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10 (de) vizualizări7 paginiEffects of coil diameter and pitch on the flow characteristics of alternative

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Effects of coil diameter and pitch on the flow characteristics of alternative

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10 (de) vizualizări

Effects of coil diameter and pitch on the flow characteristics of alternative

© All Rights Reserved

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Sukkarin Chingulpitak

a,b

, Somchai Wongwises

b,

a

The joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140, Thailand

b

Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab. (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi,

Bangmod, Bangkok 10140, Thailand

a b s t r a c t a r t i c l e i n f o

Available online 3 August 2010

Keywords:

Capillary tube

Coiled tube

Adiabatic

Homogeneous ow

Coil diameter

Pitch

Alternative refrigerant

This paper presents the effects of various geometries of helical capillary tubes on the ow characteristics of

alternative refrigerants owing through adiabatic helical capillary tubes. The theoretical model is based on

the conservation of mass, energy and momentum of uids in the capillary tube. The two-phase ow model

developed was based on a homogenous ow assumption. The model was validated by comparing it with the

experimental data of published in literature for R-22, particularly various pairs of refrigerants. It was found

conventional refrigerants had lower capillary lengths than alternative refrigerants. For all pairs, the

numerical results showed that the traditional refrigerants consistently gave lower pressure drops for both

single-phase and two-phase ows, which resulted in longer tube lengths. The results show that coil diameter

variation (less than 300 mm) for helical capillary tube geometries affected the length of helical capillary

tubes. However, pitch variation (more than 300 mm) had no signicant effect on the length of helical

capillary tubes. This adiabatic helical capillary tube model can be used to integrate system models working

with alternative refrigerants for design and optimisation.

2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

In small refrigeration systems, the capillary tube is used as the

expansion device because of its low cost, low starting torque and low

maintenance. Normally, it is used in refrigeration systems with a

cooling capacity less than 10 kW such as household refrigerators and

air conditioners. The nominal size of the capillary tube ranges

between 0.52.0 mm in diameter and 25 m in length. Several

decades ago, the ow characteristics owing through the straight

capillary tube of various refrigerants were both experimentally and

theoretically studied. In practical applications, however, capillary

tubes are generally coiled to save space. The most productive studies

have been continuously carried out by the following researchers.

Zhou and Zhang [1] theoretically and experimentally studied the

performance of coiled adiabatic capillary tubes and compared the

results with straight capillary data. These results showed that the

mass ow rate of a refrigerant substantially increases by increasing

the coil diameter. However, little change was observed for coil

diameters larger than 300 mm.

Ali [2] proposed the pressure drop correlations developed in terms

of uid properties ( and ), owrate (V) and tube geometry (d

i

, D

C

, p

and L). In most previous works, the relevant correlations were

developed in terms of Dean number (De), Helical number (He),

curvature ratio (D

C

/d

i

) and Euler number (Eu), Reynolds number (Re)

and the obtained geometrical group.

Kim et al. [3] presented a mass ow rate correlation based on the

Buckingham theorem for R-22 and its alternatives, R-407C and R-

410A. Their results indicated that the mass owrates of R-407C and R-

410A were higher than those of R-22 by about 4% and 23%,

respectively. In addition, the mass ow rates of straight capillary

tubes are higher than those of coiled capillary tubes, especially at

smaller coiled diameters. For instance, mass ow rates for 40 mm

coiled diameter tubes are smaller than the straight capillary tubes by

approximately 9%.

Park et al. [4] studied the ow characteristics of coiled capillary

tubes for R-22 and developed a mass ow rate correlation for coiled

capillary tubes. At the same operating condition, they found that the

mass owrates of the coiled capillary tubes decreased by 516% more

than those of the straight capillary tubes. The Buckingham theorem

was used to form a generalised correlation to calculate the refrigerant

mass ow rate for both straight and coiled capillary tubes. The effects

of inlet condition, refrigerant property and coiled tube geometry were

considered. For both straight and coiled capillary tubes, the results

showed that the proposed correlation gave a satisfactory agreement

with the experimental data for R-22, R-407C and R-410A. The average

and standard deviations were around 0.24% and 4.4%, respectively.

Garca-Valladares [5] presented a numerical simulation based on

nite volume formulation for describing the ow characteristics of

International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 37 (2010) 13051311

Communicated by W.J. Minkowycz.

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: somchai.won@kmutt.ac.th (S. Wongwises).

0735-1933/$ see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2010.07.005

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/ i chmt

coiled adiabatic capillary tubes. The numerical model was considered

for various aspects such as geometry, type of uid (pure substances

and mixtures), critical or non-critical ow conditions, metastable

region and transient behaviour.

Mittal et al. [6] presented an experimental investigation of coiling

effect on the ow characteristics of R-407C in an adiabatic helical

capillary tube. It was observed that the coiling of capillary tubes (coil

diameters 60 mm, 100 mm and 140 mm) signicantly inuenced the

mass ow rate of R-407C. From the experimental results, the mass

ow rates of coiled capillary tubes were about 510% less than those

of straight capillary tubes. In addition, they also proposed correlations

to predict the mass ow rate of R-407C owing through straight and

helical capillary tubes. Compared with the experimental data, it could

clearly be seen that the majority of the data fell within 10% of their

proposed correlation.

Although some information is available on the ow characteristics

in helical capillary tubes, there remains room for further research, for

example the effect of the relevant parameters on ow characteristics.

In this study, the aimis to analyse the effect of coil diameters and pitch

on ow characteristics of refrigerants owing through the adiabatic

helical capillary tubes. Moreover, this investigation will aim to

compare various alternative mixtures of refrigerants, particularly

between the following pairs of HCFCs with HFCs:

R-502 (R-22/R-115; 48.8.51.2) and R-404A (R-125/R-143a/R-134a;

44%/52%/4%);

R-502 (R-22/R-115; 48.8.51.2) and R-507A (R-125/R-143a; 50%/

50%);

R-22 and R-407B (R-32/R-125/R-134a; 10%/70%/20%);

R-22 and R-407C (R-32/R-125/R-134a; 23%/25%/52%);

R-22 and R-410A (R-32/R-125; 50%/50%); and

R-22 and R-410B (R-32/R-125; 45%/55%).

2. Mathematical modelling

As shown in Fig. 1, the ow of refrigerants through a capillary tube

can be divided into two distinct regions: the single-phase subcooled

liquid and two-phase regions. In modelling, the physical method,

which is used to describe ow characteristics, is developed from the

conservations of mass, energy and momentum. Moreover, the model

includes the effect of the condenser and evaporator temperatures,

inner diameter, degree of subcooling and mass ow rate of

refrigerant.

The position between points 1 and 2 indicated in Fig. 1 is the

capillary tube inlet associated with a pressure drop because of sudden

contraction. Similarly, the position between points 2 and 3 is the

single-phase subcooled liquid region and the position between points

3 and 4 corresponds to the two-phase region consisting of the liquid

vapour two-phase region. The developed model is based on the

following assumptions:

The horizontal helical coiled tube has a constant diameter;

The inner diameter and roughness of the capillary tube are constant;

Adiabatic and homogeneous two-phase ow;

Non-metastable liquid region;

One-dimensional and steady ow;

Oil-free refrigerant; and

The thermodynamic equilibrium through the capillary tube.

The governing equations for describing ow characteristics for the

single-phase and two-phase ow regions are presented below.

2.1. Single-phase ow region

A pressure loss because of an inlet sudden contraction between

points 1 and 2 is determined from:

P

1

P

2

= k

V

2

2g

; 1

where k is the entrance loss coefcient (for square edged, k=0.5). The

steady owenergy equation between points 2 and 3 can be expressed

as:

P

2

2

g

+

V

2

2

2g

+ z

2

=

P

3

3

g

+

V

2

3

2g

+ z

3

+ f

sp

L

sp

d

i

V

2

2g

: 2

For an incompressible uid,

2

3

=, the continuity equation is

presented as:

m =

2

V

2

A =

3

V

3

A = VA: 3

Rearranging Eqs. (2)(3) yield:

P

2

= P

3

+ g z

3

z

2

+

f

sp

L

sp

d

i

_ _

V

2

2

_ _

: 4

Nomenclature

A cross sectional area of capillary tube (m

2

)

d

i

capillary tube internal diameter (m)

D

C

coil diameter (m)

De Dean number De = Re

d

i

= D

C

_

e/d

i

relative roughness

T

sub

degree of subcooling (C)

f friction factor

g gravitational acceleration (m/s

2

)

G mass ow rate per unit area (kg/s m

2

)

h specic enthalpy (J/kg)

H

loss

total head loss (m)

He Helical number He = Re d

i

=D

C

= 1 + p=D

C

2

_ _ _ _

1=2

p pitch of coil (m)

k entrance loss coefcient

L length (m)

m mass ow rate (kg/s)

P pressure (Pa)

Re Reynolds number

s specic entropy (J/kg K)

T temperature (C)

V velocity (m/s)

x quality

Greek letters

w

shear stress at wall (N/m

2

)

specic volume (m

3

/kg)

dynamic viscosity (kg/m s)

density (kg/m

3

)

Subscripts

cond, evap condenser and evaporator, respectively

f, g liquid phase and gas phase, respectively

h homogeneous ow

i capillary inlet condition

sp, tp single-phase and two-phase, respectively

1306 S. Chingulpitak, S. Wongwises / International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 37 (2010) 13051311

For z

2

=z

3

, substituting Eq. (4) into Eq. (1) gives:

L

sp

=

d

i

f

sp

2

G

2

P

1

P

3

k1

_ _

5

where

G = V 6

The important parameter is the single-phase friction factor (f

sp

),

which can be calculated from three different friction factor models.

These equations are expressed as follows (where f

c

is the friction

factor for coiled capillary tubes and f

s

is the friction factor for straight

capillary tubes):Schmidt [7]

f

c

= f

s

= 1 + 0:14Re

x

; 7

where x=[10.0644/ (D

C

/ d

i

)

0.312

] / (D

C

/ d

i

)

0.97

. Mori and Nakayama

[8]

f

c

=

C

1

d

i

=D

C

0:5

Re d

i

=D

C

2:5

_

1= 6

1 +

C

2

Re d

i

=D

C

2:5

_

1=6

_ _

8

C

1

=1.8841117710

1

+85.2472168(/ d

i

) 4.6303062910

4

(/

d

i

)

2

+1.3157001410

7

(/ d

i

)

3

C

2

=6.7977863310

2

+25.3880380

(/ d

i

) 1.0613314010

4

(/ d

i

)

2

+2.5455534310

6

(/ d

i

)

3

Manla-

paz and Churchill [9]

f

c

= f

s

= 10:18=f1 + 35=He

2

g

0:5

m

+ 1 + d

i

=f3D

C

g

2

He=88:33

0:5

9

where m=0 for DeN40

He = Re d

i

=D

C

=f1 + p=D

C

2

g

_ _

1=2

:

2.2. Two-phase ow region

In this region, the capillary tube is divided into a number of

elements as shown in Fig. 1. The following equations are based on the

control volume considerations in the two-phase region. The conser-

vation of mass can be calculated using the following equation:

m =

AV

i

v

i

=

AV

i + 1

v

i + 1

: 10

The conservation of energy for the steady-state adiabatic condition

without external work can be expressed as follows:

h

3

+ gz

3

+

V

2

3

2

_ _

= h

i

+ gz

i

+

V

2

i

2

_ _

11

If the elevation difference is neglected, we get:

h +

V

2

2

= constant 12

where h and V are the enthalpy and velocity of uid at any point,

respectively.

Because the refrigerant ows along the capillary tube, the pressure

gradually drops and the liquid ashes into vapour arising purely from

the reduced pressure at any point. Hence:

h

i

= h

fi

1x

i

+ h

gi

x

i

; v

i

= v

fi

1x

i

+ v

gi

x

i

13

Also, m=VA=constant

V =

m

A

=

G

= Gv 14

The energy balance between point 3 and at any point along the

capillary tube in the two-phase ow region can be calculated by

substituting Eqs. (13) and (14) into Eq. (12):

h

3

+

V

2

3

2

= h

f

+ x h

g

h

f

_ _

+

G

2

2

v

f

1x + v

g

x

_ _

2

15

Expanding the right-hand side of Eq. (15) and rearranging yields:

v

g

v

f

_ _

2G

2

2

_ _

x

2

+ G

2

v

f

v

g

v

f

_ _

+ h

g

h

f

_ _ _ _

x

+

G

2

v

2

f

2

h

3

V

2

3

2

+ h

f

_ _

= 0

16

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of an adiabatic helical capillary tube.

1307 S. Chingulpitak, S. Wongwises / International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 37 (2010) 13051311

The quality (x) can be expressed in the form of a quadratic

equation as shown in Eq. (17):

x =

h

fg

G

2

v

f

v

fg

+

G

2

v

f

v

fg

+ h

fg

_ _

2

2G

2

v

2

fg

_ _

G

2

v

2

f

2

h

3

V

2

3

2

+ h

f

_ _

G

2

v

2

fg

17

where h

fg

=h

g

h

f

and v

fg

=v

g

v

f

.

Again, the conservation of momentum can be expressed by

reconsidering the element of uid as shown in Fig. 1.

P

d

2

i

4

_ _

P + dP

d

2

i

4

w

d

i

dL = mdV 18

where

w

is the wall shear stress which is dened as follows:

w

=

f V

2

8

19

substituting Eq. (19) into Eq. (18), we get:

d

2

i

4

dP

f

tp

8

V

2

d

i

dL = mdV 20

or

dL =

d

i

f

tp

2dP

V

2

+

2md

i

V

AV

2

_ _

: 21

For the constant mass ow rate, dm=0, Eq. (22) is obtained:

dV

V

=

d

: 22

Substituting Eq. (22) into Eq. (21) gives:

dL =

2d

i

f

tp

dP

V

2

+

d

_ _

: 23

3. Solution method

As shown in Fig. 1, the capillary tube between points 3 and 4 can be

divided into numerous sections. Because P

3

is known (saturated

liquid), the pressure at any section i can be calculated from the

following equation:

P

i

= P

3

iP: 24

The pressure (P

i

) and quality (x

i

) can be calculated from Eq. (16).

So, the entropy of each section can be calculated from:

s

i

= s

if

1x + s

ig

x: 25

The Reynolds number in the two-phase region is determined by:

Re

tp

=

Vd

i

tp

v

tp

26

where

V = G

tp

= G xv

g

+ 1 x v

f

_ _

: 27

The two-phase dynamic viscosity correlation proposed by McA-

dams et al. [10] is presented as follows:

1

tp

=

x

g

+

1x

f

: 28

The gradual increase of the entropy is obtained along the capillary

tube. When the entropy reaches its maximumvalue, the uid velocity

is equal to the local speed of sound and the ow is choked. As a

consequence, the calculation is ended at this point. The pressure of the

element, where the entropy has the maximum value (P

i

)

s max

, is then

compared with the evaporator pressure (P

evap

) given by:

if P

i;s max

= P

evap

then P

4

= P

evap

if P

i;s max

P

evap

then P

4

= P

i;s max:

Thus, from Eq. (23) the two-phase length can be expressed as

follows:

L

tp

= d

i

2

G

2

P

s max

P

3

f

tp

dp + 2

P

s max

P

3

d

f

tp

_

_

_

_

: 29

Fig. 2. Comparison of the present numerical results with the measured mass owrate at

different coil diameters and degrees of subcooling.

Fig. 3. Comparison of pressure distributions along the capillary tube for R-502, R-404A

and R-507A.

1308 S. Chingulpitak, S. Wongwises / International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 37 (2010) 13051311

The capillary length of each section is calculated by:

L

i

=

2d

i

f

tp;i

i

P

G

2

+

i

_ _

: 30

The total length of the two-phase region is determined from:

L

tp

=

n

i =1

L

i

: 31

Finally, the total length of the capillary tube is a summation of the

single-phase and two-phase lengths, which is dened as follows:

L

total

= L

sp

+ L

tp

: 32

4. Results and discussion

With the suitable friction factor equations, the straight capillary

tube model can also be applied to the coiled capillary tubes. The

viscosity model is calculated with the McAdams et al. [10] model

(recommended by Wongwises and Pirompak [11]).

4.1. Mathematical model verication

To validate the present model, comparisons are made with the

available experimental data of Zhou and Zhang [1] for R-22. Fig. 2 shows

the comparisons between the present results and experimental data of

Zhou and Zhang [1] for R-22 at different coil diameters and degrees of

subcooling. The results show that the calculated mass ow rate of R-22

deviates from the experimental results. Moreover, the results also

indicate that the mass ow rate obtained from the present model ts

very well with the data. In particular, the friction factor of Mori and

Nakayama [8] gives the best result, which is in agreement with the

results of Zhou and Zhang [1] for R-22. Moreover, the friction factor of

Mori and Nakayama [8] gives a mean absolute error of 1.58%.

4.2. Alternative refrigerants

As shown in Figs. 3 and 4, comparing the pressure drop

characteristics for the rest of the pairs of refrigerant types shows

that for all cases in the single-phase region the conventional

refrigerant owing through capillary tubes gives a slightly lower

pressure drop than the newer alternative refrigerants because of

the higher viscosity of the alternative refrigerant. In the two-phase

Fig. 5. Comparison of quality distributions along the capillary tube for R-22, R-407B, R-

407C, R-410A and R-410B.

Fig. 4. Comparison of pressure distributions along the capillary tube for R-22, R-407B,

R-407C, R-410A and R-410B.

Fig. 6. Comparison of pressure distributions along the capillary tube for R-22 at

different coil diameters.

Fig. 7. Comparison of quality distributions along the capillary tube for R-22.

1309 S. Chingulpitak, S. Wongwises / International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 37 (2010) 13051311

ow region, however, the conventional refrigerant gives a signif-

icantly lower pressure drop than the alternative refrigerant,

resulting in a longer total tube length. This result indicates that

although both refrigerants have differences in composition, the

pressure distributions along the capillary tube are almost the same.

Fig. 5 shows the change in quality with position along the capillary

tube length. For all refrigerants, as expected, the quality is zero up to

the ash point and then increases in a non-linear fashion, rising more

rapidly as the critical length is approached. It also shows that all

alternative refrigerants vaporise earlier than their corresponding

conventional refrigerants.

4.3. Effects of coil diameter on helical capillary tube

As shown in Figs. 2 and 6, in the case of coil diameters less than

300 mm, the experimental data showed that the mass ow rate of

refrigerants rapidly increases by about 67%. On the contrary, the

mass ow rate increase of refrigerants is small (around 12%) for coil

diameters between 300 mm and 600 mm.

Fig. 7 illustrates the change in quality with position along the

capillary tube length. The observed trend for geometry consideration

is similar to that corresponding to the refrigerant consideration

previously mentioned. The quality is zero up to the ash point and

then increases in a non-linear fashion, rising more rapidly as the

critical length is approached. In addition, the total tube length of the

helical capillary tube is shorter than the straight capillary tube by

about 20% (at a coil diameter of 40 mm).

4.4. Effects of pitch on helical capillary tube

Figs. 812 present the pressure distributions at different pitches

along the helical capillary tube. The friction factor can be calculated

from Manlapaz and Churchill [9] because their correlation includes

pitch parameter (p) in the calculation. In the case of pitches less than

300 mm, the numerical results showthat the total tube length rapidly

increases by about 260290%. On the contrary, the total tube length

slightly decreases by around 915% for pitches from 300 mm to more

than 900 mm (to innity).

5. Conclusion

This paper presents the effects of coil diameter and pitch on the

ow characteristics of alternative refrigerants owing through the

adiabatic helical capillary tubes. Fromthe results, it is evident that the

most suitable equations for calculating the friction factor are Schmidt

[7] and Mori and Nakayama [8]. These equations provided a deviation

of 14%. This model was validated by comparing it with the

experimental data of Zhou and Zhang [1] R-22 and was found to

Fig. 8. Comparison of pressure distributions along the capillary tube for R-22.

Fig. 9. Comparison of pressure distributions along the capillary tube for R-22.

Fig. 10. Comparison of pressure distributions along the capillary tube for R-22.

Fig. 11. Comparison of pressure distributions along the capillary tube for R-22.

1310 S. Chingulpitak, S. Wongwises / International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 37 (2010) 13051311

give an average discrepancy of around 4%. The obtained results show

that coil diameter variation (less than 300 mm) affects the length of

the helical capillary tube. Nevertheless, pitch variation (more than

300 mm) has no signicant effect on the length of the helical capillary

tube because the geometries of helical capillary tubes have similar

shapes to straight capillary tubes. By varying the model input

parameters for all pairs, it was found that newalternative refrigerants

consistently gave lower pressure drops for both single-phase and

two-phase regions, resulting in longer capillary tube lengths.

Acknowledgements

The authors are indebted to King Mongkuts University of

Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), the Ofce of Higher Education

Commission, the Thailand Research Fund (TRF) and National Research

University Project for supporting this study.

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refrigerant mixtures in adiabatic capillary tubes, Applied Thermal Engineering

21 (8) (2001) 845861.

Fig. 12. Comparison of pressure distributions along the capillary tube for R-22.

1311 S. Chingulpitak, S. Wongwises / International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 37 (2010) 13051311

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