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Manufacturing Practices

Computer Shop
Computer Science & Engineering

Chitkara University
Chandigarh-Patiala National igh!ay" #illage $ansla" %eshil &a'pura"
(istt) Patiala-*+,+,*) Phone - ,*./0-1,.,21"1,.*2/
34M: To describe various components of computer hardware.
PU&P5SE- Assembling and Disassembling of PC being done to get knowledge about the
computer hardware.
&E6U4&EMEN%S- Few tools reuired for assembling and disassembling of PC.
1. A screwdriver.
0) A flathead screwdriver.
7) !eedle nose pliers" for one particular motherboard mounting screw and in case we drop
something in a hard to reach place.
+) A #mm socket wrench" which is the si$e needed for the motherboard mounting posts that
came with the Antec %&'()( case.
1) A flashlight can sometimes come in hand* when we+re tr*ing to make out something on
an item we+ve alread* installed" but , doubt we+ll reall* need it.
/) Alcohol --. pure or Acetone" if we+ll be removing the pre'applied thermal compound
from the CP/ cooler to use the Arctic &ilver 0 instead. ,f so then we+ll also need a clean"
e1pired credit card 2for scraping3" a brand new toothbrush 2for scrubbing3 and lint free
cloths 2for wiping and rubbing3 to remove the pre'applied thermal compound.
4ardware refers to the ph*sical elements of a computer also referred to as the machiner* or the
euipment of the computer. 51amples of hardware in a computer are the ke*board" the monitor"
the mouse and the processing unit 4owever" most of a computer+s hardware cannot be seen6 in
other words" it is not an e1ternal element of the computer" but rather an internal one" surrounded
b* the computer+s casing. A computer+s hardware is comprised of man* different parts" but
perhaps the most important of these is the motherboard. The motherboard is made up of even
more parts that power and control the computer.
&elation 8et!een S9: and 9:
,n contrast to software" hardware is a ph*sical entit*" while software is a non'ph*sical entit*.
4ardware and software are interconnected" without software" the hardware of a computer would
have no function. 4owever" without the creation of hardware to perform tasks directed b*
software via the central processing unit 2bo13" software would be useless.
Components - Central Processing Unit ;CPU<
The Computer Case and Power Supply
The Antec %&'()( case. The computer case freuentl* ships in its own bo1" as shown here.
,nside the case it is the power cord that attaches to the power suppl* and a small" brown card bo1
that contains parts used to mount the motherboard inside the case.

:hat is a Mother8oard=
The motherboard serves to connect all of the parts of a computer together.
The CP/" memor*" hard drives" optical drives" video card"sound card and other ports and
e1pansion cards all connect to the motherboard directl* or via cables.
The motherboard can be thought of as the 7back bone7 of the computer.
%he Mother8oard is aka ;3lso >no!n 3s<-
mainboard" mobo 2abbreviation3" M8 2abbreviation3" s*stem board" logic board
4mportant Mother8oard Facts-
Motherboards" cases and power supplies all come in different si$es called form factors) All three
must be compatible to work properl* together.
Motherboards var* greatl* in respect to the t*pes of components the* support. For e1ample" each
motherboard supports a single t*pe of CP/ and a short list of memor* t*pes. Additionall*" some
video cards" hard drives and other peripherals ma* not be compatible. The motherboard
manufacturer should provide clear guidance on component compatibilities.
Popular Mother8oard Manufacturers-
A&/&" A9pen" ,ntel" A8,T" M&," :igab*te" 8iostar
The A8,T %;<A retail bo1 includes one ,D5 cable suitable for up to an /ltra ATA=>00 hard
drive and the ribbon cable for the flopp* drive. The CD includes the motherboard chipset drivers
and utilities" such as a 4ardware Doctor which shows the temperatures of the processor and

There are primaril* two t*pes of motherboards" AT motherboard" and AT? motherboard. AT
motherboards are older" and not commonl* used now a da*s.
The AT and AT? motherboards differ in the form factor. Full AT is >(7 wide 1 >0.)7 deep" and
8ab* AT is ).#<7 wide 1 >0.@A7 deep. Full'AT? is >(7 wide 1 -.B7 deep and Mini'AT? is >>.(7
wide 1 ).(7 deep. 9ther maCor differences include power suppl* connector" and ke*board
connector. AT has #'pin large ke*board connector" where as AT? has B'pin mini connector.
&imilarl*" AT has single row two connectors D='#E" and D='>(E" whereas AT? motherboard has
double row single connector providing D='#E" D='>(E" and D0.0E.
A t*pical AT? PC motherboard with constituent components is given below:
The important constituent components of an AT? Motherboard are given below:

*) Mouse F ke*board
0) /&8
7) Parallel port
+) CP/ Chip
1) ;AM slots
/) Flopp* controller
.) ,D5 controller
2) PC, slot
?) ,&A slot
*,) CM9& 8atter*
**) A:P slot
*0) CP/ slot
*7) Power suppl* plug in

*) Mouse & key8oard: %e*board Connectors are two t*pes basicall*. All PCs have a %e* board
port connected directl* to the motherboard. The oldest" but still uite common t*pe" is a special
D,!" and most PCs until recentl* retained this st*le connector. The AT'st*le ke*board connector
is uickl* disappearing" being replaced b* the smaller mini D,! P&=('st*le ke*board connector.
PS/2 Ports
P&=( ports were the previous standard before /&8 for ke*boards and mice. The* were no faster
than &erial ports. This new plug was created b* ,8M when the* launched their P&=( line of
computers in >-)<. The technical term for the P&=( ke*board interface is a Mini'D,! B plug
2which replaced the previous standard which was the D,! # plug" known as the AT connector3.
Ge can use an AT'st*le ke*board with a P&=('st*le socket 2or the other wa*
around3 b* using a converter.
0)US@;Universal serial8us<:
/&8 is the :eneral'purpose connection for PC. Ge can find /&8 versions of man* different
devices" such as mice" ke*boards" scanners" cameras" and even printers. a /&8 connector+s
distinctive rectangular shape makes it easil* recogni$able.
/&8 has a number of features that makes it particularl* popular on PCs. First" /&8 devices are
hot swappable. Ge can insert or remove them without restarting our s*stem.

USB Logo USB Jack USB Plug
7) Parallel port- Most printers use a special connector called a parallel port. Parallel port carr*
data on more than one wire" as opposed to the serial port" which uses onl* one wire. Parallel
ports use a (#'pin female D8 connector. Parallel ports are directl* supported b* the
motherboard through a direct connection or through a dangle.
+) CPU Chip - The central processing unit, also called the microprocessor performs all the
calculations that take place inside a pc. CP/s come in Eariet* of shapes and si$es.
Modern CP/s generate a lot of heat and thus reuire a cooling fan or heat sink. The cooling
device 2such as a cooling fan3 is removable" although some CP/ manufactures sell the CP/
with a fan permanentl* attached.
1) &3M slots: ;andom'Access Memor* 2;AM3 stores programs and data currentl* being used
b* the CP/. ;AM is measured in units called b*tes. ;AM has been packaged in man* different
wa*s. The most current package is called a >B)'pin D,MM 2Dual ,nline Memor* module3.
&ingle inline memor* modules 2&,MMs3 were the standard t*pe of ;AM module used during the
>-)@s and >--@s. The modules were widel* available in 0@'pin and <('pin models with BA'pin
models used in proprietar* s*stems.
The term 7pin7 was used to describe the needle'like contact points of earl* modules. The original
pins often broke or were bent during installation" so the* were replaced with more durable flat
contact plates.
SI Slots
The memor* module slot for &,MM ;AM came in var*ing si$es depending on the number of
pins it was meant to receive. 0@'pin slots were shorter and t*picall* used in laptops while the
BA'pin and <('pin slots were found on desktop motherboards.
Dual inline memor* modules 2D,MMs3 are the standard t*pe of ;AM used in modern
computers. The 7dual7 part of the name comes from the separate electrical contact points
designed on both sides of the module. D,MMs are designed to allow for BA'bit data paths and
thus" unlike &,MMs" do not have to be installed in pairs. The multiple contact points and the
greater number of pins 2between <( and (A@3 allow computers with D,MMs to have greater
memor* capacit* and faster access speed than computers with &,MMs.
"I Slots
As with module slots for &,MMs" slots for D,MMs feature clips at opposite ends to hold the
memor* module in place. /nlike the &,MM slots" D,MM slots allow for straight'froward
installation of memor* modules.
;ambus inline memor* modules 2;,MM3 was the California'based compan* ;ambus+ answer to
&,MMs and D,MMs. ;,MMs featured faster clock c*cles and greater bandwidth than &,MMs
and earl* D,MMs" but suffered from latenc*" over'heating and high production costs. Also like
&,MMs" ;,MMs had to be installed in pairs. The arrival of double'rate s*nchronous d*namic
random access memor* 2DD; &D;AM3 D,MMs with far greater bandwidth and clock c*cle
rates while remaining cost effective eventuall* knocked ;,MM out of competition.
#I Slots
The module slots for ;,MMs were ph*sicall* similar to D,MM slots and the modules were
installed in the same wa*. 4owever" ever* slot on the board had to hold a ;,MM to form a
working memor* bank. ,f a computer had three module slots" a dumm* module had to be
ordered then installed to complete the memor* bank. Ghere a pair of &,MMs could function
in a three slot motherboard" ;,MMs could not.
/) Floppy controller: The flopp* drive connects to the computer via a 0A'pin ribbon cable,
which in turn connects to the motherboard. A floppy controller is one that is used to control the
flopp* drive.
.) 4(E controller- ,ndustr* standards define two common t*pes of hard drives: 5,D5 and
&C&,. MaCorit* of the PCs use 5,D5 drives. &C&, drives show up in high end PCs such as
network servers or graphical workstations. The 5,D5 drive connects to the hard drive via a ('
inch'wide" A@'pin ribbon cable" which in turn connects to the motherboard. IDE controller is
responsible for controlling the hard drive.
2) PC4 slot: ,ntel introduced the Peripheral component interconnect bus protocol. The PC,
bus is used to connect ,=9 devices 2such as !,C or ;A,D controllers3 to the main logic of the
computer. PC, bus has replaced the ,&A bus.
?) 4S3 slot: 2,ndustr* &tandard Architecture3 ,t is the standard architecture of the 51pansion
bus. Motherboard ma* contain some slots to connect ,&A compatible cards.
*,) CM5S @attery: To provide CM9& with the power when the computer is turned off all
motherboards comes with a batter*. These batteries mount on the motherboard in one of three
wa*s: the obsolete e1ternal batter*" the most common onboard batter*" and built'in batter*.
**) 3AP slot: ,f we have a modern motherboard" we will almost certainl* notice a single
connector that looks like a PC, slot" but is slightl* shorter and usuall* brown. Ge also probabl*
have a video card inserted into this slot. This is an Advanced Graphics Port (AGP) slot

*0) CPU slot: To install the CP/" Cust slide it straight down into the slot. &pecial notches in the
slot make it impossible to install them incorrectl*. &o remember if it does not go easil*" it is
probabl* not correct. 8e sure to plug in the CP/ fan+s power.
*7) Po!er supply plug in:
The Power suppl*" as its name implies" provides the necessar* electrical power to make the pc
operate. the power suppl* takes standard >>@'E AC power and converts into D='>('Eolt" D='#'
Eolt" and 0.0'Eolt DC power.
The power suppl* connector has (@'pins" and the connector can go in onl* one direction.

%he Processor & CPU Cooler

,t+s important that the CP/ Cooler provide enough cooling capacit* for the processor" but it+s also
a consideration as to how much noise it makes. The CP/ Cooler is perhaps the primar* noise
factor component.
%he ard (rive
A hard drive is a mass storage device found in all PCs 2with some e1clusions3 that is used to
store permanent data such as the operating s*stem" programs and user files.
The data on hard drives can be erased and=or overwritten. The hard drive is classed as a non'
volatile storage device" which means it doesn+t reuire a constant power suppl* in order to
retain the information stored on it 2unlike ;AM3.
,nside ever* hard drive are small round disk'like obCects made of either an
aluminium=allo* or a glass=ceramic composite. These are called platters" each platter is
coated with a special magnetic coating enabling them to store data magneticall*.
4overing above these platters are read=write heads that transfer data to and from the
platters. Ge will cover platters" heads and the other mechanical elements in more detail in
the hard drive mechanics section.

%he C(-&5M
A C( :riter 2cd burner3 can save data or audio to a special t*pe of recordable CD
2C(& or C(&:3" this is an e1cellent wa* of backing up *our data or creating audio CDs.
Although portable storage" such as the e1ternal hard drive" is a ver* convenient wa* to backup
*our data" a CD; offers that e1tra bit of reliabilit*" hard drives can fail.
Hou will often see CD Griters advertised as A)?'>(?'#@?" this means it will burn 2write3 at
A)?" ;eGrite 2write again over an e1isting rewritable CD3 at >(?" and read at #@? the normal
CD speed.
For instance" a A)? CD Griter will write a CD A) times faster than normal 2<@@M8 in Cust under
( mins3.
C(& 2Compact Disc';ecordable3 refers to a recordable CD ideal for backing up data. Although"
normal CD;s can be used to create audio CDs" there are special audio CD;s which offer a
higher ualit* of audio reproduction.
C(&: 2Compact Disc ;e'Gritable3 refers to a recordable CD which allows the data to be
overwritten numerous times 2hand* for dail* back'ups3.
%he Sound Card and Speakers
A sound card 2or audio card3 is an audio device which controls and produces an* sounds"
including music" that *our PC makes.
,t also provides connectivit* for e1ternal audio devices" such as speaker outputs" headphone
outputs and microphone inputs.
%he Modem
M5(EM - M5dulator (EModulator
A communications device used to allow a host" such as a personal computer" to communicate
across a network" like the ,nternet.
There are numerous t*pes of modem in use toda*" these include dial'up modems" D&I modems"
cable modems and wireless modems.

Computer 3ssem8ly - o! %o 3ssem8le 3 PC-
Safety First
8efore opening the case of *our PC" disconnect the power suppl*. ,t is also
advisable to unplug an*thing else from the computer" including an* network
Steps %o 3ssem8le 3 PC-
,nstall the Motherboard into the Computer Case
The motherboard is read* to be installed in the computer case. At this point" the processor" CP/
cooler and memor* modules have been installed onto the motherboard so it looks like this.
;emove the right'hand panel from the computer case and la* the computer case on its side. The
motherboard will la* flat inside the case" resting on brass'colored mounting posts.
This shot is taken looking straight down into the case at the position in which the motherboard is
to be installed. The orientation of the motherboard when it is inside the case is the same as the
picture of the motherboard above. ,t+s eas* to see in the enlargement of the picture below that the
case comes with four brass'colored mountings posts alread* installed. There are holes in the case
for additional mounting posts" but not all of them are appropriate for all motherboards.
The motherboard is read* to be affi1ed to the case. This is done using parts that came with the
computer case" shown in the picture below. Ghat+s needed are some" but not all" of the brass'
colored mounting posts shown in the upper'left of this picture" as well as some" but not all" of the
mounting post screws shown in the lower'right of this picture. At this point" pair up screws that
fit easil* into a corresponding mounting post" including the four mounting posts pre'installed
inside the case.
The motherboard is affi1ed to the case b* inserting mounting post screws through holes in the
motherboard and into the mounting posts. The first step is to determine in which case holes the
mounting posts should be installed. The A8,T %;<A'>00 motherboard has - holes for using
with mounting posts. Place the motherboard down into the case" aligning four of the holes in the
motherboard with the four pre'installed mounting posts. All four pre'installed mounting posts
align with motherboard holes in the A8,T %;<A'>00. ,n addition" A of the remaining # holes in
the motherboard have a corresponding case hole for a mounting post" so A additional mountings
posts can be installed. The A additional mountings posts should be carefull* tightened 2not overl*
tightened3 into place using a #mm socket wrench. After installing the additional mounting posts"
the interior looks like this.
!ow rest the motherboard down inside the case on the mounting posts. ,nsert the screws through
the holes in the motherboard and into the mounting post" getting each screw started but not at all
tight ' Cust far enough in the mounting post so the screw does not fall out. The motherboard hole
in which it is most difficult to get a screw started is the one in the upper right of the board near
the CP/ cooler./se needle'nose pliers to lower the screw down to the hole between the CP/
cooler and power suppl* frame. 9nce all ) have been started" all ) can be tighted into place one
at a time" again starting with the one in the upper'right corner.
Step *- Unplugging
The first thing we do is unplug ever* cable that+s plugged in to computer. That includes the
following cables:
Fire wire etcJ
Step 0- 5uter Shell9Casing
!ow that the computer is full* unplugged" move the PC to a clean work space" preferabl* a
carpet. The carpet is better than tile" because screws and other small parts will roll around
Step 7- 5uter Shell9Casing ;cont)<
,n the last step remove both side panels. ,n this step" remove the front and top panels.
Step +- System Fan
!ow that the case is off" remove the internal components.
Step 1- CPU Fan
!ow that the s*stem fan is out" we can remove the CP/ fan.
Step /- Po!er Supply
The power suppl* manages all the power for the machine.
Step .- ard (rive & Porta8le ard (rive Slot
,n order to remove the hard drive" we must remove the portable hard drive slot first.
Step 2- EDpansion Cards
51pansion cards are like small upgrades to the computer.
C5NCBUS45N- Gith this e1periment students gain the knowledge of assembling and
disassembling of PC" which enhance knowledge of PC hardware.
34M- %ypes of Processors ;Computer Processors ;CPUs< (ual" %riple and 6uad Core take
over single CPUs<)
Processors are essentiall* the brain of a digital s*stem such as a PC. ,t connects to the
Motherboard and works alongside the other components processing man* instructions at the
same time between the different hardware and memor* s*stems.
Digital s*stems use onl* two voltages" one which is a lo! voltage 2usuall* between @ and > volt'
off state' Kero3 and one which is a high voltage 2t*picall* between 0 and # volts' on state' 9ne3.
These $eroes and ones are called 8its. The word 8it is short for @inar* Digit.
Processor 3rchitecture
A processor 2as stated earlier3 processes bits 2binar* digits3 of data. ,n its simplest form" the
processor will retrieve some data" perform some process on that data" and then store the result in
either its own internal memor* 2cache3 or the s*stems memor*.
processors advertised as 0('bit or BA'bit" basicall* means that the processor can process
internall* either 0( bits or BA bits of data at an* one time.
Processor Clock Speed
5ver* processor has its own built'in clock" this clock dictates how fast the processor can process
the data 2@+s and >+s3.
,f a processor is advertised as having a speed of (:4$" this means that it can process
data internally ( billion times a second 2ever* clock c*cle3.
Front Side @us ;FS@<
9verall processor performance relies on other internal and external factors" one of which is the
processor+s front side 8us 2FS@3 speed" two common figures for the ,ntel Pentium A are
#00M4$ and )@@M4$.
The front side 8us consists of two channels" one for transferring data" and one for indicating the
memor* address where the data is to be retrieved from or stored.
The front side bus transfers data between the processor and the computer+s other components
such as memor*" hard drives" etc. The F&8 will have a certain width 2measured in bits3 which
dictates how man* bits can be transferred at an* one time.
the F&8 also has a clock c*cle freuenc* indicating how fast the data can be transferred.
Cache ;B0<
I( Cache 2pronounced cash3 is a special block of memor* inside the processor 2in the same chip3
which offers faster data retrieval" t*pical si$es are >()%8" (#B%8 and #>(%8.
3rithmetic Bogic Unit ;3BU<
The 3BU is an internal part of the processor which is used for all mathematical and logical
Floating Point Unit ;FPU<
The FPU is also an internal part of modern processors. The FPU is designed to handle an*
floating point calculations" and like the 3BU it has its algorithms hard coded 2stored
permanentl*3 inside the unit.
Single core processor
,t is a processor that has onl* one core" so it can onl* start one operation at a time. ,t can
however in some situations start a new operation before the previous one is complete.
(ual Core Processor
Dualcore refers to a !P" that includes t#o complete execution cores per physical processor$ It
combines t#o processors and their caches and cache controllers onto a single integrated circuit
(silicon chip)$ It is basically t#o processors, in most cases, residing reside sidebyside on the
same die$
(ual-processor" (ual-core" and Multi-core-
%eeping it straight Dual'processor 2DP3 s*stems are those that contains two separate ph*sical
computer processors in the same chassis. ,n dual'processor s*stems" the two processors can
either be located on the same motherboard or on separate boards. ,n a dual'core configuration"
an integrated circuit 2,C3 contains two complete computer processors. /suall*" the two identical
processors are manufactured so the* reside side'b*'side on the same die" each with its own path
to the s*stem front'side bus. Multi'core is somewhat of an e1pansion to dual'core technolog*
and allows for more than two separate processors.
Tak!ng $d%antage of "ual&core Technology
A dual'core processor has man* advantages especiall* for those looking to boost their s*stem+s
multitasking computing power. Dual'core processors provide two complete
e1ecution cores instead of one" each with an independent interface to thefrontside bus. &ince
each core has its own cache" the operating s*stem has sufficient resources to handle intensive
tasks in parallel" which provides a noticeable improvement to multitasking.
%riple Core Processor
AMD states that the triple'core processors integrate three computational cores on a single die of
silicon" but in realit* it is a uad'core processor with one of the cores disabled.
The AMD Athlon ,, ?0 AA# is the fastest triple'core processor in the Athlon ,, series with its
overall clock freuenc* of 0.>:4$.
6uad Core Processor
A uad'core processor is a chip with four independent units called cores that read and e1ecute
central processing unit 2CP/3 instructions such as add" move data" and branch.
Githin the chip" each core operates in conCunction with other circuits such
as cache" memor* management" and input=output 2,=93 ports. The individual cores in a uad'core
processor can run multiple instructions at the same time" increasing the overall speed for
programs compatible withparallel processing. Manufacturers t*picall* integrate the cores onto a
single semiconductor wafer" or onto multiple semiconductor wafers within a single ,C 2integrated
circuit3 package.
Although it+s tempting to suppose that a uad'core processor would operate twice as fast as a
dual'core processor and four times as fast as a single'core processor" things don+t work out that
simpl*. ;esults var* depending on the habits of the computer user" the nature of the programs
being run" and the compatibilit* of the processor with other hardware in the s*stem as a whole.
The best results are usuall* seen when running man* programs simultaneousl*" or in situations
that reuire massive" brute'force arithmetic calculations such as:
0'D 2three'dimensional3 graphics.
Eirtual realit*.
Compression of CD data into MP0s.
Compression of DED data into portable movies.
;obot control.
Intel and $" are the two companies who dominate the PC Processor market. 8oth have been
around for decades and have become the main Chip suppliers for the home and business markets.
8oth companies have fierce rivalr* and the* file and counter file court cases against each other
all we care about is that the* have near identical chip products on the market at the same time as
the* compete for the fastest chip and share of the market.
The competing products are ver* close to each other and reall* onl* the techies compare the
benchmarks before choosing.
There is little difference between using both makes and have run man* stable and fast s*stems
using both makes. The AMD processors do tend to run hotter than the ,ntel versions" but with a
suitable fan this is easil* kept under control.
,ntel products have alwa*s been more e1pensive t*picall* L(@ more than the AMD euivalent.
Throughout our use and builds we find the AMD nearl* alwa*s more affordable as often ,ntel+s
products e1tra price is a result that the* are available more in retail packaging rather than cheaper
,f we are looking to upgrade Cust the CP/ of the s*stem then we need to check what t*pe of
socket the Motherboard uses and then check if there is a speed limit on the processor. ,f not then
we need to check if we can bu* a new processor for the e1isting Motherboard " donMt forget the
compatible motherboard and ma*be a memor* upgrade.
A Macintosh processor is different from a Gindows processor" because the Macintosh processor
is more powerful. There are also different processors for different for different t*pes of
technolog*. A PDA would have BA'bit processor" but the* are under ,ntel. The /nited &tates is
the onl* countr* that makes processors" both ,ntel and AMD.
%he specific types of processors are-
>. Pentium Pro (. Pentium ,, 0. Celeron 2Pentium 8ased 8ut More Powerful3 A. Pentium ,, ?eon
#. Pentium ,,, B. Pentium ,, and ,,, ?eon <. Celeron 2!ew :eneration" Pentium ,,, 8ased3 ).
Pentium A 2Most common3 -. Pentium M >@. ,ntel Core >>. Dual Core ?eon IE >(. ,ntel
Pentium Dual Core >0. ,ntel Core ( >A. Pentium Duo >#. Pentium Dual Core >B. Core ( Nuad
>B. 2!ewest3 ,ntel Pentuim ( Dual Core Processor
>. AMD Athlon (. AMD Athlon BA 0. AMD Athlon ?( A. AMD Athlon ?p #. AMD Duron B.
AMD &empron <. AMD Turion ). AMD 9pteron -. AMD Phenom >.
:hat is a CPU Socket-
A CPU socket or CP/ slot is a mechanical component that provides mechanical and electrical
connections between a microprocessor and a printed circuit board 2PC83. This allows the CP/ to
be replaced without soldering.
A CP/ socket is made of plastic" a lever or latch" and metal contacts for each of the pins or lands
on the CP/. Man* packages are ke*ed to ensure the proper insertion of the CP/. CP/s
with a P:A package are inserted into the socket and the latch is closed.
CPU Socket %ypes PA3 3nd BA3
The t*pe determines the CP/+s form it supports and its architecture. The P:A and I:A are the
CP/+s forms that are the most popular. Iet us have a look to see what those forms have.
PGA !P" %orm
PA3 stands for Pin :rid Arra*. The CP/+s circuits are integrated inside a ceramic la*er with an
arra* of pins on the surface.
At the installation the pins are inserted in the socket+s holes making contact with the
motherboard+s circuits.
BA3 stands for Iand :rid Arra*. ,f *ou look at the image" *ou can see there are no pins. ,nstead
it is an arra* of pads that is built on the CP/+s surface.
At the installation the CP/ is sat on the socket+s pins where the* are fi1ed to the motherboard
and contact with the circuits.
The I:A form offers a clock freuenc* higher than the P:A caused b* its larger contact point.
&ome popular &ockets /sed from beginning till now:
&ocket >>##' ,ntel i0
&ocket >>#B' ,ntel i#
&ocket >0BB ' ,ntel i<
&ocket AM0 ' AMD Phenom ll
34M- (escri8e SMPS and its functionality
5ver* electrical or electronic device needs power for work and the computer is not e1ception to
it. Computers" too" have a particularl* designed power suppl* component known as &witch Mode
Power &uppl* 2&MP&3. &MP& converts raw input power to controlled voltage and current for the
operation of various components of the computer. &MP& uses switches for high efficienc*. The
primar* function of &MP& is to convert the alternating current 2AC3 power available in homes
into direct current 2DC3 reuired for a computer s*stem. ,n desktop computers" a metal bo1
found in the corner of the CP/ case supplies power to various components in the CP/ bo1. The
power suppl* converts >>#'(0@ volt AC into DC that is reuired for computer components to
The terms such as voltage" AC" DC etc." are closel* associated with the power suppl* or &MP&.
&oltage is an electric potential difference between two points and is measured in volts.
AC stands for alternating current. ,t is an electric current whose magnitude and direction var*
DC stands for direct current. ,t is considered as the constant flow of electrons in a single
direction from low to high potential. Computers use DC power. 8ecause of the advantage of
alternating current over direct current in transforming and transmission" electric power
distribution toda* is nearl* ever*where alternating current.
The &MP& or power suppl* of a computer comes in different form factor st*les. The form factor
refers to the ph*sical dimensions of a component. The form factor of the power suppl* must
match with the form factor of the computer case into which the &MP& is inserted. There are
various industr* standard form factors available. &ome of the commonl* used form factors with
their characteristics are given below:
The LP' form factor st*le power suppl* has e1actl* the same motherboard and disk drive
connectors as the previous standard power suppl* form factors. IP? form factor power suppl*
differs in its reduced si$e that allows building much smaller and consumer oriented PCs. Due to
their small si$e" the* can be put into almost ever* t*pe of computer cases.
The $T' form factor is developed b* ,ntel in >--#. AT? is similar to IP? in ph*sical
dimensions. The difference between the two is that the power pass through'outlet for the monitor
has been removed from AT?. Another difference is that in AT?" the cooling fan is mounted
along the inner side of the power suppl*. Gith this kind of arrangement" the fan draws air in from
the back of the chassis and blows it inside across the motherboard.
The S(' form factor st*le power suppl* is >@@ mm wide" >(# mm deep" and B0.# mm in height.
,t includes a B@ mm power suppl* fan for cooling. The main &F? motherboard connector is in
the same shape and si$e as the AT? connector. The one difference here is that the &F? power
suppl* specification does not support the '#E compatibilit* voltage and" therefore" should not be
used with motherboards that have ,&A slots.
5ach &MP& or power suppl* on a computer contains a connector that connects to the
motherboard" which supplies power to the s*stem processor" memor*" and all add'on cards
connected to slots such as ,&A" PC," A:P" etc.
,ndustr* standard PC" ?T" AT" and IP? motherboards use the same t*pe of main power suppl*
connectors. The* use two main power connectors: P) and P-. 5ach of the P) and P- connectors
has B pins that connect power suppl* to the motherboard.
AT? main power connector is used to connect to the power connectors on the AT?" &F?" and in
all AT? based motherboards. AT? main power connector is a (@'pin connector with a suare
hole for pin O> and round holes for the other >- pins.
AT? au1iliar* power connector is a B'pin connector. ,ntel designed this to fulfill the additional
power reuirement of motherboards" e.g." a motherboard that reuires >)A of D0.0v or (AA of
D#v power. A higher level of power is reuired when power suppl* s*stem is using (#@ watt to
0@@ watt supplies.
AT?>(E power connector provides locali$ed power to the CP/" while the A/? connector
provides additional power mainl* to the A:P card.
The computer components and circuits such as motherboard" adapter cards" and disk drive logic
board use D0.0v or D#v" and the disk drive motors and cooling fans reuire D>(v power. The
components that reuire voltage level other than this are powered through onboard voltage
regulators. These voltage regulators are built into the motherboard.
Power :ood &ignal: The power suppl* not onl* converts AC to DC but also ensures that the
s*stem does not run unless the power supplied is proper. Power suppl* conducts an internal
check before the computer starts. ,f the check is successful" it sends a signal called Power :ood
to the motherboard. The Power :ood signal is present in the s*stem. Ghen the AC voltage dips
and the power suppl* is unable to provide outputs" the Power :ood signal is withdrawn and the
s*stem is reset. The Power :ood signal is a D#v active high signal" which is supplied to the
motherboard after the internal checks have been successfull* performed. The processor timer
chip present on the motherboard that controls the reset line receives the Power :ood signal. After
receiving the signal" it releases the reset line" and the CP/ starts e1ecuting the code present at
FFFF:@@@@ memor* address 2;9M 8,9&3.
Power suppl* transmits power not onl* to the motherboard but also to the flopp* disk drive" hard
disk drive" and CD=DED drive and other devices. A four'wire connector is attached at the back
of each drive. The four wires provide D#v" D>(v power" along with two grounds" to the various
drives that use them. The connectors are available in two different si$es. The large si$e connector
known as Mole1 is used on most internal drives" including hard disk" CD=DED" Kip drives" and
the older #.(#P flopp* disk drives. The smaller si$e power connector" called as 8erg" is used for
the newer st*le of 0.#P floppies.
&erial'ATA 2&ATA3 power connector is used to provide power to &ATA hard disk drives.
The number of power connectors on the power suppl* varies with the t*pe of power suppl*. ,f
the power suppl* is large" the connectors are more in number so that more devices can be
attached to it. Power supplies have man* other specifications and features to protect computers.
A good power suppl* should have ver* low current leakage" i.e." less than #@@ microamps" to
Ghile adding add'on cards or other components on a computer" a technician should make sure
that the power suppl* is not overloaded. Most of the time the power suppl* is overloaded b*
filling up the e1pansion slots and adding more hard disk or CD';9M drives. Toda*Ms processors
ma* also have high current reuirement for the D#v or D0.0v supplies. Therefore" when selecting
an &MP& for a computer" technicians should have future s*stem upgrades in mind.
,n case of a defect or problem with power suppl*" it is not recommended that an ine1perienced
user open a power suppl* for repairing. The power suppl* has dangerousl* high voltage. 5ven
after unplugging" power supplies can retain dangerous voltage and must be discharged 2like a
monitor3 before servicing it. These internal repairs are not recommended unless the technician is
speciall* trained to repair such components.
&MP& 2&witched Mode Power &uppl* 3 " the power supplier to Motherboard and all other
components is the main part of a CP/. 4ow do we know when the computer stops working on a
sudden and whether it is the complaint of &MP& or notQ
,t is ver* eas* to check &MP& problem. Ge can check with a piece of power code 2wire3 or with
multi meter. /se whichever is available with we.
>. /nplug &MP& or P&/. Disconnect all P&/ leads to motherboard and drives. Ieave at least
one fan directl* connected to A'pin Mole1 connector of P&/.
(. !ow" on the (@ or (@DA pin main AT? power connector" short the pin with :;55! wire 2P&'
9!3 to an* adCacent pin with 8IAC% wire. This process makes the power suppl* turn 9! once
plugged to AC main.
0. Plug the power suppl* to AC main. P&/ fan and connected fan should rotate. Ge can now test
with a multi meter. 4ere are the voltages:
H5II9G wireR D>(EDC
;5D wireR D#EDC
9;A!:5R D0.0EDC
Eoltage readings must be within D='#. of above values.
&ource: Personal e1perience with m* >> power suppl* units ranging from 0(#G to <@@G.
34M- Aive details of different Ports)

,n computer hardware" a port serves as an interface between the computer and other computers or
peripheral devices. Ph*sicall*" a port is a speciali$ed outlet on a piece of euipment to which
a plug or cable connects.
An interface on a computer to which *ou can connect a device. Personal have various t*pes of
ports. ,nternall*" there are several ports for connecting disk drives" displa* screens"
and ke*boards. 51ternall*" personal computers have ports for
connecting modems" printers" mice" and other peripheral devices.
Almost all personal computers come with a serial ;&'(0(C port or ;&'A((port for connecting a
modem or mouse and a parallel port for connecting a printer.
SE&43B P5&%
An As*nchronous port on the computer used to connect a serial device to the computer and
capable of transmitting one bit at a time. Serial ports are t*picall* identified on ,8M compatible
computers as C9M 2communications3 ports.
Considered to be one of the most basic e1ternal connections to a computer" the serial port has
been an integral part of most computers for more than (@ *ears. Although man* of the newer
s*stems have done awa* with the serial port completel* in favor of /&8 connections" most
modems still use the serial port" as do some printers" PDAs and digital cameras. Few computers
have more than two serial ports.
P3&3BBEB P5&%
The parallel port is found on the back of ,8M compatible computers and is a (#'pin 2t*pe (@-
01< computer interface commonl* used to connect printers to the computer. 8elow is an e1ample
of the D8(# interface found on the back of the computer.
,f we have a printer connected to our computer" there is a good chance that it uses the parallel
port. Ghile /&8 is becoming increasingl* popular" the parallel port is still a commonl* used
interface for printers. Parallel ports can be used to connect a host of popular computer
CD burners
51ternal hard drives
,omega Kip removable drives
!etwork adapters
Tape backup drives
Some other important ports -
3AP - 3ccelerated Araphics Port
An interface developed b* ,ntel in >--< which allows a graphics cardto access s*stem memor*
and the processor directl*" rather than using the PC, bus which was shared b* an* other PC,
#A3 ;#ideo Araphic 3daptor<
A video card 2also called a display card" graphics card" graphics 8oard" display
adapter or graphics adapter3 is an e1pansion card which generates a feed of output images to a
displa*. Most video cards offer various functions such as accelerated rendering of 0D scenes
and (D graphics etc.
BP% ;Bocal Printer %erminal<
S C9M 2&erial Port3
S /&8 2/niversal &erial Port3
S IA! 2;T A#3
S M,D, 2Musical ,nstrument Digital ,nterface3
S P&( 2Personal &*stem (3
34M- 4ntroduction to 3dvanced :ireless %echnologies
PU&P5SE- Familiarit* with Iatest Geb Technologies like 8luetooth" GiFi and ,r
:hat is @luetooth=
8luetooth is a ver* simple t*pe of wireless networking that can allow up to eight devices to be
connected together in a mini'network.
,t is ver* short range in operation" and so is considered to be for +personal+ networking. Gith a
range t*picall* under 0@ft" this allows enough distance to perhaps communicate across wer
office" but not an* further. This short range is also its maCor securit* feature ' an*one wishing to
eavesdrop on the 8luetooth communications would not onl* need special euipment but would
also need to be uite close to us.
,t is a moderatel* slow t*pe of networking" but it can transfer data sufficientl* fast enough for
most t*pical applications.
8luetooth is hoped to be a ver* low cost t*pe of networking" and" as it becomes more
widespread" the cost of adding 8luetooth to devices should drop down to perhaps no more than
an e1tra U#'>@ on the selling price.
8luetooth is designed to be compatible across a range of ver* different operating s*stems and
devices" including things that we would not normall* think of as being +computer+ t*pe items ' for
e1ample" some t*pes of headset. 8luetooth networking can enable the headset to connect with
other devices such as the phone" the MP0 pla*er" the computer" or the PDA.
A 8luetooth enabled headset would mean that we can leave the cellphone in the pocket or
briefcase" but still receive incoming phone calls. ,f the cellphone supports voice recognition for
dialing out" we can even place calls as well as receive them" while never needing to reach for the
phone. The safet* benefits of this" if we+re driving" are obvious.
,t is probabl* better from a health point of view to have a ver* low powered headset close to the
head than it is to have a phone that might be generating >@@ or even 0@@ times as much radio
energ* close to the head.
8luetooth can also help different devices to communicate with each other. For e1ample" we
might have a phone" a PDA" and a computer. ,f all three devices have 8luetooth capabilities" then
2with the appropriate software on each device3 we can probabl* share contact information
between all three devices uickl* and convenientl*. And we can look up a phone number on
PDA 2or laptop3 and then place a call direct from the laptop or PDA" without needing to touch
the cellphone.
8luetooth is not a magical solution giving universal connectivit* between devices. 5ach device
also needs to have the appropriate software as well as the basic 8luetooth communication
capabilit*" and so sometimes the promise and theor* of what could be possible is not full*
matched b* the realit*.
For best compatibilit*" devices should support the 8luetooth >.> standard. A new standard ' >.("
was formali$ed in earl* !ovember (@@0 and this will uickl* become the dominant standard.
8luetooth has been slow to become accepted in the market" but now is starting to become
increasingl* prevalent. Prices are falling and increasing numbers of devices are offering
8luetooth connectivit*. 9ver one million 8luetooth devices are now being sold ever* week
2although mainl* outside the /&3.
@luetooth &ange
These have range comparable to that of Gi'Fi" ie" >@@ m or 00@ ft.
Gith 8luetooth" short range is actuall* a benefit" because it reduces the chance of interference
between the 8luetooth devices and those belonging to other people nearb*.
(evices that Use @luetooth
A limited" but growing number of devices use 8luetooth at present. Devices that are starting to
have 8luetooth connectivit* built in include:
Digital cameras and camcorders
Cell Phones
%e*boards and Mice
,n'car hands free kits
:P& navigation receivers
4ome appliances 2microwaves" washers" driers" refrigerators3
,n addition" add on 8luetooth adapters are available for computers 2eg with a /&8 interface3 and
for PDAs 2eg &D cards3.
o! it !orks=
8luetooth is a high'speed" low'power microwave wireless link technolog*" designed to connect
phones" laptops" PDAs and other portable euipment together with little or no work b* the user.
/nlike infra'red" 8luetooth does not reuire line'of'sight positioning of connected units. The
technolog* uses modifications of e1isting wireless IA! techniues but is most notable for its
small si$e and low cost. Ghen one 8luetooth product comes within range of another" 2this can be
set to between >@cm and >@@m3 the* automaticall* e1change address and capabilit* details. The*
can then establish a > megabit=s link with securit* and error correction" to use as reuired. The
protocols will handle both voice and data" with ver* fle1ible network topograph*. This
technolog* achieves its goal b* embedding tin*" ine1pensive" short'range transceivers into the
electronic devices that are available toda* and supports data speeds of up to <(> %bps.
5ach device has a uniue A)'bit address from the ,555 )@( standard. Connections can be point'
to'point or multipoint. The ma1imum range is >@ meters but can be e1tended to >@@ meters b*
increasing the power. 8luetooth devices are protected from radio interference b* changing their
freuencies arbitraril* upto a ma1imum of >B@@ times a second" a techniue known as freuenc*
hopping. The* also use three different but complimentar* error correction schemes. 8uilt'in
encr*ption and verification is provided.
8luetooth guarantees securit* at the bit level. Authentication is controlled b* the user b* using a
>() bit ke*. ;adio signals can be coded with ) bits or upto >() bits. The 8luetooth radio
transmissions will conform to the safet* standards reuired b* the countries where the
technolog* will be used with respect to the affects of radio transmissions on the human bod*.
5missions from 8luetooth enabled devices will be no greater than emissions from industr*'
standard cordless phones. The 8luetooth module will not interfere or cause harm to public or
private telecommunications network.
:hich is 8etter - @luetooth or :i-Fi
Gi'Fi is primaril* used as an alternate to traditional cable based networks. ,t has a longer range
than 8luetooth" and supports faster data transfer speeds" and so it might seem better than
8ut" in realit*" 8luetooth and Gi'Fi have different purposes. 8luetooth is intended for limited
data transfer between man* different t*pes of devices" Gi'Fi is more focussed on faster data
transfer between computers on a network.
9ne of the distinctive elements of 8luetooth is that is uses ver* much less power than Gi'Fi.
devices 2such as are in PDAs" phones" headsets" etc3 transmit a ver* low power signal 2> mG3
and onl* transmit intermittentl* when in standb* mode" saving even more power. Gi'Fi" on the
other hand" consumes a great deal of power" and so for an* t*pe of portable batter* operated
device" 8luetooth will allow for substantiall* more batter* life than would Gi'Fi.
,f we+re simpl* wanting to swap data between different devices in the office and elsewhere on a
casual and occasional basis" then ' assuming that the software and 8luetooth hardware is
available ' 8luetooth is probabl* a better choice for we. ,f we need more range" and higher
bandwidth6 perhaps if we want to connect computers into the office IA!" then Gi'Fi is a better
choice for we.
:i-Fi is a wireless standard for connecting electronic devices. A Gi'Fi enabled device such as a
personal computer" video game console" smartphone " and digital audio pla*er can connect to the
,nternet when within range of a wireless network connected to the ,nternet. A single access point
2or hotspot3 has a range of about (@ meters 2B# feet3 indoors" Gi'Fi has a greater range outdoors .
7Gi'Fi7 is a trademark of the Gi'Fi Alliance and the term was originall* created as a simpler
name for the 7,555 )@(.>>7 standard.
:i-Fi certification
+Gi'Fi+ is not a technical term. 4owever" the Alliance has generall* enforced its use to describe
onl* a narrow range of connectivit* technologies including wireless local area network 2GIA!3
based on the ,555 )@(.>> standards" device to device connectivit* Vsuch as Gi'Fi Peer to Peer
A%A Gi'Fi DirectW" and a range of technologies that support PA!" IA! and even GA!
connections. Gi'Fi certified and compliant devices are installed in man* personal computers"
video game consoles" MP0 pla*ers" smartphones " printers" digital cameras" and laptop
computers. Gi'Fi technolog* builds on ,555 )@(.>> standards. The ,555 develops and
publishes some of these standards" but does not test euipment for compliance with them.
%he name :i-Fi
The term Gi'Fi suggests Gireless Fidelit*" resembling the long'established audio'euipment
classification term high fidelit* 2in use since the >-0@3 or 4i'Fi 2used since >-#@3
9ne can also connect Gi'Fi devices in ad'hoc mode for client'to'client connections without a
router. .
,nternet access
Cit*'wide Gi'Fi
Campus'wide Gi'Fi
Direct computer'to'computer communications
Future directions
As of (@>@ Gi'Fi technolog* has spread widel* within business and industrial sites. ,n business
environments" Cust like other environments" increasing the number of Gi'Fi access points
provides network redundanc*" support for fast roaming and increased overall network'capacit*
b* using more channels or b* defining smaller cells. Gi'Fi enables wireless voice'applications
2Eo GIA! or GE9,P3. 9ver the *ears" Gi'Fi implementations have moved toward 7thin7
access points" with more of the network intelligence
3dvantages and limitations
Gi'Fi allows the deplo*ment of local area networks 2IA!s3 without wires for client
devices" t*picall* reducing the costs of network deplo*ment and e1pansion. As of (@>@
manufacturers are building wireless network adapters into most laptops.
The price of chipsets for Gi'Fi continues to drop" making it an economical networking
option included in even more devices.
Different competitive brands of access points and client network'interfaces can inter'
operate at a basic level of service.
The current version of Gi'Fi Protected Access encr*ption 2GPA(3 as of (@>@ is widel*
considered secure" provided users emplo* a strong passphrase.
Powers saving mechanisms 2GMM Power &ave3 improve batter* operation.
The ver* limited practical range of Gi'Fi essentiall* confines mobile use to such applications
as inventor*'taking machines in warehouses or in retail spaces" barcode'reading devices at
check'out stands" or receiving=shipping stations.
(ata security risks
The most common wireless encr*ption'standard" Gired 5uivalent Privac* 2G5P3" has been
shown to be easil* breakable even when correctl* configured.
Man* (.A :4$ )@(.>>b and )@(.>>g access'points default to the same channel on initial
startup" contributing to congestion on certain channels.
Channel pollution
Gi'Fi pollution" or an e1cessive number of access points in the area" especiall* on the
neighboring channel" can prevent access and interfere with other devices+ use of other access
points" caused b* overlapping channels in the )@(.>>g=b spectrum" as well as with decreased
signal'to'noise ratio 2&!;3 between access points. This can become a problem in high'
densit* areas" such as large apartment comple1es or office buildings with man* Gi'Fi access
Pigg*backing refers to access to a wireless ,nternet connection b* bringing one+s own
computer within the range of another+s wireless connection" and using that service without
the subscriber+s e1plicit permission or knowledge.
34M- 4ntroduction to components of a Baptop
PU&P5SE- Familiarit* with all the parts of the Iaptop.
Following are the components of the Iaptop:
SCS%EM @53&( or M5%E&@53&(
The s*stem board is the main logic board in an* laptop. All internal components are connected to
the s*stem board. This is one of the most e1pensive parts in a laptop.
A s*stem board also known as motherboard or main board is the main circuit board in an*
laptop. /nlike desktop PC s*stem boards" laptop s*stem boards come in thousands of different
shapes and si$es. All parts inside a laptop are connected to the s*stem board" either directl* via a
connector mounted on the s*stem board or through a cable.
4n a typical laptop the follo!ing ports and components are permanently attached to the
system 8oard and cannot 8e easily removed and replaced !ithout soldering-
>. 4ard drive 24DD3 connector.
(. CD=DED drive connector.
0. Memor* 2;AM3 slots.
A. 8atter* connector.
#. %e*board connector.
B. Audio 2headphone and microphone3 Cacks.
<. Eolume control wheel.
). /&8 ports.
-. 5thernet 2;TA# or network3 port.
>@. ,555 >0-A 2Fire Gire3 ports.
>>. Eideo chip and some other components and ports.
&*stem board" processor 2CP/3 and ICD screen are the most e1pensive parts in an* laptop. ,n
some cases" when one of these three parts fails" itMs cheaper to bu* a brand new laptop than
replace the failed part. 8ut each case is different so do the research.
The s*stem board is mounted inside the laptop base assembl*. ,n order to remove or replace the
motherboard" weMll have to disassemble the whole laptop.
MEM5&C or &3M
A laptop memor* also know as ;AM 2;andom'access memor*3 is a temporar* data storage. ,tMs
a volatile t*pe of memor*. Ghen we turn off the laptop" all the information stored in a ;AM
module is lost.A t*pe of memor* used in laptop computers called S5-(4MM 2&mall 9utline
Dual ,n'line Memor* Module3.More memor* we have installed X better the performance of the
ere are three most common memory types found in laptop computers-
*) S(&3M S5-(4MM memory has *++pins)
0) ((& S5-(4MM memory has 0,, pins)
7) ((&0 S5-(4MM memory has 0,, pins)
3&( (&4#E
The hard drive is the main storage of information in a laptop. All s*stem files" personal files are stored
inside the hard drive.

Most modern laptops use (.#P hard drives. 9lder laptops use ,D5 hard drives" newer laptops use
&ATA hard drives. &ATA and ,D5 drives are not interchangeable" the* have absolutel* different
connectors. ,f the laptop came with an ,D5 hard drive we cannot replace it with a &ATA drive.
The connectors on the drive will not mach connector on the motherboard.
&ATA hard drives has faster data transfer rate then ,D5 drivers. &ATA X >#@M8=s and ,D5 X
Spinning speed-
Iaptop hard drives spin at different speeds and most common are A(@@;PM" #A@@;PM"
The ;PM number indicates how fast the hard drive platters spin. 4ard drives with high ;PM
number are uicker than hard drives with low ;PM number because the* can access data faster.
&ATA connectors on a laptop hard drive are similar to &ATA connectors on a desktop hard drive.
Ge can connect a &ATA laptop hard drive to a desktop computer using same &ATA cables.
:E&E 3&( (&4#E 4S B5C3%E( 4N 3 B3P%5P)
9n most laptops the hard drive can be accessed from the bottom.
P&5CESS5& or CPU
The processor is the brain of the laptop. Faster CP/ means faster data processing.
A processor also known as CP/ 2Central Processing /nit3 is the brain of a laptop computer. The
processor is one of the main components in a laptop. Iaptop processors are made mainl* b* ,ntel
and AMD. The processor connects directl* to the s*stem board via a processor socket aka CP/
socket as it shown on the picture below.
The ke*board is the main input device. Find out how the ke*board is connected to the
motherboard and how it can be removed or replaced.
,n laptops" a ke*board is the main input device. ,tMs interface between a user and a laptop.,n most
laptops the ke*board is connected directl* to the motherboard via a flat ribbon cable.
C(9(#( 5P%4C3B (&4#E
The CD=DED drive allows we to read=write data from=to a CD or DED disc.
Most modern laptops are euipped with a CD=DED';G drive also known as an optical disc
drive which allows it to read and write data from or to a CD=DED disc. All laptop CD=DED
drives are shaped the same but the* all have different face plates also know as front be$els. 9n
the picture above we can see three different laptop CD=DED drives with different face
plates=front be$els.
Ghen we are replacing a failed CD=DED drive" we have to make sure that the face plate from
the old drive will fit the new drive.
The cooling fan is a part of the cooling module in a laptop. The fan helps to cool down the
processor when the laptop is turned on.
A CP/ cooling fan is a dedicated fan which cools down the heatsink and eventuall* the CP/
2Processor3. /suall* the CP/ cooling fan comes as a part of the heatsink assembl* X a metal part
drawing heat from the CP/ chip. ,n addition to the CP/ cooling fan" some laptops have a
dedicated :P/ 2graphics processing unit3 fan which cools down the :P/ chip.
The CP/ and :P/ cooling fans connect directl* to the motherboard via a cable running from the
fan. Ghen CP/ and :P/ chips get hotter" the cooling fan spins faster.
#4(E5 C3&( or A&3P4CS C3&(
,n most modern laptops the video card is integrated into the s*stem board. ,f the video card fails
we have to replace the whole motherboard.
,n some laptops the video card is a discrete module and can be removed or replaced separatel*
from the motherboard.
A graphics card also known as a video card or E:A board is a laptop component responsible for
creating images on a laptop screen. ,n most low'mid range laptops the graphics card is integrated
into the motherboard. ,n other words" itMs a part of the motherboard. ,f thatMs the case" the
graphics card is not removable or upgradeable.
3U(45 @53&( or S5UN( @53&(
,n most laptops the audio board is a part of the motherboard. ,f thatMs the case" all audio board
input=output components such as volume control" microphone Cack and headphone Cack are
soldered director* to the motherboard.
,n most laptops the audio board also know as sound board is integrated into the motherboard. ,n
other words" itMs a part of the motherboard and cannot be removed or replaced separatel*.
:4&EBESS NE%:5&> C3&(
The internal wireless card helps to connect to the ,nternet without running a cable. Iearn about
different t*pes of internal wireless cards and how the* are connected to the motherboard.
Iaptop internal wireless network cards also know as GIA! card or Gi'Fi card come in different
shapes and si$es. 9n the picture above we see two most common internal wireless card t*pes
found in laptops. The wireless card plugs into the Mini PC, or Mini PC,'5 slot on the
motherboard. Most internal cards have two small connectors for wireless antenna cables" some
newer Mini PC,'5 cards have three connectors and reuire three antenna cables.
CM5S @3%%E&C or &%C @3%%E&C
The CM9& batter* provides power to the CM9& chip when the laptop is turned off or
disconnected from the wall outlet.
An* laptop computer has a CM9& batter* also known as ;TC batter*. The CM9& batter*
connects directl* to the laptop s*stem board and helps to retain important 8,9& settings such as
s*stem time" date" 8,9& configuration while the laptop is turned off or even when the main
batter* is removed.
The CM9& batter* is rechargeable and itMs getting charged when the laptop is plugged into the
The ICD screen is one of the most e1pensive parts in a laptop computer. The ICD screen
mounts inside the displa* panel.
,f we accidentall* cracked the screen" it has to be replaced. Ge cannot repair a cracked screen.
A laptop screen also known as ICD screen displa*s an image generated b* the laptop video card.
The ICD screen receives data signal from the video card through the ICD cable.
Iaptop screens come in man* different si$es and resolutions. ,n order to find the ICD screen
si$e 2in inches3" weMll have to measure the screen between the two diagonal corners.
SC&EEN C3@BE or #4(E5 C3@BE
The video cable connects the Iaptop screen to motherboard. The video cable carries data signal
for the ICD screen and power for the inverter board.
A laptop ICD cable also known as video cable" displa* cable or screen cable. This cable
transfers data signal from the motherboard and video card to the ICD screen. The cable has three
ends with three connectors. 9ne end plugs into the connector on the back of the ICD screen" the
second end plugs into the inverter board" the third end plugs into the connector on the
motherboard or video card.The top part of the cable runs inside the laptop displa* panel between
the ICD screen and displa* cover.
:E@ C3ME&3
Man* modern laptops come with a web camera built into the displa* panel. The web camera is
not a part of the ICD screen. The web camera is located on a separate board and can be replaced
separatel* from the ICD.
Most newer laptops come with a build'in web camera also known as webcam. The web camera is
located on the top of the displa* panel. &ome people think the web camera is a part of the ICD
screen but itMs not. The web camera is a separate module which is mounted inside the displa*
panel above the ICD screen.
The displa* hinges connect two main parts of an* laptop X the displa* panel and base assembl*.
Displa* hinges connect two halves of a laptop X the displa* panel and base assembl*. All regular
laptops have two hinges located on the left and right sides of the displa* panel. Tablet PCs have
one hinge'swivel located in the middle of the displa*. The displa* hinges are not repairable. ,f
the hinge is broken or too loose to keep the displa* in an open position" we have to replace it
with a new one.
3C9(C P5:E& 3(3P%E&
The AC=DC power adapter converts high voltage AC power from the mains to low voltage DC
power reuired b* the laptop.
AC=DC power adapter as known as power suppl* or power brick converts the high voltage AC
power from a wall outlet into the low voltage DC power needed for the laptop. The AC=DC
adapter provides power for the laptop and charges the batter*. ,tMs ver* important to use the right
adapter for the laptop.
M34N @3%%E&C
The batter* is a secondar* source of power for a laptop. The batter* gets charged while the
laptop is plugged into the mains and keeps the laptop running when itMs unplugged from the
An* laptop computer has a batter* pack which provides power to the laptop while itMs not
connected to the wall'plug through AC=DC power adapter. The laptop batter* life depends upon
man* conditions and circumstances: screen brightness" intensit* of running programs" the
temperature of the working environment" etc. &ome of these settings could be changed onl*
through the manufacturerMs power management software. ,n most laptops the main batter*
connects directl* to the s*stem board.
US@ P5&%S
S The goal of /&8 is to end all of these headaches. The /niversal &erial 8us gives we a
single" standardi$ed" eas*'to'use wa* to connect up to >(< devices to a computer.
S Tust about ever* peripheral made now comes in a /&8 version. A sample list of /&8
devices that we can bu* toda* includes:
S Printers &canners Mice To*sticks Flight *okes
S Digital cameras Gebcams &cientific data acuisition devices
S Modems &peakers Telephones Eideo phones
S &torage devices such as Kip drives !etwork connections
S Connecting a /&8 device to a computer is simple '' we find the /&8 connector on the
back of the machine and plug the /&8 connector into it.