April 2014, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs194/en/.

1.2.2.Examples of Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance
-Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB)
-Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
-Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE)
-Multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonorrhea)
-Gram-negative Bacteria
National institute of allergy and infectious diseases; What is drug resistance?.
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/antimicrobialResistance/Understanding/Pages/definitions.aspx .
Examples of Antimicrobials
-Tetracycline, an antibiotic that treats urinary tract infections
-Oseltamivir, also known as Tamiflu, an antiviral that treats the flu
-Terbinafine, also known as Lamisil, an antifungal that treats athletes foot
National institute of allergy and infectious diseases; What is drug resistance?.
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/antimicrobialResistance/Understanding/Pages/definitions.aspx .